You are on page 1of 131

# Practical Design to Eurocode 2

Week 4 - Slabs
Outline Week 4
We will look at the following topics:
Designing for shear including punching shear
Serviceability cracking and deflection
Detailing Solid slabs
Workshop serviceability cracking & deflection
Tying systems
Designing for Shear
Shear
There are three approaches to designing for shear:
When shear reinforcement is not required e.g. slabs
When shear reinforcement is required e.g. Beams
Punching shear requirements e.g. flat slabs
The maximum shear strength in the UK should not exceed that
of class C50/60 concrete
Shear resistance without shear
reinforcement
where:
k = 1 + \(200/d) s 2.0

l
= A
sl
/b
w
d
A
sl
= area of the tensile reinforcement,
b
w
= smallest width of the cross-section in the tensile area [mm]
o
cp
= N
Ed
/A
c
< 0.2 f
cd
[MPa] Compression +ve
N
Ed
= axial force in the cross-section due to loading or pre-stressing [in N]
A
c
= area of concrete cross section [mm
2
]
V
Rd,c
= [0.12k(100
l
f
ck
)
1/3
+ 0.15o
cp
] b
w
d (6.2.a)
with a minimum of
V
Rd,c
= (0.035k
3/2
f
ck
1/2
+ 0.15 o
cp
) b
w
d (6.2.b)
Without Shear Reinforcement
Cl. 6.2.2
7.2
Shear
-
Table 7.1
v
Rd,c
resistance of members without shear reinforcement, MPa
A
s
(bd) %
Effective depth, d (mm)
s200 225 250 275 300 350 400 450 500 600 750
0.25 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.48 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.38 0.36
0.50 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.45
0.75 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.53 0.51
1.00 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.59 0.57
1.25 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.63 0.61
1.50 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.70 0.67 0.65
1.75 0.90 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.68
2.00 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.77 0.74 0.71
k 2.00 1.94 1.89 1.85 1.82 1.76 1.71 1.67 1.63 1.58 1.52
Table derived from: v
Rd,c
= 0.12 k (100
I
f
ck
)
(1/3)
0.035 k
1.5
f
ck
0.5
where k = 1 + (200/d) 2 and
I
= A
s
/(bd) 0.02
Note: This table has been prepared for f
ck
= 30. Where
I
exceeds 0.40% the following factors may be used:
f
ck
25 28 32 35 40 45 50
factor 0.94 0.98 1.02 1.05 1.10 1.14 1.19
Shear in Slabs
Most slabs do not require shear
reinforcement
Check V
Ed
< V
Rd,c
Where V
Rd,c
is shear resistance of
members without reinforcement
v
Rd,c
= 0.12 k (100
I
f
ck
)
1/3
0.035 k
1.5
f
ck
0.5
Where V
Ed
> V
Rd,c,
shear reinforcement is required
and the strut inclination method
should be used
Shear resistance with shear
reinforcement
See Week 2 Beams
Variable strut inclination method
EC2: Cl 6.2.3
u cot
sw
s Rd, ywd
f z
s
A
V =
u u
v o
tan cot
1
max Rd,
+
=
cd w cw
f z b
V
21.8 < u < 45
Variable Strut Inclination Method
Cl. 6.2.3
f
ck
v
Rd,
cot u =2.5
v
Rd
cot u =1.0
20 2.54 3.68
25 3.10 4.50
28 3.43 4.97
30 3.64 5.28
32 3.84 5.58
35 4.15 6.02
40 4.63 6.72
45 5.08 7.38
50 5.51 8.00
Variable strut inclination method
Cl. 6.2.3
v
Rd,max
Design Flow Chart for Shear
Yes (cot u = 2.5)
Determine the concrete strut capacity v
Rd
when cot u = 2.5
v
Rd
= 0.138f
ck
(1-f
ck
/250)
Calculate area of shear reinforcement:
A
sw
/s = v
Ed
b
w
/(f
ywd
cot u)
Determine v
Ed
where:
v
Ed
= design shear stress [v
Ed
= V
Ed
/(b
w
z) = V
Ed
/(b
w
0.9d)]
Determine u from:
u = 0.5 sin
-1
[(v
Ed
/(0.20f
ck
(1-f
ck
/250))]
Is v
Rd
> v
Ed
?
No
Check maximum spacing of shear reinforcement :
s
(,max
= 0.75 d
For vertical shear reinforcement
Punching shear
Punching shear does not use the Variable Strut inclination method
and is similar to BS 8110 methods
The basic control perimeter is set at 2d from the loaded area
The shape of control perimeters have rounded corners
bz
by
2d
2d
2d
2d
u1
u1
u1
Punching Shear
Cl. 6.4
Figure 8.3
Where shear reinforcement is required the shear resistance is the
sum of the concrete and shear reinforcement resistances.
For structures where:
lateral stability does not
depend on frame action
by more than 25%
the approximate values for |
shown may be used:
The applied shear stress should be taken as:
v
Ed
= | V
Ed
/u
i
d where | =1 + k(M
Ed
/V
Ed
)u
1
/W
1
Punching Shear (2)
For a rectangular internal column
with biaxial bending the following
simplification may be used:
| = 1 + 1.8{(e
y
/b
z
)
2
+ (e
z
/b
y
)
2
}
0.5
where b
y
and b
z
are the dimensions
of the control perimeter
For other situations there is plenty of guidance on determining |
given in Cl 6.4.3 of the Code.
Where the simplified arrangement is not applicable then | can be
calculated
c1
c2
2d
2d
y
z
Punching Shear (3)
kd
Outer control
perimeter
Outer perimeter of shear
reinforcement
1.5d (2d if > 2d from
column)
0.75d
0.5d
A
A
Section A - A
0.75d
0.5d
Outer control
perimeter
kd
The outer control perimeter at
which shear reinforcement is not
required, should be calculated
from:
u
out,ef
= V
Ed
/ (v
Rd,c
d)
The outermost perimeter of
shear reinforcement should be
placed at a distance not
greater than kd ( k = 1.5)
within the outer control
perimeter.
Punching Shear Reinforcement (1)
Cl. 6.4.5
Figures 12.5 & 12.6
1,5d
2d
d
d
> 2d
1,5d
uout
uout,ef
Where proprietary systems are used the control perimeter at which
shear reinforcement is not required, u
out
or u
out,ef
(see Figure) should be
calculated from the following expression:
u
out,ef
= V
Ed
/ (v
Rd,c
d)
Punching Shear Reinforcement (2)
Cl. 6.4.5
Figure 8.10
EC 2: Concise:
NA - Check v
Ed
2 v
Rdc
at basic control perimeter
The minimum area of a link leg:
A
sw,min
(1.5 sino + coso)/(s
r
s
t
) > (0.08 \(f
ck
))/f
yk
equ 9.11
Where shear reinforcement is required it should be calculated in
accordance with the following expression:
v
Rd,cs
= 0.75 v
Rd,c
+ 1.5 (d/s
r
) A
sw
f
ywd,ef
(1/(u
1
d)) sino
A
sw
= area of shear reinforcement in each perimeter around the col.
s
r
= radial spacing of layers of shear reinforcement
= angle between the shear reinforcement and the plane of slab
f
ywd,ef
= effective design strength of the punching shear reinforcement,
= 250 + 0.25 d s f
ywd
(MPa.)
d = mean effective depth of the slabs (mm)
V
v v
u d
Ed
Ed Rd,max
0
|
= s
= 0.5 f
cd
Max. shear stress at column face,
Punching Shear Reinforcement (3)
Cl. 6.4.5
8.5
Check v
Ed
2 v
Rdc
at basic control perimeter
Note: UK NA says first control perimeter, but the paper* on which
this guidance is based says basic control perimeter
The minimum area of a link leg (or equivalent), A
sw,min
, is given by the
following expression:
A
sw,min
(1.5 sino + coso)/(s
r
s
t
) > (0,08 \(f
ck
))/f
yk
equ 9.11
A
sw,min
> (0,053 s
r
s
t
\(f
ck
)) /f
yk
Punching Shear Reinforcement (4)
Punching shear
Worked example
From Worked Examples to EC2: Volume 1 Example 3.4.10
Punching shear
At C2 the ultimate column
reaction is 1204.8 kN
Solution
1. Check shear at the perimeter of the column
v
Ed
= V
Ed
/(u
0
d) < v
Rd,max
= 1.15
u
0
= 4 x 400 = 1600 mm
d = (260 + 240)/2 = 250 mm
v
Ed
= 1.15 x 1204.8 x 1000/(1600 x 250)
= 3.46 MPa
v
Rd,max
= 0.5 f
cd
= 0.5 x 0.6(1-f
ck
/250) x
cc
f
ck
/
m
= 0.5 x 0.6(1-30/250) x 1.0 x 30 /1.5 = 5.28 MPa
v
Ed
< v
Rd,max
...OK
| = 1,4
| = 1,5
| = 1,15
C
B A
Solution
2. Check shear at the basic control perimeter
v
Ed
= V
Ed
/(u
1
d) < v
Rd,c
u
1
= 2(c
x
+ c
y
) + 2 x 2d
= 2(400 + 400) + 2 x 2 x 250 = 4742 mm
v
Ed
= 1.15 x 1204.8 x 1000/(4742 x 250) =
= 1.17 MPa
v
Rd,c
= 0.12 k(100
l
f
ck
)
1/3
k = 1 + (200/d)
1/2
= 1 + (200/250)
1/2
= 1.89

l
= (
ly

lz
)
1/2
= (0.0085 x 0.0048)
1/2
= 0.0064
v
Rd,c
= 0.12 x 1.89(100 x 0.0064 x 30)
1/3
= 0.61 MPa
v
Ed
> v
Rd,c
...Punching shear reinforcement required
NA check v
Ed
2v
Rd,c
at basic control perimeter
Solution
3. Perimeter at which punching shear no longer required
u
out
= V
Ed
/(dv
Rd,c
)
= 1.15 x 1204.8 x 1000/(250 x 0.61)
= 9085 mm
Rearrange: u
out
= 2(c
x
+ c
y
) + 2 r
out
r
out
= (u
out
- 2(c
x
+ c
y
))/(2)
= (9085 1600)/(2) = 1191 mm
Position of outer perimeter of reinforcement from column face:
r = 1191 1.5 x 250 = 816 mm
s
r,max
= 0.75 x 250 = 187 mm, say 175 mm
Solution
4. Area of reinforcement
A
sw
(v
Ed
0.75v
Rd,c
)s
r
u
1
/(1.5f
ywd,ef
)
f
ywd,ef
= (250 + 0.25d) = 312 MPa
A
sw
(1.17 0.75 x 0.61) x 175 x 4741/(1.5 x 312)
1263 mm
2
/perim.
Minimum area of a link leg:
A
sw,min
> (0.053 s
r
s
t
\(f
ck
)) /f
yk
= 0.053 x 175 x 350 x 30 / 500
36 mm
2
Solution
Outline Week 4
We will look at the following topics:
Designing for shear
Serviceability
Detailing Solid slabs
Workshop - serviceability
Flat Slabs
Tying systems
Serviceability
EC 2: Concise:
What does Eurocode 2 Cover?
Cl. 7.2
10.1
Stress limitation (7.2)
Stress checks in reinforced concrete members have not been
required in the UK for the past 50 years or so and there has been
no known adverse effect. Provided that the design has been carried
out properly for ultimate limit state there will be no significant
effect at serviceability in respect of longitudinal cracking PD
6687 Cl. 2.20
Control of cracking (7.3)
Control of deflections (7.4)
Crack control
Control of Cracking
In Eurocode 2 cracking is controlled in the following ways:
Minimum areas of reinforcement cl 7.3.2 & Equ 7.1
A
s,min

s
= K
c
Kf
ct,eff
A
ct
this is the same as
Crack width limits (Cl. 7.3.1 and National Annex). These limits
can be met by either:
direct calculation (Cl. 7.3.4) crack width is W
k
deemed to satisfy rules (Cl. 7.3.3)
Note: slabs 200mm depth are OK if A
s,min
is provided.
Equ 9.1N
Minimum Reinforcement Area
The minimum area of reinforcement for slabs (and beams) is given by:
d b
f
d b f
A
t
yk
t ctm
min , s
013 . 0
26 . 0
> >
EC2: Cl 9.2.1.1
9.1N
Crack Width Limits - use Table NA.4
Recommended values of w
max
Exposure class RC or unbonded PSC
members
Prestressed
members with
bonded tendons
X0,XC1 0.3* 0.2
XC2,XC3,XC4 0.3
XD1,XD2,XS1,
XS2,XS3
Decompression
* Does not affect durability, may be relaxed where appearance
is not critical (eg use 0.4 mm)
Crack Control Without Direct
Calculation
Crack control may be achieved in two ways:
limiting the maximum bar diameter using Table 7.2
limiting the maximum bar spacing using Table 7.3
Note: For cracking due to restraint use only max bar size
EC 2: Concise:
Maximum Bar Diameters
Cl. 7.3.3
Table 10.1
0
10
20
30
40
50
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Reinforcement stress, o
s
(N/mm
2
)
m
a
x
i
m
u
m

b
a
r

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

(
m
m
)
w
k
=0.3 mm
w
k
=0.2 mm
w
k
= 0.4
(Stress due to quasi-permanent actions)
Crack Control
EC 2: Concise:
Maximum Bar Spacings
Cl. 7.3.3
Table 10.2
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
150 200 250 300 350 400
stress in reinforcement (MPa)
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

b
a
r

s
p
a
c
i
n
g

(
m
m
)
w
k
= 0.4
w
k
= 0.3
w
k
= 0.2
(Stress due to quasi-permanent actions)
Crack Control
Deflection control
EC 2: Concise:
Deflection Limits (7.4.1)
Cl. 7.4.1
-
Span/250 under quasi-permanent loads to avoid impairment of
appearance and general utility
Span/500 after construction under the quasi-permanent loads to
avoid damage to adjacent parts of the structure.
EC 2: Concise:
Deflection Control
Cl. 7.4
10.5
Deflection control may be achieved by the following
methods:
Direct calculation (Eurocode 2 methods considered to
be an improvement on BS 8110) See How
toDeflection calculations
Using simplified span-to-effective depth limits from
the code (control of deflection without calculation)
Deflection calculations
Deflection: L/d check
EC 2: Concise:
Limiting Span-effective-depth ratios
Cl 7.4.2 & Exp (7.16a & b)
10.5.2
K factor taking account of the different structural systems

0
reference reinforcement ratio = \f
ck
10
-3
required tension reinforcement ratio at mid-span to resist the moment
due to the design loads (at support for cantilevers)
required compression reinforcement ratio at mid-span to resist the
moment due to design loads (at support for cantilevers)
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
2
3
0
ck
0
ck
1 2 , 3 5 , 1 11

f f K
d
l
if s
0
(

+ =
0
ck
0
ck
'
12
1
'
5 , 1 11

f f K
d
l
if >
0
There are adjustments to these expressions in cl 7.4.2 (2) for the
steel stress, flanged sections and long spans with brittle finishes.
EC 2: Concise:
Basic span/effective Depth Ratios
Table 7.4(N) use Table NA.5
Table 10.3
Structural system
K

=
1.5%

=
0.5%
S.S. beam or slab 1.0 14 20
End span 1.3 18 26
Interior span 1.5 20 30
Flat slab 1.2 17 24
Cantilever 0.4 6 8
EC 2: Concise:
Graph of Exp. (7.16)
-
Figure 15.2
EC2 Span/Effective Depth Ratios
18.5
Percentage of tension reinforcement (A
s,reqd
/bd)
S
p
a
n

t
o

d
e
p
t
h

r
a
t
i
o

(
l
/
d
)
This graph has been
produced for K = 1.0
Structural
System
K
Simply
supported
1.0
End span 1.3
Interior Span 1.5
Flat Slab 1.2
How to guide Figure
Flow Chart
Is basic l/d x F1 x F2 x F3 >Actual l/d?
Yes
No
Factor F3 accounts for stress in the reinforcement
F3 = A
s,prov
/ A
s,reqd
1.5 or 310/
s
1.5 (UK NA)
Check complete
Determine basic l/d
Factor F2 for spans supporting brittle partitions > 7m
F
2
= 7/l
eff
Factor F1 for ribbed and waffle slabs only
F
1
= 1 0.1 ((b
f
/b
w
) 1) 0.8
Increase
A
s,prov
or f
ck
No
Factors to be applied
EC2: cl 7.4.2 & NA
Concise 10.5.2
F1 - Flanged sections
where the ratio of the flange breadth to the rib breadth exceeds
3, the values of l/d given by Expression (7.16) should be
multiplied by 0.8.
F2 Brittle partitions
For slabs (other than flat slabs), with spans exceeding 7.0 m,
which support partitions liable to be damaged by excessive
deflections, the values of l/d given by Expression (7.16) should be
multiplied by 7.0/ l
eff
(l
eff
in metres, see 5.3.2.2 (1)).
For flat slabs, with spans exceeding 8.5 m, which support
partitions liable to be damaged by excessive deflections, the
values of l/d given by Expression (7.16) should be multiplied by
8.5 / l
eff
(l
eff
in metres, see 5.3.2.2 (1)).
F3 o
s
May be adjusted by 310/ o
s
1.5 or A
s,prov
/As,req 1.5
where o
s
Outline Week 4
We will look at the following topics:
Designing for shear
Serviceability
Detailing Solid slabs
Workshop - serviceability
Flat Slabs
Tying systems
Detailing - Solid slabs
Where partial fixity exists, not taken into account in design: Internal
supports: A
s,top
> 0,25A
s
for M
max
End supports: A
s,top
> 0,15A
s
for M
max
This top reinforcement should extend > 0,2 adjacent span
> 2h
h
Reinforcement at free edges should include u bars and longitudinal
bars
Detailing Solid slabs
Rules for one-way and two-way solid slabs
EC2 9.3
Outline Week 4
We will look at the following topics:
Designing for shear
Serviceability
Detailing Solid slabs
Workshop - serviceability
Flat Slab Design
Other slabs
Tying systems
Workshop serviceability
www.eurocode2.info
Introduction to workshop
problem
This is example 3.4
of Worked examples
to Eurocode 2:
Volume 1.
Week 4 - Workshop problems
Worked example
For the slab strip along grid line C check deflection is
within design limits and ensure the crack widths in
the bottom of the slab are also limited.
Design strip along grid line C
Assume strip is 6 m wide
A
s,req
= 1324 mm
2
B
G
= 1.25
Check deflection and
cracking slab along
grid line C.
Deflection
Check: basic l/d x F1 x F2 x F3 > actual l/d
1. Determine basic l/d
The reinforcement ratio, = A
s,req
/bd = 1324 x 100/(1000 x 260)
= 0.51%
Basic Span-to-Depth Ratios
(for simply supported condition)
20.5
Percentage of tension reinforcement (A
s,reqd
/bd)
S
p
a
n

t
o

d
e
p
t
h

r
a
t
i
o

(
l
/
d
)
This graph has been
produced for K = 1.0
Structural
System
K
Simply supported 1.0
End span 1.3
Interior Span 1.5
Flat Slab 1.2
Deflection
Check: basic l/d x F1 x F2 x F3 > actual l/d
1. Determine basic l/d
The reinforcement ratio, = A
s,req
/bd = 1324 x 100/(1000 x 260)
= 0.51%
From graph basic l/d = 20.5 x 1.2 = 24.6 (K = 1.2 for flat slab)
2. Determine Factor F1
F1 = 1.0
3. Determine Factor F2
(Assume no brittle
partitions)
F2 = 1.0
For flanged sections where the ratio of the flange
given by Expression (7.16) should be multiplied by 0.8.
For flat slabs, with spans exceeding 8.5 m, which
support partitions liable to be damaged by excessive
deflections, the values of l/d given by Expression (7.16)
should be multiplied by 8.5 / l
eff
(l
eff
in metres, see
5.3.2.2 (1)).
Deflection
4. Determine Factor F3
A
s,req
= 1324 mm
2
(ULS)
Assume we require H16 @ 100 c/c (2010 mm
2
) to control deflection
F3 = A
s,prov
/ A
s,req
= 2010 / 1324 = 1.52 1.5
24.6 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.5 > 9500 / 260
36.9 > 36.5
Crack Control Without Direct
Calculation
EC2: Cl. 7.3.3
Example Check cracking in bottom of slab.
G
k
= 8.5 kN/m
2
Q
k
= 4.0 kN/m
2

2
G
= 1.25
A
s,req
= 1324 mm
2
/m
Try H16 @ 100 A
s,prov
= 2010 mm
2
/m
Cracking
Action
0

1

2
Category A : domestic, residential
Category B : office areas
Category C : congregation areas
Category D : shopping areas
Category E : storage areas
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.9
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6
0.8
Category F : traffic area,
s
30 kN
Category G : traffic area, 30160 kN
Category H : roofs
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.5
0
0.6
0.3
0
s
1000 m a.s.l.
0.5 0,2 0
Wind loads on buildings 0.5 0,2 0
0.7
Determination of Steel Stress
252
Ratio G
k
/Q
k
U
n
m
o
d
i
f
i
e
d

s
t
e
e
l

s
t
r
e
s
s
,

o
s
u
Ratio G
k
/Q
k
= 8.5/4.0 = 2.13
Crack Widths
From graph o
su
= 252 MPa
o
s
= (o
su
A
s,req
) / (o A
s,prov
)
o
s
= (252 x 1324)/(1.0 x 2010)
= 166 MPa
For H16 @ 100 c/c
Design meets both criteria
Maximum bar size or spacing to limit
crack width
Steel
stress
(
s
) MPa
w
max
= 0.3 mm
Maximum
bar size
(mm)
OR
Maximum
bar spacing
(mm)
160 32 300
200 25 250
240 16 200
280 12 150
320 10 100
360 8 50
or restraint
only
www.eurocode2.info
Workshop problem
Deflection & Cracking
Workshop problem
For the edge strip
indicated check
deflection is within
design limits and
ensure the crack
widths in the bottom
are also limited.
A
s,req
= 959 mm
2
/m B
d = 240 mm

G
= 1.25
Design for this span
Deflection
Check: basic l/d x F1 x F2 x F3 > actual l/d
1. Determine basic l/d
The reinforcement ratio, = A
s,req
/bd = 959 x 100/(1000 x 240)
= 0.40%
Basic Span-to-Depth Ratios
(for simply supported condition)
26.2
Percentage of tension reinforcement (A
s,reqd
/bd)
S
p
a
n

t
o

d
e
p
t
h

r
a
t
i
o

(
l
/
d
)
This graph has been
produced for K = 1.0
Structural
System
K
Simply supported 1.0
End span 1.3
Interior Span 1.5
Flat Slab 1.2
Deflection
7.4.2 EN 1992-1-1
Check: basic l/d x F1 x F2 x F3 > actual l/d
1. Determine basic l/d
The reinforcement ratio, = A
s,req
/bd = 959 x 100/(1000 x 240) =
0.40%
From graph basic l/d = 26.2 x 1.2 = 31.4 (K = 1.2 for flat slab)
2. Determine Factor F1
F1 = 1.0
3. Determine Factor F2
F2 = 1.0
For flanged sections where the ratio of the flange
given by Expression (7.16) should be multiplied by 0.8.
For flat slabs, with spans exceeding 8.5 m, which
support partitions liable to be damaged by excessive
deflections, the values of l/d given by Expression (7.16)
should be multiplied by 8.5 / l
eff
(l
eff
in metres, see
5.3.2.2 (1)).
Deflection
4. Determine Factor F3
A
s,req
= 959 mm
2
(ULS)
Assume we require H16 @ 200 c/c (1005 mm
2
) to control deflection
F3 = A
s,prov
/ A
s,req
= 1005 / 959 = 1.05 1.5
31.4 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.05 > 5900 / 240
33.0 > 24.5
Cracking
Action
0

1

2
Category A : domestic, residential
Category B : office areas
Category C : congregation areas
Category D : shopping areas
Category E : storage areas
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.9
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6
0.8
Category F : traffic area,
s
30 kN
Category G : traffic area, 30160 kN
Category H : roofs
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.5
0
0.6
0.3
0
s
1000 m a.s.l.
0.5 0,2 0
Wind loads on buildings 0.5 0,2 0
Determination of Steel Stress
252
Ratio G
k
/Q
k
U
n
m
o
d
i
f
i
e
d

s
t
e
e
l

s
t
r
e
s
s
,

o
s
u
Ratio G
k
/Q
k
= 8.5/4.0 = 2.13
Crack Widths
From graph o
su
= 252 MPa
o
s
= (o
su
A
s,req
) / (o A
s,prov
)
o
s
= (252 x 959) /(1.0 x 1005)
= 240 MPa
For H16 @ 200 c/c
Design meets both criteria
Maximum bar size or spacing to limit
crack width
Steel
stress
(
s
) MPa
w
max
= 0.3 mm
Maximum
bar size
(mm)
OR
Maximum
bar spacing
(mm)
160 32 300
200 25 250
240 16 200
280 12 150
320 10 100
360 8 50
or restraint
only
Outline Week 4
We will look at the following topics:
Designing for shear
Serviceability
Detailing Solid slabs
Workshop - serviceability
Flat Slab Design
Tying systems
Flat Slab Design
Paul Gregory
Flat Slab Design
Flat slabs - Introduction
EC2 particular rules for flat slabs
Initial sizing
Analysis methods - BMs and Shear Force
Design constraints
Punching shear
Deflection
Moment transfer from slab to column
What are flat slabs?
Solid concrete floors of constant thickness
They have flat soffits
Flat Slabs - Introduction
Flat Slabs - Introduction
Waffle Slab
Drop Panel
Flat Slabs - Introduction
1. HANSON COBIAX
2. BUBBLEDECK
VOIDED SLABS
Hybrid (PC & In-situ) flat slabs
Flat Slabs - Introduction
Hybrid (PC & In-situ) flat slabs
Flat Slabs - Introduction
Particular rules for flat slabs
Particular rules for flat slabs
EC2 sections relevant to Flat Slabs:
Section 6 Ultimate Limit States
cl 6.4 Punching (shear) & PD 6687 cl 2.16, 2.17 & 2.1.8
Section 9 Detailing of members and particular rules
Cl 9.4 Flat slabs
9.4.1 Slab at internal columns
9.4.2 Slab at edge and corner columns
9.4.3 Punching shear reinforcement
Annex I (Informative) Analysis of flat slabs and shear walls
I.1 Flat Slabs
I.1.1 General
I.1.2 Equivalent frame analysis
I.1.3 Irregular column layout
The Concrete Society, Technical Report 64 - Guide to the
Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs
Distribution of moments
EC2: Figure I.1
Concise Figure 5.11
Particular rules for flat slabs
Distribution of moments
EC2: Table I.1
Concise: Table 5.2
Particular rules for flat slabs
Arrangement of reinforcement should reflect behaviour
under working conditions.
At internal columns 0.5A
t
should be placed in a width =
0.25 panel width.
At least two bottom bars should pass through internal
columns in each orthogonal directions.
Particular rules for flat slabs
EC2: Cl. 9.4 Concise: 12.4.1
Design reinforcement at edge and corner reinforcement
should be placed within the b
e
cz
cy
y
be = cz + y
A
cz
cy
y
A
be = z + y/2
z
A
Particular rules for flat slabs
EC2: Figure 9.9
Concise Figure 5.12
The maximum moment that can be transferred from the
slab to the column should be limited to 0.17b
e
d
2
f
ck
3 methods:
1. Simple span to depth table
2. Use Economic Concrete Frame Elements
k
(kN/m
2
) 2.5 5 7.5 10
Multiple Span 28 26 25 23

Initial sizing
3 methods:
1. Simple span to depth table
2. Use Economic Concrete Frame Elements
3. Use Concept.xls
Initial sizing
Initial sizing
8m
Initial sizing
Equivalent frame method
Elastic Plane Frame Equivalent Frame Method, Annex I
Tabular Method - Equivalent Frame Method, Annex I
Grillage
Yield Line
Plastic method of design
Finite Element Analysis
Elastic method
Analysis Methods
Elastic Plane Frame Equivalent Frame Method, Annex I
Apply in both directions X and Y
Method of Analysis for Bending Moments & SFs
Equivalent Frame - the Beams are the Slab width
K
slab
= use full panel width for vertical loads.
K
slab
= use 40% panel width for horizontal loads. Annex
I.1.2.(1)
Analysis Methods
Analysis Methods
NA can use single load case provided:
Condition of using single load case is that Support BMs should be
reduced by 20% except at cantilever supports
TR 64 Figure 14
Reduction in maximum hogging moment
at columns
Analysis Methods
Analysis Methods Equi Frame
Distribution of Design Bending Moments, Annex I
Table I.1 Column Strip Middle Strip
Negative 60 - 80% 40 - 20%
Positive 50 - 70% 50 - 30%
A
t
= Reinforcement area to resist full negative moment. Cl 9.4.1
Analysis Methods Equi Frame
400 mm
2
/m
100 mm
2
/m
100 mm
2
/m
200 mm
2
/m
200 mm
2
/m
Distribution of Design Bending Moments - Example
Table I.1 Column Strip Middle Strip
Negative 75% 25%
A
t
= Reinforcement area to resist full negative moment. Cl 9.4.1
= 1600 mm
2
Column strip = 1200 mm
2
Middle strip = 400 mm
2
Equivalent frame method
Equivalent frame method
Equivalent frame method - Elastic Plane Frame
Computer software normally used to assess bending moments and
shear forces
Design for full load in both directions
RC spreadsheet TCC33.xls will carry out the analysis and design
Analysis Methods
Tabular Method
Simplest method
Use coefficients from Concise Tables 15.2 and 15.5 to determine
bending moments and shear forces
Design for full load in both directions
Frame lateral stability must not be dependent on slab-col connections
There must be at least three approx equal spans.
Method uses single load case. Note: No column BM given in table.
Analysis Methods
Yield Line Method
Equilibrium and work methods.
work method
External energy expended by
Internal energy dissipated by
the yield lines rotating
=
Analysis Methods
Yield Line Method
Suitable for:
irregular layouts
Slabs supported on 2 or 3
edges only
Detailed guidance and numerous
worked examples contained in:
Practical Yield Line Design
Deflection design to simplified rules
Analysis Methods
Finite Element Method
Suitable for:
irregular layouts
slabs with service openings
post tensioned design
(specialist software)
Common pitfalls:
Use long term E-values (typically 1/3 to 1/2 short term value)
Use cracked section properties (typically 1/2 gross
properties) by adjusting E-value to suit
Therefore appropriate E-values are usually 4 to 8 kN/mm
2
Analysis Methods
Finite Element Method
Design moment is the integral of the section through the contour
plot or the bay width
Peak
moment
Integral for
bay width
Analysis Methods
Finite Element - Design moments
Distribution of top reinforcement
Distance (m)
600
100
200
300
400
500
0
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

m
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
N
m
/
m
)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Centre column strip:
4000 mm
2
or 2000 mm
2
/m
Outer column strip:
0.75 x 8000 4000
= 2000 mm
2
or 1000 mm
2
/m
Middle strip:
0.25 x 8000 = 2000 mm
2
or 500 mm
2
/m
Assume a total area of steel, A
t
= 8000 mm
2
Distribution 75% Column strip & 25% Middle strip
6000 mm
2
2000 mm
2
Punching Shear - EC2: cl 6.4 and cl 9.4.3
Shear Rails
Design Constraints
Deflection:
Wherever possible use the span/effective depth ratios, cl 7.4.2 (2)
Span is based on the longer span and the K factor is 1.2
Reduction factor for brittle finishes for spans greater than 8.5m
Design Constraints
Moment Transfer from slab to column:
Edge and corner columns have limited capacity to transfer moments
from slab redistribution may be necessary (Annex I.1.2 (5), EC2 cl
9.4.2 & TR 64)
M
t max
= 0.17 b
e
d
2
f
ck
Design Constraints
Effective
width, b
e
.
Flat slab Workshop
Cover and Flexure
Introduction to workshop
problem
This is example 3.4
of Worked examples
to Eurocode 2:
Volume 1.
Design strip along grid line C
Assume strip is 6 m wide
Determine the cover and
reinforcement slab
along grid line C.
Flat slab
Workshop cover
Worked example
Determine Cover
Flat slab
Workshop Flexure
Sagging reinforcement Worked example
Hogging reinforcement Workshop problem
Design strip
From analysis
From analysis
(Using Concise table 15.5)
z = d [ 1 + (1 - 3.529K)
0.5
]/2 = 260[1 + (1 3.529 x 0.069)
0.5
]/2 = 243 mm
A
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
e
Workshop problem
Now determine the reinforcement for the hogging
moments
Hint: You will need to work out reinforcement for both
column and middle strips and then work out how it is
distributed.
Solution
(Using Concise table 15.5)
z = d [ 1 + (1 - 3.529K)
0.5
]/2 = 260[1 + (1 3.529 x 0.109)
0.5
]/2 = 232 mm
A
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
e
Solution
(Using Concise table 15.5 )
z = d [ 1 + (1 - 3.529K)
0.5
]/2 = 260[1 + (1 3.529 x 0.069)
0.5
]/2
= 243 mm < 0.95d < 247 mm
A
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
e
0.047
Reinforcement distribution
Total area of reinforcement:
A
s,tot
= 2213 x 3 + 887 x 3 = 9300 mm
2
50% A
s,tot
= 9300/2 = 4650 mm
2
This is spread over a width of 1.5m
A
s,req
= 4650/1.5 = 3100 mm
2
/m
Use H20 @ 100 CTRS (3140 mm
2
/m)
Remaining column strip:
A
s,req
= (2213 x 3 4650)/1.5 = 1326 mm
2
/m
Use H20 @ 200 CTRS (1570 mm
2
/m)
Middle strip: A
s,req
= 887 mm
2
/m
Use H16 @ 200 CTRS (1010mm
2
/m)
Outline Week 4
We will look at the following topics:
Designing for shear
Serviceability
Detailing Solid slabs
Workshop - serviceability
Flat Slab Design
Tying systems
Tying systems
Tying systems (1) ALL concrete structures
Peripheral ties (9.10.2.2) & NA:
F
tie,per
= (20 + 4n
0
)l
i
s 60kN where n
0
is the number of storeys
Internal ties (including transverse ties) (9.10.2.3) & NA :
F
tie,int
= ((g
k
+ q
k
) / 7.5 )(l
r
/5)F
t
> F
t
kN/m
Where (g
k
+ q
k
) is the sum of the average permanent and variable floor loads (kN/m2), l
r
is the
greater of the distances (m) between the centres of the columns, frames or walls supporting any two
adjacent floor spans in the direction of the tie under consideration and F
t
= (20 + 4n
0
) s 60kN.
Maximum spacing of internal ties = 1.5 l
r
Horizontal ties to columns or walls (9.10.2.4) & NA :
F
tie,fac
= F
tie,col
> (2 F
t
s (l
s
/2.5)F
t
) and > 3% of N
Ed
N
Ed
= the total design ultimate vertical load carried by the column or wall at that level. Tying
of external walls is only required if the peripheral tie is not located within the wall. F
tie,fac
in
kN per metre run of wall, F
tie,col
in kN per column and l
s
is the floor to ceiling height in m.
Internal Ties: EC2 specifies a
20kN/m requirement which is
significantly less than BS8110.
Tying systems (2)
ALL concrete structures
UK NA requirements similar to BS 8110
Tying systems (3)
Vertical ties (9.10.2.5):
In panel buildings of 5 storeys or more, ties should be provided in
columns and/or walls to limit damage of collapse of a floor.
Normally continuous vertical ties should be provided from the lowest
to the highest level.
Where a column or wall is supported at the bottom by a beam or slab
accidental loss of this element should be considered.
Continuity and anchorage ties (9.10.3):
Ties in two horizontal directions shall be effectively continuous and
anchored at the perimeter of the structure.
Ties may be provided wholly in the insitu concrete topping or at
connections of precast members.
Week 4
END