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NASA

Contractor

Report

182108
,/

A Survey of Oscillating Engine Heat Exchangers


(NASA-CR-182108) FLOg IN STIRLING Annual Contractor 133 p

Flow

in Stirling

A SURVEY OF OSCILLATING ENGINE HEAT EXCHANGEHS Report [Ninnesota Univ.) CSCL 20D G3/34

N88-22322

Unclas 014024_

Terrence

W. Simon

and Jorge

R. Seume

University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota

March 1988

Prepared for Lewis Research Center Under Grant NAG3-598

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Table

of

Contents

Nomenclature INTRODUCTION Purpose Outline SIMILARITY Isolating Physical Parameters Derlvatlon FLUID

................................................

IiI

1.1 1.2

of this Report ................................................. PARAMETERS the Oscillating Flow Effect ................... 3 8 12 16 ]8 25 27 P8 35 37 38 4] . 42 46 48 Arguments for the Choice of Similarity .............................................. of Simllarlty OF Parameters PIPE ..................... FLOW .................

2.1 2.2

2.3

MECHANICS

OSCILLATING

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 4. 4. I 4.2 4.3

Analysis of Lamlnar Flow in a Straight Pipe ............. Laminar Oscillating Flow in Curved Pipes ................ Non-slnusoldal and Free Oscillations .................... Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow ............... Turbulent Flow .......................................... Entrance and Exit Losses ................................ Compressibility HEAT TRANSFER Qualitative Axial Heat Experimental FLUID MECHANICS Effects .................................

IN OSCILLATING PIPE FLOW ................... Considerations .......................... . . . Transfer in Laminar Oscillating Flow ......... Data AND ....................................... HEAT TRANSFER IN REGENERATORS .........

5.1 5.2

5.3

Steady Flow ............................................. Unsteady Flow and Heat Transfer In Regenerators Regenerator Theory ...................................... STIRLING Evaluation Documented RESULTS Heaters ENGINE of DATA BASE Similarity

54 60 61

6.1 6.2

Parameters

.....................

63 65

Engines AND DISCUSSION and Coolers

......................................

7.1 7.2 7.3 8.

.....................................

68 77 80 82

Regenerators Similarity CONCLUSIONS

............................................ Parameters ................................... AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..........................

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS REFERENCES

.............................................

84 85

...................................................

APPENDICES AND MACH-NUMBER A A SURVEYOF FRESSURE, REYNOLDS-NUMBER VARIATIONS............................................... B DERIVATION OF SIMILARITY PARAMETERS ...................... C VELOCITY PROFILES IN LAMINAR FLOW ........................ D EQUATIONS OF OBSERVATIONSOF TRANSITION.................. E EFFECTS OF PRESSUREPROPAGATION .......................... F AUGMENTATION OF AXIAL TRANSPORT ..........................

93 ]08 ]]5 ]]8 I]9 ]25

lJ

Nomenclature units m/sec Xmax/ explanation speed of relative sound amplitude

symbol a AR Au Cp d void dh D surface volume area

of

fluid

J/(kgK) m

displacement augmentation specific heat diameter

coefficient at constant

pressure

m m

hydraulic pipe

diameter

diameter

De

-Re
Um _ m_
wm

Dean 2 TL ) set-1

number

Ec f

Eckert frequency

number

Cp

(T H

= (-dp/dx)
p V_ W

friction

factor

heat

transfer

coefficient dissipation function

I
k k 1 h L L m M u/a Um,max/a

W Wl(mK) m2 m m m m m m kg

integrated thermal

Mmax Nu P Pr

conductivity permeability length heat exchanger length connecting rod length heated length of heat characteristic length engine flow length mass Mach number Mach number based on amplitude Nusselt number number

exchanger

the

velocity

hl/k Pa Cpu/k W m m u L

pressure Prandtl

r Rc

heat transfer radius pipe radius of

rate curvature

Re

Reynolds

number

based

on

length

Remax Rem

Reynolds number based on the amplitude of the cross-sectional mean velocity dimensionless frquency, Valensl number, kinetic Reynolds number

Str t to TiJ
U

Um,max see see Pa

Strouhal

number

time characteristic stress tensor

t ime

m/see m/see m/see m/see

velocity streamwise characteristic superficial dimensionless velocity velocity velocity tidal volume

U V VT

distance, streamwlse amplitude cross-stream

location coordinate of fluid displacement coordinate

m m m

Xmax Y

Greek augmentation factor symbol of proportionality ratio of specific heats coefficient of excess work o
m

tad

lead wave

angle length

see m_r-

dynamic

viscosity

m2/sec P 2wf rad/sec kg/m3 Pa W/m3

kinematic viscosity density shear stress porosity dissipation function axial augmentation angular velocity

function

Superscripts normalized at shock iv quantity formation

Subscripts
C

h H L Im m max
0

cold hot

end end

high temperature low temperature log-mean average over cross-sectlon maximum reference of of at of during state one cycle

P r
W T

pressure the regenerator the wall wall shear stress

I.

INTRODUCTION

1.I

Purpose Two

of

thls

Report for good Stlrllng heat engines are to keep to the mechanical working heat fluid. transfer valuable heat Is required

design and

objectives to achieve conflict

losses These

low

transfer

from

and with It

objectives

because have the higher

heat

exchangers losses.

higher

effectiveness for the

generally to know

flow

Is therefore drop and

designer Thls

trade-off

between when the

pressure hlgh

transfer. as _r the

Is particularly Stirllng

important Engine and

performance Power

Automotive

Space

Demonstrator

Engine. Computer design. lower modelling is used engine to evaluate efficlencles however. spaces options and in Stlrllng power output engine are often

Measured than

Stlrling

predlctlons in the correctly in the for

would

indicate,

Transient are also of

pressure often fluid not mechanlcs and

variations predicted heat

Stlrllng (Rix heat

engine 1984).

working Inadequate

modelling by using may

transfer

exchangers drop and

(usually heat

steady-state partially account for

correlations thls

pressure

transfer) will

discrepancy. for a step and the In

Improving effect that

thls

model

require It

more

physically thls

correct

expressions will make

of oscillation. direction by

is hoped the It draws

that

report of fluid and

improving engines. and

understanding summarizes, tentative

mechanics discusses

heat

transfer found

In Stlrllng

extends conclusions.

research

In the

literature

1.2

Outline The oscillating parameters flow effect Is isolated fluid as the focus and of thls report. In

Similarity

to characterize

mechanics

heat

transfer

Stirllng

engine heat exchangers are proposed.

A literature

review and some flow in

analyses address fluid

mechanics and heat transfer

in oscillating

pipes under conditions which are similar coolers. Literature Is


also are

to conditions

in heaters and to
11 and transfer

which deals with flow in porous media, similar


reviewed. described are drawn in The operating of characteristics parameters and of

regenerators,
Stlrling tentative conditions answered this by

engines

terms

similarity fluid

conclusions in Stirling future

about

the

mechanics Open

heat

engine

heat are

exchangers. Some

questions the material

to be covered In

research

identified. and Simon

of

report

is summarized

in Seume

(1986).

2.

SIMILARITY

PARAMETERS

Similarity fluid proper the mechanics choice

parameters and heat

are

required

to

concisely

and

generally systems.

describe Their

transfer for the

in physically development data. characteristics not described to isolate for the by of

similar an

Is crucial of

experimental

program

and

interpretation Section 2.1

experimental some are

discusses that

of

the

flow

in Stlrling parameters--in flow effect.

engine

heat

exchangers slmpllfylng presents and Section equations.

similarity oscillating set

particular, Section 2.2

assumptions physical 2.3

the

arguments the

chosen

of

similarity by normalizing

parameters the

derives

similarity

parameters

governing

2.1

Isolatln_ The effect of

the of

Oscillating oscillation studies al. Aghili these 1982,

Flow on

Effect mechanics to and Stirling Griffin 1984, and heat transfer (e.g., and Rice has Kim Dybbs et been

fluid

the Organ and

subject 1975, 1983,

several et and of

related Chen

engines 1983, Jones Hwang 1985, that heat

1970, 1980 al. of

Miyabe

Taylor In review

1984,

DiJkstra

1985). oscillation first the be

studies, viscous the

it became dissipation of

clear and the

the

effect

on pressure studied isolated

drop, from

transfer

must in

remainder from:

processes

occurring

engine,

in particular and

isolated of

- compression - non-harmonlc - high Some

expansion motion

the

working

fluid

fluid

temperature about

gradients. each of these effects in the Stirllng engine follows.

discussion

Compression Stirllng and back engines during (Figure varies

and moves each

expansion from cycle. the

of

the

working

fluid. space

The

working the

fluid

in space

compression

toward

expansion

Simultaneously, the mass

it undergoes of the (full fluid mass and in

compression the heater at in

and

expansion Figure of the 2-I

2-I). with

Therefore, time and

consequently the of cycle the heat The 2-I

flow

rates line). of the

the

ends

heater

differ

throughout a survey

dashed

Appendix Reynolds Schmidt are

A provides in

cycle

variations using and that is near

pressure

and and

numbers analyses

Stlrling Section 6.2.

engine 6.1). Figure

exchangers engines shows

isothermal

(c.f.

their the

operating

points is

described when the

in Section the fluid

pressure In

change the cooler is

fastest and in

velocity however,

In the

heater

zero. when the

regenerator, rapidly.

velocities

are

high

pressure

changing

most

During temperature thereby the bulk may

compression, difference reduce the

the between heat

gas

temperature bulk of

rises. the the gas heater

This and the

decreases heater to the

the wall and In the may, This

the

transfer the

from

pipe

gas.

cooler, fluid be by

compression temperature out of

increases and the

temperature

difference The heat

between transfer difference. to heat fluid

wall the

temperature.

however, was shown

phase and

with

bulk-to-wall

temperature related the

Faulkner of low

Smith

(1984)

in a study In

transfer

in the

cylinders are heat

reciprocating during expansion is not compression regenerator,

machinery. and

heater,

velocities convective and

compression. to be as

Consequently, strong as in the cooler

transfer during and

expected and

regenerator In the

expansion. in the during the the gas increases blow, i.e.,

cooler with from

temperature transfer space 4

simultaneously when gas moves

convective the

heat

cold

compression

towards

expansion

space.

--

\ \

I I

I I
I
I I
I

\ \
\
% i

|
_00

I io+o

I. II1,0+11

I JPlO,O

CFII_NK FIN6LF

Figure

2-1:

Variation o f pressure and Reynolds number in the heater of a GPU 3, isothermal analysis. Flow toward the cold end is poslti_; full llne = hot end, dashed line = cold end.

During the hot blow, the gas expands as it regenerator.

flows through the cooler and

DiJkstra (1984, p. 1886) proposed to model the compression of the working gas as bulk heating of a fluid flowing through heat exchangers. coefficient in the case of He

pointed out that the convective heat transfer bulk heating is very different specified heat flux.

from that for specified wall temperature or are particularly flow regime.
temperature

The differences

blg in the entrance

region of tubes and in the turbulent whether bulk heating can be


gas due to compression report fluid this focuses mechanics and on and used

It is, however, not clear


changes in the working

to model

expansion. the effect of the oscillation heat the of the working To are

This fluid isolate neglected Mean normalized assumptions uniform velocity very on

heat

transfer and

In the of

exchangers. working fluid

effect, of

compression the

expansion below.

in most velocity with

discussion In sound

variation. speed in of the

Figure to

2-2, a

the Mach

mean

velocity

is to is the mean the

the

form

number; the speed 2-2

according of sound that

implicit constant

isothermal heat

analysis,

and

in each in a

exchanger. engine

Figure

shows

variation to the

typical

Stlrllng

is roughly shown

sinusoidal 2-I.

and

similar Velocity

Reynolds

number number

variation variation

in Figure from

and

Reynolds

deviate

a sine

function

in

that:

(i)

the hot towards period.

blow period, during which the flow the compression space), is shorter

is positive (i.e., than the cold blow

(2)

The maximum during the

velocity cold blow

during period.

the

hot

blow

period

is greater

than

;
_0.0 ! O0.O I llkO,4 I P40.O i IO, O I _.0

CP.gNII RNGLE

Figure

2-2:

Variation

of Mach

number

in

the

heater

of a GPU 3, isothermal analysis. Flow toward the cold end is positive; full line = hot end, dashed line ffi cold

end.

The differences velocity

of the mass flow variation

(Figure 2-I)

and the mean be neglected in

variation

(Figure 2-2) from harmonic motion will

the discussion below.


Temperature conductivity gradients axial in of the dependent gases heat properties. with The molecular Due viscosity to vary the in and thermal

increase exchangers,

temperature. gas

temperature the radial and

the

properties

directions. In particular, the core; viscosity the core near the of heater the gas wall is expected near the to be wall on of

higher the the

than

in the than

viscosity of the

is lower

cooler

in the of

flow. in

Therefore this report

calculations should only

based be

assumption

constant

properties Some authors convection this

considered effects) important. in

approximate. turbulent For

consider with see

density large

variations

(buoyancy

forced of

density

gradients (1982).

a review

subject,

Petukhov

et al.

2.2

Physical This

Arguments

for

the

Choice

of

Similarity some of the

Parameters transient phenomena

section

describes engine of these

qualitatively heat exchangers. are

expected

in Stlrllng each and

Similarity proposed. flow, the

parameters

characterizing Velocity non-dlmenslonal non-dlmensional Taylor friction for steady In the and

phenomena In

acceleration. pressure

steady

friction of

factor

(a (a by

viscous mass

drop)

is a function flow

Reynolds e.g.

number those

flux).

Oscillating that the is

experiments,

Aghill

(1984) and

showed

functional for

relationship oscillating

between flow than

factor

Reynolds

number

different

unidirectional limit of very

flow. slow oscillations, that of steady the oscillating This flow that the

relationships

should

approach

flow.

suggests

friction

factor

in oscillating

flow is also a function of a dimensionless Following Chen and Griffin (1983),

frequency or dimensionless acceleration. this dimensionless frequency is chosen as:


d= 4 v

Re

In

this

report,

the

Reynolds

number

is based

on

the

maximum

velocity

in

the

cycle:

Remax

Um,m_xd v

Fluid the fluid If the fluid

displacement. displacement moves moves to as back

Walker in Stirling and forth and

(1962,

1963

and be

1980, so

p.

130) that

shows some

that working exiting.

engines within

may the

small

merely gas

heat

exchanger mixing, thermal of gas to the

without this energy heat gas

a plug axial at

if there only by

is

no

axial

contributes wall or

the

heating the

absorbing end the

from

the and

adjacent it at heat

fluid the low

high

temperature end. heat the Only

exchanger and the heat in

releasing leaves the

temperature transfers argued an that

that

enters in the

exchanger (1975)

directly gas that

the

volume within

cylinders. exchanger engine. heat by

Organ may The be

stays to

considered ratio, is the

undesirable A R, is used

addition to describe during the

the fluid half

dead

space

the in

amplitude It

displacement a cycle as divided

exchangers. tube length, u m.

fluid by the

displacement that of

the

computed This is

assuming reciprocal within the

fluid

moves

a plug

at

mean If the

velocity, I, most

^ introduced without

by Organ exiting;

(1975). if A R _ and I,

AR

fluid

oscillates

the

tube

fluid

traverses spaces

quickly during

through of the

tube,

residing

in the

upstream

downstream

most

cycle.

Entrance exchanger an increase has in

and two

exit

effects.

The The by

pressure

drop

at

the

entrance is the

of

a heat of the

components. energy to

reversible

pressure flow work In as

drop

result in

kinetic

expending

(pressure case gas of

drop) a

contraction compressible (approximately the of entrance the vena may

upon

entrance gas,

a heat

exchanger. decrease contraction.

the the The

working

density

will

is expanded part flow exit, rises shear of

adiabatically) pressure contracta. be recovered is lost drop It

in this is due

irreversible in the flows. The shear At

to viscous small

dissipation in steady decreases.

is typically as the gas

the

pressure and

velocity by from

pressure in the

kinetic of

energy the

irreversibly upon exit

viscous the

dissipation exchanger

layers

separated

flow

heat

into

the

downstream Since ratios the as of

chamber. the the magnitude contraction diameter of entrance and exit of the are losses duct, added and depends these to the on area the area (or

and

expansion (d/D))

ratios

corresponding similarity Pipe

ratios, for

Reynolds

number

parameters The

capturing

entrance

exit heaters

losses. are often curved. in

curvature. from as steady

pipes

in Stifling flow on

engine that

It

is

known pipes

unidirectional forces act

secondary The

flows Dean

develop

curved

centrifugal

the

fluid.

number,

De

= Re 2/_

where as

Rc

is the

radius

of

curvature for this

of

the

pipe (Berger

centerllne, et al.

is commonly 1983). in a pipe are

used

a similarity Developing

parameter flow. flow In

effect the

steady

flow,

velocity developed of in the the

profile

changes The

in the

direction scales The on

until the

fully

conditions pipe (or the

reached.

entrance of

length the

diameter factor

hydraulic

diameter

duct).

friction

entrance

(developing)

10

region friction

is higher factor

than for

in

the

fully duct

developed flow as

region.

Therefore, of the

the

average

developing _/d,

is a function Reynolds

length/diameter Flow engine based

ratio,

as well Flow

the

number. of Stlrling number choices of

in regenerators.

in the described and the in

complex in matrix Section The of

geometries of a

regenerators on the

is commonly diameter are of

terms

Reynolds Other

hydraulic

porosity. 5.1.

similarity

parameters

discussed working exit

Compressibility gas above gas affects and the the

the and of

gas. losses

compressibility heat exchangers the the

of

the as

working

entrance

the

described If at the

propagation in a heat

pressure is of

changes the

throughout order as

engine. speed

velocity

exchanger

same of due to and in

which

pressure therefore,

changes

propagate

(approx.

the

speed

sound), to

pressure

(and, will the be

density) As the

variations ratio of

in the gas

engine

compressibility of flow sound (i.e.

significant. number) Mach

velocity form

speed the the

Mach The

approaches based as

unity, upon

shock the

waves

becomes cycle,

choked. is

number,

highest of The

velocity

engine

therefore

chosen

a measure

compressibility walls of the

effects. heater and cooler as cold they blows. affects described and are The the by the

Temperature matrix of the to

transients. regenerator

undergo gas

temperature during

transients hot and

subjected transient engine

different

temperatures of p. the

response,

particularly (Walker 1980, from

regenerator This theory, period, heater as

matrix, is

performance

140).

response e.g. as and

dimensionless regenerator 5.3. Also,

parameters length the to and

regenerator blow of the

dimensionless in Section may 4.1.

dimensionless response heat

discussed cooler

transient

walls

contribute

enhanced

axial

transfer

discussed

in Section

]I

2.3

Derivation Momentum

of

Similarity

Parameters parameters, momentum and introduced the energy in Section equations. is: 2.1,

equation.

Similarity the

can

be

derived

by normalizing gravity, the

Neglecting

momentum

(Navier-Stokes)

equation

"_ "_ au + u.vu at

Vp

+ vv2u"_

p suitable for pipe flow is derived in Appendix B:

A normalized

form

_'_+

= -

Here

the

superscript Rem, term, of viscous

* denotes

a normalized of the

quantity. temporal number, the Thl8

The

dimensionless (or the term. however,

frequency, unsteady) coefficient The

is the whereas the

coefficient the maximum

acceleration Rema x, is

Reynolds and

spatial has

acceleration no coefficient.

pressure does not

gradient imply,

term

that

Rema x

is the

ratio

of

the

_.V_

(steady

inertia)

term

to

the

v?2_

(viscous) of the

term. order,

That

would if

only

be

true

if both

non-dlmenslonal

terms

were

same

i.e.,

This

is not

necessarily

the

case.

In a

fully

developed

laminar

pipe

flow,

for

example,

the

_.V_

term

vanishes

but

the

Reynolds

number

is still

non-zero. The Reynolds dimensionless number (White frequency, 1974, p. Re_, 144) or has the also been called number the (Park kinetic and Baird

Valensi

12

1970).
It

It

Is a multlple
square of the

of

the

Stokes

number

(Grassmann

and

Tuma

1979)

and

Is the

Womersley version

parameter. of the normallzed momentum equation Is:

A slightly

rearranged

Str
2 where the that StrStrouhal Str atT +

P.v "- _d/um,ma number X is may

V*

2
Rema x number. literature number of Note that the definition p. 88), of and

p the vary of the

Strouhal in the

(Telionls used by

1981,

is a multlple

Strouhal oholoe

DiJkstra for To the

(1984).

Geometric normalization similarity, case the

slmllarlty. of the momentum all or

The

length

scales

equation

is arbitrary. scale on the

maintain length; in this is the

however, pipe radius

dimensions the diameter

must

same

d was

chosen. the pipe

Therefore, length.

(/d) The

appropriate amplitude For of

similarity fluid

variable

describing is not an

relative parameter.

displacement motion, It

independent in Appendix

similarity B to be:

slnusoidal

fluid

is shown

AR

" 2 d

Re

Description various regenerator

of

geometries types,

other

than

straight or ducts to the

pipes, of

such

as

the

curved

pipes,

rectangular the similarity

cross-section, parameters Energy

require

additional in this Heat

descriptors e.g. is

complement number. the

described equation.

section, transfer

Dean by

governed

energy

equation:

_T + _-gT) - Bt _P + _'Vp + V.(kVT) + pep (_-_

]3

where is the dissipation pipe flow is:


,
p Cp = 2 Re

function

(Appendix B).

A normalized form for

.
(2 Rem Ec

aT*
-_ + Remax

_" V"T*)
" V*-(k*V*T*) + Ec *

ap* _

+ Ec

Rema x _*.V*p*

Pr

where

Pr

ko

EC

Um'm_Y_ Cpo (Th-Tc)

Other governing If the

choices equations

of

similarity obtained

variables. if the as T*

Other

forms are we

of

the

normalized differently. the Ec, fluid can be

are

variables - T/T o and heats, the

normalized assume that

temperature ideal by gas (Y -

is normalized with constant

is an

specific

Eckert

number,

replaced The the

1) Mmax 2 can if also enter the normalized momentum equation through

Mach

number of state

equation

pressure

is normalized

with

a reference

pressure:

p* Then the

= 2_ Po Math number

Po

PoRTo

= in

._m y
the

r'_ax term:

appears

pressure

Re

a_* "_

R--max _t"V*_* 2

" -

Re_.max I _ 2 YMma X 2 p

+ v*?*'_*

These somewhat normalized parameter. normalized equation:

examples arbitrary. equation

show The alone

that

the

choice of

of

similarity

parameters parameter a relevant when the

is in a similarity all

appearance does not

a dimensionless that it are I, is

imply

Meaningful terms in an

similarity equation

parameters are of order

obtained e.g. in

momentum

14

._u*. 0 (_-_1 Then the the

,@u*.___} I d.p__) - o(u - 0(3. dx . of those

O(v*

_2u*) terms,

- I
i.e., Re_, of the Rema x, the Str in in the

coefficients equation, momentum term pipe term to flow (due in a

normalized the e.g.

momentum

represent equation, the or to viscous the Dean

relative Rem of is the the

magnitude ratio of

terms

dimensional acceleration oscillating acceleration momentum In indicate would

temporal in a laminar spatial term of the

term

momentum ratio

equation of the

number

is the

centrifugal flow an is

force)

to the

viscous

equation the energy

laminar

in a curved number and to on

pipe. the order number of I would of order I

equation, heating density

Eckert

that

viscous that

important due

a Math high

indicate

variations

fluid

velocities

are

expected.

15

3.

FLUIDMECHANICS OF OSCILLATING PIPE FLOW

In

unsteady

flows,

pressure is a

and local

shear

forces of

in

the

fluid

are

not and

in shear

equilibrium; forces. from

instead

there the

balance of

inertia,

pressure are

Therefore, of steady

fluid

mechanics

oscillating

flows

different

those Figure

flow. an integral momentum balance on a cylindrical

3-I

presents

control

volume

in

fully

developed

flow

(u-Vu

- 0).

The

oscillating

flow

case where

shows u

the

additional

term

associated mean

with

temporal

acceleration

(_u/_t,

is the

cross-sectlonal

velocity).

16

T W

;___D2p( _D2p(x) ()

x+Ax

L
steady flow '_X

(a)

pressure

In

balance

with

wall

shear

stress

T W

oseillatin_

flow

(b)

pressure

In

balance

with

wall

shear

stress

fluid

inertia

Figure

3-I:

Force

balance

in

fully

developed

plpe

flow.

17

3.1

Analysis

of Laminar by

Flow

in a Straight and found (1930), of both Tyler

Pipe (1929) first velocity (1955) and indicated near and the an wall (1956) for have

Measurements oscillating oscillating since shown flow pipe thls flows.

Richardson They Sexl

effect. flow. by

a maximum Womersley sinusoldal were (1986)

Uchlda

analysis Similar and by

non-slnusoldal by Drake (1965) for plates.

oscillating rectangular Zielke pressure (1968)

analyses Gedeon

performed for flow

channels and

between to

parallel calculate

Trlkha

(1975) laminar upon the

used

Laplace

transforms

drop

in unsteady based

flow. Uchida flow profiles (1956) at analysis, times the same shows during velocity the cycle of with and

Figure distributions for several

3-2, for values

fully-developed of Re_. All

several assume

magnitude are

pressure the

gradient mean to

oscillation, velocity that

and

the

local

velocities steady

normalized flow

maximum

would

occur

with

laminar Velocity p. 99)

(responding similar and to

the

cycle-maxlmum measured p. 87). by An was slowly

pressure Shlzgal analysis made by

gradient). et al.

distributions and but Edwards for flow

these

were

(1965, to

Wllkenson

(1971, flat

similar Gedeon

Uchlda's Figure (Rem

between parabolic higher the

parallel

plates for the

(1986). pipe flow

3-2 - 1).

shows With of

distributions however, the (Rem

oscillating amplitude is

Rem,

velocity flow

decreases opposite develops shear to

and, the the

during mean

parts flow At

cycle,

near-wall - 30). (Re_ the

direction maximum this

direction maximum moves

A velocity - 1000),

near

wall.

the and

frequency closer to

free

layer

becomes and wall.

narrower velocity

wall.

A unlfo_m

velocity

core

exists the

gradients

become

concentrated

in a Stokes

layer

near

]8

CO
m

_. o

C_ < n" U.I

_
0_

o
0 II

0_

_ 0

l
I O

0
O

..J
0 0 O 0

o u_

d z+O I. X AJ.IOO73A

"T

-H .11 o I--I

C]=IZI7VI_I::ION

if) a u_

in

tr W

_2
II

8
_. L

_j 0

1.1 ,.-I

0
0 f 0 0 I I I I

..J v

_J o

,_.

_.

_'. 9

AJ.IOO7:iA

CFIZI7VI_II:::ION
o

-1-1 a < o t,U n n _ It

_.

8
_o ,1-1 rr < 0

0
I 0

._1 o _
O O O O

c_

_, o

'T

AIIOO73A

03ZI7V_IdON Ig

The the

presence core (the

of

a large shear

velocity layer)

gradient may play

between an

the

maximum role in

velocity

and

free

important

laminar-to-turbulent Appendix To drop, C. discuss the

transition.

Further

velocity

profiles

are

shown

in

effect factors,

of

flow

oscillation ap, and lead

on

shear

stress Ar and

and Ap,

pressure are

augmentation as: - Um,ma x _ or 8_/d 32pl/d steady

o r and

angles,

introduced um _w

cos

(rot) (mt + A T) (mt + Ap) unity (1956) 3-3) by and A r and Ap are are zero. versus

Um,ma x cos

Ap - ap Note These Rem that for

2 Um,ma x cos flow,

m r and the Note

ap are Uchlda (Fig.

quantities, on Figures the 3-3

taken and

from 3-4. stress that

analysis, that for the of

plotted

Re m range 8 over by that of of

chosen,

wall

shear

is enhanced the pressure

a factor

unidirectional 130. The of high phase Rem,the change more core be In cannot is done

flow,

and

change

is enhanced

a factor

relationships shear leads quickly flow. stress the to

given leads

in Figure the mean by

3-4

indicate by

that, 45 and

in the

the

limit

velocity 90 . The

pressure responds inertia should

mean the

velocity

near-wall than nor

fluid the higher drop flow.

imposed neither pressure of

pressure the shear

gradient stress by due

does

Clearly, from the

the

pressure

computed

gradient work

assuming to and

quasi-steady dissipation shear stress

oscillating be in of calculated steady length

flow, by flow. _ must

loss

engine mean the

viscous wall

multiplying Instead, be

velocity

as

viscous as:

power

dissipation

in a pipe

section

computed

2O

2 I0

Augmentation of pressure change, (Zp

I0

Augmentation of wall shear stress, o_

I0

Re=,
of

102

103

Figure

3-3:

Coefflclents of amplitude and wall shear stress

pressure

drop

21

90

I , , ,I

, I , ,j

, , ..]

_"
X '_T

-!

I0 Re_
Figure 3-4: Lead angles of pressure

I0

103

drop and wall

shear

stress

22

I
The work

"

2_ & r -od/2

tJ(Bu)= _ r

dr

relative and total

increases pumping

(due work

to

flow

oscillation) and

of

shear

(irreversible) over those for

(reversible

irreversible)

steady

flow

can

be

expressed

by

the

coefficients

of excess

work,

e I and

Cp,

respectively.

[;o 27
cI -

I(mt) I_(wt)

d(wt)] d(wt)]Re +0

[;o 27 [;o
P "
2_

d(_t) ]
(_x)Um d(wt) ]Re 0

[; o

27

These Re=

quantities range shown,

are

plotted

versus

Re_ work by

on

Figure

3-5. by

Note

that of

over

the

the'irreversible work and most the as increases shear of work this

increases a factor of

a factor The

six,

whereas between the

the the

pumping pumping engine exit

125.

difference work. In upon

values

represents lost

reversible due Some impinges

Stirllng to may on or

is eventually

to dissipation of this upon

entry work work

from

heat gas

exchanger the

channels. channels

reversible and does

be recovered a piston

exiting

surface.

23

103

'

'

' ' L

2 I0

P p,reversible + irreversible

C i

IO

i ,irreversible

I0

10 2

103

Figure

3-5:

Relative

increase

of

pumping

work

due

to

flow

oscillation

24

3.2

Laminar The

Oscillating in many

Flow Stlrling

in Curved engine secondary Due

Pipes heaters flows to the are are pipe bent. strong. If the radius is true of for

pipes of

curvature steady and

a pipe

is small,

This

for

oscillating

flows.

curvature,

centrifugal

forces

act

on

the

fluid;

therefore

the

spatial

acceleration

term

u. Vu

is

non-zero pipe. In Reynolds Telionls parameters. pipe. flows:

while

it

is zero

in

fully

developed

laminar

flow

in a

straight

the

normalized The p.

momentum unsteadiness gives shows the

equation,

the

Dean

number

replaces by set flow Rew. of

the

number. (1981,

is again

characterized equivalent

183) 3-6 of

a different a schematic there and are one

but

similarity

Figure half the

of oscillating two in

in a curved secondary

In each one in

pipe

counter-rotatlng the Stokes layer.

potential

core

25

a - d/2

ro

- Rc

Figure

3-6:

Oscillating (from

flow

in a curved p. 182)

pipe

Tellonis

1981,

Yamane profiles. Streamlines rectangular Yamane stress They and

et The and

al.

(1985) were

calculated confirmed for

these

streamlines by

and

axial et flow

velocity al. in (1985).

latter

experimentally laminar, by

Sudou

velocity ducts (1985) drop

profiles were

oscillating and the

curved et al.

calculated and pipe

Sumida

Sudou increase

(1985). of wall pipe. shear

calculated in a curved as a

measured over of

pressure these

that

in a straight and

presented

ratios

function

Dean

number

Womersley

parameter.

26

3.3

Non-sinusoldal Section 3.1

and

Free

Oscillations oscillations representation laminar engines flows. are in to a straight extend this pipe. analysis may be

discussed a Fourier

sinusoldal series periodic in Stirllng forced the

Uchida to

(1956)

used

general, since and

non-sinusoidal oscillations (1974)

This

analysis not

useful Chan range 1983, U-tubes al.

generally of liquid

sinusoldal. in a (West in Iguchi fluid 3.4) in et

Baird

studied for Free

oscillations of liquid

columns engines

that pp.

is of 54-59,

interest 131). by

design

piston of Baird

(damped) (1947), to what

oscillations Park extent to of and

liquid (1970),

columns and

were

studied It the to

Valensi clear

(1982). and applied piston The effect

is not

their

results flow columns

regarding (see

friction can be

transition the forced

from

laminar

turbulent liquid

Section

oscillations

occurring

liquid

engines. of pipe and in curvature the on the flow studies curvature small was neglected in thestudles in the next

referred section. because

to above The the

transition that the is

discussed effect

authors radius

assumed of

is negligible to the pipe radius.

pipe

curvature

compared

27

3.4

Transltlon The

from

Laminar process. to bulk

to Turbulent Transltlon mean

Flow In unldlrectlonal and acceleratlon. higher flows velocltles both may under plpe value locatlon steady flow Is

transltlon sensltlve and

known

to be

veloclty

Lower and and

velocltles deceleration acceleration lamlnar-llke conditions. single shown being

acceleration

stab111ze, Since

whereas

destablllze. vary, It

In osclllatlng that flow

veloclty from

Is expected

patterns cycle

change

to turbulent-llke Hlno et al. (1976)

throughout probed the an

the

near-crltlcal flow of wlth a

osclllatlng of absolute radial

hot-wlre in Figure the center and

and 3-7. of a

presented The the

traces

the wlth flow Wlth

velocity n " 0 during Increased

parameter The

n is the traces flow

plpe.

show

a lamlnar-llke deceleration.

acceleration

turbulent-like

durlng

Rema x portlon extend

(5830, of over

Flg. the

3-7b),

the From

turbulence these traces,

perslsts one

into

the

acceleration transltlon conslstent to wlth

cycle.

would

expect Is

a broad taken

range by Ohm1

of et

Rema x. al. and the

Thls

supposltlon where a wlde

measurements observed slgnal than in that

(1982)

range

in Rema x was flows. The

between the In

lamlnar-llke part of

turbulent-like shows

osclllatlng stronger

first the

cycle

slightly of

fluctuations In the

second

part, At the

probably same

because

flow

separation

asymmetric but a higher

apparatus. amplitude are

dlmensionless

frequency the

(Re m - 7.30) turbulent they start

Reynolds than

number at

(Rema x = 5830) (Flgure part of

fluctuations prlor to

stronger

Rema x - 2070 hlgh velocity

3-7(a); the

deceleratlon

durlng

the

cycle.

28

_t-O

.j
4

_, centerline

=l 0

L.

el ,

_ J,,

F near.wall

(o)

Rew=

7.30

Remo=x2070

centerline

i
O" 2.

1. 0 , 0 ;. , ==

near wall _, ;,

(b)

Re== 7.30

Remo-'x 5830

e/= local radius / pipe radius

Figure

3-7:

Velocity by Hino

measur_ents et ai.(1976)

taken

with

a hot

wire

29

The the wall. center

ensemble-averaged of the pipe and that

velocity higher the

is lower than the

than

the

laminar

velocity near is is the the the

at pipe

laminar

velocity

This

indicates of

profile

becomes profiles.

flatter, This who agrees and I/7 p.

which

characteristic consistent profile with

turbulent work laminar solution part (see of

velocity Ohmi part et of

observation that with the law

the the

al. the

(1982) cycle

found well that power

velocity

during

theoretical during the

laminar turbulent plpe flow

(see

Section well with

3.1) the 1979,

velocity for

profile

agrees e.g.

steady

turbulent

Schllchtlng of

597-602). 3-8 shows observations of a gas in a

Experimental of transition. pipe. (1982) the

observations Ohmi They et did al. not

transition. studied their

Figure forced

(1982) state

oscillations for

straight et al.

criterion of flow a liquid to

transition.

Iguchi

observed

free

oscillations

column be where

in a U-tube. the amplitude discussed

They

chose

laminar-to-transitional began to deviate from

line the llne

of oscillation earlier. amplitudes I/Tth-power the decay of The

that

of

laminar

solution measured based (1970) They on

transitional-to-turbulent began flow to agree

flow with

is where

of oscillation turbulent free wall plpe

predictions and Baird

profiles. of liquid the

Park

observed calculated

oscillations shear The stress first

in a manometer. observed on

cycle using second occur the

maximum two on at

from was

amplitudes flow assumed stress, the end is the

of oscillation the to from

methods. the the

based

a laminar They shear

prediction, transition calculated I/7th-power effects length

turbulent amplitude

I/Tth-power where the

profile. maximum that wall

laminar

prediction, They attribute which are

exceeded their a

calculated to

from column L

profile. liquid

data

scatter of L2_/_

in the of the

column

function

where

3O

10 6

'

'

I ''''1

'

'

'

....

1TT,

I0 5 _
L-

Park Iguchi Ohmi

and Baird( ;ergeev(t966) et al.(19ez

I0 4

et o

Fig
.

5(b) +

Grassmann

and

Fig 5(a)+
10:3
I

Tu (1979)

I 10 3

Re_,

Figure

3-8:

Observations

of transition

in oscillating

flow

31

liquid engines. aluminum observed His

column. Sergeev particle through was in an

These

end

effects did not

may state

be

important criterion,

in liquid but,

piston since he was

Stirling used

(1966) flow the

his we as

visualization, walls

surmise a change

that in

transition the flow

transparent

structure. and Tuma In

work

stralght-tube, electrolytic rate,

forced-oscillatlon technique to observe transitional the

flow. turbulent

Grassmann

(1979) wall

used

fluctuations

mass Merkli

transfer and

thus (1975)

locating studied

behavior. from laminar apparatus weak operated may be was to

Thomann

transition frequencies 3-8. noticed layer. by

turbulent 2500...4000) a piston vortex near

oscillating beyond

flow the

at

dimensionless presented

(Re_ Their

range

in Figure They

oscillating motion outside The vortex

in a resonance the oscillating vortex that Sobey

tube.

a secondary The tube was

boundary observed (1985)

resonance. to the

secondary street flow.

Merkll

and

Thomann and

related

Sobey also

observed the

in steady street

oscillating numerically DiJkstra was tube tube. Though agree that initially would

channel and

predicted of

vortex

considered

it a result in the

shear-layer

instability. regime, that water which the

(1984) in the in a

observed, tube would

transitional laminar, and would

remain pattern

while remain

water

entering

flow

turbulent

turbulent

in the

the

transition Rema x

predictions increases

differ with with

with

criteria, sequence used.

the of

researchers the et

transition predictions lower The line

Re_. the

The

transition al. (1982)

is consistent is based and on the

criteria of

Iguchi's from on at onset

first

sign

deviation is based to occur on the

laminar

behavior. at the pipe as

Grassmann

Tuma

(1979)

criterion are (1966) likely

fluctuations about of the

surface. that

These

fluctuations by Sergeev

same

Rem

established

based

32

turbulent is based agrees

motion _n

of

particles. with the by for

Finally, predictions Ohml these

the

Iguchi the

et

al.

(1982)

upper law. of are It gas

llne

agreement the pipe. D.

from

I/7th-power oscillation transition

with

observations Equations

(1982)

In forced of

in

a straight in Appendix

observations

listed

Theoretical used Stokes of the the energy on

prediction method a flat of

of

transition. a lower 3-9 number This one

Von bound shows

Kerczek for the

and

Davis

(1972) of the form

to predict plate. the go

instability results which in the

layers critical

Figure Reynolds

their

value cannot

Rema x below lower bound of

oscillating transition the two

flow

unstable. by roughly well.

underpredicts The

the trends of

Reynolds

number

order

magnitude.

curves, et

however, al. (1985)

agree

Cayzac stability good one

presented pipe in For to be flow. the steady

predictions Like trends pipe Von but

for Kerczek

the

lower

bound

of found of

In oscillating agreement

and

Davis,

they

qualitative order for of

a quantitative they Re D

discrepancy the lower

magnitude.

flows, while

predicted is the

bound

instabilities value.

Re D _ 750

- 2000

well-known

experimental The energy For Davis

theoretical

prediction does

of not

the yield

lower

bound

of

instability are practically

by

the useful. see

method

apparently

results stability

that of

other

theoretical

approaches

to

the

oscillating

flows

(1976).

33

I0-

'

' '''i

'

' ' ''i

'

'

'

, i,,.

!
_ __

R%,= ! _

Van

Kerczek

Davis

(19

I0
I

I , illl I0

I J llll 10 2

I , ,,,i 10 3

Figure

3-9:

Theoretical and

prediction

of

transition

experimental

observations

34

3.5

Turbulent Though

Flow remains to be learned about have the effect of oscillation on

much flows,

turbulent

significant approach. models

findings DiJkstra taken from

been and flow (1979)

documented. Vasiliev to and Kvon and and (1971)

Quasi-steady applied pulsating Kvon's turbulence pipe to

(1984) steady Kirmse

oscillating

flow, his not of

respectively. experimental

compared that

Vasiliev their

model

data

and

concluded

quasi-steady

prediction The regime the

was concept

adequate. an oscillation-sensitive by the Ohmi et al. (1982, and p. a quasl-steady In their flow turbulent experiment, was the plots a

was

introduced radius thereby to of

536). driving Rem.

crank

sllder-crank Rema x at rod the For length

mechanism constant ratio (_) the the is

the This

increased crank of the

increasing connecting (x),

increased 3-10 shows (_) shows is

radius

(r/_). the

Figure

displacement

velocity r/_ - I/3 though

and

acceleration x, x,

of

slider-crank deviations slnusoidal. acceleration whether the Ohmi

mechanism. from The and a sine

acceleration, displacement, to be not flow ratio

large

function

nearly to to decide

turbulence deceleration. from or

structure It is,

known

sensitive possible are of due

therefore,

deviations geometry (1982)

sinusoidal, to the

quasl-steady increase when in the

to changing / Re_. line Rema X -

drive

due

Rema x the

et al.

claimed

the

latter

they

determined

2800 They

/Re_

above

which

they

predict

turbulent law

flow

to be

quasi-steady. and this observed llne. that

applied

a quasi-steady with their

I/7-power measured

velocity profiled

profile above

it agreed

well

velocity

35

o
(7 90 180 @ 2.F0 @ :360 @
m

rw

r/I =
I

rll_O
I

L_r/l=l/3

Figure

3-i0:

Kinematics

of

the

sllder-crank

mechanism

36

Fluctuatin$ Reynolds a constant viscosity experimental flows. Empirical data They of pressure stresses eddy model.

eddy

viscosity

model. flow

Kita not

et al. be

(1980)

found

that

the using

In pulsating viscosity. Their for

could

adequately

described

Therefore, model

they

proposed good not

a fluctuating agreement tested with for

eddy

five-layer pulsatlng

shows

results

flows;

it was

oscillating

pressure drop

drop

correlations. flow of

Taylor through

and pipes

Aghill of

(1984)

took . for

in oscillating as a function

finite

length number

plotted values drop

their of and an

data /d.

tlme-averaged factor" value factor

Reynolds on mean

various pressure data the

Their

"friction

is based of by the

a time-averaged velocity. of four The over

a tlme-averaged increase of the

absolute friction

indicate steady, From

a factor

unidirectional the it previous is clear the in

case. of pressure drop and in laminar oscillating of if the the working results could not

discussion that the

pipe fluid were they give

flow,

acceleration

deceleration flow. Only such (1984) as

influence correlated be applied

pressure terms of

drop

in oscillating

a dimensionless Taylor Re m. and

frequency Aghili's

Re_,

appropriately. data to calculate

paper

does

sufficient

3.6

Entrance Thus far,

and the

Exit

Losses of pipe long flow was restricted For are finite higher of to fully developed

discussion

flow

or,

equivalently, may be

infinitely The of

pipes. losses

pipes, in the

entrance entrance

effects length

important. Because

viscous the

of

a pipe.

spatial

acceleration

the

fluid,

_'V_

term

in

the

momentum

equation

is not

zero.

37

Goldberg length function suggested Stalrmand oscillating the velocity of

(1958)

showed and number. entrance

that

the

hydrodynamic developing on this

and steady

the

thermal

entrance flow is a (1984) and

in hydraulically of Reynolds the

thermally Based length that

laminar

observation, the cycle.

Charreyron Peacock

that (1983)

varies the

over

hypothesized will be

entrance

length

in laminar steady flow, flow. the Since

flow

shorter to be may far

than

in unidirectional, in oscillating to change much by

profiles the oncoming

tend

flatter not was have not

velocity

profile region.

flow so

in the

entrance

Thelr

hypothesis and tube not van

supported studied

experiments. near the that a

Disselhorst entrance separation boundary from during during the of a did layer pipe.

Wijngaarden conditions for the high pipe and

(1980) of

separation

under occur on

acoustic

resonance. During outflow,

They the

found inflow,

Strouhal walls;

numbers. the

forms They

during

a Jet that

emerges shed layer

observed

predicted with the

that

vortices of

were

the

outflow

would

interfere

formation

the

boundary

inflow.

3.7

Compressibility Compressibility

Effects effects in Stlrling engine heat exchangers may be due

to (1) pressure heat (2) (3) high recovery when the working fluid volume exits such as from the a duct or a

exchanger Mach

tube

into

a large

cylinders,

numbers shock by the of

in heat waves motion pressure

exchangers, by the interaction of pressure waves

travelling generated

caused of the

pistons,

(4)

finite

speed

propagation.

38

Pressure density done by can be

recovery. approximated

The

effect by an

of

the

increase

in

pressure This

on

the

gas

adiabatic factor (e.g., number at the

expansion. ("expansion Perry of exit be the and etal. fluid the

is commonly for p. flow

a compressibility nozzles Mach or sudden

correction expansions If the Mach form rate. for

factor") 1973, exiting flow later will that in

through

5-11). from be a heat choked, high

HiGh exchanger thereby Maeh

numbers. a shock the not mass

is one, limiting are

will flow

It will

shown

these

numbers Travellin_

expected

Stifling

engines

discussed

this

report.

shocks. travelling one

Research shocks

on non-linear can form near and

acoustics resonance Thomann

in a resonance conditions a and b). at Math This

tube

shows

that

numbers was

less

than

(Mma x - 0.2) by

(Merkli

1975

predicted are

theoretically unlikely less

Jeminez

(1973). because

Resonance the flow (see

conditions, length Appendix by the is E).

however, typically Travelling mechanism. When wave

in Stirling than half the

engines acoustic

much

wavelength

shocks

can

develop

without

resonance,

however,

following

a piston from and than

moves the heat the

towards piston

top face.

dead This The part

center, wave

it causes travels

a compression the a wave the

to travel duets faster wave

through part of

cylinder, travels pressure This change

exchangers. low-pressure

hlgh-pressure of the wave.

Therefore, p.

steepens is affected local

and by

may

form

a shock and due heat

(Shapiro transfer

1954, only

949-950). the

process in the

friction of sound of case

through fluid is

velocity

to change of shock

in

local

temperature. out in Appendix is

A simple E.

analysis worst

this

type

formation that of The the

carried fluid (the

This

estimate

assumes amplitude 7).

working

motion maximum

driven

by a piston in the

with data

a velocity see

Mma x - 0.15 fluid

value

found

base,

Section

temperature

39

is assumed engine f ]05 The Stirling in that and Hz.

to vary the

linearly is

from the

T c - 350K highest why one

to

Th -

]050K in the

throughout data base

the (SPDE-D), case. in the

frequency E this thls

found be

Appendix of in

explains worst data

this show

may that

considered of

a worst shocks

results engines it only the

case base

formation The does

Is not

expected. waves and

analysis not take

is limited into from used

includes

right-travelllng of an rightengine, and which

account the

interference pistons shock of

left-travelling would distort

pressure the Math

waves lines

opposing

to predict A more carried Aghili for the out

incipience. analysis (1982b) of and compressible modifications predicts that engine is flow were there in Stirling proposed is no engines by Taylor incipient paper. engines was and shock This in

complete by Organ

(1984). special shows base.

Organ's case that of

analysis the

air-charged shock

discussed unlikely

in his in the

section the data

Incipient

formation

Finite finite pressure expected phase heat lag speed,

speed

of

pressure the the sum of

propagation. the of at the velocity sound. ends

Pressure of the

changes piston

propagate the is If

with

i.e., and the

causing lag

change between

velocity

Therefore, of a heat

a phase exchanger.

pressures part be of

both cycle,

this the

is a small may

pressure

propagation

throughout

exchangers

considered

instantaneous.

40

4.

HEAT

TRANSFER

IN OSCILLATING

PIPE

FLOW

Since the

convective

heat

transfer for fluid

depends mechanics

on

the affect

velocity the

distribution, transfer: the energy flows, the

similarity Hem, are

parameters /d. In

heat

Remax, equation the

A H or

addition, Prandtl number, wall and

similarity number, M, and Pr,

parameters and as for

from high

important: Ec,the length. the hot

the

speed of

Eckert

number,

Mach The

h/d T w,

a measure bulk also

thermal

entrance at

temperature, at the cold

the T c,

fluid control heat

temperature transfer.

end,

T h,

end,

4]

4.1

Qualitative Llmlted

Considerations dlsplacement. engines discussed on the may The llmlt 11mlted streamwlse from 4-I displacement the heat of

fluld

fluld wall

in Stlrllng or matrix as based

heat

transfer Figure

exchanger

In Section plug length flow for because

2.1.

shows gh

fluld

trajectories characteristic length In many

assumption. the heat

While transfer

Is the the flow and

streamwlse In thls Is not

problem, Stlrllng

& Is used cases gh

study

& ,

_h in most

engines

documented.

AKh<I

AR<I

AR-I

AR>I

_t

Figure

4-I:

Fluid

displacement

In heat

exchangers.

42

Under

the AR

plug

flow

assumption,

the

A R values does not

indicate: leave the heat

< I

Some fluid exchanger.

AR -

All fluid moves heat exchanger. Some fluid moves moves in and out

into

and

out

of

the

AR > I

through, some fluid of the heat exchanger.

Assessing of of the axial mixing,

plug the be

flow, fluid

Organ that

(1975, never

p.

1016) the

argued heat

that, exchanger In

in the

absence ease

leaves dead

in the

A R < I could presence The of

considered mixing

additional may

volume.

turbulent

flow,

axial

invalidate flow

Organ's in Figure unless

model. 3-2 Rem but and In Appendix high. In will C

velocity plug flow,

profiles is not flow

for

laminar

show

that

flow plug

a good may be

assumption a good

is very axial

turbulent become

assumption show that, varies

mixing

important. pipe Organ's

The flow,

velocity the fluid concept turbulent to

profiles

in fully with

developed distance. is only in in a

osc111atlng Therefore, rough fluid Section Two tubular

displacement of moving flows. axial In

radial

(1975) for leads

temperature fact, the

wavefronts radial as

approximation displacement 4.2. temperature heat

variation discussed

enhanced

heat

transfer

drivin_

potentials. engine

Typical are

boundary sketched

conditions in Figure

for

exchanger

in a Stirllng

4-2.

43

Th

To Th > Tw > Tc

Figure 4-2:

Boundary conditions for heat transfer

in a heater.

During the hot blow, gas from the expansion space (at temperature Th) will stream through the tube into the regenerator. in Figure 3-2 show that, The laminar velocity profiles

at higher values of Rem, the fluid

near the tube

wall may flow in one direction direction


cycle the where wall

while the core moves into the opposite


and 180). heat the For transfer which those parts of a

(Rem - 30, crank angles 150


counterflow off heat occurs, to the The an

unusual near coming

situation enters the space

exists: tube at

gives the

fluid fluid

wall the

T c from heat

regenerator.

from

expansion exchange potentials, that

receives

from In

the

near-wall-fluid case, the (Tw heat

in a counter-flow transfer > has two

heat driving

process. (T w - T c) near

this

and the would

(T h - T c) where wall may have on two

- T c)

(Th - Tc). effect

It appears transfer. near

backflow influence layer. flow

a significant degree

on heat within heat the

Its

depend of

the

of mixing for

wall

shear

The is

concept

driving

potentials

transfer

in oscillating

44

also important because of the augmentation of heat transfer direction discussed In the next section. of two temperature driving potentials

in the axial

A situation

also exists

In film

cooling of gas turbine blades, where the temperature differences hot gas in the free stream and the transfer in addition injected

between the

cooling air determines the heat between the free stream may

to the temperature difference A concept llke

and the blade surface.

the film cooling effectiveness

prove useful for the interpretation in


oscillating flow.

of experimental results

on heat transfer

45

4.2

Axial This

Heat section

Transfer

in Laminar how

Oscillating transport Note and

Flow due that that to an this the axial temperature does holds

discusses by flow

energy

gradient not for depend

is enhanced on

oscillation. mixing

augmentation analysis only

turbulent flow.

cross-stream

laminar Physical

pipe

interpretation. an axial to at temperature the the flow core

When

fluid

oscillates large

in a duct

in

the

presence gradients cycle, hot core from

of

gradient, are duct

oscillating During thermal half Thus further of

temperature half of from the the hot

normal fluid the

direction of the

generated. extracts

cold in

energy the

fluid fluid the

boundary up to see cold the

layer. fluid cold

During near of the the

the pipe duct.

other wall. For

cycle, is

heats end

heat

transferred

hot

end

physical

interpretation, Note discussed that below,

Kurzweg physical for

(1985b,

p. 298). as well as the analyses convective oscillating augmentation

this

interpretation, flow. In

hold in the

laminar

turbulent may reduce

flow, the for

eddy-transport cross-stream of axial heat

cross-stream gradients

direction that are

temperature transfer. Watson flow The the in

necessary

the

Analysis. fully developed

(1983)

analyzed

diffusion of

in laminar,

oscillating,

impermeable heat

ducts transfer

arbitrary, situation

uniform is sketched a high (TL). Assume fluid, is due to in Figure

cross-section. 4-2 except that

analogous walls (TH) are and

adiabatic. a low and

The

pipe

connects

temperature that end

reservoir effects that are

temperature that the AR ( axial I.

reservoir In heat

negligible is no

a stagnant flow rate

assuming conduction:

there

convection,

46

_d 2 q - T kf

TH - TL g

Watson fluid

(1983) oscillates

showed in

that laminar

the

flux

through be

a duct

in which similarly

an as

incompressible

flow

can

expressed

- _d 2 --_-keff where the apparent

TH - TL thermal conductivity

kef f - kf depends and the on the

(I + Au) augmentation tidal coefficient volume Au, which is a function of Re_, Pr

dimensionless 2_ " AR _

VT

Remax " _ Re

The

augmentation Au - Au

coefficient Pr, V T) F

is - VT 2 values (Rem, of Pr Pr) and Re m that p. are relevant provides for a plot for of

(Rem,

is

given

in Appendix heat Pr

for

Stirling Au Rem by vs. Pr Joshl

engine JRem < _. et for

exchangers. I., 10. exact

Kurzweg He

(1985a, an

461)

= 0.1,

develops was

asymptotic

solution

Watson's al. (1983) treat the

(1983) for the

solution of

confirmed pipe.

experimentally Gedeon plates. in the (1986) Kurzweg case where and

the case

case of

a circular between axial

Kurzweg (1985b) the The hot walls walls fluid

(1985b)

flow of

parallel heat

calculates are

augmentation i.e. they

transfer

diabatic,

undergo

transient

temperature thermal fluid. energy

fluctuations. from the

contribute and giving

to heat off

transfer energy

by absorbing to the of fluid cold

thermal the the

Kurzweg's is a and

(1985b) function thermal

analysis of Pr,

shows Re_,

that and

augmentation ratios of

axial

transport

V T,

to wall

conductivity

diffusivity.

47

4.3

Experimental Hwang and

Data Dybbs (1980 and 1983) presented Figure experimental 4-3 shows a heat transfer of by

results their an

for

oscillating

flow

in a tube. Air was

schematic and cooler moved expanded by of

experimental

facility. into an

moved cold to

through space. the

a heater The

oscillating

piston

adiabatic As it moved The of the

piston air

approximately the cooler and the

slnusoldally. into the

right, was on

the

in

heater. rise

heat

transfer water

calculated the time outside

measuring test

temperature Thermocouples at both ends

cooling the

the gas the

section.

measured of the cooler

(apparently the wall

averaged) in

temperatures cooler pipe.

and

temperatures

(All

dimensions

in

mm,

net

to

scale.)

r "%_''_

216

-'

70
maximum stroke

cold

sp&ee

cooler (test

heater sectlon)

cylinder

piston slider mechanism

with crank

Figure

4-3:

Schematic

of

Hwang

and

Dybbs'

(1980)

experiment

A Nusselt difference, results are the

number

was

then average

formed heat 4-4 by

by

the

use and

of the

the pipe

log-mean-temperature diameter. The

measured

flux, the

replotted

in Figure

present

authors.

48

Nu

2O

&

15

10

indicates the prediction of transition according to Ohmi et al. (1982)

2 standard of a data

deviations point

,5 x 10 3

I io _

'

I i. 5 x

10 _

Re
max

Figure

4-4 :

Hwang and Dybbs'

(1980) data 49

Hwang (2w)) wlth

and Am A R, not

Dybbs

(1980

and

1983)

plotted In this

Nu

vs.

Reos

(Reos only

- Rema x / two of the

- 2/A R as Rema x and significant the

a parameter. Rem could be

experiment

parameters physically completely as the only

specified most data

independently. points thus the gas

A R is will Re_ be blown

since

for

through

heat

exchanger

(A R > 2),

Rema x and

remain

significant in Figure

parameters. 4-4 show certain trends:

The

data (a)

For most values of Rem, the data show a small slope for low values of Rema x, then the slope increases with increasing Re m. The data points common band. with the higher slope tend to lle in one

(b)

(c)

The individual data points typically scatter within a band that is wider than two standard deviations of a single data point; i.e., the scatter of the data cannot be accounted for by the random error of single data points. Rema x data over points of each while curve the may parts represent of the of predominantly with cycle. flow In vlew are drawn. of two This where of

The laminar greater is argued Nu

lower flow slope by

patterns may Hwang

a cycle

curves the

represent and Dybbs flow scatter

turbulent analogous Nu

flow to

during

parts

unidirectional in turbulent

steady flow.

a Re I/3

in laminar (c) on the

and of

m Re 0"8 no

statement The different

data and

further

conclusions

heat

transfer

In Hwang

Dybbs'

experiment

consists

processes: (a) blow of hot During this q"where h air through the cooler blow the heat transfer ATI m ATIm Is the log mean temperature difference pipe Into the cold may be approximated space. by

and

k Nu h - _

kg

- conductivity

of

the

gas and the

This can be computed if the instantaneous log-mean temperature difference (LMTD), average values for thls blow is known. 50

or

heat flux at least

time

(b)

blow of cool air through the cooler pipe into the heater. Again, a value of Nubased on the tlme-average heat flux and LMTD for this part of the cycle could be calculated.

In Hwangand Dybbs' experiment, however, only the heat flux averaged over the whole cycle and the LMTD based on temperatures averaged over the whole cycle are known. Thus the Nusselt number calculated representative the two. is neither

of the hot blow nor of the cold blow, but is an average of a Nusselt The LMTD which

The heat flux that Hwangand Dybbs used to calculate during the hot blow only.

number may be due to heat transfer

is apparently based on tlme-averaged temperatures probably


the temperature differences from none of during this the data hot set. predictions for (/d this fit blow. Thus it is

underestimates to draw

difficult

further

conclusions

Apparently, data (Figure (I)

transition explanations very short

Hwang

and are: the fully

Dybbs'

4-5). The

Possible tube was

discrepancy therefore for

- 28);

transition developed

criteria which were presumably developed oscillating flow may not apply. (2) The first amplitudes data point on that are too

each curve may be taken from relative small to measure the heat transfer the change in because the

Neither tlme-averaged heat transfer (a)

coefficient criterion may heat transfer

accurately (A R - 1.8). be sufficient to explain for of: turbulence occurs the Hwang and Dybbs

experiment

is a function

the location where in the core). the relative during time the

(e.g.,

near

the

wall

or

(b)

during same

which cycle.

laminar

and

turbulent

flow

are

present

51

_transition

estimates

based

on

lOk_

___

L:JHwang

and

Dybbs'

(1980)data

Re
max

_----transition

observed

by

Ohmi

et al.

(1982)

___transition

observed

by

Grassmann

and Tuma (1979)

10 3
, , , 12P

I0

Re

i0

Figure

4-5:

Comparison

of

prediction

and

observation

of

transition.

lwabuchl In a test

and

Kanzaka that

(1982) was

studied

heat

transfer results indicates < 733). number the heat between

in oscillating for that They and the design

flow of a in

facility prototype regime their but

designed A rough < 83, of

to obtain estimate 145

specific the

engine. (11 < Rem

they dld

operated not

laminar

< Rema x

correlate frequency such as

results

in terms the and

a Reynolds of

a dimensionless on parameters

they mean

studied pressure

dependence phase results

transfer the not of two

rpm,

difference are,

opposing

pistons. applicable. difference

Their

heat-transfer made the

therefore, the heat choice

generally the phase that the

They (90 or

observation, not change

that the 52

180 ) did

transfer

provided

Schmldt
exchanger.

analysis

was

used

to

calculate

the

mass

flow

of

gas

through

the

heat

53

5.

FLUID

MECHANICS

AND

HEAT

TRANSFER

IN

REGENERATORS

In Therefore, are

the

complex analytical

geometries methods

of are

regenerators, not ap_llcable

flow and

separation experimental

is expected. results

required.

5.1

Steady Stacked,

Flow woven metal Steady media wire sponge flow research screens, and randomly stacked are has metal used been as fibres, folded

sheet

metal,

slntered these in

metals matrices related

regenerator extensively and Stlrllng

matrices. in porous engine

through and

studied turbine

studies

to gas

regenerators.

Flow

Regimes Dybbs et to

in Porous al.

Media

Flow the on steady the flow regimes pore in porous media

(1984)

classified number based

according

a Reynolds

average

diameter.

Re

< 1 < 10 < 175 < 250 < 300

Darcy

flow

regime begin to develop on the pore wall

1 < Re 10 175 250 Re < Re

Boundary laminar separated separated turbulent

layers flow laminar flow flow

< Re < Re > 300

flow,

vortex

shedding

with

random

wakes

The small et

Reynolds values (1984),

numbers of Rem but

separating and they only for

these

regimes

are

expected to work those on

to

hold by

for

only

materials the 54 only

similar known

used

Dybbs that

al.

represent

transition

would apply to regenerator matrices.


of porous media to and the complex flow drop are

The complex and


patterns heat in flows

irregular with Re >

geometries 175 make it

difficult Therefore

predict

pressure results

and

transfer for the

with

numerical

methods.

experimental

required

prediction.

The

Permeability Beavers and flow by - a_V

Model Sparrow of an (1969) showed experimentally fluid through that a porous the pressure can drop be

for

steady

incompressible

material

described -dp/dx

+ bpV 2

where : ap V b are is the constants superficial to be determined;

velocity;

m V m

pA

A is first Darcy's term

the

frontal

area for

of

the

porous

material. pressure drop

In as

this it

equation, is described

the by

accounts

purely

viscous

law: _V/k permeability, Sparrow General by using length were k, is a constant to of reduce various of for each porous data and material for foamed nickel and for

-dp/dxwhere Beavers (FOAMETAL wire the and by

able

pressure

drop

Electric) the

geometries the

porosities as the were

screens

square-root Reynolds

permeability and friction

characteristic
as:

The

number

factor

defined

Re

v_

55

Then

the f =

dimensionless l/Re + C

pressure

drop

equation

is:

The

values

for

C were

found of of

to be

close

to

C = 0.074

for

FOAMETAL fibers,

and Huyck in

wire Mfg.

screen, Co.) had

while

a specimen value are be not

FELTMETAL C = 0.132. in the for the

(randomly There other are

stacked free

a higher which may see

fiber This

ends

FELTMETAL difference To for

found

materials. in C. and

structural

the

reason

difference by

whether engine for number, to use

the flow the

results

obtained the

Beavers

Sparrow

are

relevant the used.

Stifling

conditions, wire screen to

present

authors

calculated and 64

Reynolds This

number

specimen, Remax,

which

Beavers about

Sparrow to I04.

Reynolds In order f I/Re

comparable the , be known. friction

ranged correlation

from

factor

+ 0.074 must of

the The

permeability pressure drop from

This flow

quantity

is obtained and the law

experimentally. is above. observed the

creeping experimental

is measured using flow

permeability as given

calculated Dybbs that at

the

data steady those of

Darcy's

et al.

(1984)

studied than

in porous of

media. Darcy on

They flow, the

higher factor and on was of

velocities is a the that

characteristic number of

friction diameter explanation prediction

function ratio the of flow

a Reynolds

based

hydraulic Their the

length must

to diameter develop anew

a typical

pore. For

in every this be may

pore. mean

pressure ratio

drop of

and a

heat

transfer, pore

that as

the an the

length-to-diameter additional effect of geometric the pore

typical The

should

included

parameter. shapes properly

permeability it

cannot

represent in the

because

is measured

56

non-inertial similar (1969). Macdonald consisting others. range of They

Darcy

regime. have the

This same

is one C-value

reason as

why

only by

geometrically Beavers and Sparrow

materials

observed

et

al.

(1979) beads,

reviewed

research

on

flow

in

porous gravel, drop

media and for many

spherical obtained

cylindrical that

fibers, predicts

sand, pressure

an equation 50%. showed the

a wide

of materials Joseph et al.

within (1982) to the

that on

the

pressure

drop

in a bed They by also

of

packed

spheres

can

be related support to

drag

a single

sphere. proposed

lent and

theoretical Sparrow

velocity-squared

term

Beavers

(1969). et al. They by (1973) found studied that for the the influence drop of the shroud of as bounding spheres

Beavers porous was media.

pressure

in beds as small

packed 40

influenced

the

walls

shroud-diameters

sphere

diameters.

Friction Kays flow

Factor and

Correlations London (1984, screens. dense-mesh data for for p. 149) Walker wire flow provide and widely Vasishta used (1971) et correlations present al. (1982) provide et (1983) that for

through

stacked data for

experimental additional al. (1984) an

screens. through

Miyabe stacked

experimental present empirical fits and data

screens, Chen London of and

Takahashi Griffin data

foamed-metal based k on

matrices. the Kays and

derived more

equation the data.

(1964)

accurately drop and

comprehensive for

review steady of

regenerator was prepared is by by

pressure Finegold that they

heat

transfer (1978). data

correlations The as disadvantage well as the

flow

Sterrett

these

correlations proposed

do not

collapse

correlation

57

Beavers and Sparrow (1969) because porosity remains as a parameter in addition to the Reynolds number. The advantage is that they were obtained for gas flows so that somecompressibility flow area, which is discussed below,
Compressibility recommended the that of by air and the effects Mach in flow be

effects

such as reduced effective

are included.
through included screens. as Organ (1984) parameter is based (1967) for on

number drop Baruah

a correlating His

prediction work of

pressure and

in regenerators. (1965) screen and was Pinker

suggestion Herbert

earlier the flow

Benson through Baruah

and

where

a single (1965) of as

investigated. conclusions of Mach (p. number, 458) that "The

Benson resistance number same of and paper

stated

in their

coefficient solidity," they plot versus Baruah's

a gauze quoted

is a function by Organ,

Reynolds In the

solidity of

l-porosity. (with Mach

the

resistance

coefficient Mach numbers. show

screens low

porosities (M <

0.47...0.67) Benson and

downstream (1965) of Mach (p.

For the and

numbers

0.1) is

results number. 458)

that

resistance Baruah

coefficient also

virtually

independent conclusions

Benson a "gauze change p. 16 and flow

(1965) like across

state nozzle.

in their There to at for

that

behaves flow ?)

a crude it."

is a considerable Pinker and Herbert of of the 0.53.

entropy (1967, oncoming The

in a p.

According develops M - 0.38 increases

this in

"nozzle" the duct for and of

Mach

numbers

of M

- 0.2

a porosity porosity.

duct

Mach

number

required

choking

with

Effective To

Flow

Area

in Compressible mass flow factor rate

Flow through e.g., a nozzle, Perry et the al. due flow 1973, to the area P. is

calculate by an

the

multiplied It accounts

expansion the

(see

5-11).

for

reduction

in effective

flow

area

adiabatic

58

expansion from the upstream to the downstreampressure. a slmllar It effect

It

is expected that

can be observed when flow passes through a single screen. that this effect will be significant for flow through screens

is not likely

stacked screens because the pressure differences will be small and heat transfer

across individual

from the matrix to the gas will

be possible.

Choking

and

Pressure and

Drop

In Compressible (1971) calculated be choked p.

Flow the condltlons on under which flow. change numbers. in Thls the

Beavers flow into

Sparrow

a porous to Benson place may

material and when not be

would

based

Isentroplc

According entropy entropy

Baruah a gas

(1965, passes

458),

a considerable at low higher Mach Math numbers

takes change

through for the

significant _ p.

encountered

in Stlrllng Beavers porous scale. the low the exlt matrix They

engines, and

however.

Sparrow

(1971,

1856)

also of the

analyzed

gas

flow as

within the

using

/k'(the the

square-root maximum

permeability) of porous at to

length before number, in >

calculated would number case of be and the

length

max

material hlgh choke. Mach

flow

choked. wlth cold

A regenerator a high blow _/k-ls

operated most likely

Reynolds extreme

Even max//_

through expected

the in

4L23

regenerator

I0/_. This

Therefore analysis

choking

is not

regenerators.

is tentative were

because: calculated for the one from the comparison that for Beavers other of and

(I) The permeability Sparrow (1969)

permeabllltles and hydraulic to

diameter

specimen

used; a linear

calculate

permeabillties hydraulic

wire-mesh and the

regenerators square-root

relationship was

between assumed.

diameter

of

the

permeability

59

(2) the graphs used to calculate were plotted... (a) for air only.

_max/J_-in Beavers and Sparrow (1971)

(b) for discrete values of Reynolds number. (c) for discrete values of porosity.
Heat Vasishta provide transfer (1971), heat correlations. Finegold and Kays Sterrett for and London and woven that (1984, Miyabe wire were p. et 149), al. Walker (1982) These by the and

(1978), packed

transfer are

correlations from

screens. obtained pp.

correlations single Takahachi oscillating of the blow et

derived

experimental in Kays and

data

technique al. flow (1984) data.

described calculated The use

London

(1984,

154-155). from

heat-transfer _k-as the the

correlations

of

characteristic porosity remains as the to be

length

instead

hydraulic in heat

diameter transfer

may

eliminate

independent shown

parameter

correlations.

This

experimentally.

5.2

Unsteady

Flow

and and

Heat Ushakov flow

Transfer {1981) in porous of the

in Regenerators studied media. stationary structure of the were not heat They transfer observed augmentation a resonant by the generated < Rema x < the due

Galitseiskii to reversing phenomenon flow over

pulsatile when the

diameters of to the the The a domain

vortices - e.g. the

(generated wires of

the

elements

porous

screen) by the

are flow 6.5

comparable oscillations. < I00,

dimensions experiments that does

secondary performed

vortices for 0.6 to

6 and

< Re m flow (1970)

seem

applicable

regenerator Kim packed

conditions. studied The oscillating of flow his through a regenerator data was consisting based on the of

spheres.

reduction

experimental

60

assumption the pressure

that

the is

momentum in phase

equation with that for the this

could mass was

be

considered rate. (p. of He

quasi-steady showed He spheres values. stroke by

i.e.,

drop

flow

order-of-magnitude calculated that The his were range friction

estimates factors 20%

Justified

130). packed steady the

gas

flow than

through the

a bed

approximately of frequencies was to fixed, peak

higher

corresponding a decade. frequency Therefore, of the

covered the

less

than

Since of his

of was allow

apparatus

dimensionless number. dependence fluid factor on

experiments do not

proportional conclusions results do,

the

Reynolds

his

data

about

the

frequency suggest the

friction increases

factor. due to

His flow flows the same

however, Because flow,

that

friction

oscillation. than is in steady for

friction depend

is higher

in oscillating Whether

it must

frequency be

(Rem). by

true

wire-screen

regenerators

must

answered

experiment.

5.3

Regenerator Stirllng

Theory engine If simulation the to regenerator use typically is uses a discretization in several to p. of the volumes

engine it is

volume. not

subdivided

control heat

necessary to and from

regenerator

effectiveness (Walker measured transfer for 1980,

predict

transfer adequate used This and to

the

regenerator however,

140-149).

Given can

an be

regenerator determine has 1984, et al.

theory,

effectiveness coefficients

values of

volume-averaged been p. used

heat

regenerators. (Kays

method London Rice

successfully

gas-turbine

regenerators

154-155). proposed periods Neumann that a theory that takes into Willmot to the account and take the Hinchcliffe "holdup" by into

(1985) blow and fact

relatively (1976) account, and

short Harness

in Stifling (1979) some

engines.

proposed may not

methods leave

i.e.,

the

fluid

regenerator

61

convection (AR < I). application


Kays et and

These approaches seemmore promising than the (e.g. Shah 1981, p.


engine conditions,

of standard regenerator theories


1984, and p. 79-89) et al. to Stirling (1982).

721-763
by

or

London

e.g.

Rice

al.

(1983)

Miyabe

62

6.

STIRLINGENGINE DATA BASE Representative values


of the Similarity exchangers heat parameters of 11Stirllng data describing engines the are

operating obtained

conditions to form

of

the

heat engine

a Stlrling

exchanger

base.

6.1

Evaluatlon Schmldt

of Slmllarlty The Schmldt 152)

Parameters Instantaneous Isothermal The mean analysis mass veloclty and are pu m is

analysls. using the p.

calculated 1984,

(Urlell

Berchowitz for the

Appendlx

AI,

following

assumptions

made

analysis:
I

The

engine

consists (at I/2

of

three

isothermal

volumes: space, connecting The regenerator

The hot space duct, heater,

T h) consists of heater-regenerator

expansion duct.

volume (at T r) consists of I/2 heater-regenerator duct, the regenerator and 7/2 regenerator-cooler duct. The cold space (at T c) consists of compression space, connecting duct, cooler, I/2 cooler-regenerator duct. T r is the mean effective regenerator temperature (Urlell and Berchowltz 1984, Appendix A4, p. 158) Th in(rh/Tc Te ) the engine.

Tr 2. 3. 4. The The pressure ideal gas is uniform law of holds. the

throughout

The variations slnusoldal. There Is no

compression

and

the

expansion

volume

are

5. 6.

working operates

gas at

leakage. constant speed in a cyclic steady

The engine state. The kinetic

7. Isothermal assumptions compression drive as

and The

potential isothermal

energies analysis point

of

the is

gas

are on

negligible. the same of of the for

analysis. the Schmldt

based The the

analysis volumes A shows

except are

4. from

variations kinematics

and

expansion Appendix

calculated number

mechanism.

Reynolds

variations

calculated

63

rhombic

drive (Figure

engine

(GM GPU-3)

with

Schmidt The two

(Figure analyses

A-S)

and

isothermal in of the shape

analysis of the

A-I_) (Youssef number

1986). The

differ

Reynolds 20

transients.

difference because this

in amplitude data base

approximately to establish Reynolds calculate From the the mass

percent

is acceptable ranges number. of The heat

is only

used

approximate and Mach

exchanger

operating analysis volumes flow of

conditions. is used the to

thermodynamic control

changes changes from

of in

mass the

in various control

engine.

volumes, and over Mach the A-I

mass

rates u m, e.g. the

are mean the of the by the

calculated, velocity, is

and the

these

Reynolds averaged

numbers, flow shows area, the

velocity area at of the

over

cross-sectional Reynolds isothermal gas is numbers

a duct. inlet and

Figure outlet at

variation

of a and the This maximum of

GPU-3 outlet

heater differ

calculated because and mass number range

analysis. in the

The heat part

values

inlet during

working

stored the

exchanger of the

compression changes the

released flux at term each 0u m

during in the

expansion

cycle. the

Reynolds point

number. is

Therefore, by heat

Reynolds

operating the

represented the

a range exchanger

values. due gas

This

represents

variation

throughout and

to asymmetric during

volume and the

variations expansion temperature from the

in storage (see of ideal Appendix the gas

release The

of working dynamic control speed of

compression at

A).

viscosity volume, sound

is evaluated the density

corresponding law, heats, and the

is calculated assuming used to as calculate the ratio

is evaluated diameter

constant Rema x for of volume

specific

a = Y_.

The

hydraulic

non-tubular to heat

geometries area Re_

(rectangular of the heat

ducts) exchanger.

is defined

transfer frequency

Dimensionless dimensionless

and

relative at the

amplitude mean pressure

A R. and

The the

frequency

is evaluated

64

temperature of the respective heat exchanger. hydraulic diameter is used as a length scale. fluid motion, AR, is evaluated by integrating or outlet

For regenerators, The relative

the

amplitude of

the mass flow at the heat For the evaluation of is

exchanger inlet

between two flow reversals.

the displacement of a fluid

element between flow reversals the fluid

assumedto move into and out of the heat exchangers as a plug.

6.2

Documented The choice

Engines of documented 6-I lists data flow conditions by was restricted by the the the data of the

available. engines conditions displacers but

Table included and of

(alphabetically base, used. engines taken a brief The

abbreviation) of the

name

in the the

description of

operating and analysis

reference free piston were point in the

amplitudes not

pistons the

the

were the

obtained

from

experimental The SPDE

values "design"

from

references. from phase angle but to by and

(SPDE-D) trial run

was

calculated by

amplitudes, design intended (1986)

measured and

represented realistic from

"SPDE-T"

using the Tew

pressure

frequency. conditions "SPDE-O."

A more was

approximation data provided

operating and is

calculated

labeled

65

Table

6-I:

Documented

Engines

Engine

Type

Operating

Conditions:

Reference

Abbreviation

Speed or frequency Mean pressure Working fluid

Kinematic

Engines

General GPU3

Motors

2500 rpm 41 bar He

Urieli (1984),

and pp.

Berchowitz 37 and 39

GPU3

Mechanical Technologies, Inc. MODI (upgraded) United P40 Stirling AB

4000 rpm 150 bar H2 4000 rpm 150 bar H2

Richey

(1986)

MODI

Tew pp.

(1983) 80-86

P40

Technical University of Denmark, Stirling Total Energy System UK Consortium

1500 rpm 100 bar He

Andersen pp. 50-52

(1979)

STES

Stirling Engine (a-configuration) Ford Phillips 4-215

3000 rpm 150 bar He 4000 rpm 200 bar H2

Dunn p. 68

et

al.

(1982)

UK

Urieli (1984),

and p.

Berchowitz 30

4-215

General 4L23

Motors

2000 rpm 103 bar H2

Martini p. 32

(1982)

4L23

66

Table

6-I:

Documented

Engines

(continued)

Engine

Type

Operating Speed or

Conditions: frequency

Reference

Abbreviation

Mean pressure Working fluid Free Mechanical Technologies, Engineering Model Sunpower, Inc. 3 kW Generator Set Sunpower, RE-IO00 Inc. Inc. 58 60 He Hz bar Piston Engines (1985) EM

Dochat

60 Hz 25 bar air 30 70 He Hz bar

Berchowitz

(1985)

Genset

Schreiber

(1983)

RE1000

Mechanical Technologies, Space Power Demonstrator Engine

Inc.

trial parameters: 73 Hz 75 bar He extrapolated to conditions: 105 Hz 150 bar He intended 105Hz 150 bar He

Dochat

(1985)

SPDE-T

design Doehat (1985) SPDE-D

operation:

Tew

(1986)

SPDE-O

67

7.

RESULTS The

AND

DISCUSSION conditions of the of heat exchangers in the Stlrllng engine

operating are

data are

base drawn

presented the

in terms of

similarity

parameters and heat

and

conclusions in

about and

conditions and is of

fluid

mechanics The of

transfer of various

heaters similarity conditions

coolers parameters in terms

in regenerators. discussed. Re m and Plots

significance heat used. exchanger

operating

Remax,

A R are

7.1

Heaters Entrance

and and the

Coolers exit total in on losses. heat the the Table exchanger of the 7-I gives a list drop of rough estimates at the the heat The of

the

points

of

pressure heat of

occurring and at

exchanger estimates flow drop

entrance, are based

duct

exchanger,

exit. turbulent pressure exit such of

assumption 15% and and

steady, of the

unidirectional, heat exchanger and

in a rough occur are by at

pipe. pipe

Between entrance They Aghili

50%

the

exit. be

Therefore from be

entrance an

effects the area one

important. Taylor of and

could (1984)

estimated should and

experiment in

as the

and

correlated Re m.

terms

ratios

contraction

and

expansion

Rema x and

68

Engine Abbreviation H - heater C - cooler at

Portion of the Pressure Drop (in percent) occurring... the I I in the exlt at the

entrance GPU3 MODI P40 STES UK 4-215 4L23 EM Genset REIO00 SPDE H C H C H C H C H C H C H C H C H C H C H C 15 22 14 14

pipe 68

53 71
71 70 67 56 5O

17 25 15

15
16 22 24 7 24 12 14 14 13 16 16

15 15
17 22 26

85
47

8
29

75
71

13
15

7O
74 67 67 62 62 68 72

16 13 17
17 2O 22 17 15 18 2O

18
16

15
13 17

65
62

18

Table

7-I:

Estimated in heaters for 7-2 and to exit the

pressure drop and coolers.

distribution

Estimated flow are listed on

area

ratios

heater-regenerator the similarity

and

cooler-regenerator for

in Table entrance

provide losses

parameters flow.

experiments

in oscillating

69

Engine Abbreviation

Heater-Regenerator

Cooler-regenerator

GPU3
MODI P40 STES UK 4-125 4L23 EM Genset REIO00 SPDE

11. 21. 40. 32. 29. 30. 9.2 13. 7.6

11. 13. 17. 16. 5.9 18. 18. 9.4 3.0 4.5 9.0

7.8 13.

Table

7-2:

Ratios of regenerator housing heater/cooler flow area.

area

to

Developing coolers steady Reynolds DeWitt expected with

profiles.

Table

7-3

lists the

_/d

values.

For

heaters

and In of and be

rectangular flow, and

cross-section, the hydrodynamic 10 and 60

hydraulic length

diameter is

is used.

turbulent number 1981, p.

entrance pipe

independent (Incropera may

between

diameters velocity

long

377).

Therefore, heaters

developing and coolers.

profiles

throughout

many

70

Engine Abbreviation

C_/d)
Heater Cooler

GPU3 MODI P40 STES UK 4-215 4L23 EM Genset REIO00 SPDE

81 .I 96.9 93.7 51.0 219.0 115.0 88.6 81.4 59.1

42.7 92.0

80.O
38.9

30.8
96.7 112.0 75.9 50.9 77.6 62.5

88.5 71 .O

Table

7-3:

Length to diameter and coolers.

ratios

of

heaters

Flow operating

patterns conditions

and of

axial<heat heaters The

transfer. and coolers

Figure fall

7-I

shows two are

that decades all

the of the

within numbers

dimensionless Reynolds Most near number

frequency. at which

amplitude

Reynolds in

above

transition operate it in

occurs the

steady

unidirectional regime the but

flow. many are

heaters

and

coolers

turbulent to

flow

transition. and the

Therefore, characteristics flow. the

is important of fluid heat

understand and heat

transition in

process turbulent

mechanics exchangers and to the

transfer under and

oscillating conditions: is

Three REIO00

operated SPDE

transitional The SPDE

cooler

heater

cooler. as the or

cooler

shifted

from

turbulent same below dissipation

transitional if the point.

operation Genset Based drop than

engine heater

frequency is operated above,

is reduced. at

The

is expected the design and

cooler on the

frequencies power are

discussion by

higher analysis

pressure and

predicted

quasi-steady Due to

expected there

in the will be

laminar a phase

transitional between pressure

regimes.

fluid

inertia,

shift

7]

and

mean

velocity. from trial line 7-3. the and of The

Therefore, instantaneous design

the

instantaneous velocity and

pressure acceleration of the SPDE

drop

cannot

be

determined The straight 7-I and

alone. fall on of a Figures

operating the the

conditions

slope ratio

I in of

double two

logarithmic

coordinates is

similarity

parameters

Re

_d _

_d

Since ratio

is constant

and

Uma x

is proportional Rema x assuming

to

m for to

any

one

engine, operating

the

is constant. are

Therefore

is proportional that only

Re m if

conditions

extrapolated

m changes.

72

to _

turbulent

Remax

I0

Rew

10 2

10 3

Figure

7-1:

Re

_.

Re

or

heaters

and

coolers

73

Figure regime are

7-2

shows

that with

the AR

four

heat

exchangers one of

in

the

transitional that axial

operating would for be the

< I;

therefore, Estimates and of cooler the

might

think

augmentation augmentation transfer exchanger, and work in is Is

important. SPDE 0.1 heater 1.0%

this

heat that

transfer the by axial the heat

indicate

is only

about

heat

transferred Watson's are

heat analysis Further

however. on the to

This

estimate that

was the

made pipe

using walls

(1983)

based

assumtlon extend

adiabatic. wall

required Stlrllng 7-2

this

analysis

to non-adiabatic

conditions

as

the

engine. and 7-4 show that the is the relative and amplitude the The and in design trial the of fluid while

Figures displacement the

A R is

the

same

for Re_

trial

conditions, and fluid design density

dimensionless differ of the

frequency in the

different. frequency

conditions because

operating mean

different

pressures.

Therefore

Re

4v while AR is not affected.

is affected

74

IO

GPU5 i_ISTES

AR

I T
I.O _ REIOOO SPDE-O

SPDE-T_

El COOLER O HEATER

O.I IO IO 2

,o _
and coolers

Figure

7-2:

A_
K

vs.

Re

for

heaters

75

Compressibility small heater latter in heaters

effects.

Table

7-4 shows

that the Mach numbers

are

and coolers,

Mma x < 0.075, variation

with the exception

of the UK in the

(Mma x - 0.15). case

The density

due to high velocity

is (Schllchtlng

1979, p. 10):

= _ Mmax2 = 0.012

Therefore, expected

hlgh density in the coolers

variations and heaters

due to hlgh fluid of these Stlrllng

velocity engines.

are not

Highest Engine Abbreviation GPU3 MODI P40 STES UK 4-215 4L23 EM Genset REI000 SPDE-T SPDE-D Heater 0.042 0.067 0.064 0.035 0.153 0.072 0.027 0.020 0.038 0.007 0.008 0.011

Mach Number

in the Cooler 0.034 0.046 0.030 0.015 0.031 0.043 0.040 0.029 O.026 ' 0.020 0.008 0.009

Table 7-4:

Mach numbers

in heaters

and coolers.

76

7.2

Regenerators Figure 7-3 be shows complex. would be that the flow pattern to or the in most observations for regenerators by Dybbs 8 of were the made may et 12 in steadyonly be

expected (1984),

to the

According turbulent Since not

al.

flow

transitional

regenerator state for

operating

points. may

their in

observations flow

experiments, low Re m and by of Dybbs the

they will et 11

hold

oscillating to matrices

or may to

hold those

probably ai.(1984).

only

apply

similar

studied Six the heat

engines from the

shown matrix

In to

Figure the

7-4

have

A R < I which and

may

limit

transfer

adjacent

heater

cooler

("holdup"). Math of the of the numbers in the is in regenerators not are Mma x < 0.0] At (Table low to 7-5). Math be Choking numbers,

regenerators drop

therefore

expected. matrices of

these

pressure Math

the

regenerator to the

is expected Beavers 5.]. and

independent (1971) of and

number, and Baruah

according (]965)

results

Sparrow

Benson

discussed exceed screens 0.5 is

in section and not Mach

Since are

porosities than 0.2,

regenerators choking results Section

typically

numbers

less to

in regenerator by Pinker and

expected p. 16 and

according 17) which

experimental discussed in

Herbert

(1967,

were

5.1.

?7

10 4

I,,,,

steady flow regimes according to Dybbs et 01.(1984)

7
turbulent
'1

IUK
I

,o 3
Re

m R m B

max
m

. 4-21 5-r 4L23

MODT .. I000 RE SPD


/ / f /

Genset -EM

transitional

2
I0 -m

SPDE-D
J /

GPU3
/

STES
mm_

/ / J .II / / / /

/
u

laminar
.=

SPDE-T

I0 .01

I I't

I0

Flgure

7-3:

Re

max

vs.

Re

for

regenerators

78

I0

AR

GPU3 1.0

ISTE s

I 4L23

i,,.2, 5MI I ,E,ooo lIp,o


S P DE-IoI IEM ......... SPDE-D Genset

0.1 0.01 0.1 1.0 I0

Figure

7-4:

AR vs. Re

for regenerators

79

Engine Abbreviation GPU3 MODI P40 STES UK 4-215 4L23 EM Gen se t RE 1000 SPDE-T SPDE-D

Highest in the

Math

Number

Regenerator 0.0078 O. O093 0.0061 0.0031 O.0103 O. 0055 0.0047 O. 0056 0. O096 O. 0038 0.0017 0.0024

Table

7-5:

Mach

numbers

in regenerators.

7.3

Similarity After

Parameters o the operating conditions can be o Stlrllng eliminated. engine Eckert heat numbers

a review several from

exchangers, were

similarity

parameters

calculated

Sc

T (_ - I) -r_M_ax
A*--

They (UK

range heater).

from

0.0066

(SPDE-D, viscous

heater)

over

0.025 is not

(MODI,

heater) to UK

to

0.13

Therefore, to the heat 7alue

dissipation with the number

considered of the

contribute heater. provided

significantly The that exact it is

transfer, of the

exception is not

numerical less than

Eckert

important,

- O.i. can are be made for the the to Mach number, because of Tables the UK as long 7-4

A similar and 7-5 show Thus

argument that they

small,

with

possible number

exception is not with

heater. as

similarity Organ

wlth (1982a)

respect

Mach this

required

Mma x < 0.1.

challenged 80

argument

experimental

pressure (rpm-)

drop

results,

but

his

data

seem

to

support

a strong

frequency

dependence

of pumping

power. the heat exchangers of the time fast compared for that the angle. to the

Pressure cycle time.

propagates Table of 7-6

through provides through

estimates the speed data and heat of

required It

propagation pressure propagation In all heat the

pressure travel

exchangers. sound which in

is assumed

waves

with

the

underestimates degrees pressure of the of of crank

speed

slightly. but heat to

The the UK

are

given

exchangers individual effects due

4-215 within

heater, 1/100

propagates cycle time. are not

through Therefore, expected

exchangers finite

the

propagation

speed

pressure

to

be

significant.

Engine GPU-3 MODI P40 STES UK 4-215 4L23 EM Genset REIO00 SPDE-T SPDE-D

Heater 2.0 3.3 2.9 0.76 5.2 4.5 2.0 I. 2 2.8 1.2 1.7 2.4

Cooler 0.69 1.5 1.3 0.58 1.6 I .5 1.1 2.0 6.2 0.82 2.4 3.5

ReEen. 0.24 0.83 0.51 0.094 0.64 0.43 0.16 0.86 3.1 0.52 0.54 0.78

Table

7-6:

Time

estimates heat

for

pressure in

wave degrees

propagation of crank angle.

through

exchangers

8]

CONCLUSIONS In this

AND report,

RECOMMENDATIONS important like similarity Reynolds of parameters in steady are introduced:

Rema x Re m AR, _ld, Length De Area For the ratios porous ARh _hld ratios

number

flow

measure relative

unsteadiness important effects similarity. pipes entrance the and exit losses. _, Re m. may be for heat transfer

amplitude, length geometric

developing maintain like maintain media, the length

Rema x for

curved for of

similarity square-root scale

permeability, in 8ema x and

appropriate

to be

used

Previous points

research are plotted the

results in

are of

discussed the

and

11 Stirling

engine

operating

terms

parameters. of the fluid, velocity from is steady

Due profiles laminar Adequate not exist.

to and

acceleration of

and laminar occurs or

deceleration oscillating at higher

stability

flow Rema x as for

differ Re_

flow.

Transition models of the

increased. flow do

turbulence Results except flow. in or

correlations on

turbulent are

oscillating not

past results shown

research for that

heat

transfer

generally

applicable laminar operating heat are heat

enhanced the heat

axial

transport of

in oscillating engines while are most

It was near

exchangers

several region heat

the

laminar-to-turbulent in the fluid to the turbulent

transition Several

exchangers long relative

operate to may of the add

regime.

exchangers that some

displacement, engine of an dead the

A R < I. volume. working gas

This

means

exchangers The effect

compressibility by assuming

on

pressure at the

recovery

can

be

accounted

for

adiabatic

expansion

heat

82

exchanger numbers using the

and

duct

outlets.

Choking shock Pressure compared has the

is not

expected was

due shown

to

the

low

Mach

encountered. a worst-case

Incipient analysis. quickly

formation waves to the

to be to

unlikely pass through

were cycle

calculated time.

heat

exchangers of the

A review in the viscous I.

literature to assess

shown

that

immediate between

attention heat

is needed and

following dissipation The this heat

areas

trade-offs

transfer

in oscillating of in transition tubular and

flow: must be understood will improve in more the the clearly. Work on of

process topic

geometries drop

understanding heaters and

transfer of

pressure engines.

mechanisms

coolers 2. The

Stirling by which must standard be be

means

turbulence better

structure

Is

affected

by

flow to ways oscillating of

oscillation modifying flows 3. The can

understood, models so

possibly that

leading

turbulence

turbulent

accurately of thermal

predicted. and drop hydrodynamic in tubes and entrance regenerator lengths on heat must

effects and

transfer be 4. better of

pressure

matrices

understood. the permeability characterization by have hydraulic been model should be made. It may provide the used. flow of I-3 I-4 to a

A test more

general

of regenerator radius and

matrices

than

characterization Once should are. be these studied topics

porosity

currently oscillating the results from

addressed, to determine

non-sinusoidal how general

experimentally program can

A computational heat transfer gas.

then

use flow be

the

experimental compression

data and

calculate of the

in oscillating results should

with

expansion

working

Its

confirmed

experimentally.

83

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This NAG 3-598.

work The

was

supported thank

by

NASA-Lewis monitor by Roy were

Research James Tew E.

Center

under

NASA for Dhar this

Grant his and report.

authors and

grant

Dudenhoefer Manmohan in revising with and some A.

guidance. Anthony We thank

Comments Bright Youssef and (MTI),

suggestions David Keith

(LeRC),

and and

Gedeon Shodeen D.

valuable their G.

Sadek N.E. data.

for

help Dochat

calculations, engine

Andersen,

Berchowitz,

Richey

for

operating

84

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92
(k _

APPENDIX

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A SURVEY

OF PRESSURE,

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m'. CPIFINK RNGL.E _...

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Figure A-7:

UK

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PAGI_ QUAL1T_

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QUALITY

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/
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Figure A-8:

4-215

101

!.

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i !

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:t
a!O

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CI_N_

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PINE, LE

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A-9:

4L23

102

OK POOk

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Figure

A-IO:

Ell

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Figure

A-II:

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A-14:

SPDE-D

107

APPENDIX

B:

DERIVATION

OF SIMILARITY

PARAMETERS

Normalization To variables

of

the the

momentum momentum

equations equation, the following dimensionless

normalize are used:

4_ _ X m X --

* U

,.F U --

P *=2_ P*=.E_

Po

rb
m

v*
Neglecting

- -_
P gravity, the momentum equation Is:

Bt

to_Y" _-_*.v*_* -

U2 L

V*_r.* "+ _ u _ * v*'_* p po _1" p

to Po _

_o

_o

108

For the oscillating length scale scale

pipe

flow problem, L = d/2 U - Um,ma x to 11w

the following pipe radius amplitude

scales

are used:

velocity

of the mean

velocity / 2_

time scale

period of oscillation

4 v o at

vo

vo

Re

a_" R-Smax _'. = _--_' + 2

V'_" " -

_ 2

V__ p

+ v'V" '_"

where

Remax "

Um:m_ x d and Re . u d 2 v _ 4--'_"

The dimensionless inertia Reynolds Dividing term

frequency

Re_ appears

as a coefficient equation

of the unsteady

in the normalized Rema X appears

Navler-Stokes as a coefficient number,

and the amplitude inertia term.

number

of the steady

by the maximum

Reynolds

the following

form is obtained:

2 Um,ma x at"

,.,d a;" +

_"V*_"

V__ +
P 2

2_o _'V'';'
Um,max d

Str a_/"

2 at"

_*" V*_*

" -_

V*om

Remax

In this form, the Strouhal coefficients:

number

and the Reynolds

number

appear

as the

Um.m_w

Rema x Vo

and Str Um,max

lOg

Normalization The energy

of

the

energy is:

equation

equation

pop

BT (-_ + _-9T)

Bp _ +

9p + V'(kVI') + #

where $ is Schlichting

the dissipation 1979, p.60):

function,

using

Stokes'

hypothesis

(e.g.

# - TiJ

@x i "

_u g(_x-_) =

The

normalized
t N =t

variables

are

chosen

as:

d/2
,, U

"',R

Um, max * p - Pm_nn PO um,max

"

T*

= T - Tp, Th - T O = d/2 V

V*

"

P/Po

ki .

k/k o

_/_o

Cp*

= Cp/Cpo i au m 2

With

these

variables,

the

energy

equation

is:

110

Pc po

p, Cp*

(m(T h - TO ) _ 8T _ +

(Um, max

_*"

V* T*) d/---2

(T h - Te))

Pc Um,max 2

(Um,max

_*"

V* pS) d/---2

Pc Um ,max 2

V* (k* -V* (T h - T O ) ko _-7_ d/2

T*)

Pc

(u d__2

), #*

P P' us, ma-q _'*


+ kn PoCp I Um,ma x

[ m d/2

aT*

_*.V*T*

h ] . epo(T um._

d/2 a * T O ) _t Cpo Um'm_'2 (Th - T c)

_'V*p"

d/2

V*'(k*V*T*)

l_n_ Poepo

(Th - To)

p*Cp*

3T* _*" V'T* ] - _ 2 t----_-V r2 Re Remax

Re Ec Remax

_t*

Eo _*-v*p*

+ Pr Finally,

I V* "<h*V*T*) Rema x normalized energy

Ec @, Rema x equation Is:

the

p*Cp

_T* (2 Re =_-_

Remax

_*-V*T*)

2 Re

* + Ec = EO _-_t

Rema x _*-V*p*

V*'(k*V*T*) Pr = Cp

+ Ee

where

Ec

Um, m_2 (T H - T L)

is

the

Eckert

number.

Similarity The streamwlse ensures in pipe developlng

parameters similarity component similarity flow ensures in

I/d

and

AR are the obtained momentum from the normalization Geometric e.g., the the of the

parameters (x,u) the that of other the

equation. (y and growth z), in

slmllarlty /d - ratio

components layer

boundary

hydrodynamic

length

is similar. lll

The then

set

of

parameters E/d,

relevant

for

heat Ec and of

transfer A R. these is

in oscillating set contains

flow two is

consists

of:

Rema x,

Re03, Pr, flow. If the

This

parameters redundant

more for

than

in steady flow; (03t)

One

parameters,

however,

slnusoidal

velocity

um - Um,ma x sin then the maximum over

displacement half the

of

an

average

fluid

element

is calculated

by

integration

cycle

2 Xm,ma x -o]T/2um,max

sin(03t)

dt - 2 _w

By

the

definition

of A R

AR . 2 xm:m_x Z

= 2 Um_m_y 03_

but

Rem_x Re
03

= Um,m_x d _ = 4 Um:max 03 d 2 03 d

therefore

1 d Re_max AR = 2 & Re
03

For

other,

non-sinusoidal proportionality Re03.

fluid factor

motion, than the

the I/2. of

integration In any case,

will

yield

a of

different &/d,

A R is

a function for heat

Rema x and

Therefore, by one to

set

similarity

parameters

transfer

is reduced A R or (L/d), data \ heat

Rema x, show

Re03, whether

Ec A R or

and /d

Pr. is more appropriate in

Experimental correlating

will

transfer

results.

112..

Calculation The data (1984, base p.

of

the

Reynolds diameter

number for on

for

regenerator

matrices in by the Kays Stlrllng and London engine

hydraullc Is 8): dh/_

regenerator the

matrices used

calculated

based

definition

- _ Ao/Ah cross-sectlonal heat transfer length transfer area area area

where

A c - flow A h = total - heat dh

exchanger

- x vold = porosity

volume/heat

Figure

B-I

shows

a cross-section s is the wire

of

two

layers (i.e.,

of

a woven-screen inverse of the screen

regenerator, pitch) and dw

where

spacing

the

Is the

wire

diameter.

S
$

CROSS-SECTION
Figure B-I : Schematic of

FRONT VIEW (INFLOW DIRECTION)


a wire mesh regenerator screen.

To volume

a first

approximation,

the

control

volume

(c.v.)

contains

a solid

Vs - _

dw 2s

If3

The porosity

is defined

as the ratio

of void volume

V v to total

volume

Vt.

. W . Vt - Vv Vt Vt The heat transfer area in the control volume is

Ah - _dws Then the hydraulic diameter ls (Kays and London 1984, p. 8)

Ah Thls is the expression The characteristic average velocity

Ah commonly velocity

Ah

1 diameter. Is calculated as the

used for the hydraulic in the Reynolds number

in a cross-sectlon

with effective

flow area

Ac - s' Then the characteristic velocity is

where V is the superficial flow Just before entering

mean velocity, or after leaving

i.e., the mean velocity the matrix.

of the

UmA c - VAf where Af is the total regenerator frontal area, i.e., the cross-sectional

flow area when the matrix

is removed.

114

APPENDIX

C:

VELOCITY

PROFILES

IN LAMINAR

FLOW

The fully

plots

below

show

velocity flow

profiles for from limit eight the as

for

laminar,

incompressible, frequencies. by Uchida to The (1956) zero.

developed, profiles

oscillating were by

dimensionless equations given velocity

velocity for

calculated taking the

pulsatile

flow

the

mean

goes

115

,]
Re

=i

Re

'= 3

..--

,--,

_,

,--

(LOCAL RRDIUS)I(PIPE

I_DII.JS)

Re

- 3O

. i"

|,
,,m ._. .--' _, (LOCAL B/_IUS)/(P].PE I_OIU5) ,_. _ ..=.-(LOCRL RRDIUS)I(PIPE .., RADIUS)

Figure

C-l:

Velocity

profiles

in laminar

flow

]]6

ORIGINAL OF POOR

PAGE

IS

QUALIT.Z

ORIGINAL OF, POOR

PAGE QUALITy

IS

Re

300

!"

I"

I"

Re

i000

_"

Re

ffi 3000

i"

I"

_t
uJ N

i,!
I" b l' 'T

p.

v
I
(LOCP, L _IUS)/(PIPE 1_SDIUS)

I,

._,
(LOCIK. IVIDIUS)/IPIP I_P.DIUS)

Figure

C-l:

Velocity

profiles

in

laminar

flow

(continued) 117

APPENDIX

D:

EQUATIONS

OF OBSERVATIONS

OF TRANSITION

This appendix The ranges references

provides

the equations

describing

the lines over which

in Figure

3-8.

of applicability provide

are based on the range data to support

the original

experimental

these

equations.

Reference

Equation

Range

Grassmann

and Tuma

(1979)

Remax = 141 Rem0.75

42 $ Re= _ 520

Rema x = 15300

520 < Rem $ 943

Iguchi et al. (1982) laminar _ transitional

Rema x = 400R_e_-_

100 < Re= < 800

transitional

_ turbulent

Rema x = 800 Rvr_j

100 < Reu < 800

Ohmi et al. (1982)

Rema x = 800 Re_

18.4 _ Rem _ 546

Park and Baird

(1970)

Remax = 188 Rem2/3

35 _ Reu _ 1000

Sergeev

(1966)

Rema x = 700 Re_--_

16 _ Re_ $ 1600

118

APPENDIX Resonance

E:

EFFECTS

OF

PRESSURE

PROPAGATION

A necessary flew length

condition plstons

for

resonance

In Stlrling than half the

engines wavelength

Is that (_)

the of

between

Is greater

pressure

propagation.

where

- speed

of

sound

f = engine

frequency

The the

smallest only

_ is air-charged

obtained engine

for

small

a data

(low base

temperature) (Genset), the

and

large

f.

For _ is:

in'the

smallest

_1._1X = f =

286.7 X 367 60 sec -_

m/see = 6.42m

For the

He

and

H2-charged _ Is:

engines

the

worst

case

would

be

the

He-charged

SPDE-D,

smallest

/1.66 f =

2079 105

x 350 see -_

m/see =

10.5m

The

flow

length 1982,

between p. 32) as p.

pistons 1.4m. 36-37)

may It as For

be can

found be

in the

literature for the

for

the

4L23 Urieli

(Martini and al.

estimated and for

GPU3

from from base of

Berchewltz (1982, to p. be

(198_, 68) as

- O._m all

the

UK in

engine the data

Dunn it

et Is

> 0.78m. than 3m,

other from

engines the

expected engines.

less

estimated

exterior

dimensions

the

I]9

The between

half-wavelengths, pistons, therefore,

AI2,

for

both

cases

exceed

the

flow

length

resonance

is not

expected.

Shock

incipience A shock forms by the when pressure of waves interfere constructively. Consider a piston This that may

be

predicted

method In

characteristics. (Fig. E-I).

oscillates

sinusoldally

a tube

Figure

E-I:

Oscillating

piston

in a tube

As the

the

piston end.

moves These

to

the be

right,

it

continuously in the by

sends t-x-plane

pressure as at shown

waves

to

open Two

can

represented were

in Fig. times of the

E-2. may

pressure

waves one

that

emitted

the

piston

different slope

interfere x llne).

if the

emitted

later

travels

faster

(smaller

t vs.

120

_t

sinusoldal

piston

motion

IT

pressure

_fc_p1:_ _o_.t_o_a_e___ _,

//_/charlcteristic

of

first

pressure

wave
ram.

Figure

E-2:

Method

of

characteristics

121

The the of

lines piston both

descrlbing velocity will

the

pressure

wave

propagation to the

are

characteristics. of sound, the slopes

If

is small be nearly

compared equal:

velocity

lines

dt (_)I

1 = ;

dt

(3"_)zz

up ; a
dt dt = (_)II

If

a )

Up,

then

(_)I

Then

the

two

lines

will the

intersect maximum

far

from

the

piston. is smaller area if than the than fluid the is

In an velocity piston set to in

englne, the

piston because case

velocity the

heat

exchangers a worst velocity E-2 are is the

flow

is less the piston The if case

area. the

Therefore, highest In fluid Flg.

is obtained in the to

velocity

found most small,

data

base.

characteristics the sinusoidal

likely i.e.,

intersect worst

the

period have the

of the

piston

motion Due to

the

should

highest of sound

frequency. varies. to vary analysis

temperature simplistic

gradient

in an the

engine,

speed is

For

the

present with x.

analysis,

temperature

assumed The bends

linearly

is one-dimenslonal matrices most data in the

and

ignores path. for

contractions, A fictitious shock

expansions, worst case is

and

regenerator of all the

flow

composed encountered

favorable base:

conditions

incipience

In the velocity of

piston

amplitude

Hma x = 0.15 w = 105 L - 1.5m L > 1.39m Hz

UK-heater SPDE-D

frequency engine

oscillation length

flow

_L23

122

The temperature Consequently,

was assumed

to vary

linearly as:

with x from 300K to I050K.

the speed of sound

varies

a(x) - /'_

-/'_/L [(Th - Tc)x + To ]

Then the two characteristics

are described

by

t# I =

Th - To

[_T. - To)_' To,-- n--_L]


+ Tc L

t#ii _ to = _j_L'- 2 [I(T h - Tc)x h To

_" UpQ

I] -

In_'/(Th -

Tc)X + TeL +

Upo)}]

where Upo is the piston piston and # denotes

velocity

at to, when the pressure due to interference

wave

leaves

the waves.

shock

incipience

of pressure

Test values cases

cases for air, hydrogen incipience

and hellum

were calculated

for different test

of to but shock (e.g., Fig. E-3).

was not observed

in any of these

123

TEST CRSE WITH HYDROGEN

i_
o _-I
X

I--

I ._loo

I .04)0

I 1.2oo

I ! .040

I 2.000

DISTflNCE / m

Figure

E-3:

Characteristics

for

test

case

with

hydrogen

124

APPENDIX

F:

AUGMENTATION

OF AXIAL

TRANSPORT

From-Watson

(1983, p. 241),

the augmentation We - _Re_

coefffielent

is

Au - T (We, Pr) VT =

with
T m

B=(Wo)
I - B=(Wo JPr)

87=(I - Pr*/=) B,(Wo)

where

B=(Wo) -

We B"(Wo) + B'(Wo) B'(Wo)

and

Wo=B(Wo) B,(Wo) dn

B'(Wo) - WoB"(Wo) WoWB,(Wo)

- Wo=B"'(Wo)

Sn - _

(ber=(Wo)

beiS(Wo))

Bet and bel are the Kelvin derivations Based is provided

functions.

A series

solution

for B and its

by Watson

(1983, p. 241). the plot of the augmentation FI). The axial heat transfer function

on this series solution, (Figure

shown below was generated as discussed Sample In section

can be found

4.2 if an axial

temperature

gradient they

is assumed. proprietary

calculations data.

are not included

here because

involve

geometry

125

, | I i

"

, |,

'

'

''''I

Pr= 1.0 0.8

I0

I0'

10 3

Figure

F-l:

Augmentation

function
1 2 6 _.$.

for

axial

heat
_INTING

transfer
nFFICE: 1988-5q_-157/504_2

GOVERNMENT

NllllOnlll Space

Aeronautics AdrniniSlrat_*l

anU

Report

Documentation

Page
3. Recipient's Catalog No.

1. Report No.

2. Government Accession No.

NASA CR-182108
4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date

March A Survey of Oscillating Engine Heat Exchangers Flow in St|fling

1988
Code

6. Performing Organization

7. Author(s)

8. Pe#orming Organization

Report No.

Terrence

W. Simon

and Jorge R. Seume

None
10. Work Unit No.

586-01-11
9. Pedorming Organization Name and Address University of Minnesota School Ill of Mechanical Street and S.E. 55455 13. Type of Report and Period Covered Aerospace Engineering 11. Contract or Grant No.

NAG 3-598

Church

Minneapolis, 12. Spon_ring

Minnesota

Agency Name and Address

Contractor Annual
14. Spon_ring

Report

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center Cleveland, Ohlo 44135-3191
15. Supplementa_ Notes

Agency Code

Project Manager, Research Center.

James E. Dudenhoefer,

Power

Technology

Division,

NASA Lewis

16. Abstract

Similarity parameters for characterlzing the effect of flow oscillation on wall shear stress, viscous dissipation, pressure drop and heat-transfer rates are proposed. They are based on physical arguments and are derived by normalizing the governing equations. The literature on oscillating duct flows, regenerator and porous media flows is surveyed. The operating characteristics of the heat exchangers of eleven Stirling engines are described in terms of the similarity parameters. Previous experimental and analytical results are discussed in terms of these parameters and used to estimate the nature of the oscillating flow under engine operating conditions. The operating points for many of the modern Stirling engines are in or near the laminar-to-turbulent transition region. In several engines, working fluid does not pass entirely through heat exchangers during a cycle. Questions that need to be addressed by further research are identifled.

17. Key Words (Suggested by Author(s))

18. Distribution

Statement

Stirling Oscillatlng flow Flow Heat exchangers


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