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Spring 2010

Homework 4 - SOLUTIONS

1. A manufacturing company has three plants, I, II and III, which produce x, y, and z units, respectively, of a

certain product. The annual revenue from this production is given by

R(x, y, z) = 6xyz

2

400, 000(x + y + z).

If the company is to produce 1000 units anually, use Lagrange Multipliers to determine how it should allocate

production among the three plants so as to maximize its revenues.

SOLUTION:

We wish to maximize R(x, y, z) = 6xyz

2

400, 000(x + y + z) subject to the constraint g(x, y, z) = x + y + z = 1000.

First, we must set up and solve:

f = g = (6yz

2

400, 000)i + (6xz

2

400, 000)j + (12xyz 400, 000)k = [i +j +k]

Setting the like components equal, we have:

6yz

2

400, 000 = , 6xz

2

400, 000 = , 12xyz 400, 000 =

= = 6yz

2

400, 000 = 6xz

2

400, 000 = 12xyz 400, 000

Taking this equation in parts, we have:

6yz

2

$

$

$

$

400, 000 = 6xz

2

$

$

$

$

400, 000 = 6z

2

(y x) = 0 = z = 0 or x = y

6xz

2

$

$

$

$

400, 000 = 12xyz

$

$

$

$

400, 000 = 6xz(z 2y) = 0 = x = 0 or z = 0 or y =

z

2

Note: We can ignore the cases where z = 0 or x = 0, because this will lead to a revenue of R = 400, 000(x + y + z),

which would be negative. Therefore, the remaining solution will be x = y =

z

2

, which we can now substitute into the

constraint equation:

z

2

+

z

2

+ z = 1000 = z = 500

Thus, the production allocation should be x = y = 250, z = 500 units annually . (This will produce a revenue of

R(250, 250, 500) = $93.35 billion.)

2. Three sides of a rectangular box lie in the coordinate planes, their common vertex at the origin; the opposite

vertex is on the plane with equation

x

a

+

y

b

+

z

c

= 1, where a, b and c are positive constants. In terms of a,

b and c, what is the maximum possible volume of such a box?

SOLUTION:

We will use x, y, and z as the length, width, and height of the box, respectively. Then, we wish to maximize the volume

V (x, y, z) = xyz subject to the condition g(x, y, z) =

x

a

+

y

b

+

z

c

= 1. First, we must set up and solve:

V = g = (yz)i + (xz)j + (xy)k =

_

1

a

i +

1

b

j +

1

c

k

_

Setting the like components equal, we have:

yz =

a

, xz =

b

, xy =

c

= = ayz = bxz = cxy

MATH 2300 Spring 10 HW 4 Solutions 2

Taking this equation in parts, we have:

ayz = bxz = z(ay bx) = 0 = z = 0 or x =

a

b

y

bxz = cxy = x(bz cy) = 0 = x = 0 or z =

c

b

y

Since a value of x = 0 or z = 0 would yield a volume of V = 0, we will ignore these cases. Therefore, the remaining

values will be substituted into the constraint equation:

1

a

_

a

b

y

_

+

y

b

+

1

c

_

c

b

y

_

= 1 = y =

b

3

Therefore, the maximum volume will occur when x =

a

3

, y =

b

3

, z =

c

3

, which gives a result of V =

abc

27

.

3. Evaluate:

_

e

1

_

y

0

xlny

_

y

2

x

2

dxdy

SOLUTION:

_

e

1

_

y

0

xlny

_

y

2

x

2

dxdy =

_

e

1

lny(y

2

x

2

)

3/2

3

y

0

dy =

_

e

1

lny

3

_

0

3/2

(y

2

)

3/2

_

dy =

_

e

1

y

3

lny

3

dy

Using integration by parts, with u = lny, du =

1

y

dy, dv =

y

3

3

dy, v =

y

4

12

, we have:

=

y

4

lny

12

e

1

_

e

1

1

y

y

!

3

4

12

dy =

y

4

lny

12

y

4

48

e

1

=

_

e

4

12

e

4

48

_

_

0

1

48

_

=

3e

4

+ 1

48

4. Evaluate:

_

4

0

_

2

y

ye

x

2

x

3

dxdy

SOLUTION:

To evaluate this integral, we begin by reversing the order of integration. The region is sketched below.

x =

y

_

2

0

_

x

2

0

ye

x

2

x

3

dy dx =

_

2

0

y

2

e

x

2

2x

3

x

2

0

dx

=

_

2

0

x

4

e

x

2

2&

&

x

3

dx =

e

x

2

4

2

0

=

e

4

1

4

MATH 2300 Spring 10 HW 4 Solutions 3

5. Evaluate

_ _

R

y dA, where R is the region in the xy-plane bounded by x = y

2

and x = y

2

2y.

SOLUTION:

We begin by sketching the region R, bounded by two parabolas as shown below.

x = y

2

x = y

2

2y

The points of intersection of the two curves are found by setting

their equations equal to one another:

y

2

= y

2

2y = 2y

2

+ 2y = 2y(y + 1) = 0 = y = 1, 0

Then, our double integral is:

_

0

1

_

y

2

2y

y

2

y dxdy =

_

0

1

xy

y

2

2y

y

2

dy =

_

0

1

(2y

3

2y

2

) dy

=

y

4

2

2y

3

3

0

1

=

1

6

6. Evaluate:

_

3

0

_

9y

2

0

1

1 + x

2

+ y

2

dxdy

SOLUTION:

We evaluate the double integral by changing to polar coordinates, where the region R is the quarter-disk in the rst

octant, x

2

+ y

2

9, x, y 0. Then, we have:

_

/2

0

_

3

0

1

1 + r

2

r dr d =

_

/2

0

1

2

ln(1 + r

2

)

3

0

d =

_

/2

0

1

2

ln10 d =

1

2

ln10

_

2

_

=

ln10

4

7. Use polar coordinates to nd the volume of the solid above the cone z =

_

x

2

+ y

2

and below the hemisphere

z =

_

8 x

2

y

2

.

SOLUTION:

We begin by sketching the solid, shown below, and its projection on the xy-plane.

The double integral in polar coordinates is:

_

2

0

_

2

0

_

_

8 r

2

r

_

r dr d =

_

2

0

(8 r

2

)

3/2

3

r

3

3

2

0

d

=

_

2

0

_

16

3

+

16

2

3

_

d =

32

3

(

2 1)

MATH 2300 Spring 10 HW 4 Solutions 4

8. Find the mass of the lamina bounded by y = sinx and y = 0 and x =

2

, if the density is given by

(x, y) = x.

We begin by sketching the lamina, shown below.

y = sinx

The mass is given by the double integral:

_ _

R

(x, y) dA =

_

/2

0

_

sin x

0

xdy dx =

_

/2

0

xy

sin x

0

dx

=

_

/2

0

xsinxdx = xcos x + sinx

/2

0

=

9. Find the volume of the solid under the surface z = xe

x+y

and above the region in the xy-plane bounded by

x + y = 1, x = 0, and y = 0.

SOLUTION:

We begin by sketching the region in the xy-plane, shown below.

x + y = 1

_

1

0

_

1x

0

xe

x+y

dy dx =

_

1

0

xe

y+x

1x

0

dx =

_

1

0

(ex xe

x

) dx =

ex

2

2

xe

x

+ e

x

1

0

=

e

2

1

OR, using the other order of integration:

_

1

0

_

1y

0

xe

x+y

dxdy =

_

1

0

xe

x+y

e

x+y

1y

0

dy =

_

1

0

((1 y)e e + e

y

) dy

= e

_

y

y

2

2

_

ey + e

y

1

0

=

e

2

1

10. Use a computer to compute the iterated integrals:

_

1

0

_

1

0

x y

(2x + 2y)

3

dy dx and

_

1

0

_

1

0

x y

(2x + 2y)

3

dxdy

Is Fubinis Theorem contradicted? Explain what is happening.

SOLUTION: Although it seems that Fubinis Theorem has been violated, note that f has an innite dicscontinuity

at (0, 0) and therefore does not satisfy the conditions of Fubinis Theorem. Both iterated integrals involve improper

integrals which diverge at their lower limits of integration.

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