Contractor
Report
182108
,/
Flow
in Stirling
A SURVEY OF OSCILLATING ENGINE HEAT EXCHANGEHS Report [Ninnesota Univ.) CSCL 20D G3/34
N8822322
Unclas 014024_
Terrence
W. Simon
and Jorge
R. Seume
March 1988
Table
of
Contents
Nomenclature INTRODUCTION Purpose Outline SIMILARITY Isolating Physical Parameters Derlvatlon FLUID
................................................
IiI
1.1 1.2
of this Report ................................................. PARAMETERS the Oscillating Flow Effect ................... 3 8 12 16 ]8 25 27 P8 35 37 38 4] . 42 46 48 Arguments for the Choice of Similarity .............................................. of Simllarlty OF Parameters PIPE ..................... FLOW .................
2.1 2.2
2.3
MECHANICS
OSCILLATING
Analysis of Lamlnar Flow in a Straight Pipe ............. Laminar Oscillating Flow in Curved Pipes ................ Nonslnusoldal and Free Oscillations .................... Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow ............... Turbulent Flow .......................................... Entrance and Exit Losses ................................ Compressibility HEAT TRANSFER Qualitative Axial Heat Experimental FLUID MECHANICS Effects .................................
IN OSCILLATING PIPE FLOW ................... Considerations .......................... . . . Transfer in Laminar Oscillating Flow ......... Data AND ....................................... HEAT TRANSFER IN REGENERATORS .........
5.1 5.2
5.3
Steady Flow ............................................. Unsteady Flow and Heat Transfer In Regenerators Regenerator Theory ...................................... STIRLING Evaluation Documented RESULTS Heaters ENGINE of DATA BASE Similarity
54 60 61
6.1 6.2
Parameters
.....................
63 65
......................................
.....................................
68 77 80 82
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS REFERENCES
.............................................
84 85
...................................................
APPENDICES AND MACHNUMBER A A SURVEYOF FRESSURE, REYNOLDSNUMBER VARIATIONS............................................... B DERIVATION OF SIMILARITY PARAMETERS ...................... C VELOCITY PROFILES IN LAMINAR FLOW ........................ D EQUATIONS OF OBSERVATIONSOF TRANSITION.................. E EFFECTS OF PRESSUREPROPAGATION .......................... F AUGMENTATION OF AXIAL TRANSPORT ..........................
lJ
of
fluid
J/(kgK) m
coefficient at constant
pressure
m m
hydraulic pipe
diameter
diameter
De
Re
Um _ m_
wm
Dean 2 TL ) set1
number
Ec f
Eckert frequency
number
Cp
(T H
= (dp/dx)
p V_ W
friction
factor
heat
transfer
I
k k 1 h L L m M u/a Um,max/a
W Wl(mK) m2 m m m m m m kg
integrated thermal
Mmax Nu P Pr
conductivity permeability length heat exchanger length connecting rod length heated length of heat characteristic length engine flow length mass Mach number Mach number based on amplitude Nusselt number number
exchanger
the
velocity
hl/k Pa Cpu/k W m m u L
pressure Prandtl
r Rc
rate curvature
Re
Reynolds
number
based
on
length
Remax Rem
Reynolds number based on the amplitude of the crosssectional mean velocity dimensionless frquency, Valensl number, kinetic Reynolds number
Str t to TiJ
U
Strouhal
number
t ime
velocity streamwise characteristic superficial dimensionless velocity velocity velocity tidal volume
U V VT
m m m
Xmax Y
Greek augmentation factor symbol of proportionality ratio of specific heats coefficient of excess work o
m
tad
lead wave
angle length
see m_r
dynamic
viscosity
kinematic viscosity density shear stress porosity dissipation function axial augmentation angular velocity
function
Subscripts
C
h H L Im m max
0
cold hot
end end
high temperature low temperature logmean average over crosssectlon maximum reference of of at of during state one cycle
P r
W T
I.
INTRODUCTION
1.I
Purpose Two
of
thls
Report for good Stlrllng heat engines are to keep to the mechanical working heat fluid. transfer valuable heat Is required
design and
losses These
low
transfer
from
and with It
objectives
heat
exchangers losses.
higher
generally to know
flow
designer Thls
tradeoff
pressure hlgh
transfer. as _r the
Is particularly Stirllng
performance Power
Automotive
Space
Demonstrator
Engine. Computer design. lower modelling is used engine to evaluate efficlencles however. spaces options and in Stlrllng power output engine are often
Measured than
Stlrling
would
indicate,
engine 1984).
working Inadequate
transfer
(usually heat
correlations thls
pressure
transfer) will
thls
model
require It
more
physically thls
correct
of oscillation. direction by
that
mechanics discusses
heat
transfer found
In Stlrllng
extends conclusions.
research
In the
literature
1.2
Outline The oscillating parameters flow effect Is isolated fluid as the focus and of thls report. In
Similarity
to characterize
mechanics
heat
transfer
Stirllng
A literature
in oscillating
to conditions
in heaters and to
11 and transfer
regenerators,
Stlrling tentative conditions answered this by
engines
terms
similarity fluid
about
the
mechanics Open
heat
engine
heat are
exchangers. Some
to be covered In
research
of
report
is summarized
in Seume
(1986).
2.
SIMILARITY
PARAMETERS
are
required
to
concisely
and
generally systems.
describe Their
similar an
Is crucial of
experimental
program
and
discusses that
of
the
flow
engine
heat
the
arguments the
chosen
of
similarity by normalizing
parameters the
derives
similarity
parameters
governing
2.1
the of
Flow on
Effect mechanics to and Stirling Griffin 1984, and heat transfer (e.g., and Rice has Kim Dybbs et been
fluid
several et and of
related Chen
Miyabe
Taylor In review
1984,
DiJkstra
it became dissipation of
the
effect
drop, from
transfer
must in
remainder from:
processes
occurring
engine,
in particular and
isolated of
expansion motion
the
working
fluid
fluid
temperature about
discussion
of
the
working
fluid. space
The
working the
fluid
in space
compression
toward
expansion
and
2I). with
flow
the
ends
heater
differ
throughout a survey
dashed
A provides in
cycle
pressure
and and
numbers analyses
isothermal
(c.f.
their the
operating
points is
pressure In
fastest and in
velocity however,
In the
heater
regenerator, rapidly.
velocities
are
high
pressure
changing
most
gas
temperature bulk of
the
transfer the
from
pipe
gas.
cooler, fluid be by
temperature
wall the
temperature.
phase and
with
bulktowall
Faulkner of low
Smith
(1984)
in a study In
transfer
in the
machinery. and
heater,
compression. to be as
expected and
regenerator In the
convective the
heat
cold
compression
towards
expansion
space.

\ \
I I
I I
I
I I
I
\ \
\
% i

_00
I io+o
I. II1,0+11
I JPlO,O
CFII_NK FIN6LF
Figure
21:
Variation o f pressure and Reynolds number in the heater of a GPU 3, isothermal analysis. Flow toward the cold end is poslti_; full llne = hot end, dashed line = cold end.
DiJkstra (1984, p. 1886) proposed to model the compression of the working gas as bulk heating of a fluid flowing through heat exchangers. coefficient in the case of He
pointed out that the convective heat transfer bulk heating is very different specified heat flux.
from that for specified wall temperature or are particularly flow regime.
temperature
The differences
to model
expansion. the effect of the oscillation heat the of the working To are
This fluid isolate neglected Mean normalized assumptions uniform velocity very on
heat
transfer and
In the of
effect, of
compression the
expansion below.
discussion In sound
Figure to
22, a
the Mach
mean
velocity
the
form
implicit constant
isothermal heat
analysis,
and
in each in a
exchanger. engine
Figure
shows
variation to the
typical
Stlrllng
is roughly shown
sinusoidal 2I.
and
similar Velocity
Reynolds
number number
variation variation
in Figure from
and
Reynolds
deviate
a sine
function
in
that:
(i)
blow period, during which the flow the compression space), is shorter
(2)
during period.
the
hot
blow
period
is greater
than
;
_0.0 ! O0.O I llkO,4 I P40.O i IO, O I _.0
CP.gNII RNGLE
Figure
22:
Variation
of Mach
number
in
the
heater
of a GPU 3, isothermal analysis. Flow toward the cold end is positive; full line = hot end, dashed line ffi cold
end.
(Figure 2I)
variation
increase exchangers,
temperature. gas
the
properties
directions. In particular, the core; viscosity the core near the of heater the gas wall is expected near the to be wall on of
than
in the than
viscosity of the
is lower
cooler
in the of
flow. in
based be
assumption
constant
density large
variations
(buoyancy
forced of
density
gradients (1982).
a review
subject,
Petukhov
et al.
2.2
Physical This
Arguments
for
the
Choice
of
section
expected
parameters
characterizing Velocity nondlmenslonal nondlmensional Taylor friction for steady In the and
phenomena In
acceleration. pressure
steady
friction of
factor
(a (a by
viscous mass
drop)
is a function flow
Reynolds e.g.
number those
flux).
experiments,
Aghill
(1984) and
showed
functional for
relationship oscillating
factor
Reynolds
number
different
flow. slow oscillations, that of steady the oscillating This flow that the
relationships
should
approach
flow.
suggests
friction
factor
in oscillating
Re
In
this
report,
the
Reynolds
number
is based
on
the
maximum
velocity
in
the
cycle:
Remax
Um,m_xd v
(1962,
1963
and be
1980, so
p.
130) that
shows some
engines within
may the
small
merely gas
heat
a plug axial at
if there only by
is
no
axial
contributes wall or
the
heating the
from
the and
adjacent it at heat
high
that
enters in the
exchanger (1975)
the
volume within
stays to
undesirable A R, is used
dead
space
the in
amplitude It
fluid by the
displacement that of
the
computed This is
fluid
moves
a plug
at
mean If the
velocity, I, most
^ introduced without
by Organ exiting;
(1975). if A R _ and I,
AR
fluid
oscillates
the
tube
fluid
traverses spaces
quickly during
through of the
tube,
residing
in the
upstream
downstream
most
cycle.
and two
exit
effects.
The The by
pressure
drop
at
the
entrance is the
of
a heat of the
components. energy to
reversible
drop
result in
kinetic
expending
drop) a
upon
entrance gas,
a heat
working
density
will
in this is due
to viscous small
the
pressure and
velocity by from
pressure in the
kinetic of
energy the
viscous the
dissipation exchanger
layers
separated
flow
heat
into
the
chamber. the the magnitude contraction diameter of entrance and exit of the are losses duct, added and depends these to the on area the area (or
and
expansion (d/D))
ratios
ratios, for
Reynolds
number
parameters The
capturing
entrance
exit heaters
pipes
in Stifling flow on
engine that
It
is
known pipes
secondary The
flows Dean
develop
curved
centrifugal
the
fluid.
number,
De
= Re 2/_
where as
Rc
is the
radius
of
of
the
pipe (Berger
centerllne, et al.
used
a similarity Developing
effect the
steady
flow,
profile
changes The
in the
until the
fully
reached.
entrance of
length the
diameter factor
hydraulic
diameter
duct).
friction
entrance
(developing)
10
region friction
is higher factor
than for
in
the
fully duct
developed flow as
region.
Therefore, of the
the
average
developing _/d,
is a function Reynolds
ratio,
as well Flow
the
in regenerators.
geometries of a
regenerators on the
terms
Reynolds Other
hydraulic
porosity. 5.1.
similarity
parameters
the and of
gas. losses
of
the as
working
entrance
the
described If at the
propagation in a heat
pressure is of
changes the
throughout order as
engine. speed
velocity
exchanger
which
pressure therefore,
changes
propagate
(approx.
the
speed
sound), to
pressure
density) As the
variations ratio of
in the gas
engine
velocity form
Mach The
approaches based as
unity, upon
shock the
waves
becomes cycle,
choked. is
number,
highest of The
velocity
engine
therefore
chosen
a measure
effects. heater and cooler as cold they blows. affects described and are The the by the
transients. regenerator
undergo gas
temperature during
different
temperatures of p. the
response,
matrix, is
performance
140).
discussed cooler
transient
walls
contribute
enhanced
axial
transfer
discussed
in Section
]I
2.3
Derivation Momentum
of
Similarity
Parameters parameters, momentum and introduced the energy in Section equations. is: 2.1,
equation.
Similarity the
can
be
derived
Neglecting
momentum
(NavierStokes)
equation
Vp
+ vv2u"_
A normalized
form
_'_+
= 
Here
the
* denotes
a normalized of the
The
acceleration Rema x, is
Reynolds and
spatial has
acceleration no coefficient.
gradient imply,
term
that
Rema x
is the
ratio
of
the
_.V_
(steady
inertia)
term
to
the
v?2_
(viscous) of the
term. order,
That
would if
only
be
true
if both
nondlmenslonal
terms
were
same
i.e.,
This
is not
necessarily
the
case.
In a
fully
developed
laminar
pipe
flow,
for
example,
the
_.V_
term
vanishes
but
the
Reynolds
number
is still
nonzero. The Reynolds dimensionless number (White frequency, 1974, p. Re_, 144) or has the also been called number the (Park kinetic and Baird
Valensi
12
1970).
It
It
Is a multlple
square of the
of
the
Stokes
number
(Grassmann
and
Tuma
1979)
and
Is the
Womersley version
A slightly
rearranged
Str
2 where the that StrStrouhal Str atT +
V*
2
Rema x number. literature number of Note that the definition p. 88), of and
Strouhal in the
(Telionls used by
1981,
is a multlple
Strouhal oholoe
(1984).
The
length
scales
equation
must
same
d was
Therefore, length.
(/d) The
similarity fluid
variable
describing is not an
relative parameter.
displacement motion, It
independent in Appendix
similarity B to be:
slnusoidal
fluid
is shown
AR
" 2 d
Re
of
geometries types,
other
than
pipes, of
such
as
the
curved
pipes,
require
descriptors e.g. is
described equation.
section, transfer
Dean by
governed
energy
equation:
]3
function
(Appendix B).
.
(2 Rem Ec
aT*
_ + Remax
_" V"T*)
" V*(k*V*T*) + Ec *
ap* _
+ Ec
Rema x _*.V*p*
Pr
where
Pr
ko
EC
choices equations
of
similarity obtained
variables. if the as T*
Other
forms are we
of
the
are
is an
specific
Eckert
number,
Mach
number of state
equation
pressure
is normalized
with
a reference
pressure:
p* Then the
= 2_ Po Math number
Po
PoRTo
= in
._m y
the
r'_ax term:
appears
pressure
Re
a_* "_
Rmax _t"V*_* 2
" 
Re_.max I _ 2 YMma X 2 p
+ v*?*'_*
that
the
choice of
of
similarity
is in a similarity all
imply
Meaningful terms in an
similarity equation
obtained e.g. in
momentum
14
O(v*
_2u*) terms,
 I
i.e., Re_, of the Rema x, the Str in in the
momentum
magnitude ratio of
terms
term
momentum ratio
equation of the
number
is the
centrifugal flow an is
force)
to the
viscous
laminar
Eckert
that
viscous that
important due
a Math high
indicate
variations
fluid
velocities
are
expected.
15
3.
In
unsteady
flows,
pressure is a
and local
shear
forces of
in
the
fluid
are
not and
in shear
instead
there the
balance of
inertia,
pressure are
Therefore, of steady
fluid
mechanics
oscillating
flows
different
those Figure
3I
presents
control
volume
in
fully
developed
flow
(uVu
 0).
The
oscillating
flow
case where
shows u
the
additional
term
associated mean
with
temporal
acceleration
(_u/_t,
is the
crosssectlonal
velocity).
16
T W
;___D2p( _D2p(x) ()
x+Ax
L
steady flow '_X
(a)
pressure
In
balance
with
wall
shear
stress
T W
oseillatin_
flow
(b)
pressure
In
balance
with
wall
shear
stress
fluid
inertia
Figure
3I:
Force
balance
in
fully
developed
plpe
flow.
17
3.1
Analysis
of Laminar by
Flow
Pipe (1929) first velocity (1955) and indicated near and the an wall (1956) for have
effect. flow. by
Uchlda
analyses Gedeon
channels and
between to
parallel calculate
Trlkha
used
Laplace
transforms
drop
in unsteady based
flow. Uchida flow profiles (1956) at analysis, times the same shows during velocity the cycle of with and
several assume
magnitude are
pressure the
gradient mean to
and
the
local
velocities steady
normalized flow
maximum
would
occur
with
the
gradient). et al.
these
were
(1965, to
Wllkenson
(1971, flat
similar Gedeon
parallel
32  1).
shows With of
oscillating amplitude is
Rem,
velocity flow
during mean
parts flow At
cycle,
A velocity  1000),
near
wall.
the and
frequency closer to
free
layer
narrower velocity
wall.
A unlfo_m
velocity
core
exists the
gradients
become
concentrated
in a Stokes
layer
near
]8
CO
m
_. o
_
0_
o
0 II
0_
_ 0
l
I O
0
O
..J
0 0 O 0
o u_
d z+O I. X AJ.IOO73A
"T
H .11 o II
C]=IZI7VI_I::ION
if) a u_
in
tr W
_2
II
8
_. L
_j 0
1.1 ,.I
0
0 f 0 0 I I I I
..J v
_J o
,_.
_.
_'. 9
AJ.IOO7:iA
CFIZI7VI_II:::ION
o
_.
8
_o ,11 rr < 0
0
I 0
._1 o _
O O O O
c_
_, o
'T
AIIOO73A
03ZI7V_IdON Ig
The the
of
a large shear
velocity layer)
between an
the
maximum role in
velocity
and
free
important
transition.
Further
velocity
profiles
are
shown
in
effect factors,
of
flow
on
shear
stress Ar and
and Ap,
pressure are
o r and
angles,
introduced um _w
cos
(rot) (mt + A T) (mt + Ap) unity (1956) 33) by and A r and Ap are are zero. versus
Um,ma x cos
taken and
plotted
chosen,
wall
shear
a factor
unidirectional 130. The of high phase Rem,the change more core be In cannot is done
flow,
and
change
is enhanced
a factor
given leads
34
indicate by
that, 45 and
in the
the
limit
velocity 90 . The
mean the
velocity
does
the
pressure
computed
gradient work
assuming to and
loss
viscous wall
multiplying Instead, be
velocity
as
viscous as:
power
dissipation
in a pipe
section
computed
2O
2 I0
I0
I0
Re=,
of
102
103
Figure
33:
pressure
drop
21
90
I , , ,I
, I , ,j
, , ..]
_"
X '_T
!
I0 Re_
Figure 34: Lead angles of pressure
I0
103
shear
stress
22
I
The work
"
2_ & r od/2
tJ(Bu)= _ r
dr
increases pumping
(due work
to
flow
oscillation) and
of
shear
(reversible
irreversible)
steady
flow
can
be
expressed
by
the
coefficients
of excess
work,
e I and
Cp,
respectively.
[;o 27
cI 
I(mt) I_(wt)
d(wt)] d(wt)]Re +0
[;o 27 [;o
P "
2_
d(_t) ]
(_x)Um d(wt) ]Re 0
[; o
27
These Re=
are
plotted
versus
Re_ work by
on
Figure
35. by
Note
that of
over
the
increases a factor of
a factor The
six,
the the
125.
values
represents lost
Stirllng to may on or
is eventually
from
heat gas
exchanger the
channels. channels
be recovered a piston
exiting
surface.
23
103
'
'
' ' L
2 I0
P p,reversible + irreversible
C i
IO
i ,irreversible
I0
10 2
103
Figure
35:
Relative
increase
of
pumping
work
due
to
flow
oscillation
24
3.2
Laminar The
Oscillating in many
Flow Stlrling
Pipes heaters flows to the are are pipe bent. strong. If the radius is true of for
pipes of
a pipe
is small,
This
for
oscillating
flows.
curvature,
centrifugal
forces
act
on
the
fluid;
therefore
the
spatial
acceleration
term
u. Vu
is
while
it
is zero
in
fully
developed
laminar
flow
in a
straight
the
normalized The p.
equation,
the
Dean
number
the
number. (1981,
is again
characterized equivalent
183) 36 of
but
similarity
of oscillating two in
in a curved secondary
In each one in
pipe
potential
core
25
a  d/2
ro
 Rc
Figure
36:
Oscillating (from
flow
in a curved p. 182)
pipe
Tellonis
1981,
et The and
al.
(1985) were
these
streamlines by
and
axial et flow
latter
experimentally laminar, by
Sudou
profiles were
curved et al.
Sumida
Sudou increase
calculated in a curved as a
measured over of
pressure these
that
in a straight and
presented
ratios
function
Dean
number
Womersley
parameter.
26
3.3
and
Free
Oscillations oscillations representation laminar engines flows. are in to a straight extend this pipe. analysis may be
discussed a Fourier
Uchida to
(1956)
used
This
analysis not
generally of liquid
Baird
oscillations of liquid
columns engines
that pp.
is of 5459,
interest 131). by
design
piston of Baird
liquid (1970),
columns and
were
studied It the to
Valensi clear
is not
their
regarding (see
friction can be
from
laminar
turbulent liquid
Section
oscillations
occurring
liquid
engines. of pipe and in curvature the on the flow studies curvature small was neglected in thestudles in the next
discussed effect
authors radius
assumed of
pipe
curvature
compared
27
3.4
Transltlon The
from
Flow In unldlrectlonal and acceleratlon. higher flows velocltles both may under plpe value locatlon steady flow Is
known
to be
veloclty
acceleration
stab111ze, Since
whereas
destablllze. vary, It
veloclty from
Is expected
patterns cycle
change
the
and 37. of a
traces
parameter The
plpe.
show
a lamlnarllke deceleration.
acceleration
turbulentlike
durlng
(5830, of over
Flg. the
37b),
the From
perslsts one
into
the
cycle.
would
expect Is
a broad taken
range by Ohm1
of et
Thls
(1982)
range
between the In
lamlnarllke part of
turbulentlike shows
osclllatlng stronger
first the
cycle
slightly of
fluctuations In the
second
part, At the
probably same
because
flow
separation
dlmensionless
frequency the
Reynolds than
number at
fluctuations prlor to
stronger
37(a); the
deceleratlon
durlng
the
cycle.
28
_tO
.j
4
_, centerline
=l 0
L.
el ,
_ J,,
F near.wall
(o)
Rew=
7.30
Remo=x2070
centerline
i
O" 2.
1. 0 , 0 ;. , ==
near wall _, ;,
(b)
Re== 7.30
Remo'x 5830
Figure
37:
Velocity by Hino
measur_ents et ai.(1976)
taken
with
a hot
wire
29
than
the
laminar
at pipe
laminar
velocity
This
indicates of
profile
becomes profiles.
which
the the
al. the
(1982) cycle
velocity
during
(see
velocity for
profile
agrees e.g.
steady
turbulent
Schllchtlng of
Figure forced
(1982) state
oscillations for
straight et al.
transition.
Iguchi
observed
free
oscillations
column be where
They
chose
that
of
laminar
flow with
is where
Park
observed calculated
in a manometer. observed on
maximum two on at
from was
based
turbulent amplitude
laminar
exceeded their a
calculated to
from column L
profile. liquid
data
scatter of L2_/_
in the of the
column
function
where
3O
10 6
'
'
I ''''1
'
'
'
....
1TT,
I0 5 _
L
I0 4
et o
Fig
.
5(b) +
Grassmann
and
Fig 5(a)+
10:3
I
Tu (1979)
I 10 3
Re_,
Figure
38:
Observations
of transition
in oscillating
flow
31
These
end
may state
be
important criterion,
in liquid but,
Stirling used
his we as
visualization, walls
surmise a change
that in
transparent
work
flow. turbulent
Grassmann
(1979) wall
used
fluctuations
mass Merkli
transfer and
thus (1975)
locating studied
Thomann
oscillating beyond
flow the
at
dimensionless presented
(Re_ Their
range
in Figure They
tube.
resonance. to the
Merkll
and
Thomann and
related
Sobey also
observed the
in steady street
oscillating numerically DiJkstra was tube tube. Though agree that initially would
channel and
predicted of
vortex
considered
it a result in the
shearlayer
(1984) in the in a
remain pattern
while remain
water
entering
flow
turbulent
turbulent
in the
the
transition Rema x
predictions increases
with
the of
researchers the et
Re_. the
The
criteria of
first
sign
laminar
Grassmann
Tuma
(1979)
surface. that
These
fluctuations by Sergeev
same
Rem
established
based
32
motion _n
of
the
Iguchi the
et
al.
(1982)
llne
from
with
observations Equations
(1982)
In forced of
in
a straight in Appendix
observations
listed
of
and
Davis
layers critical
Figure Reynolds
their
value cannot
flow
underpredicts The
the trends of
Reynolds
number
order
magnitude.
curves, et
agree
for Kerczek
the
lower
bound
of found of
In oscillating agreement
and
Davis,
they
a quantitative they Re D
magnitude.
flows, while
predicted is the
bound
instabilities value.
Re D _ 750
 2000
wellknown
theoretical
prediction does
of not
the yield
lower
bound
of
by
method
apparently
results stability
that of
other
theoretical
approaches
to
the
oscillating
flows
(1976).
33
I0
'
' '''i
'
'
'
'
, i,,.
!
_ __
R%,= ! _
Van
Kerczek
Davis
(19
I0
I
I , illl I0
I J llll 10 2
I , ,,,i 10 3
Figure
39:
Theoretical and
prediction
of
transition
experimental
observations
34
3.5
Turbulent Though
much flows,
turbulent
oscillating
respectively. experimental
compared that
Vasiliev their
model
data
and
concluded
quasisteady
was concept
adequate. an oscillationsensitive by the Ohmi et al. (1982, and p. a quaslsteady In their flow turbulent experiment, was the plots a
was
crank
the This
radius
(r/_). the
Figure
displacement
and
acceleration x, x,
of
large
function
nearly to to decide
structure It is,
known
therefore,
sinusoidal, to the
drive
due
Rema x the
et al.
claimed
the
latter
they
determined
2800 They
/Re_
above
which
they
predict
turbulent law
flow
to be
applied
I/7power measured
velocity profiled
profile above
it agreed
well
velocity
35
o
(7 90 180 @ 2.F0 @ :360 @
m
rw
r/I =
I
rll_O
I
L_r/l=l/3
Figure
3i0:
Kinematics
of
the
slldercrank
mechanism
36
Fluctuatin$ Reynolds a constant viscosity experimental flows. Empirical data They of pressure stresses eddy model.
eddy
viscosity
model. flow
Kita not
et al. be
(1980)
found
that
the using
could
adequately
described
Therefore, model
they
eddy
fivelayer pulsatlng
shows
results
flows;
it was
oscillating
pressure drop
drop
correlations. flow of
Taylor through
and pipes
Aghill of
(1984)
took . for
in oscillating as a function
finite
length number
their of and an
data /d.
Reynolds on mean
Their
"friction
is based of by the
absolute friction
a factor
case. of pressure drop and in laminar oscillating of if the the working results could not
flow,
acceleration
pressure terms of
drop
in oscillating
frequency Aghili's
Re_,
paper
does
sufficient
3.6
and the
Exit
Losses of pipe long flow was restricted For are finite higher of to fully developed
discussion
flow
or,
equivalently, may be
infinitely The of
pipes. losses
pipes, in the
entrance entrance
effects length
important. Because
viscous the
of
a pipe.
spatial
acceleration
the
fluid,
_'V_
term
in
the
momentum
equation
is not
zero.
37
(1958)
that
the
and steady
the
thermal
laminar
Charreyron Peacock
that (1983)
varies the
over
hypothesized will be
entrance
length
flow
than
tend
velocity
profile region.
flow so
in the
entrance
Thelr
supported studied
Disselhorst entrance separation boundary from during during the of a did layer pipe.
(1980) of
separation
under occur on
acoustic
They the
found inflow,
Strouhal walls;
numbers. the
forms They
during
a Jet that
observed
that
vortices of
were
the
outflow
would
interfere
formation
the
boundary
inflow.
3.7
Compressibility Compressibility
to (1) pressure heat (2) (3) high recovery when the working fluid volume exits such as from the a duct or a
exchanger Mach
tube
into
a large
cylinders,
travelling generated
caused of the
pistons,
(4)
finite
speed
propagation.
38
recovery. approximated
The
effect by an
of
the
increase
in
pressure This
on
the
gas
through
will flow
It will
shown
these
numbers Travellin_
expected
Stifling
engines
discussed
this
report.
Research shocks
tube
shows
that
numbers was
less
than
(Mma x  0.2) by
(Merkli
1975
predicted are
Jeminez
(1973). because
engines acoustic
much
wavelength
shocks
can
develop
without
resonance,
however,
following
towards piston
top face.
center, wave
it causes travels
through part of
exchangers. lowpressure
Therefore, p.
and by
may
form
(Shapiro transfer
1954, only
949950). the
process in the
through fluid is
velocity
to change of shock
in
local
A simple E.
analysis worst
this
type
This
estimate
working
motion maximum
driven
by a piston in the
with data
a velocity see
value
found
base,
Section
temperature
39
to vary the
linearly is
from the
to
Th 
]050K in the
found be
Appendix of in
this show
may that
considered of
a worst shocks
case base
Is not
includes
account the
waves lines
opposing
incipience. analysis (1982b) of and compressible modifications predicts that engine is flow were there in Stirling proposed is no engines by Taylor incipient paper. engines was and shock This in
complete by Organ
analysis the
aircharged shock
discussed unlikely
in his in the
Incipient
formation
speed
of
Pressure of the
changes piston
propagate the is If
with
causing lag
change between
velocity
Therefore, of a heat
a phase exchanger.
pressures part be of
both cycle,
this the
is a small may
pressure
propagation
throughout
exchangers
considered
instantaneous.
40
4.
HEAT
TRANSFER
IN OSCILLATING
PIPE
FLOW
Since the
convective
heat
depends mechanics
on
the affect
velocity the
parameters /d. In
heat
A H or
from high
the
speed of
Eckert
number,
Mach The
h/d T w,
thermal
entrance at
the T c,
temperature transfer.
end,
T h,
end,
4]
4.1
Qualitative Llmlted
Considerations dlsplacement. engines discussed on the may The llmlt 11mlted streamwlse from 4I displacement the heat of
fluld
fluld wall
heat
transfer Figure
exchanger
2.1.
shows gh
fluld
While transfer
problem, Stlrllng
study
& ,
_h in most
engines
documented.
AKh<I
AR<I
ARI
AR>I
_t
Figure
4I:
Fluid
displacement
In heat
exchangers.
42
Under
the AR
plug
flow
assumption,
the
< I
AR 
All fluid moves heat exchanger. Some fluid moves moves in and out
into
and
out
of
the
AR > I
plug the be
flow, fluid
Organ that
(1975, never
p.
1016) the
argued heat
that, exchanger In
in the
absence ease
leaves dead
in the
considered mixing
additional may
volume.
turbulent
flow,
axial
invalidate flow
for
laminar
show
that
flow plug
a good may be
assumption a good
is very axial
turbulent become
mixing
The flow,
profiles
in fully with
radial
wavefronts radial as
variation discussed
enhanced
heat
transfer
drivin_
potentials. engine
Typical are
boundary sketched
conditions in Figure
for
exchanger
in a Stirllng
42.
43
Th
To Th > Tw > Tc
Figure 42:
in a heater.
During the hot blow, gas from the expansion space (at temperature Th) will stream through the tube into the regenerator. in Figure 32 show that, The laminar velocity profiles
exists: tube at
gives the
fluid fluid
wall the
T c from heat
regenerator.
from
receives
from In
the
heat driving
process. (T w  T c) near
this
 T c)
a significant degree
Its
depend of
the
of mixing for
wall
shear
The is
concept
driving
potentials
transfer
in oscillating
44
also important because of the augmentation of heat transfer direction discussed In the next section. of two temperature driving potentials
in the axial
A situation
also exists
In film
cooling of gas turbine blades, where the temperature differences hot gas in the free stream and the transfer in addition injected
between the
cooling air determines the heat between the free stream may
of experimental results
on heat transfer
45
4.2
Axial This
Heat section
Transfer
in Laminar how
Flow due that that to an this the axial temperature does holds
discusses by flow
energy
is enhanced on
oscillation. mixing
turbulent flow.
crossstream
laminar Physical
pipe
When
fluid
oscillates large
in a duct
in
the
of
direction of the
generated. extracts
cold in
energy the
cycle, is
heats end
heat
transferred
hot
end
physical
(1985b,
this
interpretation, flow. In
hold in the
laminar
crossstream gradients
necessary
the
(1983)
analyzed
diffusion of
in laminar,
oscillating,
impermeable heat
ducts transfer
arbitrary, situation
The
pipe
connects
reservoir In heat
negligible is no
assuming conduction:
there
convection,
46
_d 2 q  T kf
TH  TL g
Watson fluid
(1983) oscillates
showed in
that laminar
the
flux
through be
a duct
in which similarly
an as
incompressible
flow
can
expressed
TH  TL thermal conductivity
dimensionless 2_ " AR _
VT
Remax " _ Re
The
augmentation Au  Au
coefficient Pr, V T) F
is  VT 2 values (Rem, of Pr Pr) and Re m that p. are relevant provides for a plot for of
(Rem,
is
given
in Appendix heat Pr
for
Kurzweg He
(1985a, an
461)
= 0.1,
develops was
asymptotic
solution
solution of
confirmed pipe.
the case
case of
(1985b)
flow of
parallel heat
calculates are
transfer
diabatic,
undergo
transient
to heat off
transfer energy
Kurzweg's is a and
analysis of Pr,
shows Re_,
that and
augmentation ratios of
axial
transport
V T,
to wall
conductivity
diffusivity.
47
4.3
Data Dybbs (1980 and 1983) presented Figure experimental 43 shows a heat transfer of by
results their an
for
oscillating
flow
experimental
facility. into an
moved cold to
a heater The
oscillating
piston
piston air
right, was on
the
in
heater. rise
heat
transfer water
measuring test
cooling the
section.
averaged) in
and
temperatures
(All
dimensions
in
mm,
net
to
scale.)
r "%_''_
216
'
70
maximum stroke
cold
sp&ee
cooler (test
heater sectlon)
cylinder
with crank
Figure
43:
Schematic
of
Hwang
and
Dybbs'
(1980)
experiment
number
was
then average
by
the
use and
of the
the pipe
measured
flux, the
replotted
in Figure
present
authors.
48
Nu
2O
&
15
10
2 standard of a data
deviations point
,5 x 10 3
I io _
'
I i. 5 x
10 _
Re
max
Figure
44 :
(1980) data 49
and Am A R, not
Dybbs
(1980
and
1983)
plotted In this
Nu
vs.
Reos
(Reos only
experiment
since
for
through
heat
exchanger
(A R > 2),
Rema x and
remain
significant in Figure
The
data (a)
For most values of Rem, the data show a small slope for low values of Rema x, then the slope increases with increasing Re m. The data points common band. with the higher slope tend to lle in one
(b)
(c)
The individual data points typically scatter within a band that is wider than two standard deviations of a single data point; i.e., the scatter of the data cannot be accounted for by the random error of single data points. Rema x data over points of each while curve the may parts represent of the of predominantly with cycle. flow In vlew are drawn. of two This where of
a cycle
curves the
turbulent analogous Nu
flow to
during
parts
unidirectional in turbulent
steady flow.
a Re I/3
and of
m Re 0"8 no
data and
further
conclusions
heat
transfer
In Hwang
Dybbs'
experiment
consists
processes: (a) blow of hot During this q"where h air through the cooler blow the heat transfer ATI m ATIm Is the log mean temperature difference pipe Into the cold may be approximated space. by
and
k Nu h  _
kg
 conductivity
of
the
This can be computed if the instantaneous logmean temperature difference (LMTD), average values for thls blow is known. 50
or
time
(b)
blow of cool air through the cooler pipe into the heater. Again, a value of Nubased on the tlmeaverage heat flux and LMTD for this part of the cycle could be calculated.
In Hwangand Dybbs' experiment, however, only the heat flux averaged over the whole cycle and the LMTD based on temperatures averaged over the whole cycle are known. Thus the Nusselt number calculated representative the two. is neither
of the hot blow nor of the cold blow, but is an average of a Nusselt The LMTD which
The heat flux that Hwangand Dybbs used to calculate during the hot blow only.
underestimates to draw
difficult
further
conclusions
Hwang
Dybbs'
45). The
 28);
transition developed
criteria which were presumably developed oscillating flow may not apply. (2) The first amplitudes data point on that are too
each curve may be taken from relative small to measure the heat transfer the change in because the
accurately (A R  1.8). be sufficient to explain for of: turbulence occurs the Hwang and Dybbs
experiment
is a function
the location where in the core). the relative during time the
(e.g.,
near
the
wall
or
(b)
during same
which cycle.
laminar
and
turbulent
flow
are
present
51
_transition
estimates
based
on
lOk_
___
L:JHwang
and
Dybbs'
(1980)data
Re
max
_transition
observed
by
Ohmi
et al.
(1982)
___transition
observed
by
Grassmann
10 3
, , , 12P
I0
Re
i0
Figure
45:
Comparison
of
prediction
and
observation
of
transition.
lwabuchl In a test
and
Kanzaka that
(1982) was
studied
heat
flow of a in
specific the
they dld
operated not
laminar
< Rema x
results
a Reynolds of
a dimensionless on parameters
they mean
studied pressure
rpm,
difference are,
opposing
Their
They (90 or
that the 52
180 ) did
transfer
provided
Schmldt
exchanger.
analysis
was
used
to
calculate
the
mass
flow
of
gas
through
the
heat
53
5.
FLUID
MECHANICS
AND
HEAT
TRANSFER
IN
REGENERATORS
In Therefore, are
the
complex analytical
geometries methods
of are
flow and
separation experimental
is expected. results
required.
5.1
Steady Stacked,
Flow woven metal Steady media wire sponge flow research screens, and randomly stacked are has metal used been as fibres, folded
sheet
metal,
slntered these in
through and
studied turbine
studies
to gas
regenerators.
Flow
Regimes Dybbs et to
in Porous al.
Media
(1984)
according
a Reynolds
average
diameter.
Re
Darcy
flow
flow,
vortex
shedding
with
random
wakes
The small et
these
regimes
are
to
hold by
for
only
similar known
used
Dybbs that
al.
represent
transition
difficult Therefore
predict
pressure results
and
with
numerical
methods.
experimental
required
prediction.
The
Model Sparrow of an (1969) showed experimentally fluid through that a porous the pressure can drop be
for
steady
incompressible
material
described dp/dx
+ bpV 2
velocity;
m V m
pA
the
frontal
area for
of
the
porous
In as
this it
equation, is described
the by
accounts
purely
viscous
law: _V/k permeability, Sparrow General by using length were k, is a constant to of reduce various of for each porous data and material for foamed nickel and for
able
pressure
drop
Electric) the
geometries the
screens
squareroot Reynolds
characteristic
as:
The
number
factor
defined
Re
v_
55
Then
the f =
dimensionless l/Re + C
pressure
drop
equation
is:
The
values
for
C were
found of of
to be
close
to
C = 0.074
for
FOAMETAL fibers,
and Huyck in
wire Mfg.
while
stacked free
fiber This
ends
found
materials. in C. and
structural
the
reason
difference by
results
obtained the
Beavers
Sparrow
are
Stifling
present
authors
calculated and 64
Reynolds This
number
specimen, Remax,
which
Beavers about
Sparrow to I04.
ranged correlation
from
factor
+ 0.074 must of
the The
This flow
quantity
creeping experimental
permeability as given
the
Darcy's
et al.
(1984)
studied than
in porous of
media. Darcy on
characteristic number of
a Reynolds
based
length must
a typical
pore. For
pore. mean
pressure ratio
drop of
and a
heat
transfer, pore
that as
the an the
typical The
should
included
permeability it
cannot
represent in the
because
is measured
56
Darcy
This same
is one Cvalue
reason as
why
only by
materials
observed
et
al.
(1979) beads,
reviewed
research
on
flow
in
spherical obtained
cylindrical that
fibers, predicts
sand, pressure
a wide
that on
the
pressure
drop
of
packed
spheres
can
be related support to
drag
a single
sphere. proposed
lent and
theoretical Sparrow
velocitysquared
term
Beavers
(1969). et al. They by (1973) found studied that for the the influence drop of the shroud of as bounding spheres
pressure
in beds as small
packed 40
influenced
the
walls
shrouddiameters
sphere
diameters.
Factor and
Correlations London (1984, screens. densemesh data for for p. 149) Walker wire flow provide and widely Vasishta used (1971) et correlations present al. (1982) provide et (1983) that for
through
screens. through
Miyabe stacked
foamedmetal based k on
derived more
(1964)
comprehensive for
review steady of
heat
flow
Sterrett
these
correlations proposed
do not
collapse
correlation
57
Beavers and Sparrow (1969) because porosity remains as a parameter in addition to the Reynolds number. The advantage is that they were obtained for gas flows so that somecompressibility flow area, which is discussed below,
Compressibility recommended the that of by air and the effects Mach in flow be
effects
are included.
through included screens. as Organ (1984) parameter is based (1967) for on
a correlating His
prediction work of
pressure and
suggestion Herbert
and
where
a single (1965) of as
stated
in their
a gauze quoted
is a function by Organ,
Reynolds In the
solidity of
the
resistance
screens low
porosities (M <
numbers
0.1) is
that
resistance Baruah
coefficient also
virtually
independent conclusions
state nozzle.
that
behaves flow ?)
a crude it."
in a p.
this in
Mach
numbers
of M
 0.2
a porosity porosity.
duct
Mach
number
required
choking
with
Effective To
Flow
Area
Flow through e.g., a nozzle, Perry et the al. due flow 1973, to the area P. is
calculate by an
the
multiplied It accounts
expansion the
(see
511).
for
reduction
in effective
flow
area
adiabatic
58
It
is expected that
can be observed when flow passes through a single screen. that this effect will be significant for flow through screens
is not likely
stacked screens because the pressure differences will be small and heat transfer
across individual
be possible.
Choking
and
Pressure and
Drop
Flow the condltlons on under which flow. change numbers. in Thls the
Sparrow
would
based
Isentroplc
Baruah a gas
(1965, passes
458),
takes change
significant _ p.
encountered
in Stlrllng Beavers porous scale. the low the exlt matrix They
engines, and
however.
Sparrow
(1971,
1856)
also of the
analyzed
gas
flow as
within the
using
/k'(the the
squareroot maximum
permeability) of porous at to
length
max
flow
Reynolds extreme
Even max//_
through expected
the in
4L23
regenerator
I0/_. This
Therefore analysis
choking
is not
regenerators.
is tentative were
because: calculated for the one from the comparison that for Beavers other of and
diameter
specimen
used; a linear
calculate
permeabillties hydraulic
regenerators squareroot
relationship was
between assumed.
diameter
of
the
permeability
59
(2) the graphs used to calculate were plotted... (a) for air only.
(b) for discrete values of Reynolds number. (c) for discrete values of porosity.
Heat Vasishta provide transfer (1971), heat correlations. Finegold and Kays Sterrett for and London and woven that (1984, Miyabe wire were p. et 149), al. Walker (1982) These by the and
(1978), packed
transfer are
correlations from
derived
data
London
(1984,
154155). from
correlations
of
length
instead
hydraulic in heat
diameter transfer
may
eliminate
independent shown
parameter
correlations.
This
experimentally.
5.2
Unsteady
Flow
and and
in Regenerators studied media. stationary structure of the were not heat They transfer observed augmentation a resonant by the generated < Rema x < the due
(generated wires of
the
elements
porous
screen) by the
secondary performed
6 and
seem
applicable
conditions. studied The oscillating of flow his through a regenerator data was consisting based on the of
spheres.
reduction
experimental
60
that
the is
momentum in phase
be
i.e.,
drop
flow
Justified
gas
flow than
through the
a bed
higher
covered the
less
than
Since of his
of was allow
apparatus
experiments do not
the
Reynolds
his
data
about
the
friction increases
factor. due to
that
friction
friction depend
is higher
in oscillating Whether
it must
frequency be
(Rem). by
true
wirescreen
regenerators
must
answered
experiment.
5.3
Regenerator Stirllng
Theory engine If simulation the to regenerator use typically is uses a discretization in several to p. of the volumes
engine it is
volume. not
subdivided
control heat
regenerator
predict
the
regenerator however,
140149).
Given can
an be
theory,
effectiveness coefficients
values of
heat
regenerators. (Kays
successfully
gasturbine
regenerators
154155). proposed periods Neumann that a theory that takes into Willmot to the account and take the Hinchcliffe "holdup" by into
short Harness
engines.
methods leave
i.e.,
the
fluid
regenerator
61
721763
by
or
London
e.g.
Rice
al.
(1983)
Miyabe
62
6.
operating obtained
conditions to form
of
the
heat engine
a Stlrling
exchanger
base.
6.1
Evaluatlon Schmldt
Parameters Instantaneous Isothermal The mean analysis mass veloclty and are pu m is
calculated 1984,
(Urlell
Appendlx
AI,
following
assumptions
made
analysis:
I
The
engine
of
three
isothermal
T h) consists of heaterregenerator
expansion duct.
volume (at T r) consists of I/2 heaterregenerator duct, the regenerator and 7/2 regeneratorcooler duct. The cold space (at T c) consists of compression space, connecting duct, cooler, I/2 coolerregenerator duct. T r is the mean effective regenerator temperature (Urlell and Berchowltz 1984, Appendix A4, p. 158) Th in(rh/Tc Te ) the engine.
throughout
compression
and
the
expansion
volume
are
5. 6.
working operates
gas at
and The
potential isothermal
of
the is
gas
are on
except are
4. from
variations kinematics
and
expansion Appendix
calculated number
mechanism.
Reynolds
variations
calculated
63
rhombic
drive (Figure
engine
(GM GPU3)
with
(Figure analyses
AS)
and
analysis of the
1986). The
differ
Reynolds 20
transients.
percent
is only
used
exchanger
thermodynamic control
of in
mass the
in various control
engine.
mass
calculated, velocity, is
and the
these
Reynolds averaged
over
Figure outlet at
variation
GPU3 outlet
heater differ
analysis. in the
values
inlet during
working
stored the
exchanger of the
during in the
expansion
cycle. the
Reynolds point
number. is
Therefore, by heat
Reynolds
operating the
represented the
a range exchanger
This
represents
variation
throughout and
to asymmetric during
release The
compression at
A).
is evaluated diameter
specific
a = Y_.
The
hydraulic
nontubular to heat
ducts) exchanger.
is defined
transfer frequency
Dimensionless dimensionless
and
relative at the
A R. and
The the
frequency
is evaluated
64
temperature of the respective heat exchanger. hydraulic diameter is used as a length scale. fluid motion, AR, is evaluated by integrating or outlet
the
amplitude of
exchanger inlet
6.2
Engines of documented 6I lists data flow conditions by was restricted by the the the data of the
abbreviation) of the
name
in the the
description of
amplitudes not
pistons the
the
were the
obtained
from
values "design"
from
was
calculated by
measured and
"SPDET"
pressure
A more was
operating and is
calculated
labeled
65
Table
6I:
Documented
Engines
Engine
Type
Operating
Conditions:
Reference
Abbreviation
Kinematic
Engines
General GPU3
Motors
Urieli (1984),
and pp.
Berchowitz 37 and 39
GPU3
Richey
(1986)
MODI
Tew pp.
(1983) 8086
P40
(1979)
STES
Dunn p. 68
et
al.
(1982)
UK
Urieli (1984),
and p.
Berchowitz 30
4215
General 4L23
Motors
Martini p. 32
(1982)
4L23
66
Table
6I:
Documented
Engines
(continued)
Engine
Type
Operating Speed or
Conditions: frequency
Reference
Abbreviation
Mean pressure Working fluid Free Mechanical Technologies, Engineering Model Sunpower, Inc. 3 kW Generator Set Sunpower, REIO00 Inc. Inc. 58 60 He Hz bar Piston Engines (1985) EM
Dochat
Berchowitz
(1985)
Genset
Schreiber
(1983)
RE1000
Inc.
trial parameters: 73 Hz 75 bar He extrapolated to conditions: 105 Hz 150 bar He intended 105Hz 150 bar He
Dochat
(1985)
SPDET
operation:
Tew
(1986)
SPDEO
67
7.
RESULTS The
AND
operating are
data are
base drawn
presented the
in terms of
similarity
and
conclusions in
about and
conditions and is of
fluid
mechanics The of
transfer of various
operating
Remax,
A R are
7.1
Heaters Entrance
Coolers exit total in on losses. heat the the Table exchanger of the 7I gives a list drop of rough estimates at the the heat The of
the
points
of
pressure heat of
occurring and at
duct
exchanger,
steady, of the
pipe. pipe
50%
the
exit. be
Therefore from be
entrance an
could (1984)
experiment in
as the
and
correlated Re m.
terms
ratios
contraction
and
expansion
Rema x and
68
Portion of the Pressure Drop (in percent) occurring... the I I in the exlt at the
entrance GPU3 MODI P40 STES UK 4215 4L23 EM Genset REIO00 SPDE H C H C H C H C H C H C H C H C H C H C H C 15 22 14 14
pipe 68
53 71
71 70 67 56 5O
17 25 15
15
16 22 24 7 24 12 14 14 13 16 16
15 15
17 22 26
85
47
8
29
75
71
13
15
7O
74 67 67 62 62 68 72
16 13 17
17 2O 22 17 15 18 2O
18
16
15
13 17
65
62
18
Table
7I:
distribution
area
ratios
and
coolerregenerator for
in Table entrance
provide losses
parameters flow.
experiments
in oscillating
69
Engine Abbreviation
HeaterRegenerator
Coolerregenerator
GPU3
MODI P40 STES UK 4125 4L23 EM Genset REIO00 SPDE
11. 13. 17. 16. 5.9 18. 18. 9.4 3.0 4.5 9.0
7.8 13.
Table
72:
area
to
profiles.
Table
73
lists the
_/d
values.
For
heaters
and In of and be
hydraulic length
diameter is
is used.
entrance pipe
between
diameters velocity
long
377).
Therefore, heaters
profiles
throughout
many
70
Engine Abbreviation
C_/d)
Heater Cooler
42.7 92.0
80.O
38.9
30.8
96.7 112.0 75.9 50.9 77.6 62.5
88.5 71 .O
Table
73:
ratios
of
heaters
Flow operating
patterns conditions
and of
Figure fall
7I
the of the
within numbers
frequency. at which
amplitude
Reynolds in
above
transition operate it in
occurs the
steady
heaters
and
coolers
turbulent to
flow
transition in
process turbulent
oscillating conditions: is
Three REIO00
operated SPDE
cooler
heater
cooler. as the or
cooler
shifted
from
engine heater
is reduced. at
The
cooler on the
discussion by
higher analysis
pressure and
predicted
quasisteady Due to
expected there
in the will be
laminar a phase
regimes.
fluid
inertia,
shift
7]
and
mean
the
drop
cannot
be
conditions
slope ratio
I in of
double two
logarithmic
coordinates is
similarity
parameters
Re
_d _
_d
Since ratio
is constant
and
Uma x
to
m for to
any
one
engine, operating
the
is constant. are
Therefore
Re m if
conditions
extrapolated
m changes.
72
to _
turbulent
Remax
I0
Rew
10 2
10 3
Figure
71:
Re
_.
Re
or
heaters
and
coolers
73
72
shows
that with
the AR
four
heat
exchangers one of
in
the
< I;
might
think
this
heat that
indicate
is only
about
heat
however. on the to
This
estimate that
was the
made pipe
using walls
(1983)
based
assumtlon extend
adiabatic. wall
this
analysis
to nonadiabatic
conditions
as
the
engine. and 74 show that the is the relative and amplitude the The and in design trial the of fluid while
A R is
the
same
for Re_
trial
frequency in the
different. frequency
conditions because
operating mean
different
pressures.
Therefore
Re
is affected
74
IO
GPU5 i_ISTES
AR
I T
I.O _ REIOOO SPDEO
SPDET_
El COOLER O HEATER
O.I IO IO 2
,o _
and coolers
Figure
72:
A_
K
vs.
Re
for
heaters
75
effects.
Table
74 shows
are
and coolers,
of the UK in the
The density
is (Schllchtlng
1979, p. 10):
= _ Mmax2 = 0.012
Therefore, expected
velocity engines.
are not
Highest Engine Abbreviation GPU3 MODI P40 STES UK 4215 4L23 EM Genset REI000 SPDET SPDED Heater 0.042 0.067 0.064 0.035 0.153 0.072 0.027 0.020 0.038 0.007 0.008 0.011
Mach Number
in the Cooler 0.034 0.046 0.030 0.015 0.031 0.043 0.040 0.029 O.026 ' 0.020 0.008 0.009
Table 74:
Mach numbers
in heaters
and coolers.
76
7.2
Regenerators Figure 73 be shows complex. would be that the flow pattern to or the in most observations for regenerators by Dybbs 8 of were the made may et 12 in steadyonly be
expected (1984),
to the
al.
flow
transitional
operating
points. may
their in
observations flow
they will et 11
hold
oscillating to matrices
or may to
hold those
probably ai.(1984).
only
apply
similar
shown matrix
In to
Figure the
74
have
may
limit
transfer
adjacent
heater
cooler
("holdup"). Math of the of the numbers in the is in regenerators not are Mma x < 0.0] At (Table low to 75). Math be Choking numbers,
regenerators drop
therefore
expected. matrices of
these
pressure Math
the
regenerator to the
according (]965)
results
Sparrow
Benson
Since are
typically
numbers
less to
expected p. 16 and
experimental discussed in
Herbert
(1967,
were
5.1.
?7
10 4
I,,,,
7
turbulent
'1
IUK
I
,o 3
Re
m R m B
max
m
Genset EM
transitional
2
I0 m
SPDED
J /
GPU3
/
STES
mm_
/ / J .II / / / /
/
u
laminar
.=
SPDET
I0 .01
I I't
I0
Flgure
73:
Re
max
vs.
Re
for
regenerators
78
I0
AR
GPU3 1.0
ISTE s
I 4L23
Figure
74:
AR vs. Re
for regenerators
79
Engine Abbreviation GPU3 MODI P40 STES UK 4215 4L23 EM Gen se t RE 1000 SPDET SPDED
Highest in the
Math
Number
Regenerator 0.0078 O. O093 0.0061 0.0031 O.0103 O. 0055 0.0047 O. 0056 0. O096 O. 0038 0.0017 0.0024
Table
75:
Mach
numbers
in regenerators.
7.3
Similarity After
Parameters o the operating conditions can be o Stlrllng eliminated. engine Eckert heat numbers
exchangers, were
similarity
parameters
calculated
Sc
T (_  I) r_M_ax
A*
They (UK
range heater).
from
0.0066
(SPDED, viscous
heater)
over
0.025 is not
(MODI,
heater) to UK
to
0.13
considered of the
transfer, of the
exception is not
Eckert
important,
 O.i. can are be made for the the to Mach number, because of Tables the UK as long 74
small,
with
possible number
heater. as
similarity Organ
wlth (1982a)
respect
Mach this
required
challenged 80
argument
experimental
pressure (rpm)
drop
results,
but
his
data
seem
to
support
a strong
frequency
dependence
of pumping
power. the heat exchangers of the time fast compared for that the angle. to the
required It
pressure travel
is assumed
waves
with
the
speed
The the UK
are
given
4215 within
heater, 1/100
exchangers finite
the
propagation
speed
pressure
to
be
significant.
Engine GPU3 MODI P40 STES UK 4215 4L23 EM Genset REIO00 SPDET SPDED
Heater 2.0 3.3 2.9 0.76 5.2 4.5 2.0 I. 2 2.8 1.2 1.7 2.4
Cooler 0.69 1.5 1.3 0.58 1.6 I .5 1.1 2.0 6.2 0.82 2.4 3.5
ReEen. 0.24 0.83 0.51 0.094 0.64 0.43 0.16 0.86 3.1 0.52 0.54 0.78
Table
76:
Time
estimates heat
for
pressure in
wave degrees
through
exchangers
8]
CONCLUSIONS In this
AND report,
Rema x Re m AR, _ld, Length De Area For the ratios porous ARh _hld ratios
number
flow
measure relative
unsteadiness important effects similarity. pipes entrance the and exit losses. _, Re m. may be for heat transfer
Rema x for
curved for of
appropriate
to be
used
Previous points
results in
are of
discussed the
and
11 Stirling
engine
operating
terms
to and
acceleration of
stability
differ Re_
flow.
increased. flow do
correlations on
turbulent are
oscillating not
heat
transfer
generally
axial
transport of
It was near
exchangers
the
transition Several
regime.
This
means
compressibility by assuming
on
pressure at the
recovery
can
be
accounted
for
adiabatic
expansion
heat
82
and
duct
outlets.
is not
expected was
due shown
to
the
low
Mach
encountered. a worstcase
to be to
were cycle
calculated time.
heat
exchangers of the
literature to assess
shown
that
immediate between
attention heat
is needed and
areas
tradeoffs
transfer
flow: must be understood will improve in more the the clearly. Work on of
process topic
geometries drop
transfer of
pressure engines.
mechanisms
coolers 2. The
means
turbulence better
structure
Is
affected
by
understood, models so
possibly that
leading
turbulence
turbulent
accurately of thermal
predicted. and drop hydrodynamic in tubes and entrance regenerator lengths on heat must
effects and
transfer be 4. better of
pressure
matrices
understood. the permeability characterization by have hydraulic been model should be made. It may provide the used. flow of I3 I4 to a
A test more
general
matrices
than
porosity
addressed, to determine
then
use flow be
the
experimental compression
data and
calculate of the
with
expansion
working
Its
confirmed
experimentally.
83
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
work The
was
supported thank
by
Center
under
authors and
grant
(LeRC),
and and
Gedeon Shodeen D.
valuable their G.
for
help Dochat
calculations, engine
Andersen,
Berchowitz,
Richey
for
operating
84
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of Electrical
Organ, A. J. (1982a): "Dimensional Analysis of Pumping Losses in a Stifling Cycle Machine." 17th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Proceedings (IECEC Paper 829280), pp. 16941698. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
88
Organ, A. J. (1982b): "Gas Dynamics of the TemperatureDetermined Stlrllng Cycle." Journal of Mech. Engr. Science, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 20721_. Organ, A. J. (1984): "An Inquiry into the Mechanism of Pressure Drop in the Regenerator of the Stlrllng Cycle Machine." 19th Intersoclety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Proceedings (IECEC Paper 849006), pp. 17761781. American Nuclear Society. Park, J. and Baird, M. (1970): "Transition Phenomena Manometer." Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 491495. in an Oscillating Vol. 48, pp.
Peacock, J. A. and Stairmand, J. W. (1983): "Film Gauge Calibration Oscillatory Plpe Flow." J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., Vol. 16, pp. 571576. Perry, R. H., Chilton, C. H. and Kirkpatrick, S. D. (1973): Engineers' Handbook. 4th Edition, New York: McGrawHill. Chemical
In
Petukhov, B. S., Polyakov, A. F. and Martynenko, O. G. (1982): "Buoancy Effect on Heat Transfer in Forced Channel Flow." In: Grigull, U. et al. (eds.): Heat Transfer 1982. Proceedings of the Seventh International Heat Transfer Conference, M_nchen FRG, 1982. Washington: Hemplsphere Publishing Company. Pinker, R. A. and Herbert, M. V. (1967): "Pressure Loss with Compressible Flow through SquareMesh Wire Gauzes." Mech. Engr. Science, Vol. 9, No. I, pp. 1123. Associated Journal of
Rice, G., Jones, J. D., Dadd, M. W. and Thonger, J. (1983): "U.K. Consortium Stlrling Engine Regenerator Effectiveness and Heater Performance." 18th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Proceedings (IECEC Paper 839115), pp. 714719. New York: American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Rice, G., Thonger, J. C. T. and Dadd, M. W. (1985): "Regenerator Effectiveness Measurement." 20th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Proceedings (IECEC Paper 859144), pp. 3.2663.271. Warre_dale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. Richardson, E. O. and Tyler, E. (1929): "The Transverse Velocity Gradient near the Mouths of Pipes in which an Alternating or Continuous Flow of Air is Established." Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Vol. 42, Part I. Richey, A. (1986): Letter to Authors. 6 January.
Rix, D.H. (1984): "Some Observations on the Behaviour of a HighPerformance Stlrllng Cycle Machine". 19th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Proceedings (IECEC Paper 849008), pp.17821787. American Nuclear Society.
89
H. (1979): McGrawHill.
Boundar_
La),er
Theor),.
7th
Edition,
Schreiber, J. (1983): "Testing and 1kw FreePiston Stifling Engine." Cleveland, OH: NASA Lewis "Fluid 1, No. Research
of a 82999.
Numbers."
Simon,
T.W.(1986):
in
Stirling 533538.
Exchangers". 21st Intersociety Conference. Proceedings (IECEC American Chemical Society. "Uber den yon E. f_r
(1930):
'Annulareffekt'."
Zeitschrlft
Shah, R. K. (1981): "Thermal Kaka_, S., Bergles, A. E. and ThermalHydraullc Fundamentals Publishing Company. Shapiro, A. S. (1954): The Ronald Press.
"Compressible
Fluid
Flow."
gol.
2.
New
York:
Shizgal, B., Goldsmith, H. L. and Mason, S. O. (1965): "The Flow of Suspensions through Tubes IV: Oscillatory Flow of Rigid Spheres." Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 43, No. 3, PP. 97101. Sobey, Channel I. a. (1985): "Observations of Waves during Oscillatory Flow." Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 151, February. and Yamane, R. (1985): "A Study Nihon Kikaigakkai (Bulletin of of the
Sudou, K., Sumida, M., Takaml, T. Oscillatory Flow in Curved Pipes." JSME), Vol. 28, No. 245, November. Sumida, M. and Sudou, K. Rectangular CrossSection Flow in SquareSectloned JSME), Vol. 28, No. 243,
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Takahachi, S., Hamaguchi, K., Miyabe, H. and FuJita, H. the Flow Friction and Heat Transfer of the Foamed Metals
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849176),
9O
Telionls, T. P. (1981): "Unsteady Viscous Flows." Computational Physics ISBN 3540I0481X, New York:
Tew, R. C., Jr. (1983): "Computer Program for Stlrling Engine Performance Calculations." DOE/NASA/5104042, NASA TM82960. Cleveland, OH: NASA Lewis Research Center, January. Tew, R.C., Jr. (1986): Private Communication Letter of 4/24/86 to the authors. on IECEC Paper 869118.
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Analysis.
(England):
Adam Hilger.
Valensi, J. (1947): "Oscillations d'un liquide pesant et visqueux darts un tube en U de faible diam_tre." Comptes Rendus de la Acad_mie des Sciences de Paris, Vol. 224; pp. 446, 532, 893 and 1695. Vasillev, O. F. and Kvon, V. I. (1971): "Friction Forces of Unsteady Flows in Open Cha_nels and Pipes." International Association for Hydraulic Research, Proceedings of the 14th Conference, Vol. I, Subject B. Von Kerczek, C. and Davis, S. H. (1972): "The Stability of Oscillatory Stokes Layers." Studies in Applied Mathematics, Vol. LI, No. 3. Walker, O. (1962): "Regeneration Vol. 214, pp. I0971103, December. in Stlrling Engines. The Engineer,
Walker, O. (1963): "Pressure Drop across Regenerator of a Stifling Cycle Machine". The Engineer, Vol. 216, pp.I063I066, December. Walker, G. (1980): Stlrling Engines. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Walker, O. and Vasishta, V. (1971): "HeatTransfer and FlowFriction Characteristics of DenseMeshWireScreen Stirling Cycle Regenerators." In: Timmerhaus, K. D. (ed): Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 16, 1971, pp. 302311, New York: Plenum Presss. Watson, E. J. (1983): "Diffusion in Oscillatory of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 133, PP. 233244. West, C. D, (1983): Nostrand Reinhold. Liquid Piston Stirling Pipe Flow." Journal
Engines.
New York:
Van
9!
White, F. M. McGrawHill.
(]974):
Vlscous
Fluid
Flow,
p.
144.
New
York:
Willmott, A. J. and Duggan, R. C. the ContraFlow Thermal Regenerator Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 23,
J. and Hinchcliffe, C. (1976): "The Effect of Gas Heat the Performance of the Thermal Regenerator." Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 19, pp. 821826. R. (1955): "Method for the Calculation of Veloclty, is Rate
and Viscous Drag in Arteries when the Pressure Journal for Physiology, Vol. 127, pp. 553563.
Gradient
Oshima, S., Sudo, K., Sumida, M., Okamoto, N. and "Study of Oscillatory Flow in a Curved Channel." (Bulletin of the JSME), Vol. 28, No. 237, March.
Kizaki, Nihon
oussef, Sadek (1986): "Isothermal Analysis of a Rhomblc Drive Stlrllng Engine and Comparison with Schmidt Analysis." Internal Report, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Zielke, Flow." No. I, W' (1968): Journal of pp. IO9115, "FrequencyDependent Basic Engineering, March. Friction in Transient Pipe Trans. ASME, Series D, Vol. 90,
92
(k _
APPENDIX
A:
A SURVEY
OF PRESSURE,
REYNOLDSNUMBER
VARIAT IONS
the
pressure,
Reynolds the
number the
and
some
Mach
to give
reader
opportunity 7. Figures
discussed analysis by
in Chapter of a GPU3
AI
and
A2
isothermal obtained
(Youssef
1988).
Figures
were is
Scl_mldt the
positive  hot
line
line
 cold
93
_s
I,,
=., ,
!o
,_'o
=!
."
,.'
Figure
Al:
Results pressure
of a GPU
3:
94
Qj
/ ,y
I:RRNK RNE, LE
,x i'
?
i'
_',"
%_,.o/'
./,2'
', _
,,!,
,,,!, _K
,,,,?, RNSLE
!,
.,o/
_'l
_/
,'/'%
\
+/_
,'/
CRRNK RNE, LE
Figure A2 :
the
isothermal
analysis
:of
GPU
3:
95
Figures Schmidt
A3
through
A14: Results
Analysis
m.o
%1
!.,
o!0
_!,
N!0
_?0
',
I.,,
0!,
CflFINK PtN_LE
"
q.,.
Figure
A3:
GPU
96
ORIGINAL OE POOR
PAGE QUALITY
IS
/ /
n!,
!,
=,!*
=4
o'.
,_11
u o.o
.!o
.!o
N!o
o
I:PANK 1_ISLE
II
II[
L /t "'
II
..i4\
I. 
i /. o
ii'o
.!
.'
C_NK
.4
I_NSLE
i"
iim I
Figure
AI4:
MODI
97
y
!I
"O,O
_.O
liae 41
N.O
inl.o
_.O
TO,O
mO
NQ
i.O
CI_NK RNSI,..
Cf:V:H'_ RN(,LE
D.
o _
\
,',r.., ,x._,
,.?. ..i, ..,. .,..1. ,..!.
CRRNK I%NOLE
,/ ,
i i,, ', _,
,,!. .,' ,% ,.."
Cf=IRN_ PINr.,,LE
,
,..'
Figure
A5:
ORIGINAL
PACE
IS
it
0l_
POOR
QUALITY
:'1\
_n,_,_ h
,'/_
'V
,,!, .!, ..!o CRRNKRNGLE
_'

.,!,
==,
w.,
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I.
D.
__U
,J "
,.,!, .. CRRNK lUlNGLE .
111.0
i+
O.O
' i
.!
,.',
CI=_INK
,0!0
RNGLE
.,:
Figure
A6:
STES
99
11 ""%",,
I It''
....
"
_i"
!q
tI!
,J
'V
.!. m'o m!. nNC)LE ='!o
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,0 Im!ll
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' ,,,.0
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CRFINRFINGLE
r
I

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_'
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,00
< Y
!
m'. CPIFINK RNGL.E _...
',\ ,/
',, x..t'
..!. m', ,,),=!. CPI_NK PINSL.E m_
qlO i
Figure A7:
UK
PAGI_ QUAL1T_
Y OOR
QUALITY
i,
i,
"t ,,,,!e
]/
',,V
.!, ,,.!, ,=!. ..!.
CRRNK RNSLE
I ,r'.'
"%
E.
_,_
,_
/
,_ II.II
,,!,
.!,
_'_INK
..!o
CRRNK RNGLE
Figure A8:
4215
101
!.
'
i !
",\ ,7
',,\ //
',,_,'
:t
a!O
."
,]
\\
, /_
%J
D _OO m!O
%/
.!,
.!.
.,:
,.!.
Ip. o
.!.
,,,.!.
CI_N_
,,!.
PINE, LE
.,.,"
,.,.,
CII_INK RNGLE
Figure
A9:
4L23
102
OK POOk
_:;/,,U[TY
o'1/ \
o_O.ii IOO NOO . IIlO.II NL
'l /Z
i:1
,I_O.O liil!O em*.O
,'/ "
! N.O
CI_FINKP, NGLE
CPIt:_IKRN6k
!J
iI I
)_ "\
!
,"._,
_"
I
i
_;,X_/
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!
1 I
_.,
.!.
m!, I_N
IN," K RNG'.E
."
.!.
i. I.
.!.
.,.
Nil
moll
CFV:_IKI"IN6LE
Figure
AIO:
Ell
103
Figure
AII:
Genset
PAGE QUALITY
IS
DRIGINAL :POOR
v* ,_ Q_bkl.i I Y
,7
/7
Figure
A12:
RE1000
105
! !
Ir ir ..
I
e I
"
' I
"_
I I I
CPI_iNKltiSLE
r._
'1
_'_ ,,
']
_'I ," ',
!,k /
/ "" .J _
I I , __I. NII if0 I!. I__.lU l'" I I., I I,
,,/
I _0 I. I qIl
,ilo.o
mo
C_I_NR f_GLE
CluR'_ tI'NGLE
Figure A13:
SPDET
:1
\
:I
i,"\
),.
,,7
',,X_)"
! T ml _.O I Im.O i
:L
,,,,_,.0 .!. mIi _le _._ _!O
"
m _e.$
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CRRNK RN(_LE
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!
;
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II
,.,
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;"
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_. '. : '. i..
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;'...
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.'. '.
L'I_I,_
'.
P_It.,LE
'.
"
CPI_NK flNGLE
Figure
A14:
SPDED
107
APPENDIX
B:
DERIVATION
OF SIMILARITY
PARAMETERS
Normalization To variables
of
the the
momentum momentum
4_ _ X m X 
* U
,.F U 
P *=2_ P*=.E_
Po
rb
m
v*
Neglecting
 _
P gravity, the momentum equation Is:
Bt
to_Y" __*.v*_* 
U2 L
to Po _
_o
_o
108
pipe
scales
are used:
velocity
of the mean
velocity / 2_
time scale
period of oscillation
4 v o at
vo
vo
Re
V'_" " 
_ 2
V__ p
+ v'V" '_"
where
Remax "
frequency
Re_ appears
as a coefficient equation
of the unsteady
number
of the steady
by the maximum
Reynolds
the following
form is obtained:
2 Um,ma x at"
,.,d a;" +
_"V*_"
V__ +
P 2
2_o _'V'';'
Um,max d
Str a_/"
2 at"
_*" V*_*
" _
V*om
Remax
number
number
appear
as the
Um.m_w
Rema x Vo
lOg
of
the
energy is:
equation
equation
pop
BT (_ + _9T)
Bp _ +
9p + V'(kVI') + #
where $ is Schlichting
function,
using
Stokes'
hypothesis
(e.g.
#  TiJ
@x i "
_u g(_x_) =
The
normalized
t N =t
variables
are
chosen
as:
d/2
,, U
"',R
"
T*
= T  Tp, Th  T O = d/2 V
V*
"
P/Po
ki .
k/k o
_/_o
Cp*
= Cp/Cpo i au m 2
With
these
variables,
the
energy
equation
is:
110
Pc po
p, Cp*
(m(T h  TO ) _ 8T _ +
(Um, max
_*"
V* T*) d/2
(T h  Te))
Pc Um,max 2
(Um,max
_*"
V* pS) d/2
Pc Um ,max 2
T*)
Pc
(u d__2
), #*
[ m d/2
aT*
_*.V*T*
h ] . epo(T um._
_'V*p"
d/2
V*'(k*V*T*)
l_n_ Poepo
(Th  To)
p*Cp*
Re Ec Remax
_t*
Eo _*v*p*
+ Pr Finally,
the
p*Cp
_T* (2 Re =__
Remax
_*V*T*)
2 Re
* + Ec = EO __t
Rema x _*V*p*
V*'(k*V*T*) Pr = Cp
+ Ee
where
Ec
Um, m_2 (T H  T L)
is
the
Eckert
number.
I/d
and
AR are the obtained momentum from the normalization Geometric e.g., the the of the
slmllarlty /d  ratio
components layer
boundary
hydrodynamic
length
is similar. lll
The then
set
of
parameters E/d,
relevant
for
heat Ec and of
transfer A R. these is
flow two is
consists
of:
Rema x,
This
parameters redundant
more for
than
One
parameters,
however,
slnusoidal
velocity
of
an
average
fluid
element
is calculated
by
integration
cycle
2 Xm,ma x o]T/2um,max
sin(03t)
dt  2 _w
By
the
definition
of A R
AR . 2 xm:m_x Z
= 2 Um_m_y 03_
but
Rem_x Re
03
= Um,m_x d _ = 4 Um:max 03 d 2 03 d
therefore
1 d Re_max AR = 2 & Re
03
For
other,
fluid factor
the I/2. of
will
yield
a of
different &/d,
A R is
Rema x and
Therefore, by one to
set
similarity
parameters
transfer
Rema x, show
Re03, whether
Ec A R or
and /d
Experimental correlating
will
transfer
results.
112..
of
the
Reynolds diameter
number for on
for
regenerator
regenerator the
matrices used
calculated
based
definition
where
exchanger
 x vold = porosity
volume/heat
Figure
BI
shows
of
two
layers (i.e.,
of
where
spacing
the
Is the
wire
diameter.
S
$
CROSSSECTION
Figure BI : Schematic of
To volume
a first
approximation,
the
control
volume
(c.v.)
contains
a solid
Vs  _
dw 2s
If3
The porosity
is defined
as the ratio
of void volume
V v to total
volume
Vt.
Ah commonly velocity
Ah
in a crosssectlon
with effective
flow area
of the
UmA c  VAf where Af is the total regenerator frontal area, i.e., the crosssectional
is removed.
114
APPENDIX
C:
VELOCITY
PROFILES
IN LAMINAR
FLOW
The fully
plots
below
show
velocity flow
for
laminar,
developed, profiles
oscillating were by
velocity for
pulsatile
flow
the
mean
goes
115
,]
Re
=i
Re
'= 3
..
,,
_,
,
(LOCAL RRDIUS)I(PIPE
I_DII.JS)
Re
 3O
. i"
,
,,m ._. .' _, (LOCAL B/_IUS)/(P].PE I_OIU5) ,_. _ ..=.(LOCRL RRDIUS)I(PIPE .., RADIUS)
Figure
Cl:
Velocity
profiles
in laminar
flow
]]6
ORIGINAL OF POOR
PAGE
IS
QUALIT.Z
PAGE QUALITy
IS
Re
300
!"
I"
I"
Re
i000
_"
Re
ffi 3000
i"
I"
_t
uJ N
i,!
I" b l' 'T
p.
v
I
(LOCP, L _IUS)/(PIPE 1_SDIUS)
I,
._,
(LOCIK. IVIDIUS)/IPIP I_P.DIUS)
Figure
Cl:
Velocity
profiles
in
laminar
flow
(continued) 117
APPENDIX
D:
EQUATIONS
OF OBSERVATIONS
OF TRANSITION
provides
the equations
describing
in Figure
38.
of applicability provide
the original
experimental
these
equations.
Reference
Equation
Range
Grassmann
and Tuma
(1979)
42 $ Re= _ 520
Rema x = 15300
Rema x = 400R_e__
transitional
_ turbulent
(1970)
35 _ Reu _ 1000
Sergeev
(1966)
16 _ Re_ $ 1600
118
APPENDIX Resonance
E:
EFFECTS
OF
PRESSURE
PROPAGATION
condition plstons
for
resonance
engines wavelength
Is that (_)
the of
between
Is greater
pressure
propagation.
where
 speed
of
sound
f = engine
frequency
The the
smallest only
_ is aircharged
obtained engine
for
small
a data
(low base
and
large
f.
For _ is:
in'the
smallest
_1._1X = f =
m/see = 6.42m
For the
He
and
H2charged _ Is:
engines
the
worst
case
would
be
the
Hecharged
SPDED,
smallest
/1.66 f =
2079 105
x 350 see _
m/see =
10.5m
The
flow
length 1982,
between p. 32) as p.
may It as For
be can
found be
in the
for
the
4L23 Urieli
GPU3
Berchewltz (1982, to p. be
(198_, 68) as
 O._m all
the
UK in
Dunn it
et Is
other from
engines the
expected engines.
less
estimated
exterior
dimensions
the
I]9
The between
AI2,
for
both
cases
exceed
the
flow
length
resonance
is not
expected.
Shock
incipience A shock forms by the when pressure of waves interfere constructively. Consider a piston This that may
be
predicted
method In
oscillates
sinusoldally
a tube
Figure
EI:
Oscillating
piston
in a tube
As the
the
piston end.
moves These
to
the be
right,
it
continuously in the by
sends txplane
pressure as at shown
waves
to
open Two
can
represented were
E2. may
pressure
waves one
that
emitted
the
piston
different slope
interfere x llne).
if the
emitted
later
travels
faster
(smaller
t vs.
120
_t
sinusoldal
piston
motion
IT
pressure
_fc_p1:_ _o_.t_o_a_e___ _,
//_/charlcteristic
of
first
pressure
wave
ram.
Figure
E2:
Method
of
characteristics
121
The the of
the
pressure
wave
propagation to the
are
If
is small be nearly
compared equal:
velocity
lines
dt (_)I
1 = ;
dt
(3"_)zz
up ; a
dt dt = (_)II
If
a )
Up,
then
(_)I
Then
the
two
lines
will the
intersect maximum
far
from
the
englne, the
velocity the
heat
flow
area. the
is obtained in the to
velocity
data
base.
likely i.e.,
intersect worst
the
of the
piston
motion Due to
the
should
highest of sound
temperature simplistic
gradient
in an the
engine,
speed is
For
the
present with x.
analysis,
temperature
linearly
and
and
flow
composed encountered
favorable base:
conditions
incipience
In the velocity of
piston
amplitude
UKheater SPDED
frequency engine
oscillation length
flow
_L23
122
was assumed
to vary
linearly as:
varies
a(x)  /'_
are described
by
t# I =
Th  To
_" UpQ
I] 
In_'/(Th 
Tc)X + TeL +
Upo)}]
velocity
wave
leaves
the waves.
shock
incipience
of pressure
and hellum
were calculated
in any of these
123
i_
o _I
X
I
I ._loo
I .04)0
I 1.2oo
I ! .040
I 2.000
DISTflNCE / m
Figure
E3:
Characteristics
for
test
case
with
hydrogen
124
APPENDIX
F:
AUGMENTATION
OF AXIAL
TRANSPORT
FromWatson
(1983, p. 241),
coefffielent
is
Au  T (We, Pr) VT =
with
T m
B=(Wo)
I  B=(Wo JPr)
where
B=(Wo) 
and
Wo=B(Wo) B,(Wo) dn
 Wo=B"'(Wo)
Sn  _
(ber=(Wo)
beiS(Wo))
functions.
A series
solution
by Watson
(1983, p. 241). the plot of the augmentation FI). The axial heat transfer function
can be found
4.2 if an axial
temperature
gradient they
is assumed. proprietary
calculations data.
here because
involve
geometry
125
,  I i
"
, ,
'
'
''''I
I0
I0'
10 3
Figure
Fl:
Augmentation
function
1 2 6 _.$.
for
axial
heat
_INTING
transfer
nFFICE: 19885q_157/504_2
GOVERNMENT
NllllOnlll Space
Aeronautics AdrniniSlrat_*l
anU
Report
Documentation
Page
3. Recipient's Catalog No.
1. Report No.
NASA CR182108
4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date
1988
Code
6. Performing Organization
7. Author(s)
8. Pe#orming Organization
Report No.
Terrence
W. Simon
None
10. Work Unit No.
5860111
9. Pedorming Organization Name and Address University of Minnesota School Ill of Mechanical Street and S.E. 55455 13. Type of Report and Period Covered Aerospace Engineering 11. Contract or Grant No.
NAG 3598
Church
Minnesota
Contractor Annual
14. Spon_ring
Report
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center Cleveland, Ohlo 441353191
15. Supplementa_ Notes
Agency Code
James E. Dudenhoefer,
Power
Technology
Division,
NASA Lewis
16. Abstract
Similarity parameters for characterlzing the effect of flow oscillation on wall shear stress, viscous dissipation, pressure drop and heattransfer rates are proposed. They are based on physical arguments and are derived by normalizing the governing equations. The literature on oscillating duct flows, regenerator and porous media flows is surveyed. The operating characteristics of the heat exchangers of eleven Stirling engines are described in terms of the similarity parameters. Previous experimental and analytical results are discussed in terms of these parameters and used to estimate the nature of the oscillating flow under engine operating conditions. The operating points for many of the modern Stirling engines are in or near the laminartoturbulent transition region. In several engines, working fluid does not pass entirely through heat exchangers during a cycle. Questions that need to be addressed by further research are identifled.
18. Distribution
Statement
Unclassified Subject
Unimited 34
Category
21
No of pages
22
Price"
Unclassified
NASA FORM 1626 OCT 86 "For sale by the National Technical
Unclasslfled
Information Service, Springfield, V_rginia
132
22161
A07