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S ASS amp l IGN e ME NT

M.P.A.-11

STATE, SOCIETY AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION


ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS GUIDE (2011-2012)
Disclaimer / Special Note: These are just the sample of the Answers/Solutions to some of the Questions given in the Assignments. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Tutor for the help of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the questions of the Assignments. Sample answers may be Seen as the Guide/Reference Book/assignment Guide. Any Omission or Error is highly regretted though every care has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/Solutions. Please consult you Teacher / Tutor before you prepare a Particular Answer. Q. 1. Bring out the views of Max Weber on Society and Administration. Ans. Max Weber, a prominent German sociologist, has given an ideal model of bureaucracy. He regarded bureaucracy as a

universal social phenomenon and the means of carrying community action. He never defined bureaucracy in a detailed way like he defined class. Weber used the word bureaucracy as a specific kind of administrative organisation. To him, bureaucracy is an administrative body of appointed officials, not the elected ones. Weber first described the features of bureaucracy in a systematic way. His notion of bureaucracy can be found in his ideas on power, authority and control or dominion. Control or dominion is power in a hierarchy. It is the probability that within a given specific context it will be obeyed by a given group of people. The exercise of authority requires that a senior successfully issues orders to a group of juniors who respond because of their belief in the legitimacy of power. Thus, legitimacy turns power and dominion into authority. Weber identified authority with the authoritarian power of command. The existence of authority depends on its legitimacy. It exists as long as it is accepted as legitimate by the ruled. Thus, any organisation can rule only when it has legitimacy whereas dominion means power relationship between the rulers and the ruled. Weber identified three types of legitimation, each corresponding to a particular type of dominion. They are as follows: Charismatic domination: It is based on the charisma of the leader. It also comprises of faithful followers who carry on the administration. It is legitimized by outstanding personal qualities of the leader. The administrative apparatus lacks stability and hence results in low efficiency. Traditional domination: It rests on the goodness of the past, in the appropriateness of traditional ways of doing things. Here, the adminis-trative apparatus consists of personal retainers, servants and relatives. It exists in a feudal system where customary rights get all the importance. Merit may lag behind and that results in an inefficient administration. Legal domination: This is legitimized by the formal usage of rules and regulations. These rules are implemented by those who have the authority to do so. People obey these laws as they believe that they are enacted by a proper objective procedure. Here, the administrative apparatus is based on bureaucracy and is suitable for modern governments. Bureaucratic procedure is based on the features of hierarchy, authority and responsibility, neutrality, recruitment, promotion and other conditions of services. These features are set according to bureaucratic rules. Thus, there are two main focus areas in Webers view and they have resulted in society-administrative relationship. They are as follows: An analytical study of social condition which resulted in the emergence of bureaucracy. A theory of domination that explains the gradual, societal acceptance of bureaucratic authority. Q. 3. Elucidate the Marxist Perspective of the State. Ans. Karl Marx, Friedrik Engels, Vladimir Lenin and Trotsky are the main founders of Marxist perspective for a state. The perspective is commonly known as class theory of state. Marx neither did a theoretical analysis of the state nor focused directly on its complexities. Marx and Engels have not given any clear unitary theory of the state. Marxism has tried to explain a state on the basis of the economy, as an economic unit. State is taken as a universal but temporary phenomenon that has to wither away. Marxists favour communism, a stateless condition as an end of history and class struggle.

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According to Marx, state never originated for the purpose of common good and has never made any effort to achieve common good. It has always been a class organisation. A modern representative state is just a weapon in the hands of powerful class people to torture the weaker class. As a class organisation, state aims to protect the interests of the ruling class. For Marx and Engel, state is an instrument of class exploitation and class oppression. It expresses human alienation. They supported the communist society to eliminate all forms of alienation for individuals-from nature, from society and from humanity. It will establish true democracy to work for the development of all. The transitional state-the Dictatorship of the Proletariatlies between the destruction of capitalism and the attainment of communism. Initially, Marx was in favour of democratic state, rule of majority for the welfare and development of all. Marx changed his views on the state during 1840-52. He accepted Engels notion of state that dictatorship was necessary to fill the vacuum that would come up as a result of destruction of the old order till the creation of the new order. But he also explained that it did not mean a permanent rule of one person or group; rather it was to be an extraordinary power during an emergency for a limited period. Marx continued to criticize the existing bureaucratic military state and that it should be replaced with the dictatorship of the proletariat that is absolutely democratic and majoritarian. He believed that state and its bureaucratic institutions are class instruments and they work for the interests of the ruling class. A state is a means through which economically dominant classes overcome their problems, fulfil their interests and suppress the subordinate classes. A critical analysis of the Marxist perspective revealed that Marx sketched but never developed a systematic theory of the state. Hence, the idea of a political economy remained over-determined and not described politically. In this process, he just ignored the details that were necessary for managing a society based on equity, reward and freedom. NEW TRENDS IN MARXIST AND LIBERAL THOUGHT Marxist and liberal perspectives have changed their viewpoints in the developing, modern era. Earlier liberal views have now led to neo-liberal thought. And Marxist views have also changed as they have begun viewing the state as an independent entity. Theorist Nicos Poulantzas rejects all forms of instrumentalism and favoured that state was more important tool rather as a tool of monopoly capitalism. He emphasized that the modern state was a complex social relation with the main function of maintaining social togetherness for accumulation of capital. Another thinker Althusser believed that a growing labour class was essential for a ruling class to survive and prosper. This labour growth involves reproduction of skills essential for a productive labour force as well as reproduction of ruling class ideology. He stressed on the use of ideological control for maintaining class rule and rejected the use of force for the same purpose. Marxism is now faced with increasing in depth study and newer views regarding this ideology are emerging through newer perspectives, especially political in nature. Italian communist thinker Antonio Gramscis views find a leading place in this regard. His work concerned the analysis of relationship between the state and civil society in the social formations of the West and how this was different in comparison to the East. He suggested that there was no reason to believe that economic crisis would lead to a revolution even of the middle class noise still had legitimacy. He believed that the cultural and ideological hegemony of this class had to be reduced before the working class seized power and eventually could make a proper social order. Q. 4. Explain the Gandhian Perspective of Modern State. Ans. The concept of modern state emerged during the British regime and it emphasized democracy in India. The basic structure of this modern state was provided by the rule of law for maintenance of public order and a political arrangement; the real motives were just commercial in nature. A workable basis for this state was provided by a taxation method consisting of tax assessment and collection. It also stressed on commerce and industry. All these factors favoured the privileged section of the society. The commercial and professional class felt alienated. Gandhijis own exposure to law and his study of the functioning of the British state, in England and in the colonial territory of South Africa helped him to understand the theoretical framework of the modern state and its actual working in different situations. Thus, he developed an understanding of the modern state with a new perspective. Critique of the Modern State The mode of operation of the modern state violated Gandhijis concept of non-violence. He also disagreed to the moral dimensions of this state as it weakened the sense of responsibility and personal integrity. He criticized the modern state on the basis of certain factors, highlighted below: Concept of autonomy: It consisted of two distinct ideas. First, citizens should not be dominated by other citizens or by the state. Second, individuals should be self-governing, should possess moral standards for a self-evaluative assessment and accept responsibility for individual choices. Thus, Gandhian autonomy was based on set of moral principles that acted as a guide to action and necessity on the part of individuals comprising the state to be self-reflective and responsible for their actions. He suggested self-rule as an exercise of non-

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domination for everyone. He believed that modernity was an obstacle to autonomy as it has introduced and justified new forms of domination based on pre-determined process of economic activity. He also felt that autonomous person had no link with the modern state and hence, this state could also not achieve the goals of self-governance. Gandhiji was also a critique of the modern state as he believed it to be a rigid setup that blindly followed rules and regulations. Interestingly, he also compared this form of state to an uncontrollable machine. A modern state with its uniform rules and bureaucratic management specially came under attack from Gandhiji. He believed that this very nature of the state would not accept individual differences and diverse opinions and attitudes. He held the set up of the modern state as being responsible for spreading violence in disguise, concealed behind a net of rules. All this made him strongly believe in the ideology of non-violence. The ethics of non-violence illustrated freedom from moral blame and freedom from all intentions to harm others. Gandhiji never favoured the concept of a modern state as he felt that it was not compatible with the essential human moral values. He strongly felt that an alternative model must be developed for organising the society. Modern State and India During his days in colonial South Africa, Gandhi had been observing the functioning of the modern state and its institutions. He was wondering over as to how any of its elements could be of any use for his vision of an independent India. With voices increasing in favour of replicating the modern state concept for an independent India, Gandhi had to offer an alternative view for the country, keeping in mind the actual nature of the modern state that he had observed. He felt that the modern state concept was inconsistent as a case for a modern India due to the following comparison. Thus, the above comparison illustrated that the concept of a modern state was rejected by Gandhiji as an option for an independent India. What was essentially needed was an alternative model whose essence and characteristics would keep in mind Indias traditions and history and simultaneously enable the country to face the developed world at an equal footing. Q. 6. Explain the role of Bureaucracy in India. Ans. Bureaucracy is any country is never a closed concept and it continues to be influenced by several factors like liberalization, globalization, privatisation, societal changes and trends, technology trends and developments and many others. In India too, the bureaucracy is affected by these and many other factors. Our bureaucracy has several characteristic features like a strong binding character, giving non-partisan advice to politicians, ability to manage and administer, leadership, multiagency coordination and others. In this chapter, we would specially understand role of bureaucracy with respect to delegated legislation and administrative adjudication. Delegated Legislation Delegated legislation implies the use of legislative powers by a subordinate authority. Although theoretically, bureaucracy does not have any legislative function but in reality, it does carry out some legislative work as a result of the authority delegated to it by the legislature. This function primarily concerns with furnishing all the details while making policies, giving them depth of meaning and claritythe legislature is unable to do this task due to the constraints of time, resources, abilities and knowledge. This function of delegated legislation has been on the rise over time. However, it is making the bureaucracy even more powerful and influential then it already is. This is now becoming a cause of concern as many feel that the bureaucrats may begin acting on their own whims and dictates, overlooking the citizens interests and focusing on their own. The objectives of social justice, fairness and equity may be compromised while making rules and regulations. An important method to control this delegated legislative authority is through Administrative Adjudication. Administrative Adjudication Administrative adjudication is a power similar to delegated authority, vested with the judiciary to specifically check the abuse of delegated legislative powers of the bureaucracy. There are no defined legal rules for conduct that form any guide for administrative adjudication. The adjudicator is guided by statutory standards of common good and public interest. Here again, arbitrary authority of the administrative adjudicator is kept in check by the judiciary through judicial review. Besides courts, there are other administrative bodies too that carry out adjudication and ensure that citizens get justice. In India, administrative adjudication consists of the following: (i) Administrative Tribunals: These bodies operate to maintain a balance between personal rights and public welfare. They provide the common man with impartial and fair hearing when faced with administrative malpractices and misuse of power. They provide quick justice but have only been successful in a few areas of economic administration. (ii) Publicity and Consultation: While making rules, the public and other affected parties should be consulted with. This can be done by sending draft rules to the affected parties, holding meetings and providing public hearings to any interested party who wishes to testify.

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(iii) Parliamentary Scrutiny: Delegated legislation can also be scrutinized by Parliamentary committees like Parlia-mentary Accounts committee, Estimates committee etc. (iv) Judicial Review: Is another process by which bureaucracys delegated legislative authority is kept in check by the judiciary. Here, the courts can observe whether the delegated authority is within the limits of the Constitutional provisions and other legal boundaries. In case it exceeds, the courts can then step in and declare offending rules and regulations as null and void. Q. 9. Bring out the characteristics of Good Governance. Ans. Good governance has all elements important for any government to form good relations between government and citizens. It has eight main characteristics. All these features ensure people sharing, citizen friendly, more responsive, accountable, transparent, efficient, effective, participatory and consensus-oriented government. It assures minimum corruption and less redtapism. It believes in participatory decision-making approach and work for all round development of people. Characteristics of Good Governance
Participatory Consensusoriented Responsive Accountable

There are eight main characteristics of good governance, indicated below: 1. Accountability: It means to establish a basis to measure the performance of public officials. It is the basic requirement of good governance. Besides government institutions, private sector and civil society organisations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. 2. Transparency: It means that decisions taken by the government and their enforcement are in accordance with rules and regulations. It reduces uncertainty and also helps to curb corruption amongst public officials. 3. Responsive: It implies that institutions and processes should try to serve all stakeholders within a specific and reasonable time limit. Government should be responsive for their actions and activities that are going to affect the citizens directly or indirectly. 4. Participation: It refers to the participation of the citizens in development process. Participation of all citizens whether men or women is the basic need of good governance. Affected groups from the projects of the government should participate so that government can make relevant changes according to their needs and requirements. 5. Effectiveness and efficiency: Good governance means that government should work for the fulfilment of objectives i.e. to meet the needs of the society while making the best use of available resources. Efficiency means the sustainable use of natural resources and protection of the environment. 6. Rule of law: It implies legitimate use of authority to maintain order along with the protection of human rights of its citizens, especially of its minorities and unprivileged class. 7. Consensus-oriented: Society consists of different sections with varied viewpoints. Good governance means to consider all different views in the society and then arrive at a consensus that is in the best interest of the community and how it can be achieved. 8. Equity and Inclusiveness: Societys well-being is possible when all its members feel their involvement and participation in it and they do not feel excluded from the society. It includes involvement of all groups, especially the most vulnerable sections of the society.
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Good Governance Transparent Follows the rule of law Effective and efficient Equitable and inclusive