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Chapter I

Introduction

Nurses are somewhat described as angels for their clean and white attire

from top to toe. Also with those innocent looks, you really can’t help but like and

trust them so much. But being a nurse is not just about the looks. A true nurse is

being measured through his/her knowledge, skills, and attitude. These aspects

are very important in order to give the proper care and service to the patients.

Nurses are expected to be versatile because they are well trained and exposed

to different areas wherein it could only be within the clinical field or outside areas.

As of now, we as student nurses are well exposed and trained to different areas,

but not only, at the clinical area but also in our own homes, school, and

community. However, we must admit that not all nurses or even student nurses

are the same. We have different qualities which made us unique. These

personalities have particular corresponding behavior which it would respond

properly. One personality would never relate to all personalities. For instance, a

jock would never hang-out with a nerd because they think nerds are weird. The

example implies that human beings with most likely blend with those who have

the same traits. But what would happen if you are placed in an area wherein you

have to communicate and to understand every individual in the room? Just like

nurses, not all have the same characteristics but still they’re able to handle all
these patients. So what really is the appropriate personality of a student nurse

must observe in order to have better relationship with patients, as future nurses

of our country? This study would most likely to know what personality should a

student nurse have in order to build up a relationship with others. The

researchers would like to know if the personality of the student nurse could affect

their performance. Personality is essential to all human beings; therefore, this is

vital in our line of profession for we would handle not only one patient for the rest

of our vocation but there would be numerous of them in the future years.

Review of Literature

This chapter deals with literatures and studies that will help the

researchers gain insights about the research problem. Various theories and

different insights from the books are presented which are essential to the study.

Personality Theories

Chaplin and Krawiec grouped representative theories; the psychoanalytic

by Sigmund Freud, Freud’s structure of personality center centers on the id, ego

and super ego; the factorial by Raymond Cattel, defines personality as “that

which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation”. He

believed that the trait approach is the most fruitful in describing personality. He
defined traits as “characterological or relatively permanent features of

personality”; the individuality by Gordon Allport, defines personality as “the

dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems

(refers to habits, attitudes, and traits) that determine the individual of those

behavior and thought. Allport recognized that both bodily and mental factors must

be considered in the description and study of personality; the personalistic by

Henry Murray, defines personality as the “governing organ of the body, an

institution, which from birth to death, is ceaselessly engaged in transformative

functional operations”. He emphasizes an physiological ground of personality (no

brain, no personality); the self or ego-integrated as represented by Carl Rogers,

the self, person-centered or ego-integrated theory which consist of positive self-

regard which refers to attitudes of warmth, respect, liking and acceptance on the

part of others toward the self and similar attitudes with regards to one’s own

experience independent of social transactions with others; and the behavioristic

by Burrhus F. Skinner, proposed his theory by describing rules or principles that

govern the relationship between stimuli, responses and reinforcements (Fehr,

1983). He assumes that behavior is orderly and that our primary purpose is to

control it. (Chaplin and Krawiec, 1979).

Type A and Type B Personalities

A couple of studies were made concerning Personality Type A and Type B.

One of these researches were from two American cardiologist, Friedman and

Rosenman, according to them Type A individuals will perceive and experience


more stress than Type B individuals. Type A individuals are those who are in a

constant and urgent struggle to get a number of things done in the least amount

of time, and tend to suffer from coronary heart disease and strokes. Type B

individuals, on the other hand, have no driving urge or desire to succeed. Another

research made by these two cardiologist was that they described Type A

behavior as an action-emotion complex that can be observed in any person who

is aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and

more in less and less time. In the present analysis, the prevalence and

consequences of Type A behavior among nurses working in 8 hospitals in the

greater Montreal area of Canada were examined. The prevalence of Type A

behavior in a number of subgroups based on sociodemographic variables were

examined. Age was the only sociodemographic variable significantly associated

with Type A behavior. In terms of consequences, Type A nurses experienced

significantly greater job stress, role ambiguity, conflict, overload, and turnover

cognition than Type B nurses. Type A nurses showed significantly higher job

involvement, effort at job and attendance than Type B nurses. Type A and Type B

nurses did not differ significantly on organizational commitment, job satisfaction,

and promotion expectations. (Ho, 1995)

Several studies investigating the effects of occupational stress on Type A

and Type B personalities have relied on subjective measures of role overload. In

an attempt to measure objectively the effects of role overload and underload,

students were classified as Type A or B and given assignments with workload


conditions that were underloaded, baseline and overloaded. The results indicated

that: 1. contrary to previous research, Type As did not perceive role underload or

overload as more stressful than Type Bs, and 2. Type As were less likely than

type Bs to feel that their workload was excessive. These findings may indicate

that Type As gravitate toward jobs that put them in more stressful situations, and

that, rather than being less able to handle stress than Type Bs, they actually seek

out more overloaded job situations. (Froggatt, 1987)

Feelings-Nothing More than Feelings

“All the emotions have some influence on the way you think,” explains

Mara Julius, Sc.D., a research scientist at the University of Michigan School of

Public Health and a leading researcher on the physical and mental effects of

anger. “Some-particularly negative emotions like anxiety, anger, or fear- can

actually slow your abilities to rationalize, solve problems, and make decisions.

That’s because it’s hard to concentrate when you’re feeling of rage or hostility, it

overwhelms you. In some people, feeling rage will slow down some aspects of

the thinking process. In others, it will completely stop it. You cannot separate your

anger from thinking.” Not all emotions, however, are destined to rain on your

parade. “There are a number of studies that suggest that when you’re feeling

positive, you think more broadly, more creatively,” says Margaret S. Clark, Ph.D.,

a psychologist and researcher at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. “You

can see more ‘connections’ than you might normally see and make decisions
more quickly.” Why? Nobody has all the answers. “It could be because you’re

feeling more confident in yourself and therefore your abilities,” says Dr. Clark. “Or

it could be that you don’t want to spend as much time making decisions because

you don’t want to ruin the good mood you’re in.” Not that it takes much to induce

these positive feelings. In her tests, people reportedly felt happy after they were

given a small bag of candy or a free sample of an item or were shown a short

comedy film. “As a result, they gave more creative answers to word-association

tests or other tasks,” she says. Everyone, in some way, has experienced both the

positive and negative impact of mood over mind. Think for a moment (no

emotion, please) about a time when some no-good blankety-blank cut in front of

you in line, stole your parking space, or did some other dirty deed that got under

your ski- and into your mind. You were mad. So mad, in fact, that you couldn’t

even discuss what to make for dinner, let alone do your income tax return-which,

of course, you didn’t. (And it’s a good thing, too, because you’d probably be in

the auditor’s office right now.) Now think about a time when things were doing

great. You were feeling on top of the world-strong, vital, and especially smart.

And you acted that way. You felt smart, so you thought smart. Ideas seemed to

follow more readily. Decisions were made faster, problems solved more easily.

Life’s a little, or even bog, hassles rolled off you like water over a dam. (Julius,

1991)
Statement of the Problem

We conducted this study in order to investigate or differentiate different

personality types of BSN 2 students during their clinical performance. Since BSN

2 students are first timers to be exposed in the clinical area and set up, we chose

them as subject for this research. The personality type of each student varies on

how they manage their task during their first exposure in the clinical area. Their

knowledge, skills, and attitudes, as important aspects in the clinical area would

also be tested and studied. Specifically, we seek to answer the following

questions:

1. What personality would most likely affect the clinical performance of a student

nurse?

2. To what extent does personality type affect the following:

a. Assessment

b. Planning

c. Implementation

d. Evaluation

e. Personal Attributes
Hypothesis

Operational

The personalities type A (type A- impatient, time conscious, insecure, highly

competitive, hostile and aggressive, incapable of relaxation) and type B (type B-

in contrast to type A, patient, relaxed and easygoing) of BSN 2 students affects

their performance having with them their knowledge, skills and attitudes during

their clinical exposure.

Null

There is no relation between the clinical performance and the personality type A

and B of BSN 2 students having with them their knowledge, skills and attitudes.

The personality of a student nurse does not affect their performance.

Theoretical Framework

In this study, the researchers identified two different personalities that

would qualify either in type A or type B. Furthermore, it is contemplated that both

traits make the individual wise and cautious in clinical performances.


These theories are being supported by Dr. Meyer Friedman developed

with colleague R.H. Rosenman that the theory Type A personality, also known as

the Type A Behavior Pattern, is a set of characteristics that includes being

impatient, excessively time-conscious, insecure about one's status, highly

competitive, hostile and aggressive, and incapable of relaxation. Type A

individuals are often high-achieving workaholics who multi-task, drive themselves

with deadlines, and are unhappy about the smallest of delays. On the other hand,

Type B personality is more likely than a Type A personality to be patient, relaxed,

creative and imaginative, easy-going, also inclined to self-analyze. Type A

personalities may be highly intellectual or serious about almost everything but it

doesn’t mean that people with the type A personality are incapable of showing

love, affection or other types of non-pessimistic behavior. There is also a Type AB

mixed profile for people who cannot be clearly categorized and have a

combination of both types of personality. In addition, Type A personalities are

somewhat very aggressive and are very focused in finishing every job or task,

which made them achievers and movers.

Finally, Jean Schweer mentions that not only the patient’s well-being but

also the evaluation of the student is also measured on knowledge, skill and

performance. Additional, nursing students are evaluated based on their

knowledge and understanding, technical competence and attitudes during clinical

exposure.
Conceptual Framework

Personality Types (x)

A B

Patient

Time Conscious

Relaxed

Highly Competitive

Easy Going

Hostile

Knowledge Skills Attitudes


Important Aspects:

Clinical Performance (y)

The diagram (above) shows that with regards to the three distinctive traits

observed, each personality type belongs to one of these extremes. This is

because of the individual differences which have been discerned at the length or

the independent variable (x) which needs manipulation in order to determine the
quality of the clinical performance which is the dependent variable (y). the arrow

shows that person A and person B are exposed to the clinical area bringing with

them their distinctive traits, where their knowledge skills, and attitudes are tested,

then the arrow would indicate their quality of clinical performance.

Significance Of The Study

Everything has a particular reason which makes it unique and definitely

not useless. This study would practically without certain purposes. Therefore, the

researchers have come up with the following importance of the study. The

following are:

Global implications

Health is a global concern. Practically all aspects of life are affected by it

and thus its maintenance is the primary aim of medical professionals all over the

world. Since the quality of care will determine the outcome of a person’s health

status, then this study will contribute in a small way by providing the world with

health workers who are knowledgeable, skillful, and with wonderful personalities.

Hospital-attitudes
Since the subjects of the study are to work and learn in different hospitals

and agencies associated with the college, they also benefit from the knowledge

that they are provided with the student s who are competent and ones who they

work with.

Nursing students

This study benefits most of all the Nursing students since they are the

ones directly involved in this study. Specifically, it is they who make themselves

whom they are supposed to be. The results of this study can help them to adjust

their personality traits as to guarantee that they can function well in the clinical

area and achieve self-actualization.

The researchers

Finally, the knowledge that they have accomplished something and that

their curiosity have been satisfied or irked further is its own reward.
Chapter II

Method

Design

In this study we used descriptive and non experimental in gathering

perception of Type A and Type B personalities among BSN 2 students. To

determine the Type A and Type B personalities of BSN 2 students affecting their

clinical performances during sy 2007-2008 (2nd semester) we used statistical

analysis.

Setting

The researchers decided to do the study at San Pedro College, C. De

Guzman st. Davao city. The college is convenient and accessible for the

researchers because participants of the study are at San Pedro College.

Participants

The respondent of this study are two selected sections from BSN 2

students sy 2007-2008 (2nd semester), who were already exposed in the clinical

area. Each student is given a questionnaire in order to find out their different

personality types.
Measures

In order to measure the needed information we must use the

questionnaire. The questionnaire is a set of carefully prepared and logically

ordered questions just like the interview schedule. However, unlike the interview

schedule, it is self administered by the respondent, meaning, he reads the

questionnaire and marks down their answer on the space provided.

Procedure

The research procedure contained the steps on how the study was been

conducted. The following steps are the following:

1. The group formulated title problems that would be under study.

2. The problems were then submitted to our instructor for defense. Two

problems were approved but we end up choosing this study.

3. The hypothesis was made in order to differentiate the clinical

performances of personality’s type A and B.

4. A specific design was selected to describe the nature of the said problem

and explores the caused of particular phenomena.

5. For the data collection was gathered in order to conduct the study well.

6. Questionnaire would be distributed among 2 selected sections of BSN 2

student SY 2007-2008 (2nd semester). Personalities could be measured


even if the use of questionnaire because the student reads the questions

and writes down their answer on the space provided.

Limitation of this study

The researchers’ only chose two extreme personalities’ type A and B.

these two personality types were then chosen because of they are the usual

attitudes that could be seen in the clinical area. Only two sections with

approximately 80 students were chosen to limit the number of participants. The

study of The Different personality types of selected BSN 2 students’ SY 2007-

2008 2nd semester affecting their performance at the clinical area is limited

because of its wide scope of the problem. There are different personalities so

therefore type A and B are recommended.

Indicators

The researchers have thoroughly limited the study of different types of

personalities into two extremely opposite personality, the Type A and the Type B.

to further understand what is Type A and B personality, they are therefore

described as:

Indicator Type A: People who fall under Type A exhibit characteristics such as

being impatient, excessively time-conscious, insecure about one's status, highly


competitive, hostile and aggressive, and incapable of relaxation. Type A

individuals are often high-achieving workaholics who multi-task, drive themselves

with deadlines, and are unhappy about the smallest of delays. Although they may

exhibit some or all of these characteristics, it does not mean that people with the

type A personality are incapable of showing love, affection or other types of non-

pessimistic behavior.

Indicator Type B: The Type B personality, in contrast, is patient, relaxed, and

easy-going. They are also more creative and imaginative, inclined to self-analyze

and evasive of stressful situations, and bad at coping when found therein.
Permission Letters

March 11, 2008

Jeannie H. Bibera, RN, MSN

Dean Of Nursing

San Pedro College

Davao City

Dear Jeannie H. Bibera, RN, MSN:

The Group 3B of BSN 3W students in Introduction To Research are

pleased to inform you that we will be conducting a research study entitled The

Personality types affecting the performance of selected BSN 2 students SY 2007-

2008 2nd semester at the clinical area

For the success of this study, we would like to ask for permission to allow

us to accomplish the said study to the selected BSN 2 students in this institution.

We are hoping for that this concern will warrant your approval.

Noted By: Very truly yours,

Marleonie Bauyot, Ph.D Carlo Peli

Research Instructor Erika May Bohol


Ceryll Hope Pizaña

Approved By: Kristee jane Rivera

Jeannie H. Bibera, RN, MSN Noeme Ann Umpa

Dean of Nursing
March 11, 2008

Zorleyda Garcia

Level II Chaiman

San Pedro College

Davao City

Dear Zorleyda Garcia:

The Group 3B of BSN 3W researchers is planning to conduct a study

entitled The Personality types affecting the performance of selected BSN 2

students SY 2007-2008 2nd semester at the clinical area

In connection with this, we are asking your permission to use the

performance evaluation sheets of the pre-clinical exposure of the said

respondents during the second semester of SY 2007-2008. We assure that

confidentiality will be kept.

We are hoping for your approval regarding this request. Thank you.

Noted By: Very truly yours,

Marleonie Bauyot, Ph.D Carlo Peli

Research Instructor Erika May Bohol


Ceryll Hope Pizaña

Approved By: Kristee jane Rivera

Zorleyda Garcia Noeme Ann Umpa

Level II Chaiman
March 11, 2008

Dear respondents,

We the The Group 3B of BSN 3W researchers is planning to conduct a

study entitled The Personality types affecting the performance of selected BSN 2

students SY 2007-2008 2nd semester at the clinical area

We are hoping that you would cooperate to our study as being one of our

respondents. Rest assured that your respond will be highly kept as confidential.

We are hoping for your kind consideration and cooperation. Thank you.

Very truly yours,

Carlo Peli

Erika May Bohol

Ceryll Hope Pizaña

Kristee jane Rivera

Noeme Ann Umpa


Questionnaire

Name:______________________________________Age:_____Sex:( M/F)____

Ward:___________________________________________________________

Please mark ( ∕ ) the following spaces provided with which you experience

the following situations. An honest evaluation of yourself will help you better

understand some factors that contribute to self-realization.

Questions Yes No
1. I finish all requirements/assignments/chores before resting or
going to sleep.
2. I always make sure to pass requirements.
3. I submit requirements on time.
4. If I’m tired, I would most likely to rest first before doing any task.
5. I don’t have enough time in doing all my requirements.
6. I don’t have time to fix myself because I have to do all my
obligations.
7. Every after class or duty, I take time to go to the mall; to eat, to
play at the arcade, to stroll or to watch a movie.
8. I usually skip meals just to finish all my requirements or tasks.
9. I study 1 or 2week(s) before the exam.
10. I do my assignments at school.
11. I get disappointed if my quizzes are not perfect.
12. I would be happy even if I the result of my quiz or exam was just
enough to pass. Like 75%...
13. I think that hobbies such as watching movies or playing games
are just a waste of time.
14. Last summer, I decided to stay at home and to read all the books
that I love.
15. I function best under stress or pressure.
16. I always arrive 15 or 30 minutes before the class begins.
17. I treat my patient just like my friends.
18. I’d rather eat at fast-food eatery.
19. Restaurants are time wasting.
20. In every task or requirement that I do, I always add something
that would make it more special than my other classmates.
Bibliography

Sevilla, Consuelo G. et.al (1997). General Psychology with Values,

Development, Lessons. 3rd edition. Sampaloc, Manila. Rex

Bookstore, Inc.

Michaud, Ellen et.al (1991). Boost your Brain Power. USA, Rodale Press,

Inc.

Sevilla, Consuelo G. et.al (1992).Research Method. Quezon City, Rex

Printing Company Inc.

Ho, Janice S. (1995)The Journal of Management Development. Vol.11

Iss.4. England, Bradford.

Jamal, Muhammad et.al. 1991Human Relations. Vol.44 Iss.11. New York.

Froggatt, Kirk L. et.al (1987).Journal of Management. Vol.13 Iss.1.

Bloomington.

Evans, Gary W. et.al. (1987)Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Vol.52 Iss.5. Washington

Passer, Michael et.al. (2004) Psychology the Science of Mind and

Behavior. 2ndedition New York, McGrow Hill Company.


San Pedro College

C. De Guzman Street, Davao City

The Personality types affecting the performance of selected BSN 2 students SY

2007-2008 2nd semester at the clinical area

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements

In Research

Submitted to:

Marleonie Bauyot, Ph.D

Submitted by:

Carlo Peli

Erika May Bohol

Ceryll Hope Pizaña

Kristee jane Rivera

Noeme Ann Umpa

March 18, 2008