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CONTENTS

1. Introduction 2. The Principle 3. Technology And Working Of Maglev Trains 4. Operation Control System 5. Future Expansions 6. Conclusion 7. Bibliography

INTRODUCTION
Transportation is the direct product of the social link and social relationship of the people. Revolutionary changes have taken place in the life of the mankind since human beings acquired the capability of walking upright as a result of evolution from the ape. Human beings vision was widened to enable itself to better observe the surroundings and to be watchful against any possible crises. But due to the low productive forces and constraints on people by the conditions of the nature in the primitive times, usually they could not but live by hunting animals or gathering plants within a certain region to maintain the lease of life by making use of a few elements of the nature, let alone any act of transport for the commercial intercourse among the peasants, workers and merchants.

Nevertheless, with the development of human society, people gradually widened their vision in the geographic space through several forms of lateral social contact in their production activities and injected active seeking factor into the passive man, environment relationship. Gradually, human being mastered the use of tools and other special at his service. Among others, the horse, an animal which changed the speed of human transportation, enabled a cart to run at some 10km/h, thus the region scoped varied and the link between city and city became closer, enhancing the progress of culture and civilization in various places.

THE PRINCIPLE
A method of supporting and transporting objects or vehicles which is based on the physical property that the force between two magnetized bodies is inversely proportional to their distance. By using this magnetic force to counterbalance the gravitational pull, a stable and contactless suspension between a magnet (magnetic body) and a fixed guideway (magnetized body) may be obtained. In magnetic levitation (Maglev), also known as magnetic suspension, this basic principle is used to suspend (or levitate) vehicles weighing 40 tons or more by generating a controlled magnetic force. By

removing friction, these vehicles can travel at speeds higher than wheeled trains, with considerably improved propulsion efficiency (thrust energy/input energy) and reduced noise. In Maglev vehicles, chassis-mounted magnets are either suspended underneath a ferromagnetic guideway (track) or levitated above an aluminum track. Levitation or suspension Propulsion Guidance In most current designs, magnetic forces are used to perform all three functions, although a nonmagnetic source of propulsion could be used. No consensus optimum design to perform each of the primary functions. exists on an

Primary functions of Maglev


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In the attraction-type system, a magnet-guideway geometry is used to attract a directcurrent electromagnet toward the track. This system, also known as the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system, is suitable for low- and high- speed passenger-carrying vehicles and a wide range of magnetic bearings. The electromagnetic suspension system is inherently nonlinear and unstable, requiring an active feedback to maintain an upward lift force equal to the weight of the suspended magnet and its payload (vehicle).

In the repulsion-type system, also known as the electrodynamics levitation system (EDS or EDL), a superconducting coil operating in persistent-current mode is moved longitudinally along a conducting surface (an aluminum plate fixed on the ground and acting as the guideway) to induce circulating eddy currents in the aluminum plate. These eddy currents create a magnetic field which, by Lenzs law, opposes the magnetic field
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generated by the travelling coil. This interaction produces a repulsion force on the moving coil. At lower speeds, this vertical force is not sufficient to lift the coil (and its payload), so supporting auxiliary wheels are needed until the net repulsion force is positive. The speed at which the net upward lift force is positive (critical speed) is dependent on the magnetic field in the airgap and payload, and is typically around 80 km/h (50 mi/h). To produce high flux from the traveling coils, hard superconductors (type II) with relatively high values of the critical field (the magnetic field strength of the coil at 0 K) are used to yield airgap flux densities of over 4 tesla. With this choice, the strong eddy-current induced magnetic field is rejected by the superconducting field, giving a self-stabilizing levitation force at high speeds (though additional control circuitry is required for adequate damping and ride quality.

TECHNOLOGY AND WORKING OF MAGLEV TRAINS

Internal working of the Maglev trains The Levitation System Support electromagnets built into the undercarriage and along the entire length of the train pull it up to the guide way electromagnets, which are called ferromagnetic reaction rails. The guidance magnets placed on each side of the train keep it centered along the track and guide the train along. All the electromagnets are controlled electronically in a precise manner. It ensures the train is always levitated at a distance of 8 to 10 mm from the guide way even when it isn't moving. This levitation system is powered by onboard batteries, which are charged up by the linear generator when the train travels. The generator consists of additional cable windings integrated in the levitation electromagnets. The induced current of the generator during driving uses the propulsion magnetic field's harmonic waves, which are due to the side effects of the grooves of the long stator so the charging up process does not consume the useful propulsion magnetic
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field. The train can rely on this battery power for up to one hour without an external power source. The levitation system is independent from the propulsion system.

Lateral Guidance When one side of the train nears the side of the guide way, the super conducting magnet on the train induces a repulsive force from the levitation coils on the side closer to the train and an attractive force from the coils on the farther side. This keeps the train in the center.

System Electronically controlled support magnets located on both sides along the entire length of the vehicle pull the vehicle up to the ferromagnetic stator packs mounted to the underside of the guideway.

Maglev Guideway Guidance magnets located on both sides along the entire length of the vehicle keep the vehicle laterally on the track. Electronic systems guarantee that the clearance remains constant (nominally 10 mm). To hover, the Maglev requires less power than its air conditioning equipment. The levitation system is supplied from on-board batteries and thus independent of the propulsion system. The vehicle is capable of hovering up to one hour without external energy. While travelling, the on-board batteries are recharged by linear generators integrated into the support magnets.

Guideway Structure

Guidance and Support Magnet Propulsion System

Process of Propulsion and the traveling field The synchronous long stator linear motor of the Maglev system is used both for propulsion and braking. It is functioning like a rotating electric motor whose stator is cut open and stretched along under the guide way. Inside the motor windings, alternating current is generating a magnetic traveling field which moves the vehicle without contact. The support magnets in the vehicle function as the excitation portion (rotor). The
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propulsion system in the guide way is activated only in the section where the vehicle actually runs.

The speed can be continuously regulated by varying the frequency of the alternating current. If the direction of the traveling field is reversed, the motor becomes a generator which brakes the vehicle without any contact. The braking energy can be re-used and fed back into the electrical network. The three-phase winded stator generates an electromagnetic travelling field and moves the train when it is supplied with an alternating current. The electron magnetic field from the support electromagnets (rotor) pulls it along. The magnetic field direction and speed of the stator and the rotor are synchronized. The Maglev's speed can vary from standstill to full operating speed by simply adjusting the frequency of the alternating current. To bring the train to a full stop, the direction of the travelling field is reversed. Even during braking, there isn't any mechanical contact between the stator and the rotor. Instead of consuming energy, the Maglev system acts as a generator, converting the breaking energy into electricity, which can be used elsewhere.

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OPERATION CONTROL SYSTEM

Operation Control Center The operation control system controls the operation and guarantees the safety of the Maglev system. It safeguards vehicle movements, the position of the switches, and all other safety and operational functions. Vehicles location on the track is accomplished using an on-board system which detects digitally encoded location flags on the guideway. A radio transmission system is used for communication between the central control center and the vehicles.

Operation of Maglev train

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The Guideway The Maglev hovers over a double track guideway. It can be mounted either at- grade or elevated on slim columns and consists of individual steel or concrete beams up to 62 m in length. Guidance or steering refers to the sideward forces that are required to make the vehicle follow the guideway. The necessary forces are supplied in an exactly analogous fashion to the suspension forces, either attractive or repulsive. The same magnets on board the vehicle, which supply lift, can be used concurrently for guidance or separate guidance magnets can be used. They use Null Flux systems, also known as Null Current systems, these use a coil which is wound so that it enters two opposing, alternating fields. When the vehicle is in the straight ahead position, no current flows, but if it moves offline this creates a changing flux that generates a field that pushes it back into line.

Guideway Specifics

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The Maglev system changes tracks using steel bendable switches. They consist of continuous steel box beams with length between 78 m and 148 m (256 ft - 486 ft) which are elastically bent by means of electromagnetic setting drives and securely locked in their end positions. In the straight position, the vehicle can cross the switch without speed restrictions, in the turnout position, the speed is limited to 200 km/h (125 mph) (high speed switch) or 100 km/h (62 mph) (low speed switch).

Cities Where Installed The Linimo Maglev Train is the world's first commercial automated "Urban Maglev" system. Built for the 2005 World Expo in Nagoya Japan the 8.9klm line connects Bampakuyakusa station to Fujigaoka station. Japan has several private railway companies that can operate independent lines to each other. Transferring from one companies station to another companies station to complete your journey is a common occurrence in

Japan, so the fact that the unique Maglev system is used terminating at one end of the

Linimo Maglev

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Aichi Loop Railway and the other end of the Nagoya Subway Higashiyama Line is not a problem. There are 9 stops on the line that goes from a highly elevated track around the hills near the Expo site to an underground track where it terminates next to the Subway line. The Linimo has a minimum operating radius of 75 m and a maximum gradient of 6%. The linear-motor magnetic-levitated train has a top speed of 100 km/h. The line serves the local community as well as the Expo 2005 fair site. The trains were designed by the Chubu HSST Development Corporation, which also operates a test track in Nagoya.

The Linimo is not the only Maglev Project in Japan, there are plans to develop a Maglev Bullet Train (Shinkasen) From Tokyo to Osaka. Bullet Trains have been used all across Japan since 1964 but these trains are a fairly standard arrangement in the fact they use the familiar steel track system. With the ability to tilt into corners these fast trains can reach speeds of up to 300Klm/h. The New Maglev Shinkasen is being tested on a test track in Yamanashi prefecture where test trains have reached 581 km/h (363 mph), These trains use superconducting magnets which allow for a larger gap, and repulsive-type "Electro-Dynamic Suspension" (EDS). In comparison the 100khr Linimo train uses attractive-type "Electro-Magnetic Suspension" (EMS). These "Superconducting Maglev Shinkansen", developed by the Central Japan Railway Co. ("JR Central") and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, are currently the fastest trains in the world, achieving a record speed of 581 km/h on December 2, 2003. If a proposed Chuo Shinkansen is built, connecting Tokyo to Osaka by maglev, this test track would be part of the line conventional electromagnets and

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Shanghai Transrapid Maglev Line, China

Transrapid train emerges from stylish station in Shanghai. The Shanghai Transrapid Maglev Line is the world's first high-speed commercial commuting system using the state-of-the-art electromagnetic levitation technology. The 30 km (19.5 miles) and double-track project started on March 2001 and it is now on trial operation. It will be on commercial operation in late 2003. With a top speed of 430 km per hour (267 miles per hour), it only takes eight minutes for a one-way trip, which connects the Pudong International Airport and the Longyang Road Station, a downtown subway station. The total cost of the project is about 10 billion yuan (1.2 billion US dollars). The high-speed train takes about 2 minutes and 15 seconds to reach 300 km/h and about 4 minutes to reach its peak speed, 430 km/h. The ride of the train is comfortable and quiet due to the maglev technology and the specially designed window. Its noise level is less than 60 decibels at a speed of 300 km/h. China's economy is on the fast track, so is the project. It only takes two and a half years to complete such a

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FUTURE EXPANSIONS

In the far future Maglev technology are hoped to be used to transport vast volumes of water to far regions at a greater speed eliminating droughts. Far more, space is an open door to maglev trains to propel space shuttle and cargo into space at a lower cost. Artists illustration of Star Tram, a magnetically levitated low-pressure tube, which can guide spacecraft into the upper atmosphere. Scientists hope future technologies can get the train to operate at a 6000km/h, since theoretically the speed limit is limitless. But still its a long way to go. Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corp have developed the worlds first elevators controlled by magnetic levitation available as early as 2008.Using maglev technology capable of suspending objects in mid-air through the combination of magnetic attraction and repulsion they promise quieter and more comfortable travel at up to 300m per- minute, some 700m per-minute. Thus, active collaboration and future joint ventures from all international bodies holds the future of these trains.

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CONCLUSION
This report gives us an insight about the principle of maglev as well as its application in running maglev trains. Also, the intricate complexities of the maglev technology have been explained. Its implementation in the various cities of the world and its innumerable advantages just take it a step closer to being the future of transportation. Maglev trains are soon going to be the new way of transportation. Just a few obstacles are in the way, but with some more improvisations nothing is impossible. With no engine, no wheels, no pollution, new source of energy, floating on air, the concept has taken tens of years to develop and just recently its true capabilities have been realized. Competing planes with speed, ships with efficiency, traditional trains with safety, and cars with comfort, it seems like a promising means of transport. Maglev trains are environment friendly; noise pollution is minimized because there is no wheel to rail contact (frictionless). A maglev train operating at 150mph is inaudible to a person standing 25 miles away. The system encourages land conservation, which is especially useful where land is costly or unavailable. Tracks for the trains are easily built on elevated platforms; this provides opportunity for construction and development underneath and prevents land dissection and also reduces animal collisions. This assertion can prove useful in constructing guide ways for maglev trains across residential areas, schools, religious places, tourist spots, etc. However, the cost of construction of these trains runs into billions of dollars. The high cost of these trains is the only deterrent factor which is preventing the train from being executed everywhere. Continued research in this field along with active interest from the various governments in the world can reduce the costing considerably with cheaper options not compromising on the safety.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

www.hk-phy.org/articles/maglev/maglev_e.html www.gluckman.com/Maglev.html www.o-keating.com/hsr/maglev.htm www.calpoly.edu/~cm/studpage/clottich/phys.html www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/physics/u7c3phy.html

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