You are on page 1of 112

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PAVEMENT

A Project Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


Submitted by

M. HAREESH K. PAVAN P.RAJIV V.RAJESH T.SASHANK A. LAKSHMI NARAYANA Under the esteemed guidance of

09551A0130 09551A0123 09551A0138 09551A0158 09551A0153 08551A0159

Mr. D.VENKATESWARLU (Ph.D) Associate Professor


Head of the Department

Civil Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering GODAVARI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RAJAHMUNDRY 533296, AP

(Accredited by NBA, Approved by A.I.C.T.E., Affiliated to J.N.T.U, Kakinada)

GODAVARI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(Accredited by NBA, Approved by A.I.C.T.E, Affiliated to J.N.T.U, Kakinada)

RAJAHMUNDRY 533296, AP Department Of Civil Engineering

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Project entitled DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PAVEMENT, is being carried by M.HAREESH, bearing PIN: 09551A0130, K.PAVAN, bearing PIN: 09551A0123, P.RAJIV, bearing PIN:09551A0138, V.RAJESH, bearing PIN :09551A0158, T.SASHANK bearing PIN:09551A0153, A. LAKSHMI NARAYANA bearing PIN: 08551A0159 in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering, in the department of Civil Engineering, Godavari Institute of Engineering & Technology, Rajahmundry, to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada is a record of bonafide work carried out by them under my guidance and supervision.

PROJECT GUIDE

HOD-CIVIL ENGINEERING

Mr. D.VENKATESWARLU (Ph.D) Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering GIET College Rajahmundry

Mr. D.VENKATESWARLU (Ph.D) Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering GIET College Rajahmundry

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We feel immense pleasure to express our sincere thanks and profound sense of gratitude to all those people who played a valuable role for the successful completion of our project by their valuable suggestions and advices. We are thankful to our principal Dr. M.RAMJEE for permitting and encouraging us in doing this project. We are highly grateful to Mr. D.VENKATESWARLU, Head of the Department, Civil Engineering for his kind suggestions, internal guidance and help. We are very much thankful to MR. B. VENKATA REDDY (Vice PresidentProjects), MR. V.L.S.MAHESH (Project Manager), Mr. G.SUBRAMANYESHWAR RAO (Construction Manager), MR. M.ASLAM SADIQ (Planning Engineer), MR. R.MALLESHAM (Material Engineer), MR. K.RAMBABU (SURVEOR) MR. MD.RAFFI (Lab Technician), T.KRISHNA REDDY(Lab Technician) in GAYATRI PROJECTS LTD., for their support, encouragement and motivation to complete our Project. We are highly thankful to Mr. S.NAGESWARA RAO and our lecturers in Civil Engineering department for giving proper guidance. We wish to thank all our well-wishers who have helped us directly or indirectly during our project work.

BY M.HAREESH K.PAVAN P.RAJIV V.RAJESH T.SASHANK A.LAKSHMI NARAYANA

DECLARATION

We M.HAREESH (09551A0130), K.PAVAN (09551A0123), P.RAJIV (09551A0138), V.RAJESH (09551A0158) and T.SASHANK (09551A0153), A.LAKSHMI NARAYANA (08551A0159), declare that the project entitled DESIGN ANDCONSTRUCTION OF PAVEMENTS is a bonafide work carried out by us and has not been submitted to any other University or College for the award of any Degree or Diploma

CONTENTS Page no
CHAPTER: 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Project Features 1.2 Site Conditions 1.3 Project background CHAPTER: 2. HYDERABAD OUTER RING ROAD 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Objectives of ORR 2.3. Salient features of ORR 2.4 Process of execution of work 2.5 Methodology of earth work excavation CHAPTER: 3. HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS 3.1. Requirements of a pavement 3.2. Types of pavements 3.3. Basic structural elements CHAPTER: 4. PAVEMENT DESIGN PARAMETERS 4.1 Design factors 4.2 Design approach & criteria 4.3 Estimating design traffic 4.4 Computation of design traffic 4.5 Subgrade 1 2 6 6 7 7 9 10 12 18 20 20 20 23 26 26 26 27 31 32

4.6 Pavement thickness and composition 4.7 Pavement design catalog CHAPTER: 5. PAVEMENT DESIGN 5.1 Estimating design traffic 5.2 Traffic studies 5.3 Rate of growth of traffic 5.4 Design life 5.5 Vehicle damage factor 5.6 Distribution of traffic 5.7 Calculation of pavement thickness CHAPTER: 6. ALIGNMENT CHAPTER: 7. TESTS ON MATERIALS 7.1 Free swell index 7.2 Grain size analysis 7.3 Atterberg limits 7.4 Modified Procter test 7.5 California bearing ratio CHAPTER: 8. AGGREGATES 8.1 Tests on aggregates 8.2 Tests on granular sub base 8.3 Gradation 8.4 Specific gravity and water absorption test 8.5 Ten percent fines value

33 37 38 38 38 40 40 41 42 43 46 50 51 53 57 61 64 69 69 70 70 72 73

8.6 Other tests CHAPTER: 9. WET MIX MACADEM 9.1 General 9.2 Specifications of materials 9.3 Process of execution 9.4 Construction procedure 9.5 Tests on WMM 9.6 WMM gradation 9.7 Aggregate impact value 9.8 Los Angles abrasion test 9.9 Flakiness and Elongation test CHAPTER: 10. DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADEM 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Tests on DBM 10.3 Tests on bitumen 10.4 tests on aggregate 10.5 Marshal stability test CHAPTER: 11. BITUMINOUS CONCRETE

74 76 76 76 79 81 82 82 84 86 88 91 91 92 93 95 98 101

ABSTRACT
We have opted our project on CONSTRUCTION OF OUTER RING ROAD as this project briefly describes about the development of highway in detail. It includes different types of pavements and their reactions towards the load acting on them. It deals with the layers of flexible pavement in detail and the tests conducted to the soil to check whether it can with stand the wheel load acting on the pavement. The Govt. of AP, proposed major infrastructure facilities in Hyderabad city and one of them is the orbital linkage to decongest the traffic flow on the existing major arterials. The Outer Ring Road should be viewed as road -cum- area development project since the aim is the development of well planned and well connected Urban settlements around the Hyderabad Metropolitan area. The 158 km long ring road connects Patancheru- ShamshabadHayathnagar- Medchal Patancheru providing connectivity to various State Highway and National Highways, to bypass the city of Hyderabad. . Considering the anticipated growth in the region and development of the proposed satellite townships around the ring road and beyond, and the traffic thereby generated, an 8-lane divided carriage way is planned for a design life of 20 years. ORR to have an eight lane divided carriageway with a design speed of 120 Kmph and one emergency lane for break down vehicles. The link road from Gachibouli intersection to ORR is designed as a six lane with ROW 75m with design speed of 100 Kmph.

1. INTRODUCTION
Hyderabad is one of major growing cities in India. The Hyderabad Metropolitan area (HMA) expands upto 1868 Sq. km. The total population of HMA is about 63.83 lakhs as per 2001 census. Hyderabad, the state capital of Andhra Pradesh on which the world has its eye in terms of development it has undergone in various sectors. Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) is a statutory agency of Government of Andhra Pradesh, with the responsibility of planning and developing the HMA in association with various other sectoral agencies. HUDA has planned to develop outer ring road (ORR) system around the Hyderabad Metropolitan area to relieve congestion within the city and to act as a catalyst for dispersal of urban growth. The outer ring road is envisaged to give a boost to the road cum area development and to connect the proposed urban settlements around the Hyderabad Metropolitan Area. The IT sector, developed at the Hi-tech city, The International Airport at Shamshabad, IIT and many others have to be connected with the city for the needs of people and in an effective manner i.e., reducing the time of travel. Hyderabad Urban Development Authority has decided to take up the development of outer ring road project since the intensity of traffic has increased significantly and there is requirement of providing access controlled corridor connecting areas like Cyberabad, International airport, Singapore Township, Bio-Tech park etc., for safe and efficient movement of traffic. This rapid development increased the road traffic considerably and some new systems are to be implemented for the effective traffic control in the city. Also, this development has led to an increase in the area of the city. This lead to the development of effective means of travelling and government is doing many projects for this. Some of them are BRTS, METRO, and OUTER RING ROAD etc.., which aim at reducing the time of travel and the traffic in the core of the city. As the inner ring road alone is carrying the traffic to the maximum extent, the GHMC planned a ring road across the city connecting all the places by radial roads. This is the OUTER RING ROAD which connects all the national highways and to the core of the city by radial roads by reducing the journey time and the traffic in the city.

The Govt. of AP proposed major infrastructure facilities in Hyderabad city and one of them is the orbital linkage to decongest the traffic flow on the existing major arterials. The Outer Ring Road should be viewed as road -cum- area development project since the aim is the development of well planned and well connected Urban settlements around the Hyderabad Metropolitan area. The 159 km long ring road connects Patancheru- ShamshabadHayathnagar- Medchal-Patancheru providing connectivity to various State Highway and National Highways, to bypass the city of Hyderabad. 1.1 PROJECT FEATURES The importance of the proposed corridor being, Relieves congestion on metropolitan area and inner ring road and meets the future demand. Provides orbital linkage to radial arterial roads Creates options for development of the further satellite townships Provides linkage to the proposed MRTS and Bus system Provides quick access to the International Airport from Strategic parts of the city Connects various new urban nodes outside the city like Hi- Tech city , Games village, IIIT, ISB, Hardware Park, Singapore Township Financial district etc., The traffic studies conducted on NH-7 and NH-9 show that the road is due for 4/6 lane. The traffic movement on the existing inner ring road shows that the existing 4- lane road is inadequate for the movement of the traffic at the design level of serviceability. Considering the anticipated growth in the region and development of the proposed satellite townships around the ring road and the traffic thereby generated, an 8-lane divided carriage way is planned for a design life of 20 years. The conclusion to develop a highway with full control of access warrants providing highway grade separations or interchanges for all intersecting highways. Once it has been decided to develop the route as an expressway all intersecting highways should be terminated, rerouted or provided with a grade separation. The proposed corridor is designed to be fully access controlled and limited access is to be provided at NH/SHI Major road crossings. 2-lane service roads designed to carry two way traffic, are proposed on both sides of the corridor. Low level underpasses are to be provided for connecting both the service roads at every 1-2 Km, where the terrain permits.

The project is proposed to be implemented in 2 phases and is estimated to cost Rs 3000 Crores. Construction of 22 Km of Phase-I from Gachibouli In to Shamshabad NH 7 In. (Rs 500 Crores). Construction of 140 km of Phase-II (Rs 2500 Crores). Connecting: Narsingi- Kollur- Patancheru- Medchal- Shamirpet- PeddamberpetTurkayamanjil-Tukkuguda-Shamshabad.

Fig 1.1 showing the radial roads connecting interior of the city with outer ring road A highway is a public road, especially a major road connecting two or more destinations. Any interconnected set of highways can be variously referred to as a "highway system", a "highway network", or a "highway transportation system". Each country has its

own national highway system. Major highways are often named and numbered by the governments that typically develop and maintain them. Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km (9,000 miles) and runs almost the entire way around the continent. The United States has the world's largest network of highways, including both the Interstate Highway System and the U.S. Highway System. At least one of these networks is present in every state and they interconnect most major cities. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries usually incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity, efficiency, and safety to various degrees. Such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, and grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport. These features are typically present on highways built as motorways (freeways). Reducing travel times relative to city or town streets, modern highways with limited access and grade separation create increased opportunities for people to travel for business, trade or pleasure and also provide trade routes for goods. Modern highways reduce commute and other travel time but additional road capacity can also create new induced traffic demand. If not accurately predicted at the planning stage, this extra traffic may lead to the new road becoming congested sooner than anticipated. More roads add on to cardependence, which can mean that a new road brings only short-term mitigation of traffic congestion. Where highways are created through existing communities, there can be reduced community cohesion and more difficult local access. Consequently property values have decreased in many cutoff neighborhoods, leading to decreased housing quality over time.

1.2 SITE CONDITIONS The climate here remains normal through-out the year and receives limited rainfall. During summer the temperature varies from min 22c to max 42c. The monsoon arrives mid of June and ends in October, the city receives rainfall up to 85cm. In winter season the temperature gradually comes down and reaches up to a min of 12c. ALTITUDE LATITUDE LONGITUDE RAIN FALL CLIMATE 1.3 PROJECT BACKROUND HUDA prepares various planning documents including the Master Plan for HMA and formulates Urban Development schemes at the metropolitan level with specific reference to infrastructure development decongestion etc. The Master Plan prepared by HUDA lays emphasis on land use, transportation network and development of satellite townships in the Hyderabad Metropolitan Area. The Master Plan envisages a system of Ring roads viz., Inner Ring Road, and Outer Ring Road (ORR) for providing access for the increased radial and orbital movements. The Inner Ring Road has already been put into operation. The proposed Greater Hyderabad Growth Corridor is 162 km long and connects 2 major National Highways namely NH-7 and NH-9. Overall, it intersects 3 National highways and 5 State highways. It primarily passes through 536 METERS 17 degree 20 N 78 degree 30 E 89 CM MILD &DRY TEMPERATURE

Shamshabad, Hayatnagar, Medchal and Patancheru. However, it has more significance than merely serving as a bypass to the city. 1.3.1 THE PRIME OBJECTIVES PF THE PROPOSSED CORRIDOR To relieve congestion on the metropolitan area and the inner ring road. To provide linkage to the radial arterial roads. To connect the new urban nodes outside the city like Hi-tech city, Games village, Hardware Park, Singapore Township, Biotech Park, Apparel Park and Finance District etc. To provide high speed connectivity to 22 nos. of forthcoming Satellite townships. To provide quick access to the upcoming international airport from strategic parts of the city. To provide linkage to the MRTS and bus systems

The proposed Outer Ring Road, Phase IIA is envisaged to connect Shamshabad on NH 7 to Pedda Amberpet on NH 9 and Narsingi with Patancheru. The stretch between Patancheru & Pedda Amberpet for a length of 71.300 km is being treated as Phase IIB of ORR project. The road of length 71.300 km would intersect major arterial roads of the city including Narsapur State highway, NH 7 at Medchal, Karimnagar State highway, Keesara road and NH-202 at Ghatkesar. It consists of six segments: Patancheru to Mallampet from km 23.700 to km 35.000 Mallampet to Dundigal from km 35.000 to km 46.000 Dundigal to Shamirpet from km 46.000 to km 59.000 Shamirpet to Keesara from km 59.000 to km 72.000 Keesara to Ghatkesar from km 72.000 to km 83.000. Ghatkesar to Pedda Amberpet from km 83.000 to km 95.000

HUDA proposes to take up the outer ring road project for providing one more orbital linkage to the major arterial roads, so as to decongest the traffic flow on existing major arterials and inner ring road. This would also facilitate in dispersal of urban growth.

2. HYDERABAD OUTER RING ROAD


2.1 INTRODUCTION

The Outer Ring Road or ORR is a 158 kilometer, 8-lane ring road encircling the City of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. It is built by Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority at a cost of Rs.6696 crore. The Japan International Cooperation Agency is giving a loan of Rs 3,123 crore. The road aims to improve connectivity and decongest the traffic flow on the existing major arterials between the outer suburbs of Greater Hyderabad. The construction of ORR started in December 2005 during the Congress party regime. It is expected to complete in a phased manner by December 2012. The road passes through the villages in Rangareddy district viz. Shamshabad, Tukkuguda, Kollur,Narsingi, Gachibowli, Patancheru, Bowrampet, Goudel li, Shamirpet, Ghatkesar, Pedda Amberpet,Bongloor and Medchal. First Phase: The First Phase was built to connect Rajiv Gandhi International Airport with the IT corridor. It was inaugurated on 14 November 2008. Shamshabad - Gachibowli (22 Kilometers)

Second Phase The second phase is divided into two parcels, A and B. The entire phase is expected to complete by November 2012. Second Phase A Pedda Amberpet to Shamshabad (38 kilometers) - (completed) Narsingi to Patancheru (23.7 kilometers) - March 2011 (expected date of completion)

Second Phase B Patancheru to Shamirpet (38 kilometers) - November 2011 (expected date of completion) Shamirpet to Pedda Amberpet (33 kilometers) - November 2012 (expected date of completion) Junctions The junctions on the Outer Ring Road, they are: Shamshabad Junction Andhra Pradesh Police Academy Junction (APPA Junction) Nanakramguda Junction

Narsingi Junction Gachibowli Junction Pantancheru Junction Bowrampet Junction Gaudelli Junction Shamirpet Junction Ghatkesar Junction Pedda Amberpet Junction Bongloor Junction

Profile of Outer ring road Phase I (Package no II) a) Alignment: The Phase I Package II of the proposed Outer Ring Road is envisaged to connect Mallampet Dundigal. The road of length 11.000 km would intersect major arterial roads of the city. b) Railway Line: A strip of 25m of land is reserved within 150mts of the alignment for providing a rail line. However, development of this railway line is beyond the scope of this assignment. The project will include grade separators, major bridges across streams & culverts, junction improvements at all intersections of existing roads e.g. MDRs, ODRs and Village roads. It would also include laying of service ducts along the road or across at predefined sections. 2.2 OBJECTIVIES OF ORR To relieve congestion on metropolitan area and inner ring road and meets the future demand. Providing orbital linkage to radial arterial roads. Creating options for development of the further satellite townships Providing linkage to the proposed MRTS and Bus system Providing quick access to the International Airport from Strategic parts of the city. To Connect various new urban nodes outside the city like Hi- Tech city , Games village, IIIT, ISB, Hardware Park, Singapore Township Financial district etc.,

Considering the anticipated growth in the region and development of the proposed satellite townships around the ring road and beyond, and the traffic thereby generated, an 8-lane divided carriage way is planned for a design life of 20 years.

ORR to have an eight lane divided carriageway with a design speed of 120 Kmph and one emergency lane for break down vehicles. The link road from Gachibouli intersection to ORR is designed as a six lane with ROW 75m with design speed of 100 Kmph.

2.3 SALIENT FEATURES OF ORR

Features of the Outer ring road PHASE I PACKAGE II: Outer Ring Road will have a configuration of 8-lane divided carriageway with a design speed of 120 kmph for the expressway corridor. In addition to the 4-lane facility, one emergency lane is provided for the break down vehicles. Besides, a wide earthen shoulder is provided to accommodate noise barriers and greenery. The Outer ring road proposed in the Phase-I is meeting the present alignment at a distance of about 3.6 km from Gachibowli intersection. Including the slopes and drains on either side of the main facility, the service roads and the proposed rail corridor, the required right of way is a bare minimum of 150m. In general, the alignment passes through plain and rolling terrain. The proposed outer ring road also serves as a bypass to important national Highways namely NH-7 and NH-9. Design proposals for improvement of adjacent sections of NH-7 and NH-9 are in place. The existing 2-lane highways are being widened to 4/6-lane facility. The panel of experts proposed to retain the following characteristics following the workshop on 22nd June 2005:

Width of Fast lanes 3.5m Width of outer lanes 3.75m Hard shoulder 3.0m Earthen Shoulder 3.0m Width of Median 5.0m

Level of Access Control Access will be provided at the junctions with National and State highways. The access may be done by providing the intersections of various types like rotary intersection etc., Provision of Service roads It was first proposed to provide 2-lane service roads all along, on both sides of the project corridor. These service roads are intended to serve one-way traffic. Low-level underpasses of around 5.5m (clear) height are proposed to connect the service roads at 1-2 km interval. The proposed outer ring road did not pass through built up areas at the moment. However, service roads were proposed in the light of the prospective satellite townships. Moreover, access to the main carriage way is restricted to limited locations. Hence, the service roads were assumed to act as collector roads to collect the traffic from the radial arterials and carry the traffic to the nearest entry point. Secondly, it is obvious that the slow moving traffic & 2/3 wheelers will not be allowed on the expressway. Service roads will cater to this traffic so that the main carriageway remains a high speed corridor.

After discussion of the appropriateness of providing one-way traffic service roads all along the project corridor on both sides, the panel of experts recommended the following: Service road to be provided only at selected locations In general, the internal roads of the road side development should bring the traffic to the nearest cross road to gain access to the expressway corridor

Land should be reserved for service road so that they can be constructed at a later date wherever required. Flow of traffic on service road should be two-way Service roads should be terminated at intersections The structures at the intersections should span over the main corridor only

Integrated Rail Corridor It is proposed to provide a rail facility within the project corridor throughout the length of the outer ring road. A 25.0m corridor is reserved between the main carriage way and the service road on the outer rim of the proposed ring road. This rail link is supposed to connect various parts of the city and the prospective satellite townships with the proposed International Air Port coming up in the outskirts of Shamshabad, which is 30.0 km away from the center of the city. 2.4 PROCESS OF EXECUTION OF WORK Surveys and investigations: The details of surveys including inventory studies and investigations carried out during the preparation of detailed project report are presented below: Traffic surveys. Investigations of the existing pavement and sub grade, evaluation of the existing pavement as well as collection of samples of the existing pavement and their laboratory testing. Collection of samples from pits adjacent to the existing road and along the proposed alignment. Identification of borrow areas for different types of pavement and bridge construction material, collection of samples and their analyses. Detailed surveys along the alignment. Inventory and condition surveys for culverts and bridges. LS and CS for cross drainage structures. Hydrological studies for the cross Drainage structures. Environmental baseline studies

Traffic Studies An accurate estimate of the traffic likely to use the project road is very important as it forms the basic input in its planning, design, operation and financing. A thorough knowledge

of the travel characteristics of the traffic likely to use the project road as well as other major roads in the influence area of the study corridor is, therefore, essential for future traffic estimation. The average annual daily traffic at the study locations is obtained by multiplying the average daily traffic with the seasonal correction factor. The traffic surveys have been conducted during the month of February 2006 at nine major intersections on the project corridor. The seasonal variation factors for the month of February 2006 have been established. Traffic for the estimation of the msa was extracted from the Traffic Report. Present and estimated traffic for future along the project road is presented in table E.2 furnished below. Table 2.1 Present and Projected traffic volume (PCUs) along the Project Corridor Leg Leg-1 Leg-2 Leg -3 Leg-4 Leg-5 Leg-6 Leg-7 Leg-8 Leg-9 Leg-10 Leg-11 Lg-12 2006 34,931 35450 34672 52136 57655 58305 38276 58761 64463 37924 32589 31861 2011 49,271 49959 49053 73043 80801 80936 52340 79977 87702 51184 44342 43366 2016 69,123 70112 68990 101663 112350 111911 71260 108461 119014 69225 60433 59150 2021 96,126 97636 96126 140201 154619 153769 96491 146443 160945 93747 82371 80721 2026 129534 131725 129709 187741 206695 205433 127501 193112 212526 124017 109487 107397 2031 172687 175936 173103 248553 272957 271819 166864 252380 278330 163264 144719 142137 2036 225540 230206 226264 322651 353470 352899 214624 324302 358380 211411 187993 184856

Vehicle Damage Factor The vehicle damage factor (VDF) is a multiplier to convert the number of commercial vehicles of different axle loads and axle configuration to the number of standard axle load repetitions. It is defined as equivalent number of standard axles per commercial vehicle. The VDF varies with the vehicle axle configuration, axle loading, terrain, type of road and from region to region. Axle load surveys were conducted on NH 7 and NH 9 at the proposed junction with ORR. Vehicle damage factors are tabulated in Table 2.2 as shown below
Table 2.2: Summary of Vehicle Damage Factors (VDF)

Location

2-Axle Truck

3-Axle Truck 2.41 3.17 2.42 2.60

M-Axle Truck

LCV

Buses

Shamshabad(NH-7) Amberpet (NH-9) Medchal (NH-7) Pathancheruvu(NH9) Average

3.21 2.66 3.90 1.50

2.57 4.92 7.60 2.65

0.23 0.36 0.40 0.14

0.50 0.30 0.44 --

2.82

2.65

4.44

0.28

0.41

Soil and Material Investigations Sub grade investigations along the alignment of the project were essentially directed towards collecting all the soil samples. Pits on natural ground were dug to assess the soil strength for carriageway and the following activities were carried out. Collecting bulk samples (approx. 80 kg) for following laboratory test.

Free swell index Atterberg Limits Grain size analysis Maximum Laboratory dry density (heavy compaction) Optimum moisture content CBR (4 days soaked) at three energy levels

Driving auger down to 1.5m below the natural ground or till hard strata is encountered.

Collecting 1 kg sample at 1.0m and 1.5m depth for soil classification. Recording water table, if encountered in the bore. From the soil and material investigations, the CBR values are found to be

more than 10%. From the quarry and borrow area investigations, the good quality material required for the construction is available in abundance. Design of Bridges and Culverts

The main objective of the study is to provide sufficient number of bridges and cross-drainage structures. Hydrological study has been carried out using the topo sheets and the data collected from the HMWS&SB. Apart from these cross drainage structures, underpasses, overpasses have been proposed to allow the movement of pedestrians and vehicles. One rotary will be provided at Narsapur junction, where access to main carriageway will be provided. Apart from these rotary, underpasses are proposed for the minor or local roads. Geometric Design Standards Expressway, a controlled access facility is intended to provide most efficient speedy movement of relatively high volumes of motorized traffic with higher degree of safety, comfort and economy. Alignment characteristics and parameters of physical dimensions should be such that the resulting road has inbuilt flexibility of adjustment for additional carriageways in foreseeable future without any extravagant and or wasteful provision because in a rapidly developing economy it is not always possible to forecast the traffic growth accurately. Besides, sustainability of a very high growth continuously over a very long period could also be questionable. Hence, concept of a variable traffic growth rate during the service life will also have to be developed. Geometric and other elements should be preferably matched the individual and collective requirement of traffic using the facility. Predominant vehicles should form the basis of design unit for carriageway width capacities and other design parameters like design speed etc. Geometric elements are mostly governed by the functional requirements, which are also influenced by the environmental parameters and which once built in the road systems are difficult to modify. Pavement Design From the traffic volume counts, the numbers of commercial vehicles were assessed. The Preliminary Pavement design is done for both flexible and rigid options. The flexible pavement design is done using IRC: 37-2001 method and checked with AASHTO-1993 pavement design procedure. The rigid pavement is done using IRC and CMA methods. The Sub grade CBR for the new carriage way is taken as 10% since the laboratory tests revealed that good sub grade material is

available all along the project road with minimum lead. Sub grade thickness of 500mm is proposed for both flexible and rigid pavement options. Flexible pavement has been adopted, and the designs are based on the guidelines suggested in IRC: 37-2001. The pavement is designed for CBR strength of 10% and 100 Msa. The design composition is given below: BC 50mm DBM 130mm WMM 250mm GSB 200mm Sub grade 500mm

Environment impact assessment Base line studies were undertaken to generate baseline data within a 7 km radius study region around the proposed project site (for winter season i.e from December 2005 to February 2006) on micro - meteorology, air quality, ground and surface water quality, noise levels, land environment including soil quality, geomorphology, land-use pattern, forest cover, biological environment, socioeconomic and health status of the population, etc. From these inputs, the impacts were identified and an Environmental Management Plan was prepared to manage and mitigate these impacts. Environmental Impact Assessment study was conducted as per the requirements of the EIA Notification, 1994 and subsequent amendments. This section summarizes the pollution potential of the proposed construction of Outer Ring Road (Phase-II) and its possible impact on the surrounding environment during construction and operational phases. Social assessment, resettlement and rehabilitation The social assessment was done through analysis of the data collected from secondary source (2001 census) and primary sources (MPHS data along with site visits) in order to assess the level of social/ community/ population profile. This will give an insight for recommending steps for improvement of the socio economic status of population affected. There are number of agricultural land losers who are losing more than 80% are noticed in few pockets. Land to land approach is

constrained by the Paucity of Govt. land and the need for additional acquisition, which can lead to another list of affected families. The losers should be compensated based on LA Act and a general award should be passed. Of the total 1261 PAFs which are obtained from the DD and DN data, it is estimated that there are 864 PAFs (68.53%) are losing only land and 397 PAFs (31.47%) are losing not only land but also other assets such as structures, trees and utilities like bore wells, open wells and over head tanks. Land Acquisition: As per the facilities envisaged in the present project, a minimum land width of 150m is required for the outer ring road for the present and future upgrading requirements. Since this being a new alignment efforts have been made not to take the alignment through the developed areas. At few locations, the alignment warranted changes due to the proximity to the water bodies. At these places, new alignment is proposed and accordingly the land acquisition is under progress The quantities are estimated for the proposed outer ring road phase IIPackage I, based on the typical cross sections. Unit rates are computed based on the guidelines given in MORT&H Standard Data Book. Basic rates are updated based on the Schedule of Rates issued by Govt. of Andhra Pradesh for the year 200708 and quotations for items not covered in the Schedule of Rates. Project costs are calculated for each traffic homogeneous section for all improvement options. There is a cost increase over the estimated cost shown in the Preliminary Project Report on account of the following,

Rates for labor, machinery hire charges etc are revised based on the Andhra Pradesh Schedule of Rates for 200708.

Rates of steel, cement etc are updated market rates Provisions for safety and other miscellaneous finishing items are made as per NHAI guidelines.

Economic Analysis

The project has been evaluated along with the radial roads for the purpose of economic analysis. It is assumed that after the ORR is constructed, Area substantial portion of traffic on the radial roads will be reduced. The options considered were: Base Option: Without the project and with routine maintenance of the radial roads. Option I: With project + RM & PM of radial roads + Improvement to radial roads The option I found to be viable showing EIRR of 18.9. From the sensitivity analysis it was found that the option is tolerant to the increase in the cost and reduction in the benefits up to 15% and hence the project is viable. 2.5 METHODOLOGY FOR EARTHWORK IN EXCAVATION Scope: This work shall consist of excavation by mechanical means in all types of strata, in rock by wedging/rock splitting or line drilling using pneumatic equipment and expanding agents, chiseling including dressing to final line, level, grades, crosssection as shown in drawings for roadway, drains, shoulders, median and foundation for structures, including hauling suitable excavated materials to site for embankment and sub-grade construction, also disposal of unsuitable cut materials in specified manner. Procedure: 1. The excavation shall be set out true to lines, curves, grades and sections as per drawings. 2. In works involving widening of existing carriage way, shoulders, median shall be excavated to the full width and to the required levels as shown in drawings without disturbing the existing pavement. After reaching to the required depth, 200mm below it shall be loosened and compacted at OMC to achieve a minimum of 95% of MDD and 90% in case of expansive clays. 3. The cut formation, which serves as sub-grade has a density less than 17.5 kN/cum shall be loosened to a depth of 500mm and compacted in layers in the specified manner of embankment construction and any unsuitable material encountered shall be removed and replaced with suitable material.

4. While executing excavation all adequate precautions of soil erosion, water pollution etc. shall be taken and appropriate drainage measures to keep the site free of water shall be taken. 5. The suitable material obtained from excavation shall be used for filling of roadway embankment, filling of existing pits in the ROW, land scarping etc. All other unsuitable and surplus materials shall be disposing off from site and shall be stacked. 6. In works involving excavation for structures for construction of foundations for bridges, culverts, retaining walls, head walls, cut-off walls, etc. shall be excavated to required depth or level as shown in drawings. Where the nature of soil, depth of trench, season does not permits vertical sides, excavation shall be done with necessary shoring, strutting, planking or cut to slopes with safe angles with due regard to the safety of personnel and works. Rock excavation: 1. Rock, when encountered shall be removed up to the required slopes, lines, depths or levels as prescribed in the drawings. When unsuitable shales and large boulders which cause differential settlements shall be removed to the extent of 500mm below the level prescribed in the drawings and shall brought up to the required cut formation with M10 concrete of approved mix design or with suitable granular fill to achieve required SBC as mentioned in drawing. 2. All loose pieces of rock on excavated slope surfaces that move when pierced by a crow bar shall be removed. In all cases at no point on cut formation the rock shall protrude above specified levels.

3. HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS
A highway pavement is a structure consisting of superimposed layers of processed materials above the natural soil sub-grade, whose primary function is to support the wheel loads imposed on it from traffic moving over it. Additional stresses are also imposed by changes in the environment. It should be strong enough to resist the stresses imposed on it. The pavement structure should be able to provide

a surface of acceptable riding quality, adequate skid resistance, favorable light reflecting characteristics, and low noise pollution. The ultimate aim is to ensure that the transmitted stresses due to wheel load are sufficiently reduced, so that they will not exceed bearing capacity of the sub- grade. Two types of pavements are generally recognized as serving this purpose, namely flexible pavements and rigid pavements. 3.1 Requirements of a pavement An ideal pavement should meet the following requirements: Sufficient thickness to distribute the wheel load stresses to a safe value on the sub-grade soil. Structurally strong to withstand all types of stresses imposed upon it. Adequate coefficient of friction to prevent skidding of vehicles. Smooth surface to provide comfort to road users even at high speed. Produce least noise from moving vehicles. Dust proof surface so that traffic safety is not impaired by reducing visibility. Impervious surface, so that sub-grade soil is well protected, and Long design life with low maintenance cost. 3.2 TYPES OF PAVEMENTS In the past cobblestones and granite sets were extensively used, but these surfaces have mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete There are two types of pavements: Flexible pavement Rigid pavement

Fig 3.1 showing the details of the types of the pavements

3.2.1 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT Flexible pavements are so named because the total pavement structure deflects, or flexes, under loading. A flexible pavement structure is typically composed of several layers of material. Each layer receives the loads from the above layer, spreads them out, and then passes on these loads to the next layer below. Thus, the further down in the pavement structure a particular layer is, the lesser load (in terms of force per area) it must carry.

Fig 3.2 showing the load transfer in flexible pavement 3.2.2 RIGID PAVEMENT

Rigid pavements are those possess note worthy flexural strength. The stresses are not transferred from grain to the lower layers as in case of flexible pavement layers. The rigid pavements are made of Portland cement concrete-either plain, reinforced or prestressed concrete. The plain cement concrete slabs are expected to take up to about 40 kg/cm2 flexural stress. The rigid pavement has the slab action and is capable of transmitting the wheel load stresses through a wide area below.

Fig 3.3 showing the load distribution in both Flexible and Rigid pavement

In order to take maximum advantage of this property, material layers are usually arranged in order of descending load bearing capacity with the highest load bearing capacity material (and most expensive) on the top and the lowest load bearing capacity material (and least expensive) on the bottom. This section describes the typical flexible pavement structure consisting of: Surface course: This is the top layer and the layer that comes in contact with traffic. It may be composed of one or several different HMA sub layers. Base course: This is the layer directly below the HMA layer and generally consists of aggregate (either stabilized or unstabilized). Sub base course: This is the layer (or layers) under the base layer. A sub base is not always needed. 3.3 Basic Structural Elements

A typical flexible pavement structure consists of the surface course and the underlying base and sub base courses. Each of these layers contributes to structural support and drainage. The surface course (typically an HMA layer) is the stiffest (as measured by resilient modulus) and contributes the most to pavement strength. The underlying layers are less stiff but are still important to pavement strength as well as drainage and frost protection. A typical structural design results in a series of layers that gradually decrease in material quality with depth. So the basic layers of the flexible pavement are as follows 1. Soil Subgrade 2. Sub-base and Base Course 3. Wearing Course 3.3.1 Soil Subgrade:
The soil subgrade is a layer of natural soil prepared to receive the layers of pavement materials placed over it. The load on the pavement is ultimately received by the soil subgrade for dispersion to the earth mass. It is essential that at no time, the soil subgrade is overstressed. It means that the pressure transmitted on the top of the subgrade is within the allowable limit, not to cause excessive stress condition or to deform the same beyond the elastic limit. It is necessary to evaluate the strength properties of a soil subgrade. This helps to designer to adopt the suitable values of the strength parameters for design purpose and in case this supporting layer does not cum upto the expectations, the same is treated or stabilized to suit the requirements.

3.3.2 Sub-base and Base Course: These layers are made of broken stones, bound or unbound aggregate. Some times in subbase course a layer of stabilized soil or selected granular soil is also used. In some places boulders stones or bricks are also used as sun-base or soling course. When the subgrade consists of the grained soils and when the pavement carries heavy wheel loads, there is a tendency for these boulders stones or bricks to penetrate into the wet soil, resulting in the formation of undulation and uneven pavement surface in flexible pavement. Base course and Sub-base course are used under flexible pavement primarily to improve the load supporting capacity by distributing the load through a finite thickness.

Base course are used in rigid pavement for: Preventing pumping

Protecting the subgrade against frost action Base Course The base course is immediately beneath the surface course. It provides additional load distribution and contributes to drainage and frost resistance. Base courses are usually constructed out of: 1. Aggregate. Base courses are most typically constructed from durable aggregates that will not be damaged by moisture or frost action. Aggregates can be either stabilized or unstabilized. 2. HMA. In certain situations where high base stiffness is desired, base courses can be constructed using a variety of HMA mixes. In relation to surface course HMA mixes, base course mixes usually contain larger maximum aggregate sizes, are more open graded and are subject to more lenient specifications. Sub base Course The sub base course is between the base course and the sub grade. It functions primarily as structural support but it can also: 1. Minimize the intrusion of fines from the subgrade into the pavement structure. 2. Improve drainage. 3. Minimize frost action damage. 4. Provide a working platform for construction. The subbase generally consists of lower quality materials than the base course but better than the subgrade soils. A subbase course is not always needed or used. For example, a pavement constructed over a high quality, stiff subgrade may not need the additional features offered by a subbase course so it may be omitted from design. However, a pavement constructed over a low quality soil such as swelling clay may require the additional load distribution characteristic that a subbase course can offer. In this scenario the subbase course may consist of high quality fill used to replace poor quality subgrade.

3.3.3 Surface Course The surface course is the layer in contact with traffic loads and normally contains the highest quality materials. It provides characteristics such as friction, smoothness, noise control, rut and shoving resistance and drainage. In addition, it serves to prevent the entrance of excessive quantities of surface water into the underlying base, sub base and sub grade. This top structural layer of material is sometimes subdivided into two layers: 1. Wearing Course. This is the layer in direct contact with traffic loads. It is meant to take the brunt of traffic wear and can be removed and replaced as it becomes worn. A properly designed (and funded) preservation program should be able to identify pavement surface distress while it is still confined to the wearing course. This way, the wearing course can be rehabilitated before distress propagates into the underlying intermediate/binder course. 2. Intermediate/Binder Course. This layer provides the bulk of the HMA structure. It's chief purpose is to distribute load.

Fig 3.4 showing the layers of the flexible pavement

4. PAVEMENT DESIGN PARAMETERS


The design of flexible pavement involves the interplay of several variables such as the wheel load, traffic, climate, terrain, and sub grade conditions. 4.1 Design Factors: The factors to be considered in Design of Pavements consist of two parts: 1. Mix design of materials to be used in each pavement components layer. 2. Thickness design of the pavement and the component layers. These were based on California Bearing Ratio method. With the rapid growth of the traffic now, the pavements are required to be designed for heavy volume of the order 150 million standard axles. 4.2 Design Approach and Criteria The flexible pavement has been modeled as a three layer structure and stresses and strains at critical locations have been computed using the linear elastic model under the MORT&H. To give proper consideration to the aspect of performance, the following three types of pavement distress resulting from repeated application of traffic loads are considered: (i) Vertical compressive strains at the top of the subgrade. If the strain is excessive, the subgrade will deform resulting in permanent deformation at the pavement surface during the design life. (ii) Horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of the bituminous layer. Large tensile stress causes fracture of the bituminous layer during the design life. (iii) Pavement deformation within bituminous layer

The permanent deformation within the bituminous layer can be controlled by meeting the mix design requirements as per the MORT&H specification, thicknesses of granular and bituminous layers are selected using the analytical design approach so that strains at the critical points are within the allowable limits. For calculating tensile strains at the bottom of the bituminous layer, the Elastic modulus of dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) layer with 60/70 bitumen has been used in the analysis. The relationships used for (i)allowable vertical subgrade strain ; and (ii) allowable tensile strain at the bottom of the DBM layer along with elastic moduli of different

pavement material and the relationship for assessing the elastic moduli of subgrade sub-base and base layers are

A and B are the critical locations for tensile strains. Maximum value of the strain is adopted in the design. The pavement designs are given for subgrade CBR valves ranging from 2 per cent to 10 per cent and design traffic ranging from 1 msa to 150 msa for an average annual pavement temperature of 35 o C. The layer thicknesses obtained from the analysis have been slightly modified to adapt the designs to stage construction. Using the following simple input parameter, appropriate designs could be chosen for the given traffic and soil strength: 1. Design traffic in terms of cumulative number of standard axles ; and 2. CBR value of subgrade. 4.3 Estimating design traffic: The recommended method considers traffic on terms of the cumulative number of standard axles (8160 kg) to be carried by the pavement during the design life. For estimating design traffic, the following information is needed: (i) Initial traffic after construction in terms of number of commercial vehicles per day (CVPD) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Traffic growth rate during the design life in percentage Design life in number of years Vehicle damage factor (VDF) Distribution of commercial traffic over the carriageway.

For the purpose of structural design, only the number of commercial vehicles of gross vehicles weight of three tons or more and their axle loading is considered. To obtain a realistic estimate of design traffic , due consideration should be given to the existing traffic or that anticipate based on possible changes in the road network and land use of the area served , the probable growth of traffic and design life . Estimate of the initial daily average traffic flow for any road should normally be based on at least 7 days, 24 hours classified traffic counts. In cases of new roads, traffic estimates can be made on the basis of potential land use and traffic on existing routes in the area. 4.3.1 Traffic growth rate: Traffic growth rate should be estimated: (i) By studying the past trends of traffic growth, (ii) By establishing econometric models as per the procedure outline in IRC: 108 Guidelines for traffic prediction on rural Highways If adequate data is not available, it is recommended that an average annual growth rate of 7.5 per cent may be adopted. 4.3.2 Design life: For the design of pavement, the design life is defined in terms of the cumulative number of standard axes that can be carried before strengthened of the pavement is necessary. It is recommended that pavements for national highways and state highways should be designed for a life of 15 years. Expressway and urban roads may be designed for a longer life of 20 years. For categories of roads, a design life of 10 to 15 years may be adopted. Very often it is not possible to provide the full thickness of pavement right at the time of initial construction. Stage construction techniques should be resorted to in such cases.

4.3.3 Vehicle damage factor: The vehicle damage factor (VDF) is a multiplier to convert the number of commercial vehicles of different axle loads and axle configuration to the number of standard axle load

repetitions. It is defined as equivalent standard axels per commercial vehicles. The VDF varies with the vehicle axle configuration, axels loading, terrain, type of road and from region to region. The VDF is arrived at from axle load surveys on typical road section so as to cover various influencing factor, such as traffic mix, mode of transportation, commodities carried, time of the year, terrain, road conditions and degree of enforcement. For designing a new pavement the VDF should be arrived at carefully by carrying out specific axle load survey on the existing roads. Some surveys have been carried out in the country on national highway, state highway major district roads which reveal excessive overloading of commercial vehicles. Therefore, it is recommended that the designer should take the realistic values of VDF after conducting the axle load survey particularly in the case of major projects on some sections there may be significant difference in the axle loading in two directions of traffic in situations the VDF should be evaluated direction wise to determine the lanes which are heavily loaded for the purpose of design. Where sufficient information on axle loads is not available and the project size does not warrant conducting an axle load survey, the indicative values of vehicle damage factor as give in Table 1 may be used. Table 4.1 INDICATIVE VDF VALUES Initial traffic volume in terms of number of commercial vehicles per day 0-150 150-1500 More than 1500 Rolling/Plain 1.5 3.5 4.5 Terrain Hilly 0.5 1.5 2.5

4.3.4 Distribution of commercial traffic over the carriageway A realistic assessment of distribution of commercial traffic by direction and by lane is necessary as it directly affects the total equivalent standard axle load applications used in the design. In the absence of adequate and conclusive data for Indian conditions, it is

recommended that for the time being the following distribution may be assumed for design until more reliable data on placement of commercial vehicles on the carriageway lanes are available: (i) Single-lane roads: Traffic tends to be more channelized on single-lane roads tan two-lane roads and to allow for this concentration of wheel load repetitions, the design should be based on total number of commercial vehicles in both directions. (ii) Two-lane single carriageway roads: The design should be based on 75 percent of the total number of commercial vehicles in both directions. (iii) Four-lane single carriageway roads: The design should be based on 40 percent of the total number of commercial vehicles in both directions. (iv) Dual carriageway roads: The design of dual two-lane carriageway roads should be based on 75 percent of the number of commercial vehicles in each direction. For dual three-lane carriageway and dual four-lane carriageway, the distribution factor will be 60 percent and 45 percent respectively. The traffic in each direction may be assumed to be half of the sum in both directions when the latter only is known. Where significant difference between the two streams can occur, condition in the more heavily trafficked lane should be considered for design. If the distribution of traffic between the carriageway lanes and axle loads specimen for the carriageway lanes are available, the design should be based on the traffic in the most heavily trafficked lane and the same design will normally be applied for the whole carriageway width.

4.4 Computation of design traffic The design traffic is considered in terms of the cumulative number of standard axles (in the lane carrying maximum traffic) to be carried during the design life of the road. This can be computed using the following equation:

Where, N = the cumulative number of standard axles to be catered for in the design in terms of msa. A = Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction in terms of the number of commercial vehicles per day. D = Lane distribution factor (as explained in 4.3.4) F = Vehicle damage factor. n = Design life in years. r = Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles (for 7.5 percent annual growth rate, r = 0.075) The traffic in the year of completion is estimated using the following formula:

Where, P = Number of commercial vehicles as per last count. X = Number of years between the last count and the year of completion of construction. r = Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles

4.5 Subgrade The subgrade whether in cut or fill should be well compacted to utilize its full strength and to economise thereby on the overall thickness of pavement required. For Expressways, National Highways, State Highways and Major District Roads, heavy compaction is recommended. Most of the specifications prescribe use of selected material and stiffer standards of compaction in the subgrade (top 500 mm portion of the roadway). The current MORT&H specification for Road & Bridge Works recommend that the subgrade shall be compacted to 97 percent of dry density achieved with heavy compaction (modified

proctor density) as per IS:2720 (Part 8). This density requirement is recommended for subgrade compaction for Expressways, National Highways, State Highways, Major District Roads and other heavily trafficked roads. In other cases the subgrade should be compacted to atleast 97 percent of the standard proctor density conforming to IS: 2720 (Part 7). These requirements should be strictly enforced. IRC: 36 Recommended Practice for the Construction of Earth Embankments for Road Works should be followed for guidance during planning and execution of work. For high category roads, like, Expressways, National Highways and State Highways, the material used for subgrade construction should have the dry density of not less than 1.75 gm/cc. For design, the subgrade strength is assessed in terms of the CBR of the subgrade soil in both fill and cut sections at the most critical moisture conditions likely to occur in-situ. For determining the CBR value, the standard test procedure should be strictly adhered to. The test must always be performed on remoulded samples of soils in the laboratory. Wherever possible the test specimens should be prepared by static Compaction but if not so possible dynamic method may be used as an alternative. In-situ tests are not recommended for design purposes as it is not possible to satisfactorily simulate the critical conditions of dry density and moisture content in the field. The design should be based on the CBR value of the weakest soil type proposed to be used for subgrade construction or encountered extensively at subgrade level over a given section of the road, as revealed by the soil surveys. Pavement thickness on new roads may be modified at intervals as dictated by the soil changes but generally it will be found inexpedient to do so frequently from practical considerations. It is possible that in certain soil types or under abnormal conditions the measured CBR values may appear doubtful and not truly representative of the strength of soil. A more complete study of the soil may be warranted in such cases to arrive at a more reliable design. As the reproducibility of the CBR results is dependent on a number of factors, wide variations in values can be expected. Therefore, atleast three samples should be tested on each type of soil at the same density and moisture content. This will enable a reliable average value to be obtained in most cases. To weed out erratic results, permissible maximum variation within the CBR values from the three specimens is indicated in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2 PERMISSIBLE VARIATION IN CBR VALUE CBR (per cent) 5 5-10 11-30 31 and above Maximum variation in CBR value +1 or-1 +2 or -2 +3 or -3 +5 or -5

4.6 PAVEMENT THICKNESS AND COMPOSITION 4.6PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN CHARTS

For the design of pavements to carry traffic in the range of 1 to 10 msa, the pavement Thickness Chart is given in below figure and for traffic in the range of 10- 150 msa, the pavement Thickness Design is given in below figure. The design curves relate pavement thickness to the cumulative number of standard axles to be carried over the design life for CBR values of subgrade ranging from 2 percent to 10 percent .The thickness deduced from the below figure for the given CBR value and design traffic is the total pavement thickness to be provided and consists of granular sub-base ,granular base and bituminous surfacing .The requirements for the component layers are given in paragraph 4.2 .Based on these ,the recommended designs giving minimum thickness and compositions of pavement layers for new constructions are given in the pavement design catalogue , plates 1 and 2 .

4.6.1 PAVEMENT COMPOSITION 4.6.1.2 SUB-BASE COURSE

Sub base materials comprise natural sand, moorum, gravel, laterite, kankar, brick metal, crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed concrete or combinations thereof meeting the prescribed grading and physical requirements. When the sub-base material consists of combinations of materials, mixing shall be done mechanically either using a suitable mixer or adopting mix-in-place method. Granular sub-base materials conforming to clause 401 of MORT&H Specifications for Road and Bridge Works are recommended for use. These specifications suggest three gradings each for close coarse graded granular sub-base materials and specify that the materials passing 425micron sieve when tested in accordance with IS:2720 (Part 5) should have liquid limit and plasticity index of not more than 25 and 6 respectively. These requirements and the specified grain size distribution of the sub-base material should be strictly enforced in order to meet stability and drainage requirements of the granular sub-base layer. The sub-base material should have minimum CBR of 20 percent for cumulative traffic upto 2 msa and 30 percent for traffic exceeding 2 msa. It should be ensured prior to actual execution that the material to be used in sub-base satisfies the CBR and other prescribed physical requirements. The material should be tested for CBR at the dry density and moisture content expected in the field. Where soaking conditions apply for design, the maximum strength of the sub-base material should be determined after soaking the test specimen in water for four days. From drainage considerations the granular sub-base should be extended over the entire formation width in case the subgrade soil is of relatively low permeability. The thickness of sub-base should not be less than 150 mm for design traffic less than 10 msa and 200 mm for design traffic of 10 msa and above. Preferably the subgrade soil should have a CBR of 2 percent. Where the CBR value of the subgrade is less than 2 percent, the design should be based on subgrade CBR value of 2 percent and a capping layer of 150 mm thickness of material with a minimum CBR of 10 percent shall be provided in addition to the sub-base. Where stage construction is adopted for pavements, the thickness of sub-base shall be provided for ultimate pavement section for the full design life. 4.6.1.3 BASE COURSE

Unbound granular bases which comprise conventional Water Bound Macadam (WBM), Wet Mix Macadam (WMM) or other equivalent granular construction conforming to IRC/MORT&H Specifications shall be adopted. Materials for use in the base course must satisfy the grading and physical requirements prescribed in the IRC/MORT&H Specifications. The recommended minimum thickness of granular base is 225 mm for traffic exceeding 2 msa. For heavily trafficked roads, use of WMM base laid by paver finisher or motor grader is recommended. Where WBM construction is adopted in the base course for roads carrying traffic more than 10 msa, the thickness of WBM base shall be increased from 250 mm to 300 mm (i.e., 4 layers of WBM grades II and III each of 75 mm compacted thickness) for ease of construction with corresponding reduction in the sub-base thickness keeping the overall pavement thickness unchanged as deduced from the design chart. 4.6.1.4 BITUMINOUS SURFACING The bituminous surfacing shall consist of either a wearing course or a binder course with a wearing course depending upon the traffic to be carried. The most commonly used wearing courses are surface dressing, open-graded premix carpet, mix deal surfacing, semidense bituminous concrete and bituminous concrete. For binder courses, the MORT&H Specification prescribes Bituminous Macadam and Dense Bituminous Macadam. Bituminous Macadam has low binder content and high voids and is thus not impervious to water. Further the effect of high voids is reduced stiffness and increased stress concentrations. From fatigue considerations, the detrimental effect of voids is more apparent at low temperatures. On the other hand, during prolonged hot spells the average pavement temperatures are very high and consequently such a mix will operate over a very low stiffness range. Hence, the use of bituminous macadam binder course to IRC/MORT&H Specifications may desirably be restricted only to roads designed to carry traffic less than 5 msa. Dense Bituminous Macadam binder course is recommended for roads designed to carry more than 5 msa. However, in case the granular base is manually laid or if recommended by the Engineer, the Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) binder course may be preceded by a 75 mm thick Bituminous Macadam (BM) layer. Where this is done the thickness of the DBM layer will be suitably reduced. For practical purposes 10 mm BM can be taken as equivalent to 7 mm DBM for modifying the thickness of DBM layer. Choice of the appropriate type of bituminous wearing course will depend on several factors, like, design traffic over the service life, the type of base/binder course provided,

whether the pavement is to be built up in stages, rainfall and other related factors. The recommended types and thickness of wearing courses for traffic from 10 msa to 150 msa and for traffic less than 10 msa are as shown in above diagram i.e., in diagram 4.1 and may be modified if the environmental conditions and experience so justify. The grade of bitumen will be selected keeping in view the traffic, rainfall and other environmental conditions. Use of high performance mixes/modified binders are recommended in heavily trafficked situations. For areas with heavy snow precipitation where mechanized snow clearance operations may be undertaken as well as at locations, like, bus stops and roundabouts, consideration ought to be given to the provision of bituminous concrete in single or multiple courses so as to render the surface more stable and waterproof. Mastic asphalt may be used at bus-stops and intersections. 4.7 PAVEMENT DESIGN CATALOGUE Based on the results of analysis of pavement structures, practical requirements and specifications spelt out above, the recommended designs for traffic range 1 msa to 10 msa and for traffic range 10 msa to 150 msa are given in above drawings. In some cases, the total pavement thickness given in the recommended designs is slightly more than the thickness obtained from the design charts. This is in order to: (a) Provide the minimum prescribed thickness of sub-base. (b) Adapt the design to stage constructions which necessitated some adjustment and increase in sub-base thickness.

5. PAVEMENT DESIGN
In the previous chapter we have came to a conclusion on what the thickness of pavement will be deciding. So now considering the all those parameters we will be designing the thickness of the pavement in this case. Using the following simple input parameter, appropriate designs could be chosen for the given traffic and soil strength:

1. Design traffic in terms of cumulative number of standard axles. 2. CBR value of subgrade The main parameter is the design traffic which needs to be estimated correctly and even the thickness of the pavement will depend on this. 5.1 Estimating design traffic: The recommended method considers traffic on terms of the cumulative number of standard axles (8160 kg) to be carried by the pavement during the design life. For estimating design traffic, the following information is needed: (i) Initial traffic after construction in terms of number of commercial vehicles per day (CVPD) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Traffic growth rate in percentage Design life in number of years Vehicle damage factor (VDF) Distribution of commercial traffic over the carriageway. For finding the initial traffic, traffic studies were conducted on the roads connecting the places and the future growth of the traffic is decided by selecting suitable percentage of growth rate (assumed as 7.5% as per IRC standards). 5.2 Traffic Studies An accurate estimate of the traffic likely to use the project road is very important as it forms the basic input in its planning, design, operation and financing. A thorough knowledge of the travel characteristics of the traffic likely to use the project road as well as other major roads in the influence area of the study corridor is, therefore, essential for future traffic estimation. The average annual daily traffic at the study locations is obtained by multiplying the average daily traffic with the seasonal correction factor. The traffic surveys have been conducted during the month of February 2006 at nine major intersections on the project corridor. The seasonal variation factors for the month of February 2006 have been established. Traffic for the estimation of the msa was extracted from the Traffic Report. At those 9 intersections the traffic data is measured in terms of commercial vehicles per day and those values are listed below

Table 5.1 showing the commercial vehicles per day Location Location 1 Location 2 Location 3 Location 4 Location 5 Location 6 Location 7 Location 8 Location 9 No of commercial vehicles per day 3652 4058 3689 3560 4245 3960 4136 3890 3792

The maximum value of commercial vehicles per day is taken into consideration for the design. So the design commercial vehicles per day are taken as 4245 cv/day. The study of the traffic has been done in the February 2006 and the construction has started in the same year. Construction has been completed in the year 2009. Hence the traffic in 2009 must be taken into account which is being estimated using the studies done. Hence the value of P = 4245 CV/day The traffic in the year of completion is estimated using the following formula:

Where, P = Number of commercial vehicles as per last count. X = Number of years between the last count and the year of completion of construction. r = Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles Here, P = 4245 CV/day x = 3 years r = 7.5 % Substituting them we will get the traffic in the year of completion of construction in terms of the number of commercials vehicles per day.

A = P (1+ r) n = 4245 (1+ 0.075) 3 = 5273 5.3 Rate of growth of traffic: Traffic growth rate should be estimated: (i) By studying the past trends of traffic growth, (ii) By establishing econometric models as per the procedure outline in IRC: 108 Guidelines for traffic prediction on rural Highways If adequate data is not available, it is recommended that an average annual growth rate of 7.5 per cent may be adopted. Here in this design the rate of growth of the traffic is being taken as 7.5% 5.4 Design life in no of years: The outer ring road is an Express way and the entry is restricted only for four wheelers and above. In general the design life of the express ways is of 20 years or above. So here the design considers the design life of 20 years for the pavement.

5.5 Vehicle damage factor (VDF): The vehicle damage factor (VDF) is a multiplier to convert the number of commercial vehicles of different axle loads and axle configuration to the number of standard axle load repetitions. It is defined as equivalent standard axels per commercial vehicles. The VDF varies with the vehicle axle configuration, axels loading, terrain, type of road and from region to region. The VDF is arrived at from axle load surveys on typical road section so as to cover various influencing factor, such as traffic mix, mode of transportation, commodities carried, time of the year, terrain, road conditions and degree of enforcement. INDICATIVE VDF VALUES Initial traffic volume in terms of number of commercial Rolling/Plain Terrain Hilly

vehicles per day 0-150 150-1500 More than 1500 1.5 3.5 4.5 0.5 1.5 2.5

In the design of the pavement for outer ring road, the value adopted for the VDF is equal to 3. 5.6 Distribution of commercial traffic over the carriageway A realistic assessment of distribution of commercial traffic by direction and by lane is necessary as it directly affects the total equivalent standard axle load applications used in the design. In the absence of adequate and conclusive data for Indian conditions, it is recommended that for the time being the following distribution may be assumed for design until more reliable data on placement of commercial vehicles on the carriageway lanes are available: (i) Single-lane roads. (ii) Two-lane single carriageway roads. (iii) Four-lane single carriageway roads. (iv) Dual carriageway roads. The traffic in each direction may be assumed to be half of the sum in both directions when the latter only is known. Where significant difference between the two streams can occur, condition in the more heavily trafficked lane should be considered for design. If the distribution of traffic between the carriageway lanes and axle loads specimen for the carriageway lanes are available, the design should be based on the traffic in the most heavily trafficked lane and the same design will normally be applied for the whole carriageway width. The outer ring road being four lane single carriageway roads and the value is to be assumed in between 0.6 and 0.3 such that it suits all the practical conditions. Here in this case the value is assumed to be equal to 0.4. 5.7 CALCULATION OF PAVEMENT THICKNESS

So for finding the cumulative number of standard axles to be catered for in the design in terms of msa can be calculated using the formula

Where, N = the cumulative number of standard axles to be catered for in the design in terms of msa. A = Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction in terms of the number of commercial vehicles per day = 4245 CV/day. D = Lane distribution factor = 0.4. F = Vehicle damage factor =3.0 n = Design life in years = 20 years r = Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles (for 7.5 percent annual growth rate, r = 0.075) Substituting those values in the above formula we will get the number of the standard axles.

= 100.034 msa = 100 msa (nearly)

From the above calculations we could get the cumulative number of standard axles to be catered in the design of the pavement. Now the other parameter on which the design depends is the CBR value of the soil at the bottom. This value of CBR is assumed as 10%. So

now as per IRC standards the suitable thickness of the pavement is selected using the msa value and the CBR value from the chart.

From the graph the pavement thickness is 600 mm. The total thickness is obtained but the design also must include the thickness of invidual layer. 5.2 Fig showing the detailed thickness of invidual layer.

From the above table we can obtain the thickness of the different layers. The details of the layer thickness are as follows: Bituminous concrete - 50 mm

Dense bituminous macadam - 130 mm Wet mix macadam Granular sub base - 250 mm - 200 mm

Fig showing the thickness of various layers of the pavement.

The dense bituminous macadam is being laid in 2 layers because compaction becomes a problem if the layer of thickness 130mm is laid at once. The compacting value will not be according to the required value there by reducing the strength of it. Hence, in field the DBM layer is laid in 2 layers each of 65mm thick. The next layer wet mix macadam which is of 250mm thick is also being laid in 2 layers each of 125mm thick in view of strength and other regards. Thus the design of the pavement comes to an end.

6. ALIGNMENT
The geometric design of roads is the branch of highway engineering concerned with the positioning of the physical elements of the roadway according to standards and constraints. The basic objectives in geometric design are to optimize efficiency and safety while minimizing cost and environmental damage. Geometric design also affects an emerging fifth objective called "livability," which is defined as designing roads to foster broader community goals, including providing access to employment, schools, businesses and residences, accommodate a range of travel modes such as walking, bicycling, transit, and automobiles, and minimizing fuel use, emissions and environmental damage

Geometric roadway design can be broken into three main parts: alignment, profile and cross-section. Combined, they provide a three-dimensional layout for a roadway. The alignment is the route of the road, defined as a series of horizontal tangents and curves. The profile is the vertical aspect of the road, including crest and sag curves, and the straight grade lines connecting them. After completion of the design of the pavement, the right of way is decided based on the importance associated with it. The ORR is the most commercially important road and the right of way for this is taken in the range of 120 150 based on the field conditions. Sight distance Road geometry affects the sight distance available to the driver. Sight distance, in the context of road design, is defined as "the length of roadway ahead visible to the driver." Sight distance is how far a road user (usually a vehicle driver) can see before the line of sight is blocked by a hill crest, or an obstacle on the inside of a horizontal curve or intersection. Insufficient sight distance can adversely affect the safety or operations of a roadway or intersection. The sight distance needed for a given situation is the distance travelled during the two phases of a driving maneuver: perception-reaction time (PRT), and Maneuver time (MT).

Perception-reaction: Time is the time it takes for a road user to realize that a reaction is needed to a road condition, decided what maneuver is appropriate, and starts the maneuver. Maneuver time: The time it takes to complete the maneuver. The distance driven during perception reaction time and maneuver time is the sight distance needed. So now, the roads alignment is drawn on the map and the various processes of execution are decided based on suitability of the field conditions. Before execution of the work the center line for the entire width of the road must be assigned. The process of deciding the center line is known as alignment. Deciding of Alignment: The Alignment of the road is decided based on the areas that it has to connect or on the traffic flow and the sight distances. In case of outer ring road it was planned to connect several places and so far achieving. This connectivity they have decided the alignment based on the space available, the suitability and the sight distances.

During highway design and traffic safety investigations, highway engineers compare the available sight distance to how much sight distance is needed for the situation. Depending on the situation, one of three types of sight distances will be used: Stopping sight distance Stopping sight distance is the distance traveled during perception-reaction time (while the vehicle driver perceives a situation requiring a stop, realizes that stopping is necessary, and applies the brake), and maneuver time (while the driver decelerates and comes to a stop). Actual stopping distances are also affected by road conditions, the mass of the car, the incline of the road, and numerous other factors. For design, a conservative distance is needed to allow a vehicle traveling at design speed to stop before reaching a stationary object in its path. Typically the design sight distance allows a below-average driver to stop in time to avoid a collision. Decision sight distance Decision sight distance is used when drivers must make decisions more complex than stop or don't stop. It is longer than stopping sight distance to allow for the distance traveled while making a more complex decision. The decision sight distance is "distance required for a driver to detect an unexpected or otherwise difficult-to-perceive information source or hazard in a roadway environment that may be visually cluttered, recognize the hazard or its threat potential, select an appropriate speed and path, and initiate and complete the required maneuver safely and efficiently. Ideally, roads are designed for the decision sight distance, using 6 to 10 seconds for perception reaction time and 4 to 5 seconds to perform the right maneuver. Intersection sight distance Intersection sight distance is the sight distance needed to safely proceed through an intersection. The distance needed depends on the type of traffic control at the intersection (uncontrolled, yield sign, stop sign or signal), and the maneuver (left turn, right turn, or proceeding straight). All-way stop intersections need the least, and uncontrolled intersections require the most." Execution of Alignment: In the preliminary survey the government fixes few points like existing structures etc, and gives the GPS details of them. From those points Temporary Bench Marks are plotted at an interval of 100 m, and their coordinates are obtained from the GPS coordinates.

Once these TBMs are completed, the alignment for the road will get started. At few junctions the center line coordinates and the level of top of finished parameter also calculated. Next the longitudinal section of the road is drawn taking small intervals to include all the parameters. The parameters can be horizontal radius of horizontal curves and their location. The center line of the road is given by taking the help of the GPS coordinates and the temporary Bench Marks set up at regular intervals. The complete project is divided into longitudinal sections of regular intervals having the various other data like width and the level etc; this is being executed in the field using those static points. This is how the alignment of the road has been decided and executed.

7. TESTS ON MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION


After completion of the design and fixing of the alignment we need to execute the work according to the requisite design and alignment. So those materials to be used must satisfy the entire necessary requirement. Hence various tests are to be conducted on these materials to be used for various layers. These are discussed in detail from the tests conducted on the ground layer to the top most bituminous concrete

Q.C LAB:
The lab happens to be an indispensable and an inevitable part as far as the commencement of any project is concerned. The testing lab has all the facilities that they need for conducting tests on soils, cement, concrete and bitumen. Let it be the Hot Mix Plant (for Bitumen), Wet Mix Plant (for the aggregate), and Batch Mixing Plants (for the concrete), the testing has to be done in the lab and the design mix has to be formulated accordingly and has to be sent to the respective plants for preparing the design mix in the required amounts for the whole project or the part of the project that is being done. Since we have seen the tests being done in the lab and have been taught during our training here, we will not only be mentioning the procedure undertaken for each test but also the results, the suitability i.e., the permissible values which have been formed based on the area which the project has been started and the physical significance of each of these tests. Let us start with the soils. Any road let it be a National Highway, a State Highway, a District roads has to be constructed on the top of the soil (Sub Base). The tests had to be conducted on the soil to understand whether the soil can withstand the load or any modification has to be done. So in order to study the properties of the soils, the following tests are conducted and the results that are obtained help us to deduce certain characteristics about the area that we will or rather we are working on. The interval of the test pits were at every 500m distance staggered on either side of the road. The samples of the soil at the site were taken carefully and sent to the laboratory for conducting various field tests. The following tests were carried out on sample of the soils taken from bottom of the pit. They are as follows: 1. Free Swell Index Test (FSI)

2. Grain Size Analysis (GSA) 3. Atterberg Limits (L.L, P.L) 4. Modified Proctor Test 5. California Bearing Ratio Test (C.B.R) One thing that is very profound to be noticed is that all the tests are carried out according to the specifications of the IS Codes and the guidelines stipulated by MORTH (Ministry Of Roads and Transport).

7.1 FREE SWELL INDEX TEST (As per IS: 2720 - Part-40)
7.1.1 Objective: To determine the free swell index of the soils Apparatus used for finding the free swell index are as follows 425 Micron Sieve Glass graduated cylinders (2 nos. 100ml.capacity) Distilled Water and Kerosene. One of the most important tests to be done on the soil prior to the starting of construction of the road is free swell index test. The importance of the test is that it gives the basic characteristic of the soil i.e., swelling. As the complete pavement is laid on that so the result of this test plays an important role. This gives us details about the swelling property of the soil during wet conditions and this should be well within the limits. The limiting value for this is 50%. This implies that the swelling should not be more than 50% of the original volume taken when kept under kerosene. The concept of using Kerosene as reference because kerosene being a non-polar does not cause swelling of the soil because of which the Level recorded in the kerosene-graduated jar is taken to be a standard. 7.1.2Calculations: The Free Swell Index is given by, Free Swell Index Percent= (/ ) 100 Where, V d = Vol. of soil specimen read from the graduated cylinder containing distilled water.

V k = Vol. of soil specimen read from the graduated cylinder containing kerosene.

Fig 7.1 showing the volume of soil sample soaked in water and kerosene.

Table 7.1 showing the observations for the free swell index

DETERMINATION OF FREE SWELL INDEX OF SOIL (AS PER IS :2720-part-40)


period of submergence Trial no
Volume of soil in Distilled water in cc (V d)

24 Hours
1 12 2 13

Volume of soil in Kerosene in cc (VK) Free Swell index= (V d-VK VK Average % )*100%

10

10

20.00

30.00

25.00%

7.1.3 Result: 25.00% is the free swell index of the soil. 7.1.4 Note: free swell index should be <50% (MoRT&H specification)

7.2 GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS (IS 2720 - PART-4)


Most of the methods used for soil identification and classification are based on certain physical properties of the soils. The commonly used properties for the soil classification are the Grain size distribution, Liquid Limit and Plasticity Index. These methods have been used extensively in designing the empirical methods for the design of flexible pavements and also to test the suitability of the Sub- Grade soil. The soils received from the field are divided into two parts. One, the fraction retained on the 2 mm sieve and the other passing the 2mm sieve. The sieve analysis may be carried out separately for these two fractions. The fraction retained on 2- mm Sieve may be subjected to dry sieving using bigger sieves that passing 2mm sieve may be subjected to wet sieving; however if this fraction consists of single grained soil with negligible fines passing 0.075mm size, dry sieving may be carried out. Apparatus that are being used for this are set of standard sieves of different sieve sizes, balance, and sieves shaker.

Fig 7.2 showing the set of sieves By performing this we would come to know the various grain sizes that are to be present in the soil and we will also come to know the amount of silt and clay that is present in a given sample and that we came to know how important it is for us to understand their presence. The reason being that the presence of silt and clay would mean that in case of any rain or water, the silt or the clay tries to move away making the soil very dynamic resulting in settlement and also there is a good possibility for the vehicle also to skid. Hence by this we can find the average grain size of the soil and some other properties related to the soil.

Fig 7.3 showing the procedure of sieving

Fig 7.4 showing the soil placed in heaps which passed various sieves

Table 7.2 showing the observations of grain size analysis GRAIN SIZE ANALSIS (AS per IS: 2720-Part-4)

Wash of loss = 181.5 gm IS Sieve size (mm) Weight retained (gm) 0 0 281.4 214.4 192.6 127.4 2.7 Cumulative Weight Retained (gm ) 0 0 281.4 495.8 688.4 815.8

Total weight of the sample taken =1000 gm Cumulative% Cumulative% retained passing Remarks

75 20 4.75 2.0 0.425 0.075 PAN

0 0 28.14 49.58 68.84 81.58

100 100 71.86 50.42 31.16 Sand 18.42 Silt &Clay Gravel

Description of Particle Coarse Gravel Fine Coarse Medium Sand Fine Silt & Clay Gravel %= 28.14 Sand %= 53.44 Silt & clay%= 18.42

IS sieve size (mm) 75-20 20-4.75 4.75-2.00 2.00-0.425 0.425-0.075 Passing Through 0.075

Percentage 28.14 21.44 19.26 12.74 18.42

The analysis showed that the soil sample at the site consist of fine aggregates (sand, silt, clay). But comparatively the percentage of the sand is greater than silt and clay. The presence of silt and clay in greater percentage causes excessive settlements. Hence this must be done precisely and should see that the percentages are well within limits

7.3 ATTERBERG LIMITS (IS 2720 PART-5)


7.3.1 INTRODUCTION: The physical properties of fine-grained soils, especially of clay differ much at different water contents. Clay may be almost in liquid state, or it may show plastic behavior or may be very stiff depending on the moisture content. Plasticity is a property of outstanding importance for clayey soils, which may be explained as the ability to

undergo changes in shape without rupture. Atterberg in 1911 proposed a series of tests, mostly empirical, for the determination of the consistency and plastic properties of fine soils. These are known as Atterberg limits and indices. Liquid limit: defined as the minimum water content at which the soil will flow under the application of a very small shearing force. Plastic limit: defined as the minimum moisture content at which the soil remains in a plastic state. Plasticity Index (PI): is defined as the numerical difference between the liquid limit and plastic limits (PI = LL-PL). PI thus indicates the range of moisture content over which the soil is in a plastic condition. The plasticity index (PI) is a measure of the plasticity of a soil. The plasticity index is the size of the range of water contents where the soil exhibits plastic properties. Soils with a high PI tend to be clay, those with a lower PI tend to be silt, and those with a PI of 0 (non-plastic) tend to have little or no silt or clay. PI and their meanings 0 - Nonplastic (1-5)- Slightly Plastic (5-10) - Low plasticity (10-20)- Medium plasticity (20-40)- High plasticity >40 Very high plasticity Consistency limits and the plasticity index vary for different soil types. Hence these properties are generally used in the identification and classification of soils.

7.3.2 LIQUID LIMIT TEST:


(MECHANICAL LIQUID LIMIT DEVICE) Objective: Determination of the liquid limit of soil by mechanical liquid limit device. Apparatus to be used for carrying out the liquid limit test are Mechanical liquid limit device and standard grooving tools. Balance of 200 g capacity and sensitive to 0.01 g. Oven to maintain 1050 to 1100C

The experiment is conducted as per the standard procedure. The Calculations for this are done by drawing flow curve. It is drawn by taking the number of blows in the log scale on the X-axis, and the water content in arithmetic scale on the Y-axis plots the flow curve. The flow curve is straight line drawn on this semilogarithmic plot, as nearly as possible through three or more plotted points. The moisture content corresponding to 25 blows is read from this curve, rounding off to the nearest whole number and is reported as the liquid limit (LL or WL) of the soil. The slope of the straightline flow curve is the flow index. It may be calculated from the following formula:

7.3.3 PLASTIC LIMIT TEST


Introduction: The plasticity index (PI) is a measure of the plasticity of a soil. The plasticity index is the size of the range of water contents where the soil exhibits plastic properties. The PI is the difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit (PI = LL-PL). Soils with a high PI tend to be clay, those with a lower PI tend to be silt, and those with a PI of 0 (nonplastic) tend to have little or no silt or clay. Objective: Determination of the plastic limit of the soils. The apparatus that are to be used for finding the plastic limit are evaporating dish, spatula, glass plate, moisture containers, rod of 3 mm diameter, balance sensitive to 0.01g and oven controlled at temperature 105 to110.

Description Determination No.

Liquid Limit 2 3

Plastic Limit 1 2

Calculations: Plasticity Index (PI or IP) = Liquid limit Plastic limit= . . Liquidity Index (LI or IL) = (w wp) / Ip Where, w is the natural moisture content of the soil.

Fig 7.5 showing making of threads for plastic limit

No. of blows / penetration Empty Wt. of container (W1)gm Wt. of container + wet soil (W2)gm Wt. of container + dry soil (W3)gm Wt. of Water (W4=W2W3)gm Wt. of dry soil (W5=W3W1)gm Moisture content w=100*W4/W5 (%)

21 4.42 31.86 25.33 6.53 20.91 31.2

24 4.45 32.14 25.71 6.43 21.26 30.2

26 4.60 30.50 24.61 5.89 20.01 29.4

28 4.38 31.62 25.59 6.03 21.21 28.4

4.35 30.48 26.70 3.78 22.35 16.9

4.57 30.96 27.18 3.78 22.61 16.7

Average = 16.8% Table 7.3 showing the calculation of Atterberg limits (IS: 2720 part 5)

Fig 7.6 showing the calculations of Liquid limit & Plastic Index

Mould No.-2

Wt. of mould (A) = 5837 gm

Volume of mould (v) =2250

7.4 MODIFIED PROCTOR TEST (IS: 2720 PART8)


Objective: To determine the Maximum Dry Density, Optimum Moisture Content using Modified Proctor Test. The apparatus that are used for this are as follows: Cylindrical mould of capacity 1000 cc, with standard dimensions Rammer For light compaction, a metal rammer having 5 cm diameter circular face, and weight 2.6 kg is used which has a free drop of 31 cm. For heavy compaction, the rammer has 5 cm diameter circular face, but having weight 4.89 kg and free drop of 45 cm. Steel straight edge having leveled edge used for trimming the top of the specimen. Other accessories include moisture containers, balances of capacity 10 kg and 200 g, oven, sieves and mixing tools. This experiment is done for finding the MDD and the corresponding OMC for the soil sample. This experiment is very important because the density in the field must satisfy the required limits. In lab the experiment mould is prepared as per standards mentioned. In compaction there are two types. They are light compaction and heavy compaction. Here in this we have followed heavy compaction because this road is meant for heavy traffic and there is a great possibility for heavy loads. Hence for achieving the practical situations heavy compaction is followed. This compaction is done as per specifications. Table 7.4 showing the types of compaction Compaction type Light compaction Heavy compaction Wt of sample(gm) 3000 No. of layers 3 Hammer wt. Height of Fall(in cm) 31 No. of the blows 25

2.6

5500

4.89

45

56

Table 7.5 showing the details of modified Procter compaction

Trail No. Wt. of wet soil + mould gm Wt. of the wet soil (E=D-A) gm Wet density of soil, (F=E/V) gm/cc Wt of the container gm Wt. of wet soil + container gm Wt. of dry soil + container gm Wt. of water (L=J-K) gm Wt. of dry soil (M=K-H) gm Moisture content [N=100X(L/M)]% Dry density [P=100X(F/(100+N))] gm/cc

1 10380 4543 2.019 56.72 241.90 234.60 7.3 177.88 4.1 1.94

2 10647 4810 2.138 51.12 223.74 216.62 7.12 165.5 4.3 2.05

3 10905 5068 2.252 50.96 233.18 219.21 13.97 168.25 8.3 2.08

4 10890 5053 2.246 56.32 248.54 230.90 17.64 174.58 10.1 2.04

5 10684 4847 2.154 60.78 221.26 203.81 17.45 143.03 12.2 1.92

Fig 7.7 showing the graph drawn for OMC and MDD

Calculations: Let the weight of mould with moist compacted soil = W g

Weight of empty mould = Wm g Volume of the mould = V m cc Moisture content = w % Specific gravity of the soil = G Wet density, Y m = (W Wm) / V m g/cc Then dry density, Yd = Ym / (1 + w/100) = (W Wm) / [Vm (1+w/100)] g/cc Porosity, n = 100 (Vv/V) % = (1 - Yd/ G Yw)*100 % Voids ratio, e = (G Y w / Yd) - 1 Results: Points are plotted with moisture content on the X-axis and dry density on the Y-axis and a smooth curve is drawn connecting the points. From this curve, the maximum dry density (MDD) is noted and the corresponding value of moisture content taken as optimum moisture content (OMC) of the soil. The graph and sample readings are attached in the subsequent pages. Now after completion of this test we will get the maximum density and optimum moisture content in lab. On execution of this in the field we will not get the accurate results but it must be in considerable limits. The limits for them are as follows: 1. MDD in the field: 97% of the MDD in the lab. 2. OMC in the field: OMC in the lab +_2%. In the field these parameters were calculated by sand replacement method, nuclear density gauge (NDG), and these must be in the considerable limits as mentioned above. If these conditions are not satisfied then necessary steps must be taken for getting these values. If the density is not approximate to the limits then rolling must be done. If the moisture content is not in the limits then either it must be watered if the value is less and must be dried if the value is more. This is how the compaction is verified in the field.

7.5 CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (IS 2720 PART-16)

INTRODUCTION: The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test was developed by the California Division of Highway as a method of classifying and evaluating soil-sub grade and base course materials for flexible pavements. The CBR is a measure of resistance of a material to penetration of standard plunger under controlled density and moisture conditions. The test procedure should be strictly adhered if high degree of reproducibility is desired. The CBR test may be conducted in re-moulded or undisturbed specimens in the laboratory. The test has been extensively investigated for field correlation of flexible pavement thickness requirement. Briefly, the test consists of causing a cylindrical plunger of 50mm diameter to penetrate a pavement component material at 1.25mm/minute. The loads, for 2.5mm and 5mm are recorded. This load is expressed as a percentage of standard load value at a respective deformation level to obtain CBR value. The standard load values were obtained from the average of a large number of tests on different crushed stones and are given. Table 7.6 showing the penetration and respective loads Penetration(mm) 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 Standard Load(kg) 1370 2055 2630 3180 3600 Unit Standard Load(kg/cm2) 70 105 134 162 183

The CBR test may be performed either on undisturbed soil specimens obtained by fitting a cutting edge to the mould or on remoulded specimens. Remoulded soil specimens may be compacted either by static compaction or by dynamic compaction. When static compaction is adopted, the batch of soil is mixed with water to give the required moisture content; the correct weight of moist soil to obtain the desired density is placed in the mould and compaction is attained by pressing in the spacer disc using a compaction machine or jack. The preparation of soil specimens by dynamic compaction or ramming is more commonly adopted. The optimum moisture content and maximum dry density of the soil are determined by adopting either light compaction or heavy compaction as per the requirement. The spacer disc is placed at the bottom of the mould over the base plate and a coarse filter paper is placed over the spacer disc. The moist soil sample is to be compacted over this in the mould by adopting either the light compaction or heavy compaction. (i) For IS light compaction or Proctor compaction the soil to be compacted is divided into three equal parts; the soil is

compacted in three equal layers, each of compacted thickness about 44mm by applying 56 evenly distributed blows of the 2.6 kg rammer. (ii) For IS heavy compaction or the modified Proctor compaction, the soil is divided into five equal parts; the soil is compacted in five equal layers, each of compacted thickness about 26.5mm by applying 56 evenly distributed blows of the 4.89 kg rammer. Surcharge weights of 2.5 or 5.0 kg weight are placed over the perforated plate and the whole mould with the weights is placed in a water tank for soaking such that water can enter the specimen both from the top and bottom. The load is applied through the penetration plunger at a uniform rate of 1.25mm/min. The procedure of the test is done according to the standard procedure. Calculations: The swelling or expansion ratio is calculated from the observations during the swelling test using the formula: Expansion ratio or swelling = 100 (d f d i) / h Where, d f = final dial gauge reading after soaking, mm d i = initial dial gauge reading before soaking, mm h = initial height of the specimen (127.3 mm), mm The load values noted for each penetration level are divided by the area of the loading plunger (19.635cm2) to obtain the pressure or unit load values on the loading plunger. The load-penetration curve is then plotted in natural scale for each specimen. If the curve is uniformly convex upwards, no correction is needed. In case there is a reverse curve or the initial portion of the curve is concave upwards, necessity of a correction is indicated. A tangent is drawn from the steepest point on the curve to intersect the base at point, which is the corrected origin corresponding to zero penetration. The unit load values corresponding to 2.5 and 5.0 mm penetration values are found from the graph. The CBR value is calculated from the formula: CBR (%) = ( h ) 100

Results: The CBR values at 2.5mm and 5.0mm penetrations are calculated for each specimen from the corresponding graphs. Generally the CBR value at 2.5mm penetration is higher and this value is adopted. However if higher CBR value is obtained at 5.0mm penetration, the test is to be repeated to verify the results; if the value at 5.0mm is again higher, this is adopted as the CBR value of the soil sample. The average CBR values of three specimens are reported to the first decimal place. The CBR value of the soli must be greater than 10%. If so then only the soil is suitable for embankment otherwise it is not preferred. This value plays a major role in the strength determination and even compaction results are also even related to it.

Fig 7.8 showing the mould of CBR

Fig 7.9 showing the testing of the mould for CBR.

Table 7.7 showing the calculations for the CBR test

CALIFORINIA BEARING RATIO [IS 2720 (part:16)] MDD gm/cc 2.01 OMC (%) 8.2 MOISTURE CONTENT AND UNIT WEIGHT OF TEST SAMPLE Mould with(10 Mould with Mould with CONDITION OF SAMPLE blows) (30blows) (65 blows ) Before After Before After Before After soaking soaking soaking soaking soaking soaking Wt.of Mould,W1 6977 6977 7005 7005 6991 6991 Wt.of Wet Soil+mould,W2 11143 11338 11762 11896 11987 12076 Wt.of Wet Soil W3=W2-W1 4166 4361 4757 4891 4996 5085 Wet Density,Yb=W3/V 1.852 1.938 2.114 2.174 2.220 2.260 Wt.of container.W5 101.56 99.92 97.04 57.49 105.97 81.84 Wt.of Wet Soil+Cont,W6 257.88 283.13 261.90 236.78 280.75 250.69 Wt.of Dry Soil+Cont,W7 246.17 261.77 245.41 216.45 267.80 233.14 Wt.of Water,W8=W6-W7 11.71 21.36 12.49 20.33 12.95 17.55 Wt.of Dry Soil,W9=W7-W5 144.61 161.85 157.37 163.96 161.83 151.30 Moisture Content 8.1 13.2 8.2 12.4 8.0 11.6 W=W8/W9 Dry Density 1.713 1.712 1.954 1.935 2.056 2.025 Yb=(Yb/100+W)*100(gm/cc ) %Compression 85.22 85.17 97.21 96.27 102.29 100.75

LOAD PENETRATION TEST Constant Sl Mould with Mould with no Penetration in (10 blows) (30 blows) (mm) Proving Correctio Proving Correctio Ring n load in Ring n load in Readin Kg Readin Kg g g 1 0.5 2 7.68 4 15.36 2 1.0 5 19.2 17 65.28 3 1.5 7 26.88 24 97.16 4 2.0 9 34.56 31 119.04 5 2.5 12 46.08 39 149.76 6 3.0 14 53.76 45 172.80 7 4.0 18 69.12 58 222.72 8 5.0 21 80.64 69 264.96 9 7.5 28 107.52 94 360.96 10 10.0 33 126.72 105 403.2 11 12.5 35 134.40 113 433.92 Remark: C.B.R value of the soil must be greater than 10.

Proving Ring 1Division =3.84Kg Mould with (65 blows) Proving Correctio Ring n load in Reading Kg 8 22 34 44 55 65 83 98 137 152 163 30.72 84.48 130.56 168.96 211.2 249.6 318.72 376.32 526.08 583.68 625.92

8. AGGREGATES

8.1 TESTS ON AGGREGATES (IS2386):


After soils the most important material is aggregates. Hence the tests had to be conducted on the aggregates to understand whether the aggregates can withstand the load or any modification has to be done if they do not satisfy the required limits. So in order to study the properties of the aggregates, the following tests are conducted and the results that are obtained help us to deduce certain characteristics of the aggregates that we will or rather we are working on. Tests on aggregates: Here are some tests which must be done on the aggregates before selecting them. They are 1. Specific gravity & water absorption 2. Aggregates impact value(AIV) 3. 10% fines value 4. Alkali aggregate reactivity 5. Stone polishing value (for B.C) 6. Flakiness & elongation test 7. Soundness test (IS: 2720) 8. Deleterious test (IS: 2720) After sub grade the various layers like Granular Sub Base (GSB), Wet Mix Macadam (WMM), Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM), and Bitumen Concrete (BC) are laid on the Sub Grade which includes aggregates of various sizes in range 40 mm 4.75 mm. Hence their characteristics play an important role. The above mentioned tests are done prior selection of aggregates. But in these layers also some tests are done which are similar to preliminary tests with slight difference in tests. Before selecting the aggregate the above tests are done and when they satisfy all these criteria then they are selected for using them in various purposes.

8.2 TESTS ON GRANULAR SUB BASE:


After the embankment top the next layer is the granular sub base made of aggregates. This layer is laid with aggregates of sizes 40mm 4.75 mm and with mixture of various sizes in different proportions which are being decided on gradation. Before selecting the aggregate the aggregates must satisfy all the required tests that are mentioned above. Once the above mentioned tests are done and they are up to the criteria required then these aggregates are accepted for use in various purposes. The various tests on granular sub base are: 1. Water absorption

2. Gradation 3. Modified Procter 4. C.B.R 5. 10 % fines value 6. Liquid limit & Plastic index 8.3 GRADATION (IS 2720 - part-4) Most of the methods used for aggregates identification and classification are based on certain physical properties of the soils. The commonly used properties for the gradation of the aggregates are the Grain size distribution, Liquid Limit and Plasticity Index. These methods have been used extensively in designing the empirical methods for the design of flexible pavements and also to test the suitability of the granular sub base. Apparatus: Various apparatus include set of standard sieves of different sieve sizes, balance, rubber covered pestle and mortar, oven, riffle and sieves

Fig 8.1 showing set of sieves

Fig 8.2 showing the analysis of the GSB gradation

GSB GRADATION (MORT&H TABLE- 400-1)

8.4 SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION TEST. (IS: 2386 PART 3) The specific gravity of an aggregate is considered to be a measure of strength or quality of the material. The specific gravity test helps in the identification of stone.

Water absorption gives an idea of strength of aggregate. Aggregates having more water absorption are more porous in nature and are generally considered unsuitable unless they are found to be acceptable based on strength, impact and hardness tests. 8.4.1 Object: To determine the specific gravity and water absorption of aggregates by perforated basket. The Apparatus that are to be used are a) A wire basket of not more than 6.3mm mesh. b) An oven to maintain temperature of 100 0c to 110 0c.c) A balance of capacity about 5 kg. d) A shallow tray and two dry absorbent clothes, each not less than 750 X 450 mm. 8.4.2 Calculations: Weight of saturated aggregate suspended in water with the basket = W1 g Weight of basket suspended in water Weight of saturated aggregate in water = W2 g = (W1-W2) = Ws g. = W4 g

Weight of saturated surface dry aggregate in air

Weight of water equal to the volume of the aggregate = (W3-Ws) g (i)Specific gravity = (Dry weight of aggregate)/ (Weight of equal volume of water) = W4 / (W3 Ws) = W4 /[W3 (W1 W2)]

(ii)Apparent Sp.gr. = (Dry wt. of aggregate.)/ (Wt. of equal volume of water excluding air voids in aggregates) = W4 / (W4 Ws) = W4 / [W4 (W1 W2)] (iii) Water absorption = percent by weight of water absorbed in terms oven dried weight of aggregates. = 100*(W3 W4)/ W4 8.4.3 Limits: The specific gravity of aggregates ranges from 2.5 to 3.0 The water absorption of aggregates ranges from 0.1 to 2.0 %. 8.5 TEN PERCENT FINES VALUE. (BS: 812 PART 111) 8.5.1 INTRODUCTION: The Ten percent fines value is a measure of resistance of the aggregates to the crushing. 8.5.2 Object: To determine the ten percent value of aggregates by crushing machine apparatus.

Apparatus: a) Steel cylinder with open ends, and internal diameter 152mm, square base plate, plunger having a piston of diameter 150mm b) Cylindrical measure having internal diameter of 115mm and height 180mm. c) Steel tamping rod with one rounded end, having a diameter of 16mm and length 450 to 600mm. d) Compressive testing machine capable of applying load of 40 tones, at a uniform rate of loading of 4 tons per minute. 8.5.3 Results: The 10 percent fines value of Granular Sub base material is should be more than 50 KN. Table showing the values of 10% fine value test Determination Weight of saturated surface Dry sample passing IS sieve 14mm and retained on IS sieve 10mm (A)gm Oven dried Weight of fraction retained on IS sieve 2.36mm after the test (gm) Oven dried Weight of fraction passing IS sieve 2.36mm after the test (B)gm f = The maximum force in KN m = % of material passing IS sieve 2.36 at the max force (D/A)*100 10% fines value (TFV)= 14f/(m+4)(KN) Average value of 10 % fines value in KN Trail 2870 2548 321.4 118.0 11.2 108.7 108.7> 50KN

Fig 8.3 showing the apparatus for 10% fines value test

8.6 OTHER TESTS The other experiments i.e. Modified Procter, C.B.R., Liquid limit & Plastic Index are of same procedure as that of soils but the limits of them are different from the soils. They are as follows: 1. Liquid limit & Plastic limit Liquid limit is calculated by penetration method on the ash. The maximum limit for the Liquid Limit is 25% The maximum limit for the Plastic Index is 6%

2. Modified Procter test The density at site must be limited to 98% of the MDD value that has been taken during lab. The limit for OMC in field is (OMC in lab-2 OMC in lab+1). The rolling is done by rollers weighing 80 KN-- 100 KN at a speed of 5 KMPH. The field density is measured by sand replacement method. 3. C.B.R The value must be 30% or greater than that.

Fig 8.4 Cone Penetration used to find liquid limit of aggregate and its tabulations

Liquid limit: 21.77. Plastic limit: non plastic

Maximum limit for liquid limit is 25%. Maximum limit for plastic index is 6%

9. WET MIX MACADEM


9.1 General The water bound macadam (WBM) is the construction known after the name of John Macadam. The term macadam in the present day means, the pavement base course made of crushed or broken aggregate mechanically interlocked by rolling and the voids filled with screening and binding material with the assistance of water. The WBM may be used as a subbase, base course or surfacing course. The thickness of each compacted layer of WBM ranges from 10.0 cm to 7.5 cm depending on the size and gradation of the aggregates used. The number of layers and total thickness of WBM construction depends on the design details of the pavement. When used as a surfacing course, WBM gets deteriorated rapidly under adverse conditions of traffic and weather; therefore it is desirable to provide a bituminous surfacing course over the WBM layer in order to prolong its life. 9.2 Specifications of Materials for WBM Pavement

9.2.1 Type of coarse Aggregates The course aggregates used in WBM generally consists of hard varieties of crushed aggregates or broken stones. However, soft aggregates like over burnt bricks metal or naturally occurring soft aggregates such as kankar or laterite may be used. Crushed slag obtained from blast furnace may also be used. The weaker varieties of aggregates which get crushed during rolling need not strictly conform to the requirements of gradation and there is no need of using screenings for filling the voids in the coarse aggregates.

Table 9.1 showing the details of material properties Requirements for pavement layer Property (i)Los Angeles abrasion value (maximum value, percent) or Sub-base Basecourse Surfacing course

60

50

40

(ii)Aggregate impact value (maximum value, percent) (iii)Flakiness index (maximum value, percent)

50

40

30

15

15

9.2.2 Properties of Coarse Aggregates The crushed stone aggregate should be generally hard, durable and of acceptable shape, free from flaky and elongated particles. The IRC specifies the following physical requirements of coarse aggregates for WBM construction, in terms of the test value for the three pavement layers.

Size and Grading Requirements of Coarse Aggregates The coarse aggregates for each layer of construction should, as far as possible conform to any one of the three gradings specified below. Grading No. 1 consists of coarse aggregates of size range 90 to 40 mm and is more suitable for sub-base course. Thickness of compacted layer is usually 100 mm. Grading No. 2 consists of aggregates of size range 63 to 40 mm and grading No. 3 of range 50 to 20 mm and compacted thickness of each layer is normally 75 mm.

Table 9.2 showing the size range and percentage passing Grading No. Size range, mm Sieve size, mm 100 80 1 90 to 40 63 40 20 80 63 2 63 to 40 50 40 20 3 50 to 20 63 Percent passing the sieve, by weight 100 65 85 25 60 0 15 05 100 90 100 30 70 0 15 05 100

50 40 20 10

95 100 35 70 0 10 05

Screenings The screenings are used to fill up the voids in the compacted layer of coarse aggregates. The screenings consist of aggregates of smaller size, generally of the same material as the coarse aggregates. The grading requirements of screenings for WBM construction are given below: Table 9.3 showing the size of screens and percentages Classification grading Size of screenings, mm 12.5 A 12.5 10.0 4.75 0.15 10.0 B 10.0 4.75 0.15 Sieve size, mm Percentage passing the sieve, by weight 100 90 100 10 30 08 100 85 100 10 30

The IRC has suggested that from economic considerations, predominantly non-plastic materials such as kankar nodules, moorum or gravel (other than river borne rounded aggregate) may be utilized as screening material, provided the liquid limit of the material is less than 20% plasticity index is less than 6.0% and the portion of fines passing 0.075 mm sieve is less than 10%. However, if crushable type of materials is used as coarse aggregate, the use of screenings may be dispensed with. Binding Material

Binding material consisting of fine grained material is used in WBM construction to prevent raveling of the stones. Kankar nodules or lime stone dust may also be utilized, if locally available. The binding material with plasticity index value 4 to 9% is used in WBM surface course construction; the plasticity index of binding course material should be less than 6.0% in the case of WBM layers used as base course of sub-base course, with bituminous surfacing. If the screenings used consist of crushable material like moorum or soft gravel, there is no need to apply binding material, unless the plasticity index value is low. 9.3 Process of execution: This complete layer i.e. 250 mm is placed in site in two layers i.e. each layer of 125 mm thick. As the name indicates wet mix i.e. mix consists of water with aggregates in required proportion. The aggregates include 40 mm, 20mm, 10mm, 4.75mm, and dust in calculated proportions. This mix is prepared in wet mix plant where all the contents are mixed in calculated proportions.

Fig 9.1 showing the mixer of wet mix plant The compaction layer thickness for this layer is minimum 100 mm and maximum 200mm. For getting lesser flaky material we use VSI (Vertical shape impact) material. This is

rounded in shape and gives good results.

Fig 9.2 showing the hoppers and the conveying system The materials from the hopper will fall on a conveyor belt in calculated amounts and in designed proportions. From that belt the material is conveyed into mixing tank where all the materials are thoroughly mixed with water (water also mixed in calculated amount). After mixing thoroughly the mix is transferred into hopper to load into trucks.

Fig 9.3 showing the hopper and loading system This is how wet mix macadam is prepared in plant. From this plant the material is transported in trucks to the site and unloaded at site. Latter this material is loaded into paver and the designed thickness of the pavement is paved by it. After this compaction and

vibration is done by pneumatic rollers whose weight ranging from 80100 KN at a speed of 5 KMPH. 9.4 Construction Procedure Preparation of Foundation for Receiving the WBM Course Provision of Lateral Confinement Spreading of Coarse Aggregates Rolling Application of Screenings Sprinkling and Grouting Application of Binding Material Setting and Drying

9.5 TESTS ON WET MIX MACADAM: Before the design of the wet mix macadam all the necessary tests on the aggregates were done and only suitable material will be used for the mix. But to see whether same mix material was used in the field and the field conditions we take different samples at various locations and perform various tests. The tests are as follows: 1. Gradation 2. Plastic Index 3. Aggregate impact value(AIV) 4. Los Angles Abrasion Value Test(LAA) 5. Flakiness & Elongation Index (Shape Test) These tests are done prior to the mix design and also on the site samples to cross check the work and to see the whether its in considerable limits. 9.6 WMM GRADATION (MORTH&H-400-11) This is done prior to design on the samples and to see the percentage of individual sizes present in the material. Here are certain limits to the sizes IS sieve no. 53 mm 45 mm Limits (in %) 100 95-100

22.4 mm 11.2 mm 4.75 mm 2.36 mm 600 m 75 m

60-80 40-60 25-40 15-30 8-22 0-8

The sizes that include in 40 mm size are in the range of 4522.4 mm The sizes that include in 20 mm size are in the range of 22.44.75 mm The sizes that include in 10 mm size are in the range of 11.22.36 mm After invidual analysis the aggregates are blended in suitable percentage to get required parameters. This process of mixing them is known as Blending.

Fig 9.4 shows gradation of WMM After invidual gradation the percentages are decided and they are added accordingly IS Sieve size(mm) Weight retained (gm) 0 0 11679 3295 9552 3070 1993 3293 Cumulative Cumulative Cumulative Weight % Retained % passing Retained (gm) 0 0 100 0 11679 14974 24526 27596 29589 32882 0 34.29 43.97 72.01 81.03 86.88 96.55 100 65.71 56.03 27.99 18.97 13.12 3.45 Specifications Limits

53 45 22.4 11.2 4.75 2.36 0.60 0.075

100 95-100 60-80 40-60 25-40 15-30 8-22 0-8

in the plant. From the plant sample has been acquired and again gradation is done on that sample. This is cross checked with the percentage that we have designed. Similarly on the sample acquired from site this gradation is performed and cross checked with the design percentage. Table 9.4 WMM GRADATION (MORT&H TABLE-400-11) Total weight of sample taken: 32882 gm

9.7 AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE (AIV) (IS: 2386 PART 4) 9.7.1 INTRODUCTION: Toughness is the property of a material to resist impact. Due to traffic loads, the road stones are subjected to the pounding action or impact and there is possibility of stones breaking into smaller pieces. The road stones should therefore be tough enough to resist fracture under impact. A test designed to evaluate the toughness of stones i.e., the resistance of the fracture under repeated impacts may be called an impact test for road stones. 9.7.2 Object: To determine the toughness of road stone materials by Impact test. 9.7.3Apparatus: Impact testing machine, Tamping rod, Sieve, Balance, Oven

9.7.4 Calculations: The aggregate impact value is expressed as the percentage of the fines formed in terms of the total weight of the sample. Aggregate Impact Value = 100 x (W2/W1) Where, W1 = Original weight of the sample, W2 = Weight of fraction passing 2.36mm IS sieve. 9.7.5Results: The mean of the three results is reported as the AIV (Aggregate Impact Value) of the specimen to the nearest whole number. Limits: < 10% Exceptionally strong. 10 20% Strong.

20 30% Satisfactory for road surfacing. > 35% Weak for road surfacing.

Table 9.5 AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE TEST (As Per IS: 2386 Part-iv) S.No 1 2 3 4 Description Weight of aggregate Weight of crushed aggregate passing on 2.36 sieve Weight of crushed aggregate retained on 2.36 sieve Aggregate Impact value (W2/W1)*100% W1 W2 W3 Unit gm gm gm 1 368.4 82.89 285.51 22.5
Average:

Test 2 372.5 81.58 290.92 21.9


22.2%

9.8 LOS ANGLES ABRASION VALUE TEST (LAA) (IS: 2386 PART 4) 9.8.1 INTRODUCTION: Due to the movement of traffic, the road stones used in the surfacing course are subjected to wearing action at the top. Resistance to wear or hardness is hence an essential property for road aggregates, especially when used in wearing course. Thus road stones should be hard enough to resist the abrasion due to the traffic. When fast moving traffic fitted with pneumatic tyres move on the road, the soil particles present between the wheel and road

surface causes abrasion on the road stone. Steel tires of animal drawn vehicles, which rub against the stones, can cause considerable abrasion of the stones on the road surface. Hence in order to test the suitability of road stones to resist the abrading action due to traffic. 9.8.2 Object: To determine the aggregates abrasion test by Los Angles Abrasion method. 9.8.3 Apparatus: a) Los Angles Abrasion Machine b) Balance -10 kg capacity sensitivity 0.1 gm. c) Test Sieve 1.70 mm IS sieve. d) Oven. 9.8.4 Calculations: The difference between the original and final weights of the sample is expressed as a percentage of the original weight of the sample is reported as the percentage wears. Loa Angles Abrasion Value = 100x (W1 W2)/W1 Where, W1 = Original weight of the sample, W2 = Weight of aggregate retained on 1.70mm IS sieve, (W1 W2) = Los in weight due to wear. 9.8.5 Results: The result of the Los Angles Abrasion is expressed as a percentage wear and the average value of three tests. Limits: Los Angles Abrasion for road aggregates = Maximum 40%.

Fig 9.6 showing apparatus of Los Angles Abrasion value LOS ANGELS ABRASION TEST [As per IS 2386,(part-IV)] IS sieve designation (mm) Weight in gm of test sample of grade Passing Retained A (**) B C D on 40 25 1250 25 20 1250 20 12.5 1250 2500 12.5 10 1250 2500 10 6.3 2500 6.3 4.75 2500 4.75 2.36 5000 Total Weight (gm) 5000 5000 5000 5000 No. of revolutions 500 500 500 500 Description Test 1 Test 2 Initial Weight W1 (gm) 5000 5000 Weight retained after test on 1.70mm 3535 3580 Sieve W2(gm) Los Angels Abrasion Value={(W129.3 28.4 W2)/W1}*100 Average of Los Angel Abrasion Value 28.5% Remarks: The Maximum value of Los Angels Abrasion is 40% No of spheres A=12 B=11 C=8 D=6

Test 3 5000 3605 27.9

9.9 FLAKINESS & ELONGATION INDEX (SHAPE TEST)

(IS: 2386 PART 1) 9.9.1 INTRODUCTION: The particle shape of aggregates is determined by the percentages of flaky and elongated particles contained in it. For base course and construction of bituminous and cement concrete types, the presence of flaky and elongated particles are considered undesirable as they may cause inherent weakness with possibilities of breaking down under heavy loads. The angularity number i.e., flaky and elongation has considerable importance in the gradation requirements of various types of mixes such as bituminous concrete, cement concrete and soil aggregate mixes. 9.9.2 Object: To determine the flakiness and elongation of the aggregates by standard flakiness gauge and elongation gauges.

9.9.3 Apparatus: Flakiness gauge (Thickness gauge), Elongation gauge (Length gauge) Calculation: In order to calculate the flakiness index of the entire sample of aggregates first the weight of each fraction of aggregate passing and retained on the specified set of sieves is noted (X1, X2, X3 etc). Each of the particles from this fraction of aggregate is tried to be passed through the slot of the specified thickness of the thickness gauge are found and weighed (x1, x2, x3etc). Then the flakiness index is the total weight of the flaky material passing the various thickness gauges expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged. Flakiness Index = 100 * (x1+x2+x3+..)/(X1+X2+X3+) b) Elongation Index: The sample is sieved through the IS sieves specified as above. A minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction is taken and weighed. In order to separate elongated material, each fraction is then gauged individually for length in a length gauge. The pieces of aggregates from each fraction tested which could not pass through the specified gauge length with its long side are elongated particles and are collected separately to find the total weight of aggregates retained on the length gauge from each fraction. The total amount of elongated material retained by the length gauge is weighed to an accuracy of at least 0.1 percent of the weight of the sample. Calculation:

In order to calculate the Elongation index of the entire sample of aggregates first the weight of each fraction of aggregate passing and retained on the specified set of sieves is noted (Y1, Y2, Y3 etc). Each piece of these are tried to be passed through the specified length of the gauge length with its longest side and those elongated pieces which do not pass the gauge are separated and weighed (y1, y2, y3). Then the Elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges, expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged. Elongation Index = 100 x (y1+y2+y3+)/(Y1 + Y2 + Y3 + .) 9.9.4 Combined Flakiness & Elongation Index: To determine this combined proportion, the flaky stone from a representative sample should first be separated out. Flakiness index is weight of flaky stone metal divided by weight of stone sample. Only the elongated particle is separated out from the remaining (non flaky) stone metal. Elongation index is weight of elongated particles divided by total non-flaky particles. The value of flakiness index and elongation index so found are added up. Limits: Combined Flakiness and Elongation Index for Bituminous and Non-bituminous mixes=max.30%

Fig 9.7 showing testing of Aggregates for Flaky and Elongation FLAKINESS INDEX AND ELONGATION INDEX (IS: 2386 PART-1) Total weight: 20289 gm
IS: Sieve Size mm Total Weight of Passing Retained aggregate taken (gm) Weight of aggregate retained on Thickness gauge (gm) Weight of aggregate passing through Thickness gauge (gm) Weight of aggregate retained on length gauge after retained on thickness gauge (gm)

63

50

50 40 31.5 25 20 16 12.5 10 Total

40 31.5 25 20 16 12.5 10 6.3

7248 5092 3761 1924 868 712 684 A = 20289 (gm)

6624 4700 3483 1709 666 512 487 B = 18180 (gm)

624 392 278 215 202 200 197 C = 2108 (gm)

814 587 469 418 410 404 D = 3102 (gm)

9.9.5 Results: Flakiness index (C/A)*100 Elongation index (D/B)*100 Combined FI &EI = 10.39% =17.06% = 27.45%

10. DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM


10.1 Introduction This layer is prepared after completion of the wet mix macadam. But before laying this DBM a layer is laid which is called prime coat. This layer is laid for proper bonding and is a SS layer (slow setting). This layer sets slowly into the voids of WMM and provides a bond for the next layer i.e. DBM. This layer is laid after 24 hours after laying of WMM layer. This prime coat is tested for viscosity. The specifications of this are according to MORT&H. The rate of spraying is measured in the field and the specification for this is 0.6 0.9 kg/sqm. After laying this layer the next layer DBM must be laid within 24 hours. If DBM is not laid within 24 hours the bonding property of this prime coat will be lost, hence we need to lay a layer known as TAR COAT and again DBM must be laid within 24 hours. This tar coat is RS layer (rapid setting). Even this layer also tested for viscosity and rate of spray in the field. The limits for this layer is 0.20.3 kg/sqm (specification as per MORT&H 500-2) The DBM is laid here in 2 layers as per required thickness and these layers must be laid again within 24 hours, if not so again the tar coat layer must be given for better bonding between two layers. This is to be followed before laying DBM layer. Prime coat: Bituminous prime coat is the first application of a low viscosity liquid bituminous material over an existing porous or absorbent pavement surface like the WBM base course. The main object of priming is to plug in the capillary voids of the porous surface and to bond the loose mineral particles on the existing surface, using a binder of low viscosity

which can penetrate into the voids. Usually MC or SC cutbacks of suitable grade or viscosity are chosen depending on the porosity of the surface to be treated. The bituminous primer is sprayed uniformly using a mechanical sprayer at a rate of 7.3 to 14.6 kg per 10 sq.m area, depending on the porosity of the surface. The primed surface is allowed to cure for atleast 24 hours, during which period no traffic is allowed. Tack coat: Bituminous tack coat is the application of bituminous material over an existing pavement surface which is relatively impervious like an existing bituminous surface or a cement concrete pavement or a pervious surface like the WBM which has already been treated by a prime coat. Tack coat is usually applied by spraying bituminous material of higher viscosity like the hot bitumen at the rate of 4.9 to 9.8 kg per 10 sq.m area depending in the type of the surface. However in some special circumstances, a tack coat of bituminous emulsion may also be applied in cold state. 10.2 DBM (DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM) In site the layer is laid as per requiment so here in this the layer is laid in 2 layers each of 65 mm. As the layer thickness is 65mm so the nominal size of the aggregate used is 25mm, which gives better compaction results. Basically the DBM consists of mainly 3 components. They are 1. Bitumen 2. Aggregate 3. Cement used mainly for bonding and to increase strength Before designing the design percentage of the aggregate content various tests are to be conducted on the materials and all the properties are checked. 10.2.1 Tests on Bitumen: Here VG30 grade is used 1. Specific Gravity 2. Penetration (limits for this are 5070 mm) 3. Softening point (minimum 470c) 4. Coating and Stripping (limits are 95%) 10.2.2 Tests on aggregate: 1. Flakiness and Elongation (limit for flakiness is 30%) 2. Aggregate Impact Value (limits for this is 27%) 3. Los Angles Abrasion test (limit for this is 35%) 4. Sand Equivalent test (limit for this is 50%)

10.2.3 Tests on cement: 1. Specific gravity (standard value is 3.15)

10.3 TESTS ON BITUMEN 10.3.1 PENETRATION TEST (IS: 1203 1978) Introduction: Penetration test is the test on bitumen to grade the material in term of its hardness. Object: To determine the penetration of bitumen by penetration test. Apparatus: Container, Needle, Water bath, Penetrometer, Transfer tray, Stop Watch. Results: The difference between the initial and final penetration readings is taken as the penetration value.

Penetration of bitumen (IS: 12031978)


Test load 100+_ 0.25 gm Test temperature 250c+_ 0.10c Test duration 5 seconds Initial dial Trial no reading (1) 1 2 126 125 Final dial reading (2) 187 189 Penetration 1/10 th mm (3)=(2)-(1) 61 64 Average value 63 Specification 1/10 mm 50 70

Remarks: The permissible limits of penetration of bitumen is 50-70 (IS: 1205 1978)

10.3.2 SOFTENING POINT TEST (RING AND BALL TEST)

INTRODUCTION:

Bitumen does not suddenly change from solid to liquid state, but as the temperature increases, it gradually becomes softer until it flows readily. All semi-solid state bitumen grades need sufficient fluidity before they are used for application with the aggregate mix. For this purpose bitumen is sometimes cutback with a solvent like kerosene. The common procedure however is to liquefy the bitumen by heating. The softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains particular degree of softening under specified condition of test. For bitumen, it is usually determined by Ring and Ball test. Object: To determine the softening point of the bitumen by Ring and Ball apparatus. Apparatus: a) Ring and Ball apparatus It consists of (i) Steel Balls (ii) Brass Rings b) Thermometer c) Bath and stirrer. Results: The temperature at the instant when each of the ball and sample touches the bottom plate of support is recorded as softening value. SOFTENING POINT TEST (IS: 1205 1978) BALL NO Temperature (0c)at which the sample touches bottom plate 47.9 47.9 47.9 1 2 Average

Remarks: the minimum temperature to be maintained for softening point is 470c 10.3.3 STRIPPING VALUE OF AGGREGATES (IS: 6241 1959) INTRODUCTION: Bitumen and tar adhere well to all normal types of aggregates provided they are dry and are not exceptionally dusty. Largely the viscosity of the binder controls the process of binding. When the viscosity of the binder is high, coating of aggregates by the binder is slower. In the absence of water there is practically no adhesion problem in bituminous road construction. Two problems are observed due to the presence of water. First, if aggregate is wet and cool it is normally not possible to coat with a bituminous binder. This problem can be dealt with by removing the water film on aggregate by drying, and by increasing the mixing temperature. Second problem is stripping of coated binder from the aggregate due to

the presence of water. This problem of stripping is experienced only with bituminous mixtures, which are permeable to water. Object: To determine the stripping value of aggregates by static immersion method. Apparatus: Thermostatically controlled water bath, beaker. Limits: The maximum stripping value is 5% (i.e., minimum retained coating is 95%). 10.4 TESTS ON AGGREGATE These are the same as those of done on WMM 10.5 TESTS ON CEMENT: The preliminary test that is conducted on cement is the specific gravity. 10.5.1 DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF CEMENT (IS: 2720 Part 3) Object: To determine the specific gravity of cement using Specific Gravity Bottle. Apparatus: Specific Gravity Bottle, Balance capable of weighing accurately up to 0.1gm. Calculations: Specific gravity = (W2 W1) /[(W2 W1) (W3 W4)]x0.79 Where, W1 = weight of empty flask. W2 = weight of flask + cement. W3 = weight of flask + cement + kerosene. W4 = weight of flask + kerosene. specific gravity of kerosene=0.79. Limit: Specific gravity of cement = 3.15 g/cc. 10.6 PREPARATION OF THE MIX The mix is prepared by the invidual gradation of the aggregates and by analysis of the mix to given specifications Invidual Gradation of the aggregates: IS sieves Limits(according to MORT&H 500 10 ) 37.5 mm 26.5 mm 19.0 mm 13.2 mm 100 90 100 71 95 56 80 _+ 8 _+8 _+8 _+7 Permissible limits range

4.75 mm 2.36 mm 300m 75m

38 54 28 42 7 21 2 8

_+6 _+5 _+4 _+2

The percentage of the aggregate will be decided on the invidual gradation and these must be within the permissible limits. These permissible limits are also called JMF limits (Job Mix Limits). These limits are given by applying permissible limits on the MORT&H limits. COMBINED SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR DBM GRADING-2 Weight of the sample taken: 33096gm Sieve size in mm 37.5 26.5 19.0 13.2 4.75 2.36 0.3 0.075 Pan Weight of material retained(gm) 0 0 2622 7782 9036 2386 9398 1872 1444 Cumulative weight of retained(gm) 0 0 2622 10404 19440 21826 31224 33096 % Retained % Passing JMF LIMIT

0 0 7.6 30.1 56.3 63.2 90.4 95.8

100 100 92.4 69.9 43.7 36.8 9.6 4.2

100 92-100 77-93 62-76 36-42 32-42 9-17 2-6

SAND EQUIVALENT TEST [As per IS 2320, (Part-37)] Description Test-1 Test-2 A. Sand Reading B. Clay Reading C. Sand Equivalent Value=(A/B)*100% D. Average Sand Equivalent Value% 88.8 144 61.1 90 150 60.0 60.1

Test-3 87 147 59.2

BITUMEN EXTRACTION TEST 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weight of bituminous Mix in gm (A) Initial Weight of Filter Paper in gm (B) Weight of mix after Extraction in gm (C) Weight of Filter Paper after extraction in gm (D) Weight of fines gm E=(D-B) Weight of binder in gm F=(A-(C+E) Binder content in (%) G=(F/A)*100 1602.0 19.20 1529.7 19.40 0.20 72.1 4.50

GRADATION AFTER EXTRACTION Sieve size in mm 37.5 26.5 19.0 13.2 4.75 2.36 0.3 0.075 Pan Weight of material retained(gm) 0 0 115 362 413 111 368 107 53.9 Cumulative weight of retained(gm) 0 0 115 477 890 1001 1369 1476 % Retained % Passing JMF LIMIT

0 0 7.5 31.2 58.2 65.4 89.5 96.5

100 100 92.5 68.8 41.8 34.6 10.5 3.5

100 92-100 77-93 62-76 36-42 32-42 9-17 2-6

After preparation of the mix i.e. combination of the bitumen, aggregates and cement we will conduct Marshal Test and check the density, stability, percentage of mineral aggregates, air void in mineral aggregate, total air void, amount of bitumen present in the mix etc,. These values are cross checked with the design values, if necessary some modifications were made. Similarly many trail specimens were made and from all of them the limits were deduced, and these limits must be within the JMF limits. After completion of the design the mix parameters were given to the plant for preparation of the mix. Now again from the plant the mix is taken in the mould and the Marshal stability, bitumen extraction, flow test etc.,were again conducted so as to verify the mix. During preparation of the mix the aggregates are maintained at a temperature of 1700c and the bitumen is maintained at a temperature of 1500c. This temperature is maintained by hot air blowers which maintain the temperature. These are mixed such that the aggregates are completely coated with bitumen. At the end of the mix the temperature that is to be maintained is 1650c. After completion of the mix the mix is loaded into trucks and is unloaded at the site. The temperature that is to be maintained is 1450c. Again the rolling temperature to be maintained around 950c. This is how the DBM layer is designed and laid.

MARSHALL STABILITY TEST. (ASTM D 1559 & MS-2)


INTRODUCTION: Bruce Marshall, a former Bituminous Engineer with the Mississippi State Highway Department, formulated the concepts of the Marshall method of designing paving mixtures. The U.S.Army Corps of Engineers, through extensive research and correlation studies, improved and added certain features to Marshalls test procedure, and ultimately developed mix design criteria. The original Marshall method is applicable only to hot-mix asphalt paving mixtures containing aggregates with maximum sizes of 25mm or less. This method covers the measurement of the resistance to plastic flow of cylindrical specimens of bituminous paving mixture loaded on the lateral surface by means of the Marshall apparatus. Object: To determine the stability, flow, voids, voids in mineral aggregates, voids filled with asphalt and density of the asphalt mixture by Marshall Stability test. Apparatus: a) Specimen Mould Assembly b) Specimen Extractor c) Compaction Hammer d) Compaction Pedestal e) Breaking Head f) Loading Machine g) Flow meter h) Oven or hot plates i) Mixing apparatus. j) Thermostatically control water bath. k) Thermometers of range 0 360 0C with 1 0C sensitivity.

BITUMINOUS MIX PROPERTIES BY MARSHALL METHOD (AS PER MS-2; ASTMD 1559)
%Bit ume n by wt of mix Wt of Specimen (gm) In air In water In SSD Volume of Specim en Bulk Sp. Gr of Specim en Max Sp.Gr of Specimen Gmm=Pm m/ ((Ps/Gse) + (Pb/Gb)) VMA (%) VMA=10 0((Gmb*( 100Pb)/Gsb )) VFB (%)

VIM (%)

Sam ple No.

Pb

D=(C-B)

Gmb=( A/D)

VIM=((GmmGmb)/Gmm) *100

VFB=(V MAVIM)/V MA*100

4002.6 1 4.50 3998.7 3997.6

2309.3 2319.8 2318.9

4014.7 4004.2 4006.3

1705.4 1684.4 1688.2 AVG

2.347 2.374 2.368 2.363 2.338 2.338 2.379 2.360 2.458 4.0 13.7 70.8 2.458 3.9 13.6 71.3

3993.2 2 4.50 4015.4 4011

2305.0 2329.6 2333.4

4013.0 4029.6 4019.7

1708.0 1700.0 1686.3 AVG

Proving Ring Reading F 350 320 385 350 385 320

STABILITY(KN) Marshall Stability Correction (KN) Factor H=(F*Fa) I 23.5 21.4 25.8 23.5 25.8 21.4 1.03 1.06 1.06 AVG 1.03 1.03 1.06 AVG

Corrected Stabilty (KN) J=(H*I) 24.2 22.7 27.3 24.7 24.2 26.6 22.7 24.5

Flow (mm)

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.1 4.4 4.0 3.6 4.0

Fig showing apparatus of Marshall Stability & Bitumen extraction

11. BITUMINOUS CONCRETE


11.1 CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS Introduction Bituminous pavements are in common use in India and abroad. It is possible to construct relatively thin bituminous pavement layers over an existing pavement. Therefore, these are commonly adopted as wearing course. Flexible pavement could be strengthened in stages by constructing bituminous pavement layers one after another in a certain period of time unlike the cement concrete pavement construction. There are a wide range of construction materials (type, size and grading of aggregates and type and grade of bituminous binder) and bituminous pavement construction techniques in use. Variation in design and construction types has given rise to the bituminous paving technology. It is well realized that the excessive binder content over an optimum value for a given mix is detrimental to the good performance of the black top pavements. This Is contrary to the role of cement as a binder in the cement concrete mixes, where the excess of the binder does not decrease the strength. Therefore, based on the surface area of the aggregates, and the technique of construction the optimum binder content may be determined. Another problem associated with the construction of bituminous pavements is control of the proper viscosity of the bituminous-aggregate mixtures during mixing and compaction operations. In this country, the bituminous construction is by and large adopted on the surface coarse. In fact till recent years the bituminous construction as a wearing course or a surface coarse was considered as the main treatment. Bituminous constructions are also adopted for base and binder courses of pavements on heavy-traffic roads. Different from the cement concrete surfacing which would require very high cost of construction and a substantial curing period before opening the road to traffic, the bituminous surfacing has a distinct advantage in this respect. The black top construction is in extensive use in developing nations like, India where the cement as a construction material is in great demand for large number of other engineering projects. Also stage development is possible in the case of bituminous roads, depending on traffic demands.

11.2 Methods of Construction Premix types of bituminous constructions are generally carried out in the field using appropriate plants. There are two types of mixing plant and travelling plant. They are 1. Centre mixing plant. 2. Travelling plant The centre mixing plant consists of units for batching different materials, separate heating units for mixed aggregates and bitumen and a mixing unit of large capacity. The aggregates, filler and bitumen are transported to the site of the mixing plant which is stationed at a suitable location and the bituminous mix is again transported from the plant to the construction site. Generally there is very good control on the quality of the mix obtained from the central mixing plant. The travelling plant is a smaller unit and can be shifted from time to time along the road side as the bituminous construction progresses. In hot mix constructions the heated aggregates are mixed with heated bitumen in a central or travelling plant. In cold mix method, the aggregates at atmospheric temperature are mixed with bituminous material of low viscosity in cold state or after slight heating. 11.3 Construction Procedure for Bituminous Macadam The Bituminous Macadam (BM) bitumen bound macadam is a premix laid immediately after mixing and then compacted. It is an open graded construction suitable only as a base or binder course. When this layer is exposed as a surface course, at least a seal coat is necessary. Specifications of Materials The grades of bitumen used are 30/40, 60/70 and 80/100 penetration. Road tar RT-4, cutback and emulsion can also be used in cold mix construction technique. The binder content used varies from 3.0 to 4.5 percent by weight of the mix.

Aggregates used are of low porosity fulfilling the following requirements for the base course.

Los Angles abrasion value Aggregate impact value Flakiness index Stripping at 40C after 24 hours immersion (CRRI test) Loss with sodium sulphate, 5 cycles

50 percent max. 35 percent max. 15 percent max. 25 percent max. 12 percent max.

For binder course the specified maximum abrasion and impact values are 40 and 30 percent respectively. The grading of the aggregates for 50 mm thickness for base and binder course construction as specified by Indian Roads Congress are given in Table 11.1 Table 11.1 Grading of aggregates for bituminous macadam Grading for 50 mm compacted thickness: Percent passing sieve size, mm 50.0 40.0 25.0 20.0 12.5 10.0 4.75 2.36 0.075 Binder content, percent by weight of mix : Base course Grading 1 100 35 70 0 15 05 03 3.0 4.5 Grading 2 100 90 100 50 80 10 30 05 3.0 4.5 Base or binder course Grading 3 100 70 100 35 60 15 35 5 20 04 3.0 6.0

The quantity of aggregates required for 10 sq.m of bitumen bound macadam are 0.60 to 0.75 cubic.m and 0.90 to 1.0 cubic.m respectively, for 50 and 75 mm compacted thickness. The bitumen quantity would be determined based on the gradings adopted as specified above.

11.4 Construction Procedure for Bituminous Concrete The bituminous concrete is the highest quality of construction in the group of black top surfaces. Being of high cost specifications, the bituminous mixes are properly designed to satisfy the design requirements of the stability and durability. The mixture contains dense grading of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and mineral filler coated with bitumen binder. The mix is prepared in a hot-mix plant. The thickness of the bituminous concrete layer depends upon the traffic and quality of base course. The specifications of materials and the construction steps for bituminous concrete or asphaltic concrete (AC) surface course are given below: Specification of Materials (a) Binder: Bitumen of grade 30/40, 60/70 or 80/100 may be chosen depending upon the climatic condition of the locality. (b) Aggregates and filler: The coarse aggregates should fulfill the following requirements : Aggregate impact value Loss Angeles abrasion value Flakiness index Stripping at 40C after 24 hours Soundness: Loss with sodium sulphate in 5 cycles : 12 maximum percent Loss with magnesium sulphate in 5 cycles: 18 maximum percent The gradation of aggregates and filler should conform to those given in Table 11.2. Table 11.2 Gradation of Aggregates for Bituminous Concrete Percent passing by weight Grading 1 100 Grading 2 100 80 100 : 30 maximum percent : 40 maximum percent : 25 maximum percent : 25 maximum percent

Sieve size, mm 20.00 12.50

10.00 4.75 2.36 0.60 0.30 0.15 0.75

80 100 55 75 35 50 18 29 13 23 8 16 4 - 10

70 90 50 70 35 50 18 29 13 23 8 16 4 10

(c) Bituminous concrete mix : Marshall Stability TestNumber of blows to be applied on either side of specimen : 50 Marshall Stability value, minimum kg Marshall Flow value; 0.25 mm units Voids in mix, percent Voids filled with bitumen, percent : 340 : 8 to 16 : 3 to 5 : 75 to 85

CONCLUSION
As the traffic has been growing rapidly now a days and the journey through the heart core of the town is very much difficult for heavy vehicles. This consumes much of the time and even causes trouble in the city. So for the smooth regulation of the traffic the HMCA has decided to construct a ring road around Hyderabad and is called as Outer Ring Road. The total length of the road is about 158 Km connecting all the important places around Hyderabad like international air port, hi-tech city, relieves congestion on metropolitan area and inner ring road and meets the future demand. The main features of this project are express way with design speed 120KMPH, access controlled road with 8 lanes, with designed load 110 KN/m2 . With all these features the outer ring road has gained its importance and is being used to the full extent for removing the congestion of the traffic in the heart core of the city.

REFERENCES
1) A TEXT BOOK ON HIGHWAY ENGINEERING BY - S.K.KHANNA and C.E.G JUSTO 2) "GUIDE LINES FOR DESIGN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS" IRC: 37-2001 3) "GEOMETRIC DESIGN STANDARDS IRC: 73-1980 4) "CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ROAD SIGNS" IRC: 67-2001 5) "CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ROAD MARKINGS" IRC: 35-1997 6) "SPACE STANDARDS FOR ROADS IN URBAN AREAS" IRC: 69-1977 7) "GEOMETRIC DESIGN STANDARDS FOR URBAN ROADS IN PLAINS "IRC: 86-1983 8) "GUIDE LINES FOR STRENGTHENING OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS USING BBD TECHNIQUE"IRC: 81-1997 9) I.R.C: 5-1985 10) I.R.C: 6-2000 11) I.R.C: 21-1987 12) I.R.C: 78-1985