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# COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS

## Solid & Liquid Fuels: Astoi = 11.53*C + 34.34*(H2 - (O2/8)) + 4.29*S

where Astoi = Dry stoichiometric air required for combustion, lb/lb of fuel C = weight fraction of Carbon in Solid/Liquid fuel H2 = weight fraction of Hydrogen in Solid/Liquid fuel O2 = weight fraction of Oxygen in Solid/Liquid fuel S = weight fraction of sulfur in Solid/Liquid Fuel

Gaseous Fuels: Astoi = 2.47*CO + 34.34*H2 + 17.265*CH4 + 13.3*C2H2 + 14.81*C2H4 + 16.12*C2H6 + 15.69*C3H8 + 15.44*C4H10 - 4.32*O2

where Astoi = Dry stoichiometric air required for combustion, lb/lb of fuel CO = weight fraction of Carbon Monoxide Gaseous fuel H2 = weight fraction of Hydrogen in Gaseous fuel CH4 = weight fraction of Methane in Gaseous Fuel C2H2 = weight fraction of acetylene in Gaseous Fuel C2H4 = weight fraction of ethylene in Gaseous Fuel C2H6 = weight fraction of ethane in Gaseous Fuel C3H8 = weight fraction of propane in Gaseous Fuel O2 = weight fraction of Oxygen in Gaseous fuel HHV's (Higher Heating Value) for API fuel oils: HHV = 17887 + 57.5*API - 102.2*S where API = Degree API of Fuel Oil (measure of specific gravity) S = weight percent of sulfur in fuel oil

MM Btu method of combustion: This method for combustion is based on the concept that the weight of air required in the combustion of a unit weight of any commercial fuel is more nearly proportional to the unit heat value than to the unit weight of the fuel. Hence the quantity of air required is expressed in lb per million btu (lb/MMBtu) fired.

Examples for calculation of thoretical/stoichiometric Air: Example 1: A Fuel oil has the following characteristics: Degree API 28 weight percent C = 87.5 weight percent H = 12.5 weight percent S = 0 weight percent O = 0

API % % % %

Calculate the amount of theoretical air required per million Btu fired for above fuel oil

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COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS

## 1 MM Btu fired requires = Hence air required per 1 MM Btu fuel =

Example 2: Natural gas is used as fired fuel for boiler. It has the following volumetric analysis: CH4 = 83.4 % C2H6 = 15.8 % N2 = 0.8 %

Calculate the amount of theoretical air required per million Btu fired for natural gas Calculations: Component volume %

Molecular wt

CH4 C2H6 N2

## 83.4 15.8 0.8

16 30 28

weight % wt fraction Combustion Constants or HHV, Btu/lb 72.89 0.7289 23876 yellow colored cell are inputs 25.89 1.22 0.2589 0.0122 22320 -

Astoi = 16.76 lb/lb fuel HHV = 23181.0 Btu/lb 1 MM Btu fired requires = Hence air required per 1 MM Btu fuel =

## 43.14 lb fuel 722.9 lb

Total Atmospheric Air required for Combustion in fired Heaters: Atot = where Atot = Astoi = HHV = H= Astoi*(1000000/HHV of fuel)*(1+ H)*(1 + Aexc) total atmospheric air, lb/MM Btu Dry stoichiometric or theoretical air required, lb/lb fuel Higher Heating Value, Btu/lb absolute humidity of atmospheric air expressed as a fraction - lb of water vapor per 1 lb of dry air (to be calculated from % Relative Humidity (RH) & Dry Bulb Temperature using psychrometric chart, example: at 105F & 100% RH, H = 0.0507 from Humid Air chart) excess air expressed as a fraction (10% excess air will be entered as 0.1, 15% = 0.15 etc.)

Aexc =

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COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS

Common Combustion Reactions & the Heats of Combustion: Heating Value (Btu/lb) HHV LHV 61100 51600 14093 4440 4345 10160 23885 22263 21646 21293 14093 4440 4345 10160 21500 20370 19929 19665

H2 + 1/2O2 = H2O C + O2 = CO2 C + 1/2O2 = CO CO + 1/2O2 = CO2 S + O2 = SO2 CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O C2H6 + 3.5O2 = 2CO2 + 3H2O C3H8 + 5O2 = 3CO2 + 4H2O C4H10 + 6.5O2 = 4CO2 + 5H2O

Note that where no water is formed during combustion reaction the HHV & LHV are the same. Heating Value (LHV(net) & HHV(gross)) @ 60F, 14.696 psia (Source: Fig 23-2, GPSA Engg. Data Book) Heating Value, 60F Gross 3 Btu/ft , ideal gas, Btu/lbm Btu/lbm 14.696 Liquid psia Liquid 1010 20277 1769.6 22181 19757 2516.1 21489 19437 3251.9 21079 19494 3262.3 21136 19303 4000.9 20891 19335 4008.9 20923 19235 3984.7 20822 19232 4755.9 20783 324.2 320.5 -

Net Btu/ft , ideal gas, 14.696 psia Methane 909.4 Ethane 1618.7 Propane 2314.9 Isobutane 3000.4 n-Butane 3010.8 Isopentane 3699 n-Pentane 3706.9 Neopentane 3682.9 n-Hexane 4403.8 Hydrogen 273.8 Carbon 320.5 Monoxide Compound
3

Btu/gal Liquid 65869 90830 98917 102911 108805 110091 103577 115021 -

Prepared by:

## Ankur Srivastava Chemical Engineer e-mail: ankur2061@yahoo.co.in

Disclaimer : The information and methods included within this spreadsheet are presented for combustion air calculations. It is intended to be used by technically skilled persons at their own discretion. I do not warrant the suitability or accuracy of these methods.

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COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS

+ 15.44*C4H10 - 4.32*O2

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COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS

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COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS

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