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Tutorial -4 (water source potential and pump systems)

1. A pumping system is provided for pumping 2500 m3/day of water from a shallow well into a overhead reservoir. Water level in the well at the time of pumping is 10 m (from the ground level) and maximum water level in the overhead reservoir is 8 m (from the ground level). The pump system will be operated only 8 hours a day. The reservoir is 25 m away from the shallow well. Flow velocity in the piping is 1.0 to 3.0/sec. Size (internal diameter) of the suction side piping is 25 mm larger than the discharge side piping, and pipe sizes available for use are in 25 mm increments. With aging the pipeline is supposed to develop 1.0 mm roughness. The piping has the following fittings and minor head loss coefficients (K) for these fittings are also given below: The pipe fitting 90 bend/elbow Globe valves Gauges Non-return valves Foot valve Strainer Suction side 1 1 2 1 1 1 Discharge side 2 2 3 1 ----Minor head loss coefficient (K) 0.25 5.5 0.2 1.2 0.8 0.9

For this pumping system construct the system head-capacity curve for flows upto 400 m3/hour pumping rates? If the pump selected and the electrical drive are 75% and 90% efficient at the operating point, find the pumping power requirement? 2. A river, which is to be used as one of the water sources by a city, has the following flows: Month Flow rate (m3/sec.) Jan. Feb. 90 100 Mar. Apr. 80 50 May Jun. Jul. 25 20 15 Aug. 40 Sep. 60 Oct. Nov. Dec. 35 75 82

The river water source development involved damming the river and creating an impoundment reservoir for supplying water to the city. For ecological reasons, a base flow of 15 m3/sec. is planned in the river on the downstream side. 15% stored water losses (through percolation/ seepage and evaporation)are estimated from the impoundment reservoir. Find the water storage capacity of the impoundment reservoir required? Find the daily water supply potential of the river water source after the development?

A lake, which is serving as a water supply source to a near by city, has 4000 km2 catchments area.

Tutorial-5 (water sources potential)

1. A small urban watershed is showing the following 1-hour unit hydrograph: Time (hr) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 Flow (m /hr) 25 50 85 125 160 185 160 110 60 In one storm event the watershed has received the following rainfall: 10 36 11 25 12 16 13 8

Time (hrs) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Cumulative rainfall (cm) 0.2 0.5 1.1 1.60 2.6 3.5 5.7 6.5 7.3 Estimate the volume of storm water that become available from the storm (rainfall) event for the watershed in question?

5.0 7.7

2. Calculate discharge from a tube well of 45 cm diameter, when the drawdown is 12 m. saturated thickness of the unconfined aquifer is 30 m. Radius of influence of the tube well pumping was 200 m. coefficient of permeability for the aquifer is 0.01 cm/hr. 3. Average day demand of water of a township is 1000 m3/hour. Water is drawn from a canal source and conveyed through a rectangular channel to a water treatment plant located at 7 km distance from the source. Water flow rate in the channel is supposed to vary between 300 and 1300 m3/hour. Flow velocity in the channel should always be maintained in the range of 1 to 2 m/sec. Design the rectangular channel for the water transmission (find width and slope of the channel) and find flow velocity in the channel at 300 m3/hr, 1000 m3/hr and 1300 m3/hour flow rates? If mannings n is 0.015, find the minimum level difference required between the input and outlet of the channel for the flow to occur? If a pipeline is to replace the channel for the transmission of water find the pipeline diameter and water flow velocities in the pipeline? The head available for the flow is same and the minor losses amount to 10% of the total losses.

Tutorial -6 (Pipe Network Analysis)

Assume flows in the individual pipelines of the pipe network given below and balance the flows in the pipe network? Further, find pressure head at each of the nodes if minimum pressure allowed in any of the nodes is 3 m WC? Check whether the diameters assumed for the pipelines are alright or the diameters should be changed?

Take typical flow velocity in the pipelines as 1.5 m/sec. Pipe diameters available are 25 mm multiples. Assume the pipe lengths given include the equivalent lengths to account for the minor losses. Take friction factor as 0.015. Assume flow directions. Assume flow rates through water balance at nodes. Decide pipe diameters. Find K values. Calculate head loss and headloss to flow ratios. Find error factor. Correct flows.

8 fL 2 gD 5

2 hL KQa

hL 2 hL Qa

Tutorial -7
(water distribution system-2)

1. Water demand pattern of a city for a maximum daily demand day has been as given below:
Time Demand (x100 m3/hr ) Time Demand (x100 m3/hr ) 04-05 0.4 05-06 0.8 06-07 1.8 07-08 3.2 08-09 2.2 09-10 1.2 10-11 07 11-12 0.6 12-13 1.0 13-14 2.8 14-15 2.1 15-16 0.9

16-17 1.0

17-18 1.7

18-19 2.8

19-20 3.0

20-21 1.4

21-22 0.6

22-23 0.5

23-24 0.4

24-01 0.3

01-02 0.25

02-03 0.2

03-04 0.3

Water is supplied to the distribution system from an elevated service reservoir under gravity. A pumping operating at constant flow rate for 15 hours/day (6 AM to 2 PM and 6 PM to midnight) supplies water to the elevated service reservoir. Fire flows required by the city are 10.5 m3/min. for 2 hours. Emergency water requirement is 0.4 of maximum daily demand. Find the capacity of the service reservoir required? Minimum pressure required in the distribution system is 3.0 m. Head loss during peak flow (designed for 1.5 m/sec. flow velocity) between the location of minimum pressure (in the distribution system) and the location of the service reservoir is 6.5 m. Find the operation range of water elevations in the service reservoir? 2. A 100 mm diameter pipe is carrying water. For flow measurement, an obstruction is introduced in the form of orifice plate of 40 mm diameter. Difference in pressure before and after the obstruction is monitored by a differential manometer containing mercury as the manometric fluid. If level difference in the manometric fluid in the differential manometer is 5 cm, and if the discharge coefficient of the orifice plate is 0.58, find the flow rate in the pipeline? For the same flow, if a venture meter with a discharge coefficient of 0.8 is used in place of the orifice plate, what will be the manometric fluid level difference in the differential manometer? 3. A water supply main of 0.6 m diameter is provided with an annubar meter (similar to pitot tube) for the flow measurement. The annubar meter is connected to a differential manometer containing oil (immiscible in water) of 0.95 Specific Gravity as the manometric fluid. If the manometric fluid level difference in the differential manometer is 50 mm, find the water flow velocity and flow rate in the water supply main? 4. A V-notch of 60 angle is provided at the outlet of a water treatment plant for flow measurement. If depth of flow in the V-notch is 15 cm estimate the treated water flow rate through the V-notch? If the V-notch is replaced by a sharp crested weir (rectangular notch), for the same flow what will be the depth of flow over the rectangular notch?