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ME/CEE 2342:

Fluid Mechanics Section 8 Flow Over Immersed Bodies [Chapter 11 in the text book]
Paul S. Krueger Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Southern Methodist University Dallas, TX 75275 pkrueger@lyle.smu.edu (214) 768-1296 Office: 301G Embrey
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For an object moving through a fluid at a velocity U, it is usually easier to view the objects as fixed in space and the fluid as flowing over the object at a free stream velocity U. Examples:

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As objects move through a fluid, the fluid generates forces on the object. The forces are the combined effects of fluid pressure and shear stress on the object:

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For a general 2D object, we decompose the fluid forces as follows:

Lift: is the net force perpendicular to U


FL = dFy =

body

p(s )sin[(s )]dA + (s )cos[(s )]dA


w body

Drag: is the net force parallel to U


FD = dFx =
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body

p(s )cos[(s )]dA + (s )sin[(s )]dA


w body

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Characteristics of Flow Past Immersed Bodies


1) Streamlined Body

[ref.: Munson et al., Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Wiley]


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1) Bluff Body (e.g., Cylinder)

[ref.: Munson et al., Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Wiley]


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Drag

Recall, Rather than compute drag, it is normally determined experimentally and represented as a dimensionless drag coefficient:
CD FD 1 2 U A 2
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Understanding CD In general,

C D = f (shape, Re, Ma, l , K)

Shape Cylinder Airfoil

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Drag on the cylinder is proportionally larger because of flow separation

Effect of orientation:

In general, pressure drag dominates on bluff bodies, while shear drag dominates on streamlined bodies.
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Reynolds Number For small Re, viscous forces dominate and CD 1/Re. For large Re, inertia dominates and CD ~ constant. Example: CD for a sphere

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Why the drop in CD for Re > 105? This is because the boundary layer on the cylinder becomes turbulent before separation above this Reynolds number. Turbulence in the BL delays separation and reduces drag: Laminar BL Turbulent BL

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Roughness (/l) In general, increasing will cause BLs to become turbulent sooner and increase friction drag (in turbulent BLs). This can have a positive or negative effect: Streamlined Bodies: Increasing increases friction drag, which is the dominant component of drag in this case. Hence, much effort goes into reducing for streamlined bodies (e.g., flattening rivets on aircraft). Note: if the flow is laminar, has no effect! Bluff Bodies: Increasing increases friction drag, but the dominant drag component is pressure drag. Increasing can cause the BL to become turbulent at a lower Re and actually reduce the overall pressure drag by delaying separation.
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Example: Dimples on a golf ball

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Compressibility (Ma) For Ma < 0.3, compressibility is ignored. As Ma 1, CD increases sharply due to the formation of shockwaves (wave drag). The shape of the object has a strong effect on how CD changes as Ma 1. Generally sharp, pointed objects (fighter jets, bullets) have a much smoother change in CD as Ma 1. Composite Body Drag We can approximate the drag on a object formed from the composition of several objects by adding the drag (not drag coefficients) for individual components (FD,car = FD,body + FD,mirrors + ) This is only approximate because it ignores interaction effects.
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Drag Example: Estimate the wind speed U necessary to blow a golf ball off of a tee.

Assume the ball pivots about point A.


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FBD of golf ball:

Sum of Moments:

But CD is a function of Re, which is a function of U. So U is on both sides of the equation and we need to use an iterative technique.
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Guess:

Check:

Compute new U:

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Lift

Note: Lift is perpendicular to the free stream velocity, but does not always oppose gravity. As with drag, lift can be expressed in terms of a dimensionless lift coefficient:
CL FL 1 2 U A 2
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Example: Unpowered Aircraft

Find the angle of descent in terms of CL and CD.


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For a steady glide, the aircraft is in equilibrium:

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In general,

C L = f (shape, Re, Ma, l ,K)

For well-designed airfoils, shape is the key factor and we will focus on that. Generating Lift When generating lift, drag is often undesirable, so shear stress is minimized. In light of this, we will begin our study of lift with potential flow (w = 0). Example: Flow over a Cylinder with Circulation

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The stream function for this flow is

Which gives the velocity field:

Then we can use Bernoullis equation to find the pressure on the cylinder surface:

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Integrating over the surface we obtain

FL = U
Interpretation 1: Addition of < 0 increases the velocity over the top of the cylinder and decreases the velocity on the bottom of the cylinder. From Bernoullis equation, pressure decreases as velocity increases lower pressure on the top and higher pressure on the bottom net lift.

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Interpretation 2: Circulation moves the stagnation points so the flow is no longer symmetric about the horizontal axis. That is, the circulation has changed the flow direction near the cylinder. The equal and opposite reaction to this momentum change is lift. Schematically,

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So how is circulation added to real flows? Method 1: Simply rotate an the object. In real flows, the noslip condition will cause the fluid to rotate with the object, generating the same effect observed for potential flow around a cylinder with circulation added. This effect is the reason spinning baseballs curve when pitched or golf balls hook or slice when not hit squarely.

Since this mechanism is dependent on friction between the fluid and the solid, roughness has a big effect on the results.
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Flow Around a Rotating Cylinder:

U/Ucyl = 2

U/Ucyl = 4

U/Ucyl = 3
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U/Ucyl = 6
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[ref. Prandtl and Tietjens, Dover.]


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Method 2: Shape the object so the flow over it tends to have a circulation component. Example: Airfoil (2D wing section)

Note: The required increases with increasing .


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Flow Around an Airfoil Starting from Rest: 1 4

[ref. Prandtl and Tietjens, Dover.]


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Some Aspects of Real Wings Real wings arent 2D. Side View Top View

Finite wing length is characterized by the aspect ratio:

Note also that it is the planform area that is used in the definition of CL.
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For a given Re, Ma,

C L = f (, AR, airfoil shape,K)

For small , CL is proportional to :

For large , the adverse pressure gradient over the top of the wing causes flow separation, leading to loss of lift and increased drag (stall). Drag: Real wings also have drag, but they are designed to minimize drag relative to lift:

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