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Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

ANLISIS DEL TIEMPO DE FUNDICION DEL CHOCOLATE

EDUARDO ARAUJO 2012116004 JESUS RICARDO 2012116101 LUIS VARGAS 2012116123

MANUEL CAMPUZANO ING. INDUSTRIAL

UNIVERSIDAD DEL MAGDALENA FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA INDUSTRIAL DISEO DE EXPERIMENTOS SANTA MARTA

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

RESUMEN En el experimento, queremos conocer el tiempo que tarda el chocolate en fundirse o llegar a su punto de fusin sin quemarse. Para la realizacin de este estudio se tuvo en cuenta lo aprendido en la ctedra de Diseo experimental, basndonos en un diseo 2^k , siendo ms especfico, en un diseo 2^3, obteniendo los datos por experimentacin casera, alterando los tres factores para dar un estudio ms profundo. El peso del chocolate, el cual es uno de los factores, al igual como lo es el recipiente (Metal y Vidrio), las temperaturas a las cuales se realizaron las pruebas (100C y 120C).

El informe va acompaado de sus distintos grficos y estudios de los datos tomados, realizndole un anlisis y as poder dar conclusiones satisfactorias de esta experiencia.

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

ABSTRACT In the experiment, we want to know how long it takes to melt chocolate or reach its melting point without burning. For this study took into account the lessons learned in the chair of experimental design, based on a multifactorial design, being more specific, in a design of three factors, obtaining experimental data for home, altering the three factors to give a further study. The weight of the chocolate, which is one of the factors, as well as is the container (metal and glass), the temperatures at which the tests were performed (28 C and 32 C).

The report is accompanied by its various graphs and studies from the data collected, analysis realizing you so we can give satisfactory conclusions from this experience.

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

INTRODUCCIN Los experimentos se realizan virtualmente en todos los campos del conocimiento, por lo general con la intencin de descubrir algo cerca de un proceso o sistema en particular. El diseo de experimentos se define como un conjunto de tcnicas activas que manipulan el proceso para inducirlo a proporcionar la informacin que se requiere para mejorarlo; es la forma ms eficaz de hacer pruebas en los procesos. Consiste en determinar las pruebas pertinentes y el mtodo para realizarlas, para obtener datos que al analizarlos estadsticamente arrojen conclusiones. Los mtodos de diseo experimental tienen amplia aplicacin en muchas disciplinas. En efecto es posible considerarse a la experimentacin como parte del proceso cientfico y una de las formas en que aprendemos acerca de la forma en que funcionan los sistemas o procesos. Realizamos experimentos para generar datos a partir del proceso, y entonces usamos la informacin del experimento para establecer nuevas conjeturas. La mayora de los cientficos e investigadores necesitan hacer uso de la experimentacin para analizar el comportamiento de un proceso, sistema o equipo. Observamos hoy en da que la sociedad experimenta cambios inmediatos, exigiendo una constante innovacin por parte de las empresas haciendo que dichas aumenten en grandes proporciones su productividad, los rendimientos y la optimizacin de recursos teniendo en cuenta los costos y gastos de los productos con el fin de asegurar una gran oferta y demanda ante el mercado; Ante stos y otros requerimientos surge el diseo experimental como una herramienta estadstica mediante la cual, se pueden identificar y cuantificar los efectos que producen ciertos factores (controlables) sobre una variable de inters o respuesta. Por lo cual; en el siguiente proyecto queremos observar y analizar el tiempo que transcurre en la fundicin del chocolate (tomndolo como un dato constante), teniendo en cuenta las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas, generando dichos datos para la experimentacin de modelos probabilsticos, diseos factoriales 2^k, comparacin de medias entre otros modelos que nos ayudan a determinar todas aquellas causas que nos permitan establecer una variable de inters o de respuesta

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

FORMULACION DEL PROBLEMA

ANTECEDENTES El chocolate es el alimento que se obtiene mezclando azcar con dos productos derivados de la manipulacin de las semillas del cacao: una materia slida (la pasta de cacao) y una materia grasa (la manteca de cacao). A partir de esta combinacin bsica, se elaboran los distintos tipos de chocolate, que dependen de la proporcin entre estos elementos y de su mezcla o no con otros productos tales como leche y frutos secos. Este es un alimento muy preciado entre los antiguos mayas, los cuales fueron los primeros en cultivar sistemticamente el rbol de cacao. Ciertas cuestiones relacionadas a la ingesta del chocolate comenzaron a revertirse en los ltimos aos: que engordaba, que tena grasas, que era muy malo. Hoy uno de los productos ms valorados en la gastronoma y la nutricin ya que tiene excelentes propiedades saludables. Los granos de cacao poseen una alta cantidad de grasa 35-55% (manteca de cacao), que llega al producto final luego del prensado de los mismos previamente tostados y descascarillados. El chocolate es un producto muy delicado para derretir, hay que hacerlo en punto justo para evitar quemarlo o que se formen grumos.

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Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

DESCRIPCIN DEL PROBLEMA Despus de haber cursado la materia de introduccin a la Ingeniera Industrial, bajo la tutora de nuestro actual director de programa e Ingeniero Rafael Linero Meja, en la que nos pidi crear un producto, el cual implicaba el uso del chocolate fundido para la cobertura de galletas, pasteles y otros nos dimos cuenta que al trabajar con chocolate surgieron problemas como el que se nos quemaba el chocolate, y nos quedaba duro entre otras.

Desde siempre el chocolate ha sido de gusto de la mayora de las personas y es de mucha ayuda para las tiendas de repostera a la hora de decorar los pasteles, bombones, etc. Ya que se utiliza chocolate fundido o derretido para cubrir. Por tal motivo se decidi hacer una comparacin del tiempo que tarda el chocolate en fundirse, teniendo en cuenta los diferentes factores que se presenta al momento de realizar el experimento. Para este experimento se analiz tres factores que se deben tener en cuenta al momento de derretir chocolate.

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

VARIABLE CUALITATIVA: 1) Material utilizado para derretir el chocolate. Para derretir el chocolate utilizamos los siguientes tipos de material. Vidrio Metal VARIABLES CUANTITATIVA: 1) Cantidad de Chocolate En el experimento utilizamos diferentes cantidades de chocolate. 500 g. 250 g. 2) Temperatura de coccin: La temperatura de coccin empleado para fundir el chocolate fue: 120C 100C. 3) Variable de respuesta: La variable de estudio en este experimento fue reducir el tiempo de fundicin del chocolate en minutos

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

JUSTIFICACION

El presente informe se lleva a cabo con el fin analizar los diferentes factores sobre una variable de respuesta reduccin del tiempo para fundir el chocolate. La importancia de este experimento, radica en que sirva como fuente de informacin, para seleccionar el tipo de material, buscando reducir el tiempo para fundir el chocolate. Por otra parte existen otras variables involucradas durante este experimento, que afectan ptimamente o perjudicialmente como: La humedad del chocolate ya que al momento de derretirlo no debe caerle humedad, agua o que se forme vapor en el mismo, esto ocasionar que la mezcla presente una textura ms dura de lo deseado. Durante el proceso no debemos usar tapa, ya que sta condensa gotas de vapor, que cuando caen en el chocolate, forman grumos indeseables. El agua de la olla inferior debe estar caliente, pero no debe llegar al punto de ebullicin. Es conveniente no revolver el chocolate hasta que no se haya fundido por completo, y luego hacerlo con movimientos suaves y con una cuchara de madera.

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

MARCO TERICO La historia del chocolate empieza con la llegada de los conquistadores espaoles. Se dice que el emperador azteca Moctezuma coma todos los das pescados frescos trados de Veracruz, acarreado a pie por los esclavos, conforme a un sistema de relevos similar al de los chaquis peruanos, quienes, tambin segn decires, recorran enormes distancias para que en la mesa del Inca no faltaran productos frescos del mar. En aquella poca, durante sus numerosas fiestas y eventos deportivos, o ritos de iniciacin religiosa, coman carnes de pavos, palomas, iguanas y perros aztecas, una raza que se criaba en corrales. Cocinaban sus carnes a la brasa y muy sazonadas con sal y chiles. Por la maana todos los hombres, servidos por sus mujeres, tomaban chocolate caliente con un trozo de chile. Durante el resto del da lo beban fro. Los hombres llegaban del campo a primeras horas de la tarde y efectuaban su comida principal a base de tortillas de maz, frijoles y chocolate. Tenan por costumbre lavarse las manos y la boca despus de comer y tomar un bao diario que llamaban temascal. Esos hbitos de higiene no estaban por entonces muy difundidos en la cultura europea. Si bien se dice que Hernn Corts estuvo entre los primeros europeos que probaron el chocolate, Cristbal Coln conoci antes el cacao, aunque, se sabe, no le prest la debida atencin. Se cuenta que el Almirante genovs, en 1502, durante su cuarto viaje al Nuevo Mundo, encontr cerca de la Isla de los Pinos una embarcacin indgena de 25 remos, la ms grande que haba visto hasta entonces. Segn la misma crnica se trataba de una nave maya, desde la que transbordaron a las carabelas de Coln telas, objetos de cobres y unas semillas que se utilizaban tanto para hacer una bebida, como monedas. Debido a su valor religioso, los mayas preparaban brebajes de cacao para sacrificios y ritos iniciativos. As la gran fiesta del cacao, dedicada al dios Chac, o Tlaloc, dios de la lluvia, se celebraba en los cacaoteros. Despus de los sacrificios tomaban tchocolath - vino de cacao-, obteniendo una bebida fra, espumante, embriagadora de la cual estaba prohibidsim o beber ms de tres jarras. Tambin beban chorote, una mezcla de cacao y maz, y chilatl, hecha con cacao, maz y agua de lluvia. Sobre el carcter afrodisaco del chocolate, se crea que tena poderes y que daba fuerza y vigor sobre quienes lo beban; ya que estaba constituida por una mezcla de vino o pur fermentado, con el agregado de especias, pimentn y pimienta. Para ese entonces esta bebida era bastante amarga, pero al parecer muy enriquecedora en el campo del amor.

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

TIPOS DE CHOCOLATE La elaboracin del chocolate pasa por su ltima fase con la cuidadosa mezcla de la pasta y la manteca de cacao con azcar, refinando la composicin resultante por medio de trituradoras-refinadoras que producen una pasta muy delgada. A continuacin, se efecta la operacin ms importante, el conchado (o concheado), que le dar al chocolate toda su finura y su untuosidad. El conchado es un amasado suplementario en artesas que, originalmente, tenan forma de concha. La pasta es batida y estirada en la artesa por unos rodillos, con un lento movimiento de vaivn, durante un periodo de tiempo y a una temperatura que varan segn el producto que se quiera obtener (en todo caso, unas horas y, a menudo, varios das). Todas estas operaciones se realizan a una temperatura superior al punto de fusin de la manteca de cacao que, por lo tanto, se mantiene lquida. El ltimo paso es el templado, que consiste en fundir completamente el chocolate a 50C para que se rompan las estructuras cristalinas de la manteca de cacao, enfriarlo a 30 para devolverle la estructura, y, finalmente, aumentar ligeramente la temperatura para que los cristales se agrupen de nuevo en pequeas cadenas. Normalmente, el chocolate lleva aadida vainilla (o algn derivado como la vainillina) como aromatizante, y lecitina de soja como emulsionante y estabilizante para mejorar la textura y mantener las cualidades del chocolate; en total, ambos productos no superan el 1% del chocolate. Los distintos tipos de chocolate se elaboran modificando las proporciones entre sus componentes y aadiendo otros productos a la composicin bsica de pasta, manteca y azcar. Su presentacin puede ser en forma de tableta o en polvo: Chocolate negro: (llamado tambin chocolate fondant; chocolate amargo; chocolate bitter; chocolate amer; chocolate puro): es el chocolate propiamente dicho, pues es el resultado de la mezcla de la pasta y manteca del cacao con azcar, sin el aadido de ningn otro producto (exceptuando el aromatizante y el emulsionante ms arriba citados). Las proporciones con que se elabora dependen del fabricante. No obstante, se entiende que un chocolate negro debe presentar una proporcin de pasta de cacao superior, aproximadamente, al 50% del producto, pues es a partir de esa cantidad cuando el amargor del cacao empieza a ser perceptible. En cualquier caso, existen en el mercado tabletas de chocolate negro con distintas proporciones de cacao, llegando incluso hasta el 99%.

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

Chocolate de cobertura: Es el chocolate que utilizan los chocolateros y los pasteleros como materia prima. Puede ser negro o con leche, pero en todo caso se trata de un chocolate con una proporcin de manteca de cacao de alrededor del 30%, lo que supone el doble que en los otros tipos de chocolate. La cobertura se usa para conseguir un alto brillo al templar el chocolate y porque se funde fcilmente y es muy moldeable. Chocolate a la taza: Es el chocolate negro (normalmente, con una proporcin de cacao inferior al 50%), al que se le ha aadido una pequea cantidad de fcula (normalmente, harina de maz) para que a la hora de cocerlo aumente su espesor. Suele disolverse en leche. Hoy en da, es posible encontrar tambin este chocolate en los comercios en forma ya lquida. Chocolate con leche: Es el derivado del cacao ms popular. Se trata, bsicamente, de un dulce, por lo que la proporcin de pasta de cacao suele estar por debajo del 40%. No obstante, buena parte de las ms importantes marcas de chocolate producen tabletas de chocolate con leche con proporciones de cacao inusuales, por encima incluso del 50%, dirigidas tanto al mercado de los gourmets como al negocio de la pastelera. El chocolate con leche, como su nombre indica, lleva leche aadida, en polvo o condensada. Chocolate blanco: estrictamente, no se trata de chocolate, pues carece en su composicin de la pasta de cacao, que es la materia que aporta las propiedades del cacao. Se elabora con manteca de cacao (por lo menos, el 20%), leche (en polvo o condensada) y azcar. Es un producto extremadamente energtico y dulce. Visualmente muy atractivo, es un elemento decorativo muy usado en la repostera. Chocolate relleno: como indica la expresin, es una cubierta de chocolate (en cualquiera de sus variantes y con un peso superior al 25% del total) que recubre frutos secos (avellanas, almendras...), licores, frutas, etc. A finales del siglo XIX, Colombia produca unas 6.000 toneladas de cacao. A pesar de los distintos problemas que enfrentaron los agricultores, el chocolate como bebida se integr poco a poco a la vida diaria y cre toda una cultura a su alrededor.

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

OBJETIVO GENERAL Determinar las causas que influyen en el proceso de experimentacin en la fundicin del chocolate, observando, analizando y midiendo los factores controlables y no controlables y factores estudiados para establecer el rango de tiempo adecuado en la fundicin del chocolate, utilizando todas aquellas herramientas estadsticas que nos lleven al mejoramiento de nuestro valor de inters.

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

OBJETIVOS ESPECIFICOS Determinar las causas de la variacin de la respuesta. Medir el efecto de cambio en variables cuantitativas y cualitativas. Comparar las respuestas en diferentes niveles de observacin de los factores controlables. Analizar los factores que permiten la reduccin del rango de tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate.

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

DATOS DEL EXPERIMENTOS El experimento realizado tiene como objetivo el analisis del tiempo en que dura el proceso de fundicion del chocolate, para lo cual fue necesario realizar un estudio basado en factores cualitativos y cuantitativos. El apoyo fundamental de dicho experimento fue un diseo factorial en el cual interactuaron dos niveles y tres factores (material del recipiente, temperatura, cantidad de chocolate) con detrerminados numeros de muestras. El analisis experiemental de los tres factores mencionados anteriormente son los que nos brindan la informacion necesaria para determinar cuales de ellos o tal vez todos afectan de manera significativa el tiempo de fusion del chocolate. Cabe aclarar que el factor material del recipiente fue escogido teniendo en cuenta que el metal y el vidrio son buenos conductores de calor y no se deben utilizar otros que no sean eficientes esa condicin. TABLA DE NIVELES DE LOS FACTORES FACTOR A - Tipo de recipiente B temperatura C gramaje (peso gr) NIVEL BAJO Metal 100C 250 g NIVEL ALTO Vidrio 32C 500 g

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

ORGANIZACIN DE LOS DATOS

A -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1

B -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1

C -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1

Combinacin 1 a b ab c ac bc abc

I 21 18 19,5 22 23 24 17 19,2

II 19 16 22,9 20,3 21,8 21 20 17,5

Suma 40 34 42,4 42,3 44,8 45 37 36,7

Promedio 20 17 21,2 21,15 22,4 22,5 18,5 18,35

Nomenclaturas A= B= C= Temperatura Peso Recipiente

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Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

Total 1 a b ab c ac bc abc 40 34 42,4 42,3 44,8 45 37 36,7

I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Contraste Efecto

A -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -6,2 -0,775

B -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -5,4 -0,675

AB 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 5,4 0,675

C -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 4,8 0,6

AC 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 6 0,75

BC 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -26,8 -3,35

ABC -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -6,4 -0,8

En la anterior tabla podemos observar los contrastes y los efectos que hemos calculado mediante la suma producto entre las sumas de las rplicas y su respectivo nivel.

Alpha n N Y FC

0,05 2 16 322,2 6488,3025

Resumen - Estimacin De Efectos Factor a b ab c ac bc abc Total Efecto -0,775 -0,675 0,675 0,6 0,75 -3,35 -0,8 79,5775 SS 2,4025 1,8225 1,8225 1,44 2,25 44,89 2,56 Contribucin Porcentual 3,019069461 2,290220226 2,290220226 1,809556721 2,827432377 56,41041752 3,216989727

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Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

ANALISIS DE LOS RESULTADOS ANALISIS DE VARIANZA SUPUESTOS Supuesto de normalidad Supuesto de independecia

ANALISIS DE VARIANCIA
Anlisis de Varianza para TIEMPO DE FUNDICION Fuente a b ab c ac bc abc SsError Total SC 2,4025 1,8225 1,8225 1,44 2,25 44,89 2,56 22,39 79,5775 GL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 15 CM 2,4025 1,8225 1,8225 1,44 2,25 44,89 2,56 2,79875 Fo Fc P-Value

0,85841894 5,31765507 0,38128262 0,65118356 5,31765507 0,44301748 0,65118356 5,31765507 0,44301748 0,51451541 5,31765507 0,49359927 0,80393033 5,31765507 0,39609971 16,0393033 5,31765507 0,00392281 0,91469406 5,31765507 0,36687654

Fuente bc SsError Total

SC 44,89 34,6875 79,5775

GL 1 14 15

CM 44,89 2,47767857

Fo

Fc

P-Value

18,1177658 4,60010994 0,00079803

Al observar la tabla de anlisis de varianza realizado al experimento del tiempo de fundicin del chocolate con una confiabilidad del 95%, observamos que los tres factores analizados (el tipo de recipiente, cantidad de chocolate, y temperatura) resultan ser

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

significativa la interaccin B-C, es decir que estos afectan directamente nuestra variable de respuesta.

VALIDACION SUPUESTOS RESIDUALES

o b-c

20,1375 -1,675

B-C 1 a b ab c ac bc abc 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1

Y 18,4625 18,4625 21,8125 21,8125 21,8125 21,8125 18,4625 18,4625

Residuales Replicas 21 18 19,5 22 23 24 17 19,2 19 16 22,9 20,3 21,8 21 20 17,5 Y 18,4625 18,4625 21,8125 21,8125 21,8125 21,8125 18,4625 18,4625 18,4625 18,4625 21,8125 21,8125 21,8125 21,8125 18,4625 18,4625 Diferencia 2,5375 -0,4625 -2,3125 0,1875 1,1875 2,1875 -1,4625 0,7375 0,5375 -2,4625 1,0875 -1,5125 -0,0125 -0,8125 1,5375 -0,9625

Podemos observar en estas tablas, el modelo de regresin ajustado a la interaccin B-C, solo se hizo con esta porque es la nica que es significativa y puede alterar la variable de

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Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

respuesta de gran manera, esto se hace con el fin de calcular los residuales, estos anteriores son claves para la validacin de supuestos.

SUPUESTO DE NORMALIDAD

Normalidad Secuencia 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Residuales -2,4625 -2,3125 -1,5125 -1,4625 -0,9625 -0,8125 -0,4625 -0,0125 0,1875 0,5375 0,7375 1,0875 1,1875 1,5375 2,1875 2,5375 Probabilidad 3,125 9,375 15,625 21,875 28,125 34,375 40,625 46,875 53,125 59,375 65,625 71,875 78,125 84,375 90,625 96,875
-4 -2

Normalidad
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4

Conclusin basados en el grafico anterior observamos que se cumple el supuesto de normalidad ya que los datos se comportan de manera normal, siguiendo una linea recta.

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Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

SUPUESTO DE INDEPENDENCIA

Independencia Secuencia Residuales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 -2,4625 1,0875 -0,9625 -0,4625 -0,0125 2,1875 2,5375 -1,4625 1,1875 -2,3125 -1,5125 0,7375 0,5375 1,5375 -0,8125 0,1875 Aleatorio 0,03599009 0,03833026 0,10111641 0,21725563 0,35455377 0,39112629 0,43063177 0,47167761 0,513491 0,55530561 0,64621254 0,67296386 0,73748425 0,74332304 0,95217893 0,97898848
3 2 1 0 -1 0 -2 -3 5 10 15 20

Independencia

Conclusin

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Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

Se concluye que los datos si nos muestran una dispersin de por ende se cumple el supuesto de independencia.

CONCLUSIONES Y RECOMENDACIONES

Basndonos en la informacin anterior concluimos que los diseos experimentales son de mucha utilidad para identificar y cuantificar las causas de un factor dentro de un estudio experimental, puesto que permite la manipulacin deliberada de una o ms variables, vinculadas a las causas, para medir el efecto que tienen en otra variable de inters. Por lo tanto, el diseo experimental para nosotros, los futuros ingenieros, se constituye en un elemento relevante a la hora de tomar decisiones que vayan en pro del buen manejo y desarrollo de una empresa.

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Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

Optimizar Respuesta
Grfica de Efectos Principales para Var_1 20,7 20,5

Var_1

20,3 20,1 19,9 19,7 -1,0 Factor_A 1,0 -1,0 Factor_B 1,0 -1,0 Factor_C 1,0

META: MINIMIZAR TIEMPO DE FUNDICION


Valor ptimo = 17,0 Factor Bajo Alto 1,0 1,0 1,0 ptimo 1,0 1,0 -1,0

Temperatura-A -1,0 Peso-B Recipiente-C -1,0 -1,0

Esta tabla muestra la combinacin de los niveles de los factores, la cual MINIMIZAR TIEMPO DE FUNDICION sobre la regin indicada. Use el cuadro de dilogo de Opciones de Ventana para indicar la regin sobre la cual se llevar a cabo la optimizacin. Puede establecer el valor de uno o ms factores a una constante, estableciendo los lmites alto y bajo en ese valor.

Esta tabla muestra las interacciones correspondientes entre los niveles de los factores, analizando el valor ptimo de cada una.

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Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

El valor ptimo se da con el tipo de recipiente en alto (Metal), en el peso en alto (500 g) y la temperatura en alto (120C) segn se puede analizar en la grfica.

BIBLIOGRAFIA

http://www.fundibeq.org/opencms/export/sites/default/PWF/downloads/gallery /methodology/tools/diseno_de_experimentos.pdf http://ocw.univalle.edu.co/ocw/ingenieria-electronica-telecomunicaciones-yafines/investigacion-i/bibliografia-1/disenoestadisticoexperimentos.pdf http://www.actiweb.es/chocolates_elche/pagina2.html http://cocina.univision.com/lobasico/trucos/article/2010-02-24/que-es-el-banomaria

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Balance del tiempo en la fundicin del chocolate

ANEXOS

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Reducing manufacturing process variability using experimental design technique: a case study Jiju Antony: University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Michael Hughes: University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Mike Kaye: University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Introduction Experimental design is a powerful approach to product and process development, and for improving the yield and stability of an ongoing manufacturing process (Montgomery, 1992). It is a discipline that applies statistics to the experimental process. It was first introduced and developed by Sir Ronald Fisher in the early 1920s to study the effect of several variables simultaneously on the outcome. In his early applications, Fisher wanted to determine the effect of factors such as rain, water, fertilizer, sunshine, etc., on the final condition of the crop (Sirvanci and Durmaz, 1993). His methods for effective experimentation were a fundamental break from the old scientific tradition of varying only one-factor-at-a-time approach to experimentation. Since that time, much development of the technique has taken place in the academic environment, but not many applications in the manufacturing environment. Dr Taguchi carried out significant research with experimental design techniques in the early 1950s. His effort has been to make this powerful experimental design technique more user-friendly and apply to improve the quality of both products and manufacturing processes (Goh, 1993). Taguchi developed both a philosophy and a methodology for continuous quality improvement based on statistical concepts, especially experimental design techniques. A number of successful applications of the Taguchi method for process optimisation have been reported by both US and European manufacturers over a decade (Antony and Kaye, 1996; Quinlan, 1985). Experimental design methodology based on Taguchi has accentuated the importance of reducing process variability around a specified target value and then bringing the process mean on target. This can be accomplished only by making processes
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insensitive to various sources of noise and the method is called robust parameter design (Phadke, 1989). Benefits of using experimental design methods Experimental design methods have intensive application in the engineering design and development environment. Potential applications include product design optimisation, analysis of basic design configurations, material selection, selection of component tolerances and process optimisation. The following are the typical benefits gained by many experimenters and researchers from the application of experimental design methods: - reduced product development time; - assistance to achieve better process design to assure final product quality; - improved customer satisfaction with the product; - reduced excessive variability in both the product and process performance; - assistance in discovering a set of process variables which are most influential on the process output; - reduced product and process development costs; - reduced product and process sensitivity to environmental and manufacturing variations; - helped to determine the optimal factor settings for better process performance; - assistance with the development of new processes and manufacturing technology; - improved process yield, product reliability and process capability. Case study The following case study was performed in a certain manufacturing organisation with the aim of reducing variability around the target for a core process. Owing to the nondisclosure agreement between the company and the authors, certain information relating to the company cannot be revealed in detail. Nevertheless, the data which has been collected from the experiment is real and has not been modified as a consequence of this agreement. The case study was carried out by following the steps described in the Taguchi methodology (Antony and Kaye, 1995).

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Step 1: objective/goal of the experiment The objective of the experiment was to determine the most important factors affecting a critical quality characteristic (or response) and subsequently reducing variability in response around the target value. Step 2: selection of the quality characteristic (or response) Having identified the objective of the experiment, the next step was to identify an appropriate response for the experiment. The response of interest to the experimenter was expulsion force. Here expulsion force is the force required to expel the component or device under study from a certain tube. Step 3: identification of control, noise and signal factors The classification of factors (Taguchi, 1987) for the experiment was achieved by a thorough brainstorming session with people from production, quality control and shopfloor. Seven control factors were thought to have some impact on expulsion force. Control factors are those which can be controlled under normal production conditions. No noise factors or signal factors were identified for the experiment. Noise factors are those which causes variation in the functional performance of products/processes. Signal factors are those which affect only the mean performance of the process. As this is the first Taguchi experiment performed on the forementioned quality characteristic, interactions were of no interest to the experimenter. In other words, the objective of the experiment was to reduce the number of factors to a manageable subset of important factors. This is called a "screening experiment" in the context of experimental design. Dingus (1989) and Quinlan (1985) provide excellent references for screening experiments. As part of the initial investigation of the process under study, it was decided to study all factors at two levels. Here, the "level" refers to a specified setting of a factor. For example, in the present case study, the type of material is a factor and "material X" and "material Y" are the two levels. The list of control factors and their levels are shown in Table I. All the factors which were thought to influence the expulsion force are basically machine related. Step 4: choice of an orthogonal array (OA) design For this study, seven independent factors were thought to have some impact on the response (i.e. expulsion force). As part of the initial investigation of the process, each factor was kept at two levels. A full factorial experiment would require a total of 128 (i.e. 2[sup]7) experimental runs. This was not reasonable and feasible design, as the cost of the experiment and time needed to complete the experiment would be extraordinarily high. Owing to the limited budget and because the top management needed a quick response to the experimental investigation, it was decided to use Taguchi's orthogonal array (OA)
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design. The choice of an OA (Ross, 1988) depends on the number of degrees of freedom required for studying the main and interaction effects. Moreover, the experimenter was interested in reducing the number of variables to a manageable number so that further smaller experiments can be carried out to study the interactions among the factors. As seven main effects (each at two levels) are to be studied, the number of degrees of freedom required for the experiment must be greater than seven. The closest number of experimental trials (from the standard OAs) which will satisfy this objective is an L[sub]8 OA (Taguchi and Konishi, 1987). Step 5: experimental preparation In this step, the main task was to construct the uncoded and coded design matrices for the experiment and analysis of results respectively. The coded and uncoded design matrices are shown in Tables II and III, respectively. Having constructed the design matrices, the next step was to run the experiment according to the prepared matrix. It was decided to conduct the experiment in the standard order (see Table II). Moreover, the sample size for each experimental design point was ten. In other words, ten parts were made according to the factor settings in each trial. Step 6: experimental run The experiment was conducted based on the design matrix and the response values were recorded on a data sheet for analysis. The resulting response table is shown in Table IV. Step 7: statistical analysis and interpretation of results As the objective is to reduce the variability in expulsion force and to bring the mean expulsion force as close as possible to the target (target being equal to 275gm), both the ANOVA on the mean response and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) have been carried out. SNR is a measure of the performance variability of products/processes in the presence of noise factors. The idea is to maximise the SNR and thereby minimise the effect of noise factors. ANOVA is a powerful statistical technique used for sub-dividing the total variation into useful and meaningful components of variation (Antony and Antony, 1998). In Taguchi experiments, ANOVA is used to pin point the key sources of variation. Since expulsion force is a nominal-the-best type of quality characteristic, it was decided to employ the two-step optimisation procedure recommended by Taguchi (Taguchi and Yokohama, 1993): - Stage 1. Identify those factor effects which have a significant effect on the SNR. Select the factor levels that maximise the SNR. The idea is to identify those effects which affect
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the variation. It is important to reduce variation in the performance characteristic of products/processes prior to shifting the mean onto the desired target. - Stage 2. Identify an adjustment factor which has a significant effect on the mean response, but no effect on the SNR. Use this adjustment factor to bring the mean response as close as possible to the target. Based on the above two steps, it was decided to calculate the SNR for each experimental design point. The SNR for nominal-the-best quality characteristic (Logothetis, 1992) is calculated by the equation:(see equation 1) Sample calculation for Trial 1 Mean response ({y})=983.10 Sample standard deviation (s) =258.38 Substitute the values into the above equation, we get, SNR = 11.60 The SNR values for eight experimental trials are shown in Table V. Having obtained the SNR values, the next step was to obtain the average response values of SNR at low and high levels of each factor and hence the effect of each factor on the SNR. The results are shown in Table VI. Table VI shows that factors B and D have dominant effect on the SNR, followed by factors E, G, F, A and C. The main effects plot for the SNR is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 shows that the most dominant factor effects are B and D, followed by factor effects E, G, F, A and C. In order to obtain the statistical significance of the effects, ANOVA for the SNR was performed. The pooled ANOVA table is shown in Table VII. Pooling is a method of combining the effects with low sum of squares in magnitude in order to obtain a reasonable estimate of the error variance. The rule of thumb is to pool the effects with low sum of squares till the error degrees of freedom is nearly half the total degrees of freedom (Logothetis and Wynn, 1989). The ANOVA table has shown that the most dominant factor effects are B and D. Having identified the significant factor effects, the next step was to determine the optimal settings of these factors which will maximise the SNR. The optimum condition (i.e., the best control factor settings) based on the SNR (refer to Table VI) was: A[sub]1B[sub]2C[sub]1D[sub]2E[sub]2F[sub]1G[sub]1

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Having performed the SNR analysis, the next step was to identify those factor effects which have significant impact on the mean response (Antony and Kaye, 1997). The average response values at each level of the factors and their effects are presented in Table VIII. Having computed the estimates of the factor effects, it was decided to construct a main effects plot of the factors. A main effects plot will provide a visual representation of the importance of the factor effects. Figure 2 illustrates the main effects plot of the factors. Figure 2 shows that factors E and B have significant impact on the mean response (i.e. mean expulsion force). This will be followed by factors A, D, F, G and C. The pooled ANOVA table is shown in Table IX. The ANOVA table has also shown that the most dominant factor effects are E and B. Having identified the significant factor effects, the next step was to determine the optimal settings of these factors which will bring the mean response as close as possible to the target. The optimum condition (i.e. the best control factor settings) based on the mean response (refer to Table VIII) was: A[sub]2B[sub]2C[sub]2D[sub]1E[sub]2F[sub]2G[sub]2 Here factor A is an adjustment factor as it only influences the mean expulsion force and not variability in expulsion force. Factors C, F and G have no significant impact on either mean response or response variability. The final selection of the levels of these insignificant factors have been made based on economic grounds. As there was trade-off in the factor levels (based on the analysis of the SNR and mean response), it was decided to perform the loss-function analysis for nominal-the-best (NTB) quality characteristics (Schimdt and Launsby, 1992), in order to arrive at the final optimal factor settings. The optimal factor settings is the one which yields minimum quality loss. In order to perform the loss-function analysis, the first step was to develop a mathematical model for the mean response (denoted by y^). The model is derived using the significant effects obtained from the ANOVA on mean response. The equation is basically a linear combination of regression coefficients. The model for the mean response is given by: (see equation 2)In the above model, the coefficients of A, B, D and E are half of the estimate of the factor effects. Similarly, a mathematical model for the standard deviation was constructed. This model is based on the effects which have a significant impact on the log S. Factors B and E were appeared to influence the log S. It is important to note that the log S of the observations often tend to be normally distributed whereas the standard deviations (S) of the observations do not generally follow a normal distribution (Lochner and Matar, 1990). The mathematical model for the log standard deviation (log^S)is given by:(see equation 3)Having determined the mathematical models for the mean response
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and standard deviation, it was decided to calculate the average loss function L(y) for each experimental design point based on the factor effects which have significant effect on either mean response or response variability. Sample calculation For making the computations simpler, we replace level 1 or low level by (-1) and that of level 2 or high level by (+1). For run 7:(see equation 4)Similarly,(see equation 5)(see equation 6)Table X summarises the results. From Table X, run 7 (represented in bold) yields the minimum loss. The optimal factor settings based on the loss-function analysis was therefore obtained as:(see equation 7)The final optimal factor settings were therefore(see equation 8) Predicted mean response at the optimal condition The predicted mean response at the optimal condition is estimated only from the significant main or interaction effects. The selection of factor levels to be used in the prediction equation is dependent on the nature of chosen quality characteristic for the experiment. For the present study, the main factor effects which have significant impact on the mean response were A, B, D and E. The predicted mean response based on the optimal factor levels of A, B, D and E is given by (Roy, 1990):(see equation 9)where: &^mu; =predicted mean response at the optimal condition T =overall mean of all observations in the data.(see equation 10) Confidence interval for the predicted mean response The confidence interval for the predicted mean response at the optimal condition is given by:(see equation 11)where: MSE = error variance {F[sub]([alpha],1, [nu][sub]2)= Tabled value of F with one degree of freedom for the numerator and [nu] [sub]2 degrees of freedom for the error term. N[sub]e = effective number of replications For the present study, MSE = 30361.93, N[sub]e = 80/(1 + 4) = 16

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Therefore, the 99 per cent confidence interval for the mean expulsion force is given by:(see equation 12)Therefore the result at the optimal condition is 425.5825 +- 115.34 at the 99 per cent confidence level. Having determined the confidence level for the predicted mean response, it is good practice to conduct a confirmation experiment or run (Taguchi, 1987). The confirmation experiment/run is used to verify whether the predicted mean response based on the optimal combination of factor levels lies within the confidence limits or not. If conclusive results are obtained from the confirmation run, a specific action on the product/process may be taken for improvement. Step 8: confirmation run Ten samples were produced under the optimal conditions. The results are shown in Table XI. The mean expulsion force from the confirmation run was estimated as 345.2gms. This value lies in the predicted range of 425.5825 +- 115.34 and therefore the experiment was concluded to be satisfactory and valid. Comparison of results - before and after experimentation Ten samples were taken from the standard production settings and sample standard deviation was estimated. The standard deviation at the standard condition was estimated to be 140.30gms. The sample standard deviation at the optimal condition was estimated to be 66.38gms. The reduction in standard deviation was therefore computed as approximately 53 per cent. Significance of the work This section describes the significance of the experimental work to the company. Owing to the significant reduction in process variability, the actual capability of the process (i.e. \rm C[sub]pk) has increased from 0.534 to 1.69. This clearly shows a dramatic improvement in the process performance and thereby more reliable and consistent products can be produced using the optimal factor settings. Using Taguchi's loss function analysis, the potential annual savings were estimated to be over Pounds 75,000. It must be emphasised that this is not a saving in traditional accounting terms. The potential savings result in increased customer satisfaction, better reputation, reduced customer complaints and increased market share for the product. The engineering team including the quality engineers and managers within the company are now well aware of the benefits that can be gained from the application of experimental design methods. Moreover, the awareness that has been established within the organisation has built confidence among the engineers and front-line workers in other areas facing similar difficulties. The company has already taken some initiatives to apply

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experimental design methodologies in other core processes where scrap rate and costs associated with rework are exorbitantly high. Conclusions Experimental design is a powerful technique for improving the product and manufacturing process quality at low costs. The paper illustrates a case study in terms of the specific approach from the nature of the problem to verification of experimental results from a confirmation run/experiment. The results revealed the stimulus for the wider application of Taguchi's experimental design techniques in manufacturing companies to achieve process improvement and reduce process variability. The paper highlights the importance of loss-function analysis to arrive at the final optimal factor settings of the process. The standard deviation of the process was reduced by 53 per cent using the experimental design methodology. Moreover, the potential annual savings were estimated to be over Pounds 75,000.The results of the study have made an increased awareness of the application of experimental design methodology to the engineering fraternity within the organisation.

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References 1. Antony, J. and Antony, F.J. (1998), "Teaching advanced statistical techniques to industrial engineers and business managers", Journal of Engineering Design (International), Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 89-100. 2. Antony, J. and Kaye, M. (1995), ''Experimental quality", Journal of Manufacturing Engineer, Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 74 No. 4, pp. 178-81. 3. Antony, J. and Kaye, M. (1996), " Optimisation of core tube life using experimental design methodology", Journal of Quality World, (Technical Supplement), Institute of Quality Assurance, London, March, pp. 42-50. 4. Antony, J. and Kaye, M. (1997), "Experimental quality - a strategic approach to achieve and improve quality", unpublished work. 5. Dingus, G. (1989), "An application of Taguchi methods in the foundry", Seventh Symposium on Taguchi Methods, MI, pp. 517-32. 6. Goh, T.N. (1993), "Taguchi methods: some technical, cultural and pedagogical perspectives'', Quality and Reliability Engineering International, Vol. 9, pp. 185-202. 7. Lochner, R.E. and Matar, J.E. (1990), Designing for Quality, Chapman and Hall, New York, NY. 8. Logothetis, N. (1992), Managing for Total Quality - From Deming to Taguchi and SPC, Prentice-Hall, London. 9. Logothetis, N. and Wynn, H.P. (1989), Quality through Design - Experimental Design, Off-line Quality Control and Taguchi Contributions, Oxford Science Publications, Oxford.

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10. Montgomery, D.C. (1992), "The use of statistical process control and design of experiments in product and process improvement", IIE Transactions, Vol. 24 No.5, pp. 417. 11. Phadke, M.S. (1989), Quality Engineering Using Robust Design, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 12. Quinlan, J. (1985), "Process Improvement by Application of Taguchi Methods", Transactions of the Third Symposium on Taguchi Methods, MI, pp. 11-16. 13. Ross, P.J. (1988), Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead. 14. Roy, R.K. (1990), A Primer on the Taguchi Method, VNR Publishers, New York, NY. 15. Schmidt, S.R. and Launsby, R.G. (1992), Understanding Industrial Designed Experiments, Air Academy Press, Colorado Springs, CO. 16. Sirvanci, M.B. and Durmaz, M. (1993), "Variation reduction by the use of designed experiments", Quality Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. 611-18. 17. Taguchi, G. (1987), System of Experimental Design, Vols 1 and 2, ASI, Dearborn, MI. 18. Taguchi, G. and Konishi, S. (1987), Standard Orthogonal Arrays and Linear Graphs, ASI Press, Dearborn, MI. 19. Taguchi, G. and Yokohama, Y. (1993), Taguchi Methods - Design of Experiments, ASI Press, Dearborn, MI.

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CRITICAL COMMENT In a first analysis of the previous article we can realize according to its content that the designs of experiments are facts in order to improve a system, process or other.

It is important from the point of view of us by being students of industrial engineering, since we can see the experimental design as a means of critical importance in our field of labor action, basically the basis knowledge, databases and statistical tools that we provided in the course of the half, to improve the performance of a manufacturing process.

It also raised extensively in the development of new processes. The application of techniques of experimental design at an early stage in the development of a process can result in:

Improves the performance of the process. Less variability and closer proximity to the objectives. Less development time. Lower costs global.

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Examining these lines we infer that the methods of experimental design also have an important assignment in the activities of technical design (or of engineering) in those who develop new products and already existing others are improved. Some applications are: Evaluation and comparison of basic configurations of design. Evaluation of alternative materials Experimental design. Selection of design parameters so that the product works well in a wide variety of field conditions. Giving itself this way it tells that the use of the experimental design in these areas can give for products resulted with major reliability and better functioning in the field, minor costs, and minor time of design and product development.

In this instance we must have clear that is needed of a statistical approach of the experimental design to obtain significant conclusions from the information since the statistical methodology is the only objective approach to analyze a problem that involves information subject to experimental mistakes. Realizing so there are two aspects in any experimental problem: the design of the experiment and the statistical analysis of the information.

These two topics are narrowly related, since the method of analysis depends directly on the used design. Three basic beginning in the experimental design is an obtaining reply, aleatorizacin and analysis for blocks.

We see here several ideas exposed wherefrom we can conclude that of using a statistical approach on having designed and to analyze an experiment, there is needed that all the participants in him have in advance a clear idea of what is really what is going to be studied, how there are going to be compiled the information and, at least, a qualitative idea of how they are going to be analyzed.

Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II

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Universidad del Magdalena 2013 II