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Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 89 (2001) 633647

Vortex-induced cable vibration of cable-stayed bridges at high reduced wind velocity


Masaru Matsumotoa,*, Tomomi Yagia, Yoshinori Shigemurab, Daisuke Tsushimac
Department of Global environment Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan b Project Engineering Department, Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., 2-4-1, Hamamatsu-cho, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-6116, Japan c Design Department, Bridge Division, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co., Ltd., 5-17, Hikarimachi, Kure, Hiroshima 737-8515, Japan
a

Abstract In this paper, mechanisms of vortex-induced vibration of inclined cables at high reduced wind velocity region are discussed using results from a series of wind tunnel tests. As a conclusion, this aerodynamic instability of inclined cables would occur by the uid interaction between Karman vortex and axial vortex. Also, the axial ow along the cable axis and the upper water rivulet control this aerodynamic instability. Furthermore, three dimensional properties of vortex shedding around the cable must play important roles in these mechanisms. # 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Inclined cables; Vortex-induced vibration; Karman vortex; Axial vortex; Axial ow; Water rivulet

1. Introduction The reduction of wind-induced cable vibration is one of the major problems in designing cable-stayed bridges. There are many kinds of wind-induced cable vibration, such as Karman vortex excitation, galloping, rain and wind induced vibration, vortex-induced oscillation at high wind velocity and so on. Hikami [1] found the rain and wind induced cable vibration of inclined cables at the Meiko
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +81-75-753-5091; fax: +81-75-761-0646. E-mail address: matsu@brdgeng.gee.kyoto-u.ac.jp (M. Matsumoto). 0167-6105/01/$ - see front matter # 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 1 6 7 - 6 1 0 5 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 0 6 3 - 0

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Nishi Bridge, and he succeeded to reproduce the similar vibration with articial precipitation in a wind tunnel. Matsumoto [2] pointed out that inclined cables can also oscillate under no precipitation condition and its instability caused by the axial ow behind the cables. Then, Matsumoto [3] claried that the upper water rivulet and the axial ow behind the inclined cable play important roles in the galloping instability and also in the velocity restricted response at the high reduced wind velocity. However, all of the generation mechanisms of wind-induced cable vibrations are not always well explained yet. Especially, the mechanism for the velocity restricted vibration at high reduced wind velocity, which is considered as a sort of vortex-induced vibration, is still unknown. From the observation results of prototype cables, this kind of vibration always occurs at the reduced wind velocity V=fD=20, 40, 60, 80 and so on, where V is a wind velocity, f is a frequency of vibration and D is a diameter of cable [4]. It should be noted that these particular wind velocities are rather higher than the resonance wind velocity region of Karman vortex excitation. Matsumoto [5] tried to explain the mechanism of this phenomenon by three dimensional interaction between Karman vortex and axial vortex along the cable. In this paper, the discussion is focused on the generation mechanism of this vortex-induced oscillation of inclined cables at high wind velocity, which seems to be one of the most signicant problems in cable aerodynamics of bridges at present. To nd out a solution to reduce the cable vibration aerodynamically or even mechanically, it is necessary to clarify this generating mechanism. Then, a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted, which were measurements of aerodynamic lift force of stationary/oscillating circular cylinders, unsteady pressure along the cylinders and ow visualization tests, as follows.

2. Wind tunnel tests The wind tunnel used in this study is a room-circuit type, which working section is 1.8 m height and 1.0 m width, and the maximum wind velocity is 30 m/s. A circular cylinder as a model of cable was installed with yaw angle in the wind tunnel. The mounting position of the cylinder can be dened as the vertical angle a and the horizontal yaw angle b, see Fig. 1. Then, the relative yaw angle b * , which denes relative angle between the wind direction and the cable axis, can be introduced as follows: b * arcsin cos a sin b: 1

However, in this study, the vertical angle was chosen as a 08. Therefore, the cable position against wind direction can be dened by only the horizontal yaw angle b. Then, the top view of the wind tunnel is shown in Fig. 2, and the yaw angle b and the distance X from the side wall are dened as in Fig. 2. Also, the diameter D of rigid cable model used in this study is 50 mm or 54 mm. In this series of wind tunnel tests, the total aerodynamic lift force of the cable model and the pressure distribution along the cable axis were measured under

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Fig. 1. Attitude of inclined cable.

Fig. 2. Top view of wind tunnel.

Fig. 3. Position of articial water rivulet.

various conditions. The windows on both the wall of wind tunnel were opened to support the cable model at the both ends of cylinder, which diameter is 200 mm. These windows can be closed to control the end ow condition by installing so called end plates. In some cases, the articial water rivulet was attached on the cable model as shown in Fig. 3, and the position of the rivulet is dened by the angle y from the stagnation point. On the cable model for measuring surface pressure, 48 pressure taps are installed in a single line along the cable axis. Then, the position of the pressure hole is dened by y and X as mentioned above.

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Also, ow visualization tests at the wake of the cable model were done using smoke wire technique.

3. Unsteady aerodynamic lift force of stationary cylinder The rigid circular cylinder was mounted in the wind tunnel with yaw angle b=08, and the total aerodynamic lift force was measured in the stationary situation. For the basic case, the power spectrum distribution of the lift force at the wind velocity V =3 m/s in smooth ow is shown in Fig. 4. There are two dominating frequency in the gure, the higher one corresponds to Strouhal number 0.2 and the lower one seems to correspond to the reduced wind velocity V=fD=20, where the vortexinduced oscillation may occur. The result of the case with yaw angle b=458 is shown in Fig. 5. And the case with additional articial axial ow using a vacuum cleaner is also shown in Fig. 6. In both the cases, the lower frequency components in the above basic case move to further lower frequency region, which corresponds to the reduced wind speed V=fD=40. This is also the occurring reduced wind velocity of this vortex-induced oscillation. Therefore, the axial ow along the cable axis may have some contributions to the generation of the vortex-induced oscillation at higher wind velocity. Furthermore, the result of the case attaching end plates is shown in Fig. 7. In this case, the air ow cannot be supplied from the outside of the wind tunnel to the cable direction. From the results, the lower frequency components of the lift force seem to be totally vanished. On the other hand the component of Karman vortex shedding is remarkably enhanced. Then, it becomes clear that the axial ow has an important role in this phenomenon of higher wind velocity region.

Fig. 4. Power spectrum density of lift force (without end plates, V =3.0 m/s, b=08, in smooth ow).

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Fig. 5. Power spectrum density of lift force (without end plates, V =3.0 m/s, b=458, in smooth ow).

Fig. 6. Power spectrum density of lift force (with articial axial ow, V =3.0 m/s, b=08, in smooth ow).

To investigate the eects of the turbulence of natural wind, the measurement of the lift force under the turbulent ow, where the intensity Iu =12.7%, was conducted in the same way as previous cases. However, the lower frequency components, which seems to be the generation source of the vortex-induced oscillation in high wind speed, never tends to be enhanced, see Fig. 8. 4. Unsteady aerodynamic lift force of oscillating cylinder The total aerodynamic lift force of forced vibrating cylinder was measured. However, due to the restriction of wind tunnel facility for this experiment, the cable

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Fig. 7. Power spectrum density of lift force (with end plates, V =3.0 m/s, b=08, in smooth ow).

Fig. 8. Power spectrum density of lift force (without end plates, V =5.0 m/s, b=458, in turbulent ow Iu =12.7%).

model was mounted in the wind tunnel with horizontal yaw angle b=08, instead of b=458. To realize the similar ow condition to the inclined state of cable, the articial axial ow was applied in some cases. Also, the cable model was forced to vibrate in vertical direction by the frequency f0 =2 Hz and the amplitude 2Z=D=0.4. Then, Scanlans aerodynamic derivative H1* [6] is introduced in this study, which can be calculated as following expression: H1* 2L cos j ; prD2 Z f0 2

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where L is amplitude of the lift force, j is phase dierence of the lift force from the motion velocity of cable model, and r is air density. The positive value of H1* denotes aerodynamically unstable situation. First of all, the result of the basic case measured in smooth ow is shown in Fig. 9. Around reduced wind speed V=fD=30, H1* has positive value, and this seems to correspond to the lower frequency components in Fig. 4. It should be noticed that the unstable region appears around V=fD=30 instead of V=fD=40, because this cable model is not inclined. To investigate the eect of the water rivulet, the articial rivulet was installed on the cable surface, where y=638 and 728, and the results are shown in Figs. 10 and 11, respectively. When the rivulet is set on y=638, H1* becomes positive at nearly V=fD=20 and around 70. Also, the result of the case y=728 suggests the cable might become unstable around V=fD=20, 40, 60, 100. Then, it becomes clear that the water rivulet seems to enhance the aerodynamic instabilities. In the next case, the articial axial ow was added using same method as mentioned before and the result is shown in Fig. 12. From this result, there is a possibility to generate the velocity restricted vibration around V=fD=40. However, according to the previous study [3], the articial axial ow induces galloping instability in the higher wind velocity region. The main dierence of the both experiments is the applying condition of articial axial ow, which means the axial

Fig. 9. Aerodynamic derivative H1 (b=08, in smooth ow).

Fig. 10. Aerodynamic derivative H1 (with articial rivulet y=638, b=08, in smooth ow).

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Fig. 11. Aerodynamic derivative H1 (with articial rivulet y=728, b=08, in smooth ow).

Fig. 12. Aerodynamic derivative H1 (with articial axial ow, b=08, in smooth ow).

Fig. 13. Aerodynamic derivative H1 (b=08, in turbulent ow Iu =12.7%).

ow in this study was rather weaker than in the previous study. Therefore, it seems that the type of aerodynamic instability, which means the velocity restricted type or galloping, depends on the condition of axial ow. Next, the aerodynamic derivative H1* were measured in turbulent ow instead of smooth ow, where the intensity of turbulence is Iu =12.7%. Fig. 13 shows a result in turbulent ow without any attachments. In this case, H1* shows negative values through the all velocity range, which means the cable is aerodynamically stable.

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Figs. 14 and 15 show results of the case with the articial rivulet at y=638 and 728, respectively. When y=638, H1* has positive value around V=fD=20, 60, 80. Also, H1* becomes positive at under V=fD=20 and around V=fD=120. These positive values of H1* are much higher than those measured in smooth ow. Therefore, the turbulence of approaching ow can stimulate the aerodynamic instability of velocity restricted responses. Furthermore, applying the articial axial ow under the condition of turbulent ow, H1* shows extremely unstable situation between V=fD=20 and 60, see Fig. 16.

Fig. 14. Aerodynamic derivative H1 (with articial rivulet y=638, b=08, in turbulent ow Iu =12.7%).

Fig. 15. Aerodynamic derivative H1 (with articial rivulet y=728, b=08, in turbulent ow Iu =12.7%).

Fig. 16. Aerodynamic derivative H1 (with articial axial ow, b=08, in turbulent ow Iu =12.7%).

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Then, it becomes clear that the axial ow should be one of the main factors to control the instability of not only galloping but also vortex-induced vibration at high wind velocity.

5. Karman vortex and axial vortex Using the same data of the unsteady lift force of Fig. 5, where the stationary cylinder was mounted with b=458, the wavelet analysis was tried, to observe the variation of the lift force against time. The result is plotted in Fig. 17. The lift force induced by Karman vortex is intermittently amplied, and also the low frequency component is detected which corresponds to the reduced wind velocity about V=fD=40. To understand the relationship between the amplied Karman vortex component and the lower frequency component, the ow visualization tests were conducted. Using the smoke wire method, existence of so-called axial vortex is conrmed in the wake of yawed cylinder, see Fig. 18. This axial vortex has dierent vortex axis from Karman vortexs one, which means this vortex axis has some vertical angle. From the next ow visualization tests shown in Fig. 19, it becomes clear that the axial vortex is shed once three Karman vortex sheddings from the upper and lower side of the cable. Then, the image gure of the interaction between Karman vortex and axial vortex is shown in Fig. 20. The Karman vortex along the main ow is enhanced every third vortex shedding, because of the interaction between Karman vortex and axial vortex, when the shedding frequency of the axial vortex is 1=3 of the shedding frequency of Karman vortex. This interpretation coincides with the results of Shirakashi [7], in which he pointed out the existence of vortex shedding with 1=3

Fig. 17. Unsteady aerodynamic lift force of stationary yawed cable (b=458).

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Fig. 18. Visualized axial vortex in the wake of inclined cable (without end plate, b=458, V =0.5 m/s, in smooth ow).

Fig. 19. Visualized axial vortex and intermittently enhanced Karman vortex in the wake of inclined cable (without end plate, b=458, in smooth ow).

times frequency of conventional Karman vortex. Then, this frequency of the amplied vortex corresponds to the reduced wind velocity about V=fD=20. If Karman vortex is amplied every fth or sixth of its vortex shedding, then the vortex-induced oscillation might occur at V=fD=40, and this can explain the existence of the low frequency component of the unsteady lift force in Fig. 5. In the

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Fig. 20. Illustration of axial vortex and Karman vortex around yawed cable.

same manner, the occurrence of the vortex-induced vibration in V=fD=60, 80 can be explained.

6. Unsteady pressure distribution along cable axis As mentioned in the previous section, the generation mechanism of this vortexinduced oscillation can be explained by interaction between axial vortex and Karman vortex. However, this interaction may have strong three dimensional characteristics along the cable axis. Therefore, the unsteady surface pressure distributions along the cable direction were measured to observe their three dimensional characteristics. The experimental conditions are the yaw angle b=458, without end plates, the wind velocity V =4 m/s, in smooth ow. The pressure taps are distributed along the cable axis at y=1358 from the stagnation point, and the positions are denoted by X =D, see Fig. 2. Then, the power spectrum density of unsteady pressure on the yawed stationary cylinder is shown in Fig. 21. At the all measured positions on the model, the very low frequency components about 1.5 Hz are observed, which are considered as the axial vortex. Especially around X =D=2.5 where is the upstream side, these low frequency components are extremely dominated. This position is almost same place as where the axial vortex was observed in Fig. 18. Also around X =D=6, the low frequency components are dominated. On the other hand, at the pressure holes between X =D=14 and 18 where is the downstream side, the frequency components of Karman vortex shedding are dominated, and the Strouhal number is about 0.15. Therefore, it becomes clear that the characteristics of unsteady pressure along the cable axis are not uniform and these properties may be determined by the end conditions of cable, the yaw angle b and so on. For the next case, the yawed cable model was forced to vibrate in vertical direction by the frequency f =2 Hz and the amplitude 2Z=D=0.4, and the unsteady pressure

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Fig. 21. Power spectrum density of pressure on stationary cylinder (without end plates, b=458, pressure hole of y=1358, V =4 m/s, in smooth ow).

Fig. 22. Standard deviation of synchronized frequency component of unsteady pressure on forced vibrating cylinder (without end plates, b=458, pressure hole of y=1358, V =4 m/s, in smooth ow, Z=0.01 m, f =2 Hz, V=fD=40).

was measured as same as the stationary case. The reduced wind velocity is set as V=fD=40. Using band-pass lter, the synchronized frequency component of the unsteady pressure at the each point was extracted, and then its standard deviation along the cable axis is plotted as shown in Fig. 22. The standard deviation has relatively large value around X =D=2 and 6 where are considered as same place as the strong source of the axial vortex in the previous discussion. Also, taking account of the phase dierence between the displacement and the pressure, these places in the upstream side of the cable have great contributions to oscillating the cable. These three dimensional characteristics of ow conditions around the inclined cable must be rather important factor to understand the complex generating mechanism of the vortex-induced vibration at high wind speed. However, these three dimensional properties are rather sensitive to the experimental conditions, especially to the end condition of the cable model. Therefore, to clarify these characteristics, further studies are really needed.

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7. Eects of upper water rivulet This three dimensional interaction between Karman vortex and axial vortex, which is mentioned above, might be able to explain the mechanism of the cable aerodynamic vibrations at high reduced wind velocity. However, many of these vibrations have been observed under precipitation condition, and then the eect of water rivulet on this vortex-induced vibration must be claried. Therefore, the unsteady aerodynamic lift forces on stationary yawed cable with an upper articial water rivulet were measured in the wind tunnel in the same way as Section 3. The aerodynamic lift forces were measured at both the ends of the cable model, and they were not summed up to evaluate the total lift force, but analyzed independently. These experiments were carried out under following conditions; the yaw angle of

Fig. 23. Power spectrum density of unsteady lift force at upstream side of stationary cylinder with articial rivulet (without end plates, b=458, V =4 m/s, in smooth ow).

Fig. 24. Power spectrum density of unsteady lift force at downstream side of stationary cylinder with articial rivulet (without end plates, b=458, V =4 m/s, in smooth ow).

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cable model is b=458, the wind velocity is 4 m/s, under the smooth ow. Then, the position of upper rivulet was varied as y=458, 608, 638, 688, 728, 758 and 908. The power spectrum densities of the lift force at the upstream side and at the downstream side are shown in Figs. 23 and 24, respectively. Generally, the low frequency components of the aerodynamic lift force which must be the driven force of vortexinduced vibration at the high reduced velocity are remarkable at the upstream side and this result agrees with previous discussions. From Fig. 23, it becomes clear that these low frequency components are extremely enhanced when the articial rivulet is set at y=688, 728 and 758. Therefore, the upper water rivulet may enhance the instability of this vortex-induced vibration at the high reduced velocity.

8. Conclusions The existences of the axial ow and the upper water rivulet on the yawed cable have important roles on the occurrence of the vortex-induced vibration at high wind velocity. Furthermore, the combination of the axial ow, the water rivulet and the turbulence ow may enhance this aerodynamic instability. The mechanism of this vibration would be the uid interactions between Karman vortex and axial vortex. Then, this result can easily explain the occurrence of vibration at multiples of reduced wind velocity 20 or 40. Also, the three dimensional characteristics of vortex shedding are observed and this seems to strongly depend on the end conditions and the yaw angle of the cable. For further understanding of the generation mechanisms of real cables, the comparison of the end condition between the cable model in the wind tunnel and the real cables seems to be rather important.

References
[1] Y. Hikami, Rain vibrations of cables in cable-stayed bridge, J. Wind Eng. 27 (1986) 1728 (In Japanese). [2] M. Matsumoto, C.W. Knisely, N. Shiraishi, M. Kitazawa, T. Saito, Inclined-cable aerodynamics, Structural Design, Analysis & Testings Proceedings, Structural Congress, ASCE, San Francisco, USA, 1989. [3] M. Matsumoto, N. Shiraishi, H. Shirato, Rain-wind induced vibration of cables of cable-stayed bridges, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 4144 (1992) 20112022. [4] M. Matsumoto, Y. Shigemura, Y. Daito, T. Kanamura, High speed vortex shedding vibration of inclined cables, Proceedings of International Seminar on Cable Dynamics, Tokyo, Japan, 1997, pp. 2735. [5] M. Matsumoto, Observed behavior of prototype cable vibration and its generation mechanism, in: A. Larsen, S. Esdahl (Eds.), Bridge Aerodynamics, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1998, pp. 189211. [6] R.H. Scanlan, J.J. Tomko, Airfoil and bridge deck utter derivatives, J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE, 97 EM6 (1971) 17171737. [7] M. Shirakashi, Y. Ishida, S. Wakiya, Higher velocity resonance of circular cylinder in crossow, J. Fluids Eng. ASME, 107 (1985) 392396.