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'I 70

1 7AN

1i<ANSAC1TIONS ON INDU)STRY APPlICATIONS. VOL IA-21, NO. 1. JANUJARY/FEBRUARY 1985

The Calculation of DC Fault Currents with Contributions from DC Machines and Rectifiers
DANIEL J. TYILAVSKY, MENMBER, lEhE

system has been more accurate determination of dc system load and fault currents. Load currents on the dc system are determined by means of a multiterminal ac/dc power flow program. Such computer programs have been written for multiterminal HV dc links [91--[121. These, however, lack the capability of including dc motor loads. Recently, three powerflow computer programs have been written which have a mitultiterminial and real-power load-modeling capability. Two use a Gauss-Siedel approach [131, [141 while the other uses the Newton-Raphson approach [151. Both methods are capal. INTRODUCTION of ble accurately defining ac/dc system load currents and the fEFORE the availability ot iniexpensive and reliable SCR's, prefault voltage profile of the system. ac/dc power conversion was m)ost ofteni accomplished A method for accurately determining the dc system fault through the use of miotor-generatoi sets. "[he miethods for current in a multirectifier fed ac/dc power system has only calculating dc short circuit currents for systemiis consisting of recently become available [141. Since, unlike the ac fault only motors and generators is straightforward and has been current problem, the defining relationships in an ac/dc power available for some time [I]. Today, combined ac/dc industrial system are nonlinear, an iterative approach to the solution of power systems, such as minle electrical power systemns, are fed these equations is required. The Gauss-Siedel approach is by multiple converters and serve imiultiple dc motor loads. used in [141. Previous methods developed for ttault currenit calculations are The approach for the calculation of dc fault current not capable of handling modern systemns for various reaso-ns. proposed in this paper differs from that of [141 in three Early work on rectifier dc fault curretnts was based on the imnportant respects. First, the nonlinear equations which define assumlption that only one rectifier was presenlt, that the tfault the ac/dc system under faulted conditions are solved using occurred at the rectifier termiinals, anid that all fault current Newton's method. Newton's method is known to converge tclame only from this rectifier [21, 131. More recent work takes reliably and quickly if a good initial estimate can be made of into accounit dc side resistance and induIctanice but is still the solution vector and if the nonlinearities in the equations are limited by the one-rectifier, onee-ftault-cnirrenit source assumiip- not too bad. Seconid, the proposed method is capable of tion [4]. The reascendance of high-voltage direct current (HV incorporating fault current contributions from both rectifiers dc) power transmission in the formii of two terminal dc liniks and dc motors. Third, the size of the matrix used in the has focused some attention otn two-converter systems. Fault iterative procedure can be made proportional to the number of current in these systems is limited by the surge impedance of rectifiers in the system. Since the number of calculations the transmission lines. When the fault occurs at the terminals needed to solve a matrix equation by lower diagonal upper of the controlled rectifier, tlhe rectifier acts as a source of fault (LDU) decomposition is proportional to the cube of the size of current for oinly a short time since fast control is used to block the matrix, this greatly cuts down on the computation time the rectifier valves quickly [51-171 Hence the techniques used required. for HV dc fault current calculations are limited by a oneThe development required for explaining the proposed rectifier assumption and caninot he used in ain environnment method may be broken into six sections. The first section is which utilizes multiple uncoontrolle(d rectifiers. used to develop a model for the uncontrolled three-phase The recent deaths of men fron unidergrouLnd coal mine fires bridge rectifier. An uncontrolled rectifier is assumed since this started by utidetezted high-resistance dc faults has prompted is typical in most coal mine applications. Next, a brief review more research in this area [81. Since dc load and fault currents of ac system three-phase fault analysis is conducted to are of the same order of miagnitude for high-resistance dc establish the notation. In the next section, a model of a dc faults, one approach to designinig a miiore reliable dc protection system consisting of only motors and generators is shown to Paper P1D84-12, approved by the Minling Industry Comimnittee of tihe IEEE obey the same matrix equation under faulted conditions as the Industry Applications Society for presentation at the 1983 Industry Applica- ac system. The fourth section is used to show how the ac/dc tions Society Annual Meeting. Mexico City, NMexico, October 3-7, 1984. converter interface may be modeled in the ac and the dc Manuscript released for publication April 27. 1984. The author is with the Departmllent of Electrical and Computer- Engineering, systems. The equations describing the combined ac/dc system under dc faulted conditions are developed. In the fifth section College of Engineering. Arizona States University, Temipe, AZ 85287.
Abstract-Since 1970 at least 12 menl have died from underground coal mine fires which were started due to undetected high-resistanice dc faults on trolley systems. A technique is proposed which utilizes Newton's method to solve the nonlinear equations which determine such fault currents. The formulation is unique in that it is the first known method to account for de fault current contribuitions from both rectifiers and dc motors. Results from the technique can be used to size and coordinate devices used for system protection. Ilie problems of accurately predicting such fault currents is discussed. A sample problem is included as an example.

0093-9994i85/0100-0170$0l1.00 C 1985 IEEE

TYLAVSKY: CALCULATION OF DC FAULT CURRENTS


Xc I
= Id

171
TABLE I RECTIFIER MODEL CONSTANTS

E
Mode
1
a

Fig. 1. One-line diagram of rectifier conduction.

Newton's method is applied to these equations. The final section includes a sample problem which provides an example I 2 21 3001 1/6 Xc acosfsinj1FXc 0.433 of the application of this method. Unless specifically stated otherwise, the equations developed in all sections will use per3 vr-3 7r/2 xc ^ 1T Xc 12 0.0 unit variables. The ac/dc per-unit system used may be found JE1f elsewhere [15]. II. RECTIFIER MODEL I -III RC Many types of rectifiers may be used to derive dc power (i) aftE| from ac. Three-phase bridge rectifiers are by far the most IEII -ElE E2 common type used in coal mine applications and hence will be the only type considered here. Letting the symbol (^) indicate Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit for ac to dc converter. an actual rather than per-unit quantity, Fig. I shows a one-line El(O) diagram of an ac bus connected through an inductive reactance X; to a bridge rectifier which supplies power to a dc bus. As -i such, the rectifier has three distinct modes of operation, and m+1 INTERz2 each mode is characterized by a different set of equations. It 1m+2 CONNECT ION can be shown that the per-unit expressions characteristic of m+2 NETWORK S each mode take on the general form of Ek(O) E2=a,JE,I +IdRc. (1) n Zk The values that constants a, and RC take on are listed in Table n -~~~~~ I. Inspection of (1) shows that the dc side per-unit equivalent Fig. 3. Equivalent circuit for fault current calculations. of Fig. I is Fig. 2. In the normal range of operation (i.e., mode 1), the faults on buses m + 1, m + 2, * , n, the equivalent circuit approximation of Fig. 3 may be used. In Fig. 3 each machine is replaced by Nf1l6- / I (2) an ideal EMF source in series with an impedance element is usually made. The maximum error of (2) associated with which corresponds to either the synchronous, transient or each mode of operation occurs at the operating points on the subtransient reactance. Also, all nonrotating loads are nemodal boundaries (i.e., (a, it) = (0, 60), (30, 600), and glected since they draw negligible current under faulted (30, 120) where a is the commutation delay angle and it is conditions. Under faulted conditions, the ac system performthe commutation overlap angle). The maximum errors for ance equation is modes 1, 2, and 3 are 3.16, 4.39, and 10.26 percent, Eacbus(f) Eacbus(O) - ZacbusIacbus(F) (4) respectively [161, [17]. The 10.26-percent error corresponds where to the conditions of a bolted fault at the rectifier terminals. If Eacbus(O) vector of prefault ac system bus voltages, the dc fault current is limited to 90 percent of the bolted fault vector of ac system bus voltages during the fault, Eacbu(p) value, then the error drops to less than six percent. The use of ac Zacbus system bus impedance matrix, (2) in estimating dc fault currents is conservative since -'/lrId Iacbus(F) vector of ac system fault currents. is always greater than or equal to IILI f. Approximation (2) will If faults are assumed to occur only on buses m + I through n, be used with the assumption that this error limit is acceptable. A real power balance at the ac and dc buses of the rectifier then labeling the other ac system buses of interest as 1, 2, - *, can be used to show that the displacement factor is given, for m gives the matrix form of the performance equation as all modes of operation, by [El )E2(fi Em(E+ I() ...- En(Pj I
2

1.O

Rc 7r/6 Xc

cos

Cos

aX

ax)

X2

0750

i=11|I,j/

= cos +-

E2

(3) [El(o)E2(o)

..

When E2 is not known, it is possible to find expressions for the displacement factor in terms of IE, and I2. These expressions are different for each mode of operation and are listed in Table 1. Also listed are the ranges in cos 4 over which these expressions remain valid.

rz.1z,l,2 Z2,7
K7

Em(O + 1(0) ... En(o)J T. .. Zi,mZim+i Zl,n


.

...

Z2,mZ2,m + I

Z2,n

0 0

Zm,l
Zn,"

III. AC SYSTEM FAULT ANALYSIS Consider a K-machine M-load pure ac-machine system. For the calculation of fault currents for simultaneous three-phase

Zm+ .li

...

Zm,mZm,m + I Zm+ i,mZm+ Im+ I


Zn,mZn,m + I

...

Zm,n
Zn,n

01
In

(5)

..-

171

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. IA-21, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1985

IV. DC SYSTEM FAULT ANALYSIS It has been shown that, under faulted conditions, a dc machine model consists of an ideal EMF source in series with an effective resistance [1]. Thus the equivalent circuit for fault current calculations is also shown in Fig. 3. By analogy with the ac system just discussed, the dc system performance equation under faulted conditions is

(6) Edcbus(F) = Edcbus(O)-Rdcbusldcbus() where Edcbus(O) vector of prefault dc system bus voltages Edcbus(F) vector of dc system bus voltages during the fault, Rdcbus dc system bus resistance matrix, Idcbus(F) vector of dc system bus fault currents. If current is injected at some dc system buses during the fault, then this current will have an effect on the dc system voltages opposite to that of the fault current. The performance equation under the combined current injection and fault current conditions is, by the assumption of linearity of the dc system,

7n\+i

n+2

/7p
u

DC POWER SYSTEM

El

HARMONIC FILTER

Fig. 4. Generalized ac/dc power system.

V. COMBINED AC-DC SYSTEM FAULT ANALYSIS Consider the generalized ac-dc power system shown in Fig. 4. The branches between ac buses m + 1, m + 2, * * *, n, and Edcbus(n = Edcbus(O)- RdcbusIdcbus(n dc buses n + 1, n + 2, * * *, p represent power rectification via uncontrolled three-phase bridge rectifiers. The ideal + RdcbusIdcbus() harmonic filters at the ac buses serve to limit the commutation - Edcbus(o)- Rdcbus(Idcbus(F- 1) (7) reactance to that of the converter transformer leakage reactance plus any reactance of the lines connecting the ac bus to where the converter transformer. Commutation resistance is assumed to be negligible. This assumption is often acceptable and, in Idcbus(G) vector of injected dc system bus currents 'dcbus(F- ) combined vector of injected and fault currents in any case, will yield conservative fault current results. If the rectifier branches are removed from Fig. 4, then the dc system. fault analysis of each independent system may proceed clearly Let the dc buses be numbered n + 1, ,p, p + 1, , u - as described in the previous sections. The Zacbus and Rdcbu, 1, u, u + 1, * , q. Further, let current injections occur at matrices used in the independent fault analysis would reflect buses n + I through p while bus u is the faulted bus. Clearly, the network impedances contained entirely within the respecmany of the bus currents will be zero. Specifically, the tive boundaries of the ac and dc systems as shown in this following bus current vector is zero: figure. If these branches are present, then any current which through the fault resistance at bus u acts as a load on the T Iq]T= . (8) flows [Ip+, * , I-l IU+ 1 ac system as well as any dc machines capable of feeding the With this in mind, the matrix form of the dc performance fault. Using the ac and dc network models developed in the previous sections, along with the rectifier model previously equation is developed, an equivalent circuit for the ac-dc system under faulted conditions is shown in Fig. 5. Note that the numbering * Eq(F)lI [En+ I(F) ... Ep(Ep+I,*Egj. @.. of the ac and dc system rectifier buses corresponds to the Eq(O)] [En+ I(0) ... Ep(O)Ep+ I(0) ... Euo) numbering used in Sections III and IV for ac system faulted buses and dc system current injection buses, respectively. Reli Rn+ 1,n+ 1 Thus (5) and (9), when taken together, also describe the combined ac-dc system under faulted conditions. Taking a quick tally of the number of equations and unknowns to insure Rpp,p + I Rp,u ... Rp,q Rp,n + I solvability shows that (5) contributes 2n - m complex Rp+I,q Rp+ l,n+lI * * Rp+1,pRp + I,p+I Rp+ I,u unknowns (i.e., n complex Eacbus(I; values and n - m nonzero values of Iacbus(F)) or 4n - 2m real unknowns. However, (5) only contributes n complex equations or 2n real equations. * ..*. Ru, Ru,q Ru,n + I Similarly, (9) contributes q - n unknown real voltages and p - n + 1 unknown real currents. Realizing that, to each ac rectifier connection there exists a dc rectifier connection, the ... ... Rq,pRq,p+I Rq,u Rq,n+ 1 Rq,q total number of rectifiers is given by
...
...
... ... ...

Xl_jn+,

_IPo

...

...

ol T.

(9)

n-m=p-n.

(10)

TYLAVSKY: CALCULATION OF DC FAULT CURRENTS

173

El(O)

Ep .+ i()

Fig. 5. Equivalent circuit for dc fault current calculations with ac rectifier contribution.

Hence (9) contributes q - m + 1 unknowns but adds only q - n equations. Since m is less than n, (5) and (9) have more unknowns than variables. Subtracting real equations from real unknowns leaves a deficiency of 3(n - m) + 1 equations. The additional constraining relationships which are needed are those that relate the ac and dc terminal behavior of the rectifier. These relationships are defined by (I)-(3) as

En+, =am+jjEm+jj -In+,Rcn+l


Ep
and

=a.IE.1

IpRcp,

In+l = I'm+11
Ip = |Inh
and

En+1=IEm+iI
Ep =E,E

cos Om+i
On,

cos

the form AR = JAX X= X+AX (15) where AR vector of residual mismatches between the known equation values and those found for the solution estimate X, I Jacobian of the system of equations with respect to the system variables evaluated at the solution estimate, (1 1) I AX variable increment vector needed to correct the solution estimate X of the linearized problem, X better estimate of the solution vector. The application of this method to the problem at hand requires that certain decisions be made. First, polar or rectangular form of the matrix equations may be used. This (12) decision will impact the form of the Jacobian and therefore will impact the number of computations needed to invert the Jacobian. Second, it is possible to incorporate all of (5), (9), and (1 )-(14) into the form of (15), or it is possible to select a subset of these variables and hence reduce the size of the Jacobian. The two extremes of the many possible ways to (13) attack this problem are discussed.

respectively. Note that (11)-(13) each consists of n - m equations. Including these into the system of descriptive equations reduces the deficiency of equations to one. The last equation needed relates the dc fault current to the voltage at the dc bus as

Eu(, = IfRg-

(14)

Equations (5), (9), and (11)-(14) constitute 4n - 3m + q + 1 equations in as many unknowns. At this point any solution technique capable of solving simultaneous nonlinear equations may be used. In the next section the application of Newton's method to this problem is discussed.
VI. APPLICATION OF NEWTON'S METHOD The application of Newton's method to a set of simultaneous equations results in two linearized matrix/vector equations of

Method 1: Full Equation Set Solution One approach to the problem is to linearize (5), (9), and (11)-(14) in the form of (15) and solve for all of the bus voltages and rectifier currents in the system. The dimension of the Jacobian used in this solution process can be somewhat reduced if use is made of the fact that many of the impressed bus currents are known to be zero. If (5) and (9) are partitioned to use this fact, they take on the following form, respectively,

El(o)

Em()
Em + I (F)

Em(O)
Em+ 1(0)

12 Zacbus Zacbus
11

0 0
Im+ I

(16)

En(o)

21 22 Zacbus Zacbus

In

174
. (1)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. IA-21, NO.

1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY

1985

1p(0)

0
11 12
Rdebus 'Rdcbus

Written as a residual, (19) may be expressed as


Ri=
-

Ep_ I(O)
Eu- (o)

13 Rdcbus

EbUS(F) + EbUS(O) - ZbusIbus(F)

(20)

0 0

Recognizing that if (20) is kept in rectangular form, it is a linear equation and may be linearized in the form of (15) as

Eq(,f)
En+ l(F)
Ep(F)
Eu(F)

Eq(O)
I

0
(o)

[AR,
...

1UARu+ I ARn ARn + .1.. ARPJIARu]"T


.

ARmIARpII
i

AR

ARqIARm+ 1

En+

21

22
l

23

In + I
.
0 1

Ep(o)
Eupo

Rdcbus Rdcbus IRdcbus

32 31 :Rdcbu. Rdcbus

l~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ip

.I
1

II
1

33
Rdcbus

IL

If

(17)

I0S__

I.

*. 1

0.

I I
* _ _

12

ACBUS
0 R

1
1

I-

DCBUS

12

RDCBUS

13

Eliminating the portions of the Zacbus and Rdcb,S matrices which are multiplied by the zero current entries in (16) and (17) and combining the results while rearranging gives

II

_
1. '

22

EI(F)
Em(F)
Ep+ 1(F)
EU_ I(F) Eu+ 1(F

Ei(o)

12
Zacbus
0

Im+
In

L4-I
x[AE,
*
...

_In_ _-4 0

l-01-4 .
--

ACBUS
_

0
I

22 MDCBUS
R

23 DCBUS

-_-

1 I

- r
...

RDCBUS

33

Em(O)

AEm I AEp+ I *

...

AEu - AEu +1
I

AEq I AEm + I
(21)

AEnlAEn+
AInIAI

... AEp
AI

AEuIAIm+1

In+1

Eu.+ l(o)

12
I

13
Ip

dcbus, Rdcbus

Equation (21) may be written symbolically

as

If

[ARlin]- 0 I: Zbus
where

Vol

AEp

:i[TF

(22)

Eq(fl
Em+ 1(F)

Eq(O)
Em+ 1(0)

IEn(c)
En+ 1(0)

Zacbus:

22

[AR1j vector of linear residual mismatches, AET(P) vector of bus voltage increments associated with buses which have (no) rectifier connections (i.e., transfer (pure) ac and dc system buses),

ITF

Ep_ I(o)

:I

22 :23 Rdcbus Rdcbus


_ .

currents at the transfer and faulted buses.

vector of bus current increments associated with

.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Eu(o)_
For convenience, let (18) be written

32 :33 Rdcbus: Rdcbus

If (-) is used to indicate the variable estimates at the beginning of each iteration, then the linear residual mismatch
vector
is

given by
EbUS(O) + Zbusibus(F).

ARlin= Ebus(F)

(23)

(18)
as

Ebus(F)= Ebus(o)

Zbuslbus(F).

(19)

As mentioned in the previous section, there are 3(n - m) + 1 more unknowns than equations in (18). The equations to be added, (11) and (13), use variables which correspond to ac bus current and voltage magnitudes. Since rectangular form was assumed in the construction of (21), these quantities must be

TYLAVSKY: CALCULATION OF DC FAULT CURRENTS

175

derived through the use of additional residuals. Letting


Imx = Re [Im] ,my = Im [Vml

values. When the solution estimates are accurate, each of the residuals given by (25)-(30) should be ideally zero. The last residual needed corresponds to the fault constraint at the faulted dc bus. It is given by

Emx = Re [Em] Emy = Im [Em],

Rq+6(m-n)+ I -Eu(F)l+ IfRg


(24)

(36)

then the nonlinear residuals needed to constrain the system equations at the (m + 1) ac rectifier bus are
Rq+ = -In+ 2+Im+lx2+Im+ly2

where Rg is the resistance of the fault. The linearized form of this residual is

(25)

ARq+6(m-n)+ 1= [-1 Rg]


with

jIu]

(37)
(38)

Rq+2 - Em+ 12+Em+lx2Em+ly2 Rq+3 -En+l+ |Em+1 cos m+lI

(26) (27) (28)

ARq

+ 6(m - n) +

= Eu-IfRq,

Rq+4=-En+, +am+IlEm+l1-In++Rc(n+l) Rq+5-sIm+Ix+In+I cOs (km+I-km+i) Rq+6=-Em+,x+ jEm+Il cos i,m+1.

(29) (30)

If (22), (32), and (37) are combined, then the general form of the residual mismatch equation is

In the construction of these residuals the ac voltage at bus m + 1 is assumed to have a phase angle of {m + 1 and the ac rectifier current at this bus is assumed to lag the voltage by 4m+ 1. It is easily verified that this set of residuals is not unique in kind or number. For example, it is possible to rearrange (25) and substitute it into (28) and (29), thus eliminating I,+ l. Further, Rq+ 5 may be replaced by

16Rlin
ARnln

0 0

I A

Zbus
B

AE-

C
0

AET

ARF

L.D

.I

AITF

L AU
(39)

Rq+5=-Im+ly+In+l sin (ikm+,-m+,).

(31)

Thus many ways exist to formulate the residuals. Using residuals (25)-(30), their linearized form is

where

ARF
AU

ARl,, vector of nonlinear residual mismatches,

[ARq+l ARq+2 ARq+3 ARq+4 ARq+5 ARq+6] T=


0 0 0
21m + Ix 2Im + ly
-

= ARq+ 6(m - n) + 1, residual mismatch of the faulted bus constraint, vector of added variable increments, and

2Em+ ix
2Em + Iy 0 0 0 0

-I

0 0

2In + I
0 0 0

-2IEm+ll
0 0
ix

0 0 0

Cos

Om+ I

-1 0 0 0 -I 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 b Rc(n + I) 0 Cos am + I 0 0 c 0 -c d
AIm+ix

0 0

AU=[AIEm+lI A4om+l A1'm+l


An

...

AIEI
(40)

Ain']T

[AEm+

AEm+ ly AEn+1

AIm+ Iy

AIEm+jt A4Om+j AO6m+lT


where

(Om+,I-m+,1) c=In+l sin ({m+I-4m+,) d=I-Em+,I sin


b = cos
Vm+I

The form of the A, B, C, D, E, and F matrices is easily determined using (32) and (37). The nice feature of using this method is that when I convergence is attained, all of the bus voltages are known as well as the rectifier currents and fault currents. Further, if complex variables are used, the Zbus block of the coefficient matrix in (39) may be constructed using well-known techAIn +I niques. The drawback of this method is that the size of the coefficient matrix that needs to be inverted at each iteration is (32) proportional to the number of ac system buses plus the number of dc system buses plus six times the number of rectifiers in the system. For a four bus ac/6 bus dc power system with two (33) rectifiers this would require a coefficient matrix which is 27 (34) real elements square.
(35a)

e=-IEm+iI sin Om+,. (35b) The residual mismatches AR are given by the negated values of (25)-(30) when all variables are replaced by their estimated

Method 2: Minimum Equation Set Solution The objective of reducing the coefficient matrix of (15) is to minimize the computation time of each iteration. To see how this may be done, consider (16) and (17). The rectifier currents Im + through In have the effect of reducing the ac

1 '76

1EF7E TRANSAC TIONS OsN INDUSTRY A.PPLU'(- A FIONS., ViM.-.

-) l.

;IANUARY FEBRUARY 9s.s

system bWs voltages and increasing the dc system bus voltages. These currents are independent variables while the voltages are dependent variables. Clearly, any choice of currents will satisfy (16) and (17). The unique solution to the dc fault problem is achieved when the currents are choosen so that the ac and dc system rectifier bus voltages obey the rectifier constraining relationships. Thus only rectifier bus voltages need to be included in the solution procedure since any choice of system currents will satisfy the performance equations for the nonrectifier bus voltages of (16) and (17). If only these variables are included in the solution procedure, (15) and (16) can be reduced to the following form:
Elti+ I(
Em+ l(o)
lF 1

i44) to simplifx' the notation. Sinmllariv. the residuals associated with (42) Lire
+ RAldI- E RkArlIr -(I- mn), Rkz=-EA. + Eko
r.

n -

tl 4-

-2,
1-

-,

(45)

RU - + EU + Eu(o) + RuIlI1f-

-- rz 4

RiirlIr- (rl - tl

(46)

Fin

where Rkp is the (k, p) entry in the Rbus matrix of (42). The residuals associated with the rectifier constraining relationships are
Rk I- EA + (n -n),f
, EAI cos 4k, k-=n+ 1, in+2, Rk 2 =-Ek+ A-1- k+nnRck+(n-rin), +attE)+kl

[ J , ~J (O,

a Jb[s
23

(41)

(47)

1+ I (F)

En 1(0)
-

22

tIn +I

k=rn+1, rn+2, -., n.

(48)

EP(O)
Eu(o)

Rdcbus, Rdcbus
32

LInf
.

(42)

The residual associated with the fault constraint at the faulted bus is given by

-RdCbUsR. u

R,3=- Eu + fR,.

(49)
?,, ' AR,-1'

If

The linearized form of these equations may be written as

Note that (12) has been used in constructing (41) and (42). If polar form of these equations is used, then the only additional residuals needed are ( 11), (13), and (36). Counting real unknowns and equations shows that there are 5(n - m) + 2 of each. The use of polar rather than rectangular form of the ac performance equations allows the reduction in the number of residuals per rectifier from six to two. A computational price is paid for this reduction. Since (41) is not a linear equation in magnitudes and angles, construction of the Jacobian entries which correspond to increments on these variables will require extra computation time. In addition the linearity feature which is important to the convergence of Newton's method is sacrificed when polar form is used. If superscripts of x and y are used to indicate real and imaginary components, then the residuals associated with (41) may be written
R
x-

[ARtt?
*

1' i *. AR
+

AR,tr
RU
I

1'

Rn +I

ARn

ARn2 ARI31=[J1X
AEuAI '.
5 Aotwl A4',l A)n

AR,?,,,' AR11+12+
n1+1

[L/ Ernj+11 AJIt71+11


...

AlEXI AlI,,
AEp

AE,,+41
(50)

-Ek
COS

cos

O4k+Ek(o)

COS

Vk(O)-

=n

,
+

lZkPIiIPtX
2, * n*, n (43)

The entries needed to construct the Jacobian are merely the partials of the residual equations with respect to the increment variables. These partials are listed in Appendix I. The size of the Jacobian is 5(n - m) + 2. For a four bus ac/6 bus dc power system with two rectifiers, this means a 12-row matrix. If LDU decomposition is used at each iteration, the minimum set will require only about 8.5 percent as much computation as the full equation set. The total reduction in computation is not quite as good as this since once convergence of the unknown current vector is obtained (5) and (9) must be used if the unknown system bus voltages are desired.

VII. SAMPLE PROBLEM Fig. 6 is a per unit impedance schematic of a mine electrical power system. All impedances are in per unit using a 1500Rky= -Ek sin 4k +Ek(o, sin bk(O) E IZkplIlpIX p=tn + I kVA 7.2-kV ac system base. The 333-kVA induction machine a 200-kW, 0.6 lagging power factor load and is supplied draws n sin (Okp+4'p - p), k=m+1, m+2, n (44) through a 7200:480-V 750-kVA transformer. The rectifiers are supplied by 750-kW transformers which step the voltage where down to 200 V. The dc system operates at a nominal system lZkpl magnitude of the (k, p) entry in Zacbus, value of 300 V dc. Each dc motor draws a 200-kW rated load. 4'kp angle of the (k, p) entry in Zacbus. Bus 1 is the utility connection point. Normally, the first step in finding the fault currents in the Note that the (F) subscripts have been dropped from (43) and
m+

lk-kk), (Okp +

k-m + 1,

TYLAVSKY: CALCULATION OF DC FAULT CURRENTS


0014 5 + j .0505

177
2
.00 58 + j002

.2 214 +i 1 910

SLACK BUS

0.133 +jO.177
[

V=1.0+jO.O

j O161

J 0 161

JRI
.433
-6 7 .216

R2

9.
-10

0.133

0 13 3

Fig. 6. Per unit schematic of mine electrical power system.

system is to find the prefault voltage profile through a load flow study. To avoid unnecessary complexity, it will be assumed that this profile is flat at a value of 1.0 /0 per unit for the ac system and 1.0 per unit for the dc system. The next step is the construction of the Zacbus and RdCbus matrices. To accomplish this, it is necessary that the per-unit impedances/ resistances of the ac/dc machines be known. A typical per-unit reactance of 0.15 on the machines base is used for the induction motor, and a typical per-unit resistance of 0.10 is used for the dc machines on their bases [1], [18]. Transforming these to the base in use gives jO.6757 pu and 0.75 pu, respectively, for these machines. Using these data and those from Fig. 6 allows the bus impedance and resistance matrices to be given by
Zacbus 2 [0.04789 /89.6090 3 0.04771 /87.9960 4 L_0.03605 /102.3360

that neglecting this component in fault studies will lead to large inaccuracies in the computed fault current. While the currents listed in Table II correspond to bolted faults, the technique described is capable of modeling resistance faults and can be used to study current patterns in ac/dc systems under high resistance fault situations. The convergence properties of the algorithm are dependent on the initial estimate of the solution. The computer runs which generated the data of Table I were all started with a flat voltage and current start of 0.5 pu with all bus voltage angles at zero and all rectifiers current angles at 700. Convergence within a tolerance of 0.0001 was obtained in five to 11 iterations with a mean value of 7.3 iterations for these runs. The computer algorithm discussed is capable of generating

0.04771 /87.9960 0.05005 /81.7920 0.03780 /96.1070 0.16564 0.26127 0.38421 0.19768 0.16156 0.12543

0.03605 /102.3360 0.03780 /96.1070 0.23827 /60.771


0.06965 0.10986 0.16156 0.26519 0.39326 0.30532
0.05408 0.08529 0.12543 0.20589 0.30532 0.40476

(51)

S [0.40496 6 0.20576 7 0.16564 8 0.08522 9 0.06965 10 L0.05408

Rdcbus-

0.20576 0.32454 0.26127 0.13442

0.08529

0.10986

0.08522 0.13442 0.19768 0.32448 0.26519 0.20589

(52)

Using these matrices and Method II of the previous section, bolted faults were simulated at each of the dc system buses. Table II lists the fault current values for each of these faults along with the fault current contribution from each machine and rectifier. For faults close to machines, it can be seen that dc machines contribute significantly to the fault current and

accurate values for the dc fault current within the limitation imposed by the approximation of (2). There are, however, other problems which limit the degree of accuracy to which the system can be modeled. First, the ideal filters assumed at the ac terminals of each rectifier are not ideal in reality. This has the effect of making the effective commutation reactance

178

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. IA-21, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1985


TABLE II FAULT CURRENT CONTRIBUTIONS

selected and applied to both sets of equations using polar and rectangular form. The form of the Jacobian is provided for Fauilted each. Finally, a sample problem is discussed in sufficient Bus Pault detail to allow the fault current results generated to be Curren 6 7 8 9 5 10 duplicated. The convergence properties of the algorithm are Source ml 1.3333 0.8453 0.5748 0.1409 0.1622 acceptable when only a poor initial guess is possible. The 0.0566 convergence behavior improves as the quality of the initial M2 0.4470 1.3333 0.9067 0.2222 0.2560 0.0893 guess improves. The results of the sample problem shows that RI 0.9544 2.7285 5.1239 1.3805 0.4044 0.1075 the fault current contribution from dc machines is significant. M3 0.0563 0.1985 0.5868 1.3333 0.8513 0.2776 Neglecting these currents can lead to significant inaccuracies R2 0.0513 0.0967 0.4088 2.5815 5.0769 2.6031 in the estimation of the fault current. The general approach taken shows that many equation sets M4 0.0263 0.1083 0.2976 0.3744 1.0352 1.3333 can be used to define the dc fault current. The minimum equation set provided represents an improvement over previ2.8686 5.3106 7.8986 6.0327 7.7859 TOTAL 4.4675 ously published work in several respects. First, it is the only known approach capable of calculating fault current contribularger than the leakage reactance of the transformer. The exact tions from multiple dc machines and multiple rectifiers. value of the commutation impedance depends on the type of Second, the number of nonlinear equations that need to be filter present, harmonic-impedance characteristics of the ac solved simultaneous at each iteration is proportional to the system and the number of rectifiers which share this system. number of rectifiers in the system. Second, filters are often not present on the ac system. Thus the APPENDIX I effect of a common commutation impedance must be taken JACOBIAN SPECIFICATION into account when an effective commutation impedance is to be calculated. Analytical results for common commutation The partials needed in constructing the Jacobian are impedances are only available for shared inductive and resistive lines under a restricted set of operating conditions aRkx -cos kt'k t=k, k=m i+l, ---, n [151, [19]. Thus the accuracy of any technique for predicting alETl . O, otherwise (53) dc fault currents depends on the accuracy of the effective commutation impedance which is supplied in the model. 3Rky (-sin ilk, t=k, k=m +1, --., n V1II. CONCLUSION 0, (54) otherwise a3E,l A range of equation sets is shown to be capable of providing / - ) sufficient constraints to solve the dc fault current problems. aRkx - - IZk,I COS (Oki + C k, t=m+l, ..., n Two of tlese, the full set and minimum set of constraint otherwise equations, are presented. The residual equations included in (55) each set are shown to depend upon whether the polar or rectangular form of the system performance equation is used. aRky { -IZkIl sin (Oki +4Of-i), k, t=m+l, ..., n otherwise 0, While any method for solving simultaneous nonlinear equa- allil method be on Newton's tions can used these equation sets, is (56)
_, , __..__

aRkx

a-t

Ek sin 1k+IZkkIkl sin (6kk+ k4k k)y i|Zklif| sin (Okt + ,-4,t)
I

otherwise

t=k=ml , k=mhe, ws otk,

- - -

n
n

(57)
---

aRky
d

- E cos xlk -IZkkIIII COS (Okk +tk -k), -IZk, II,} cOs (Okt + AIt-f ),

otherwise

t=k=m+l, t:*k, k=mtl,

(58)

aRkx
aRk Y

I IJII -|Zk,

sin
COS

-4), (Oki+rXI

t, k=m+l, ..., n otherwise

(59)
(60) (61)

alERl
aRk

(01 aRk

ot
(

IZkIIlA
-

(OAkt+AI'-Ot),

t, kwm+l, otherwise
u

O,

t=k=n+1, .**, As
otherwise

-iti=

|Rku,

-Rkts

t=f, k=n+l, *.-, p, u Sot+(n-n)w kins,


otherwise

p, u, t=n+e

*.. n

(62)

TYLAVSKY: CALCULATION OF DC FAULT CURRENTS

179

aRk
l *l

( COS Okg -1,

0,

t=k=m+l, , n t=k+(n+m), k=m+l,


otherwise

, n

aRkI_ Ek,
d+,
=

0,

t=k=m+l, otherwise

, n

aRk2 alE,l
=
-

ak(from Table I)
1, 0 O,

otherwise

n t=k=m+l, t=k+n-m, k=m+l,


...,

'-, n

aRk2

dll,l=t
ME,
3

Rc,,
0,

t=k+n-m, k=m+l, * *, otherwise

iR"3 1

(67)

dR

(68)

dIf
Note that aRk2/1alEt is not strictly correct as listed here for all modes of operation. For mode 2, the functional form of ak from Table I should be substituted into (48) before the derivatives are taken. This form, however, is used in the computer program with the justification that ak is only one constant in the Jacobian which is used to predict the magnitude and direction of the increment vector.
REFERENCES
[1] W. R. Crites and A. G. Darling, "Short circuit calculating procedures for d-c systems with motors and generators," AIEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS 73, pp.816825, Aug. 1954. [2] C. C. Herskind and H. L. Kellogg, "Rectifier fault currents," AIEE Trans., vol. 64, pp. 145-150, Mar. 1945. [3] C. C. Herskind, A. Schnidt Jr., and C. E. Rettig, "Rectifier fault current-n," AIEE Trans., vol. 68, pp. 243-252, 1949. [4] J. L. Paine and R. A. Hamnlton, "Determination of dc bus fault currents for thyristor converters," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA8, May/June, 1972. [5] J. Reeve and S. C. Kapoor, "Analysis of transient short-circuit currents in HVdc power systems," IEEE Trans. Power App. System, vol. PAS-90, pp. 1174-1182, May/June 1971.

[6] J. Reeve and S. C. Kapoor, "Dynamic fault analysis for HVDC systems with ac system representation," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-91, pp. 688-696, Mar./Apr. 1972. [7] H. A. Peterson, A. G. Phadke, and D. K. Reitan, "Transients in EHVDC power systems: Part I-Rectifier fault currents," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-88, pp. 981-989, July 1969. [8] J. F. Burr, "Solid state overcurrent relays for the protection of trolley distribution systems in underground coal mines," in Conf. Rec. 1976 IAS Annu. Meeting, 1976, pp. 77-84. [9] J. Reeve, G. Fahmy, and B. Stott, "Versatile load flow method for multiterminal HVdc systems," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-96, pp. 925-933, May/June, 1977. [10] M. M. El-Marsafawy and R. M. Mathur, "A new, fast technique for load-flow solution of integrated multi-terminal dc/ac systems," IEEE Trans. PowerApp. Syst., vol. PAS-99, pp. 246-255, Jan./Feb. 1980. [11] C. M. Ong and A. Hamzei-nejad, "A general purpose multiterminal dc load flow," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-100, pp. 3166-3174, July 1981. [121 H. Fudeh and C. M. Ong., "A simple and efficient ac-dc load flow method for multiterminal dc systems," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-100, pp. 4389-4396, Nov. 1981. [13] S. N. Talukdar and k. L. Koo, "The analysis of electrified ground transportation networks," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS96, pp. 240-247, Jan./Feb. 1977. [14] M. M. Hassan and E. K. Stanek, "Analysis techniques in ac/dc power systems," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-17, 5, pp. 473-480, Sept./Oct. 1981. [15] D. J. Tylavsky and F. C. Trutt, "The Newton-Raphson load flow applied to ac/dc systems with commutation impedance," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., pp. 940-948, Nov./Dec. 1983. [16] E. W. Kimbark, Direct Current Transmission, vol. 1. New York: Wiley, 1971. [17] D. J. Tylavsky and F. C. Trutt, "Terminal behaviour of the uncontrolled R-L fed 3-phase bridge rectifier," Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng., vol. 192, Pt. B, pp. 337-343, Nov. 1982. [18] P. M. Anderson, Analysis of Faulted Power Systems. Ames, IA: Iowa State Univ. Press, 1973. [19] E. Uhlmann, Power Transmission by Direct Current. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1975.
Daniel J. Tylavsky (S'77-M'77-S'80-M'82) was born in Pittsburgh, PA, on August 24, 1952. He received the B.S. degree in engineering science in 1974, the M.S.E.E. degree in 1978, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering in 1982, all from The Pennsylvania State University, University
In 1974 he joined Basic Technology, Inc., Pitts.Xi burgh, PA, working in the thermal and mechanical stress analysis group. After receiving the M.S.E.E., he joined the faculty at Penn State as an Instructor of Electrical Engineering. He retained that position until 1980 at which time he returned to full-time graduate study with the aid of an RCA Fellowship. In 1982 he assumed his present position as Assistant Professor of Engineering in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Arizona State University, Tempe. Dr. Tylavsky is a member of Phi Eta Sigma, Eta Kappa Nu, Tau Beta Pi, and Phi Kappa Phi.