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Performance Appraisal of Bangladesh Energy industry

PART 1 CASE DEVELOPMENT PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF BANGLADESH ENERGY INDUSTRY

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Industry overview:
Energy is one of the most important factors for a developing country like Bangladesh. Like the rest of the countries of the world, the demand for power is increasing day by day in our country. At present, power failure has become an acute problem for this country. In recent times, establishment of important physical infrastructures, setting up of new power plants and the pace of industrialization in the country has slowed down due to energy supply shortage. The sluggish industrialization which has hindered development activities is apprehended to create a negative impact on employment and consequently on the peoples livelihood. Bangladesh's energy sector is highly dependent on natural gas. Natural gas is the main source of primary energy, contributing over 61% of the commercial energy supply in 1994 and increasing to over 70% in 2008. The Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources (MPEMR) are responsible for overall sector policy formulation, investment decisions and regulation of the energy sector in Bangladesh. The Energy and Mineral Resources Division (EMRD) of MPEMR is responsible for developing the oil, gas, and coal sectors to diversify energy supply and improve energy security while the Power Division of MPEMR is responsible for implementing the power sector reforms and ensuring adequate power generation capacity. The home made and assembled battery storage industry evolved during the 1960. Rahimafrooz is the pioneer in the industry who started their journey in this sector from 1959 and has been the market leader since1985 and that is when the industry for domestically made automotive batteries was created. Now there are 11 other importers in the industry and the total market size is approximately 200 million and it is dominated by Rhimafrooz who holds more than 78% of the market share. Major competitors like HAMKO, Panna, General Battery Company Ltd, Rolex Battery Co and True Powertech shares the rest. Important information about energy industry is given in the appendix section (Appendix 1 is attached at the end of this part).

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RATIONALITY OF PERFORMANCE APPRISAL


In todays competitive business world only hard work cannot provide maximum productivity, it needs employees capability to work smarter which guarantees that the organization will achieve its potentiality. While it is true that a sound education and appropriate skill training are needed if one is to work smarter, the process does not end there. Todays employees need instructive and supportive appraising followed by feedback and desired reward if they are to translate their knowledge into improved productivity and superior quality. Performance appraisal is the process by which a manager evaluates an employees work behaviors by measurement and comparison with established standards, records the results, and communicates them to the employee.(Griffin, 1992). Performance appraisal serves a developmental purpose for members of an organization. When manager regularly evaluate their subordinates performance, they can provide subordinates with valuable information about their strengths and weaknesses and the areas in which they need to concentrate. Each and every worker in the organization is assigned with well designed and carefully monitored appraisal system. And how beneficial it was depends on the person mentionings willingness to complete a well developed and target oriented appraisal system and how effectively employee is thinking on matching the target and fulfill the performance in a process to meet the companys future goal (Cederblom, 1982). Sometimes this basic system succeeded in getting the results that were intended; but more often than not, it failed. For example, early motivational researchers were aware that different people with roughly equal work abilities could be paid the same amount of money and yet have quite different levels of motivation and performance. But early motivational researchers were not aware of one thing. That is, pay rates were important, but they were not the only element that had an impact on employee performance. It was found that other issues, such as morale and self-esteem, providing authority, could also have a major influence. As a result, the traditional emphasis on reward outcomes was progressively rejected. Recently, in the potential usefulness of appraisal as tool for motivation and development was gradually recognized. The general model of performance appraisal, as it is known today, began from that time.1
1

Source: http://www.performance-appraisal.com/intro.htm

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Incident 1: Biasness (A common issue in performance appraisal)


A senior officer Engineer, Kazi Abul kashem is an employee of Rahimafrooz Distribution limited, who is one of the honest employee in his department but he didnt get any promotion for consecutive 8 years except salary increase, because the line manager never gave his authentic performance report to HR department2. After 8 years, he realized that he should inform the human resource department. So he sent a email to Human Recourse department and also submit a hard copy to the Managing Director of Rahimafrooz distribution limited. In his statement he mentioned all the confrontation and the problem he faced in this company. As a consequence HR department want to reaffirm for performance report of all the employees. They checked all employees performance appraisal report for every department by using their software KRA. They found that some of the line managers didnt submit employees performance report. They checked employees previous record of customer service relationship and targets of last 10 years. They checked all the benefit, bonus, promotion report who didnt get yet and who got promotion weather he or she didnt deserve it. They found someone who is in Manager level position in accounts department has done some accounting fraud. After finding those employees, HR head sacked them with penalty of the fraud they committed. After measuring all performance report, they provide reward, benefit and promotion not only to Engineer Kazi Abul kashem but also to them who were overlooked.

Incident 2:
2

Mr. Kazi Abul Kashem is one of the interviewee.

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Goal Setting with Employees -- What Should Employees Work On?

There are many auto service center of this industry. Basically the provide service like Mobil servicing, battery replacement, car wash etc. According to a companys target policy, if any center achieves 60% of their target, they will receive reward and incentives for their performance. One of the service center faced a problem in performance appraisal procedure in 2011.that service center achieve 130% of their targets on that period. Compare to other service center, its very difficult to achieve 60% of their target, on the other hand they achieve more than their target, which is quiet unusual. When human resource management observes the situation, they were anxious and they stopped the reward and incentives process for that center. Then they review the appraisal procedure and found that the line manager of that center set an impractical target instead of realistic targets. I personally interviewed one person who worked there as a line manager in 2011 and his statement is given below: My name is Mr. Iklas uddin alim and I worked there as a line manager on that branch. I was new on that center and did not have any proper knowledge about the previous performance of that center. So when HR asks me to set a target for my center, I set the target on the basis of assumption. After completing the fiscal year, I found that the employee of my centre achieved 130% of their target and that is close to impossible. So thats I review the performance appraisal report of my center for the last five year but to my dissatisfaction I come to know that i failed to set the realistic target due to lack of my experience and proper knowledge about that particular center. The above instance is an example of goal setting problem. The organization that makes it a priority to develop quality, effective goals will succeed in its performance management, in its business in general, and in developing its employees skills and confidence. If a company fails to set the target, it will definitely affect the overall performance process. In most organizations, managers are not trained on how to assess and give honest feedback. If the process includes a

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career development component, it is even more likely that managers will not know how to enhance the career path of their employees.

Problem Identification:

A typical traditional appraisal usually occurs once or twice a year. There would be extended time gaps of months between establishing goals and reviewing them, and objectives that were set upon in the beginning of the year are usually only dragged out during appraisal time. While performance appraisals provide the perfect opportunity for managers and staff to have a one-on-one discussion, it is unfortunately open to biased ratings. For example, some managers tend to be liberal or strict in their rating of staff. Managers may also fall into the trap of the recent performance effect where they generally only recall the recent actions of employees at the time of the appraisal and award points based on recent favorable or unfavorable events rather than whole years worth of activities. What organizations do not realize is that skills gaps need to be addressed quickly as it would impact the bottom line any performance issues that are halted for months to be addressed would become non-issues. And because performance feedbacks only occur once or twice a year, there are hardly any other opportunity utilized to inform an employee what kind of skills he/she needs to develop. There is also a tendency to focus on the weaknesses instead of strengths, which creates conflicts between manager and staff as well as a negative work environment.

PERSONAL BIASES
This is among the most common problems with the veracity of employee reviews. Personal biases often prevent an objective analysis of the employee. This bias also goes both ways- people the manager personally likes will benefit and people he personally dislikes will be punished. This

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is one of the most detrimental forms of review bias for a number of reasons. If personal relationships drive areas like hiring, firing, promotions, transfers and other work related issues the company may not function properly or be profitable. In the first incident we find that line manager had a problem with Kazi Abul kashem. And that is why he did not evaluate him properly and did not submit his performance appraisal report to the human resource department. Most companies strive to build teams that are free from personal biases. An effective performance review will do so as well.

Accountability:
In Rahimaffroz we found that a common issue pertaining to performance appraisals is the manager's carelessness to the process and deadlines. Regardless of the expected outcome of a performance appraisal, employees are usually worried to know what their fate holds in terms of meeting company expectations--they may expect a pay increase for the quality of their work or simply want to know if they're performing up to par. Despite the fact that annual raises are often tied to the performance evaluation, managers avoid doing them as long as possible. This result in an unmotivated employee who feels his manager doesnt care about him enough to facilitate his annual raise. The manager is uncomfortable in the judgment seat. He knows he may have to justify his opinions with specific examples when the staff member asks. He lacks skill in providing feedback and often provokes a defensive response from the employee, who may justifiably feel he is under attack. Consequently, managers avoid giving honest feedback which defeats the purpose of the performance appraisal. In turn, the staff member whose performance is under review often becomes defensive. Whenever his performance is rated as less than the best, or less than the level at which he personally perceives his contribution, the manager is viewed as punitive.

Halo Effect:
During evaluation of performance appraisal we found that there may halo effect exist. Experts define halo effect as the influence of a rates general impression on ratings of specific rate

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qualities. For example: supervisors often rate unfriendly employees lower on all traits, rather than just for the trait gets along well with others that we find in the first incident. Being aware of this problem is a major step toward avoiding it. Supervisory training can also alleviate the problem.

Contrast Effect:
It may arise when comparing employees with one another. Remember that supervisors rate each employees performance against the job descriptionnot how they compare with other employees, or how they compare with the last employee in that job. In the incident 2 we found that line manager misjudge to set the target of that service center and on the basis of this he evaluate the performance appraisal of that center. Basically he set the target comparing with other service center without knowing the performance of that center.

Self-fulfilling Prophecy:
All managers who hire employees usually want them to succeed. It is a good reflection on the good manager. At the same time, managers may not expect success from an employee that someone else selected. It is also easy to put too much credence in what others have told you about this employee. We look for performance that supports our beliefs and disregard performance that is contrary to our beliefs. This is also called the Pygmalion Effect.

Ensuring consistency:
Discrimination complaints often allege that employees with similar performance levels were handed dissimilar rewards or discipline. A good performance appraisal instrument increases the potential for consistency by ensuring that all similarly situated employees are evaluated on the same criteria. in the incident 1 senior officer Engineer, Kazi Abul kashem is an employee of Rahimafrooz Distribution limited, didnt get any promotion for consecutive 8 years because his

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line manager never gave his performance report to HR head for 8 long years. That is why he didnt get any promotion except salary increase since 8 years.

No second review:
Even though the process may have impacts on salary, job security, and promotion, in many firms the assessment is done by a single manager. If there is a second review, it may be cursory, and therefore not ensure accuracy or fairness. In the first incident Kazi Abul kashem have not get any promotion since the last 8 years and the human resource department did not notice it because they do not have any system of reviewing the performance appraisal report.

Setting the perfect goal:


The organization that makes it a priority to develop quality, effective goals will succeed in its performance management, in its business in general, and in developing its employees skills and confidence. If a company fails to set the target, it will definitely affect the overall performance process. In the second incident we found that the line manager failed to set the target and results vague performance appraisal.

Managers are not well trained:


In most organizations, managers are not trained on how to assess and give honest feedback. If the process includes a career development component, it is even more likely that managers will not know how to enhance the career path of their employees. In the second incident we found that line manager of that centre was new and did not had any proper training and knowledge about the performance appraisal. For this reason he failed to set the ideal target for the employee and as a consequence the performance appraisal problem occurs.

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Questions Development:
For incident 1:
1. Are the Appraisers & employees being properly trained up regarding performance appraisal tools & techniques?
2. What are the probable causes which constructs such unfair performance appraisal process?

3. How to minimize biasness of the Appraisers when rating employees?

For incident 2:
1. What policy has been followed by the management of the Rahimafrooz to set targets? 2. Is the current appraisal techniques those are used to judge employee performance are helpful to get more output from employees? 3. How Can Managers Improve Performance Appraisals?

References:
Mr. Kazi Abul Kashem, personal communication, March 20, 2013

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Mr. Ikhlas Uddin Alim, personal communication, March 22, 2013

Bretz. R and G. Milhovich. 1989. Performance appraisal in large organizations Practice and research implications, working paper no. 89-17 (Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies. Cornell University. Ithaca. NY).

Dr. John Sullivan, Jan 31, 2011,The Top 50 Problems With Performance Appraisals ,

[ONLINE] Available on Site: http://www.tlnt.com/2011/01/31/the-top-50-problems-with-performance- appraisals.htm (16.04.2013)

Burke R. J., Characteristics of Effective Employee Performance Reviews and Development Interviews: Replication and Extension, Personnel Psychology, 31, 1978, 903-919

Gilbert, Charles A., 13 December 1994, Performance Appraisals: A Process Analysis of Existing Methods and Trends, [ONLINE] Available on Site: http://home.fuse.net/cgilbert/appraise/ (15.04.2013).

Griffin, R. W. & Moorhead, G. (1992).Organizational Behavior. (3rd Ed.) Definition of Performance Appraisal (p.421). Boston Toronto: Houghton Mifflin Company.

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Milkovich, G. T. & Boudreau, J. W. (1997).Human Resource Management. (8th Ed.) Performance Appraisal (p.101). Chicago: Irwin.

Appendix: 1

Lead-acid batteries are mainly used as energy storage systems in the renewable energy sectors in Bangladesh. Here, two types of industrial batteries are produced: tubular plate batteries, and flat type batteries. Because of the higher durability, consumption of tubular plate battery is higher than the flat type. Most of the tubular plate battery is now locally manufactured with a total capacity of 201,000 per year [16]. In terms of cost, 70% of the raw materials are imported and the major raw materials include lead, separators, casing etc. Rahimafrooz batteries limited (RBL) is the largest lead-acid battery manufacturer in Bangladesh and offers an extensive range of automotive and specialized industrial battery. The company manufactures over 300 different types of automotive and industrial batteries.

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Performance Appraisal of Bangladesh Energy industry Name of the company Rahimafrooz batteries limited Rimso Battery & Co Company logo Establishm ent year Address of the company
260/B Tejgaon Industrial Area, Dhaka, Bangladesh 1207 3, R.K. Mission Road Dhaka-1203

% of marke t share
44%

1959

2009

15%

HAMKO Group

1979

Akram Tower, 199 Shahid Nazrul Islam Sarani Bijoynagar, Dhaka-1000 Islam Chamber, 4 th floor, 125/A , Motijheel C/A , Dhaka Nasir Trade Centre Level-12 89, Bir Uttam C. R. Datta Road (300/3 & 300/4 Sonargaon Road) Dhaka-1205 84 , Wireless Moor ( 3rd Floor) Moghbazaar , Dhaka-1217, Bangladesh.

12%

Navana Battery Ltd

January 2002

10%

Panna Group

1980

10%

ENSYSCO

2009

3%

InGen Technology Ltd

2009

House-5, Road13, Gulshan-1, Dhaka, Bangladesh 1212

2%

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PART 2 CASE SOLUTION PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF BANGLADESH ENERGY INDUSTRY

Question 1: Are the Appraisers & employees being properly trained up regarding performance appraisal tools & techniques? Question 2: What are the probable causes which constructs such unfair performance appraisal process? Question 3: How to minimize biasness of the Appraisers when rating employees?

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Rather than taking a cookie-cutter approach, a successful performance appraisal system must fit the organization. Organizations need to assess the suitability of performance appraisal systems to their own workforce before implementing one that meets their needs. The primary purpose of an appraisal system is to sieve out those who cannot or would not do the job. It has to be communicated to all involved parties and appropriate support and training should be provided especially to managers conducting such sessions with their staff. Employers should also take note that performance evaluation is a continuous process and not one that happens only once a year. The best appraisals are a two-way discussion and focus on the employee assessing his own performance and setting goals for improvement. And as best practice, organizations should ensure key performance indicators (KPIs) are well communicated to and clarified with staff, and there are proper benchmarks in place against which staff are assessed. Data collected from appraisals should be used to track the success of recruitment and induction practices.

Solution to diminish biasness in performance appraisal:


Performance appraisals that contain errors or are constructed from a supervisors biased viewpoint can affect an employees working relationship. Employees whose performance is ranked incorrectly or inaccurately may be on the verge of losing their jobs, or they may become disillusioned and exhibit signs of low morale and poor job satisfaction . Eliminating bias and error in performance appraisals is a critical responsibility for supervisors, managers and human resources staff. There are several ways to minimize the bias error in performance appraisal procedure. Now we discuss some of them. Supervisor training: Human resource department should provide complete supervisor training on the essentials of performance management, including your companys viewpoint and practices. Leadership training on performance management also includes when and how to administer disciplinary warnings, corrective action and suspensions, how to provide employees with constructive

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feedback throughout the evaluation process and how to conduct annual employee evaluation meetings. Review performance: Line manager should review employee documents to gain a complete picture of past performance. Contact employees supervisors in other departments when its difficult to piece together work history and performance for long-term employees. Make note of discrepancies in earlier performance appraisals that may compound later performance issues. Obtain the correct appraisal forms Line manager have to obtain the correct appraisal forms from your human resources department. Supervisors and managers with small companies that dont have dedicated human resources departments can check online sources for performance evaluation templates and forms. Fixed the Performance standards Line manager have to read the performance standards for all the job duties and tasks for which the employee is responsible. Look at his/her performance throughout the entire evaluation period as objectively as possible. Gather documents that support performance, such as sales records, call logs, reports and other materials that measure the employees work quantitatively.

Attach supporting documentation When line manager evaluate the performance appraisal process, they must draft the performance appraisal form and attach supporting documentation. If possible, ask a colleague to review draft or ask a member of the human resources staff to read the performance appraisal draft. Review it the next day with a fresh set of eyes. Read the evaluation from your perspective and then put yourself in the employees position, reading from his perspective.

Year-round Journaling and feedback:

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This seems simple enough if managers provide timely feedback, then the accuracy of that feedback is going to be much better than if they wait until an annual review. The Halo effect is very common and it is clear why. If managers sit down at the end of the year and attempt to recollect the caliber of an employees performance over that span of time, it is no wonder why they would inadvertently refer to past performance results. Having a performance management system that allows the attachment of files and notes is a great way for employees to ensure that their actual accomplishments are being considered when managers complete their appraisal.

360 Reviews:
Sometimes the best way to get an accurate look at an employees performance is to ask several parties for their input and then use the results to gauge overall performance. 360 multi-rater reviews are a great way to eliminate bias as it averages out if you will the ratings and reviews of several parties.

Benchmarking:
Many organizations are finding it useful to have managers and supervisors meet to discuss how and why they rate performance the way they do. This ensures rating consistency across departments.

Adequate Feedback:
Employers that provide regular feedback generally get high approval marks from their employees. Workers feel good about managers who are genuinely appreciative of employee

efforts, even if it's just an informal "thanks for your hard work." With supervisors and managers who understand the importance of feedback, you can maintain a work force that is motivated to achieve high job performance. Providing feedback on just an annual basis tends to focus mainly

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on the most recent accomplishments. Unless there is a method for tracking performance throughout the year, only a portion of an employee's accomplishments are evaluated during the appraisal. Question 4: Which kind of technique should be followed by the management of the Rahimafrooz to set ideal targets?

Its very important to set target for proper performance appraisal. In the 2nd incident we found that line manager failed to set a ideal target and its hamper the performance appraisal process. Setting SMART goals assures that a performance appraisal is based on useful, specific, and effective goals. Specific, and clearly state the desired results or outputs of performance. Measurable in answering how much or Quantity of work Attainable, and not too tough or too easy.

Relevant to whats to be achieved. Timely in reflecting deadlines and milestones.

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Setting SMART targets:


It's a familiar acronym, but a very useful one - your targets should be SMART - specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound. Using KPIs ensures your targets will meet the first two criteria, as all KPIs should, by definition, be specific and measurable. Achievable - you need to set ambitious targets that will motivate and inspire your employees, but if you set the bar too high you risk deflating and discouraging them instead. Look back at your performance data for recent years to get a sense of what kind of performance boosts you've seen before - this will give you a sense of what is feasible. Realistic - setting realistic targets means being fair on the people who will have to reach them. Make sure you only ask for performance improvements in areas that your staff can actually influence. Time-bound - people's progress towards a goal will be more rapid if they have a clear sense of the deadlines against which their progress will be assessed.

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Assigning responsibility and resources:


Once you have identified the targets based on your KPIs that you believe will deliver the strategic growth you're aiming for, make sure you follow through by assigning clear responsibility for delivering each of them. It is fine for your top-level strategic objectives to be abstract and business-wide, but your KPI targets should be concrete and clearly owned by a department or individual. Hitting your targets is unlikely to be a cost-free process, so be ready to make the necessary resources available when needed. Also, undertake regular reviews to assist with motivation and to make changes if the progress made isn't as expected.

The HR Departments Role


The human resources department serves a policy-making and advisory role. The human resource team should also be responsible for training supervisors to improve their appraisal skills, for

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monitoring the appraisal systems effectiveness, and for ensuring that it complies with EEO laws. Role: o Serves a policy-making and advisory role. o Provides advice and assistance regarding the appraisal tool to use. o Trains supervisors to improve their appraisal skills. o Monitors the appraisal system effectiveness and compliance with EEO laws.

Using MBO:
In using MBO, it is best to keep the guidelines for goal setting (SMART, specific, and so on) in mind. Setting objectives with the subordinate sometimes turns into a tug-of-war, with the supervisor pushing for higher quotas and the subordinate pushing for lower ones. The more that is known about the job and the persons ability, the more confident a supervisor can be about setting standards.

Electronic performance monitoring system


Employers increasingly use computerized or Web-based performance appraisal systems that enable them to keep computerized notes on subordinates during the year. The notes can then be merged with ratings of employees on several performance traits. The software then generates written text to support each part of the appraisal. Most appraisal software combines several of the basic methods such as graphic ratings plus critical incidents or BARS. Rahimaaffroz use KRA software for this reason. Human resource department have to ensure that all the employees have knowledge about the software and how it can operate. With the help of this software, it will:

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o Allow managers to keep notes on subordinates. o Notes can be merged with employee ratings. o Software generates written text to support appraisals. o Allows for employee self-monitoring and self-evaluation

Q5. How Can Managers Improve Performance Appraisals? Managers at large organizations are often required to hold to a certain method of employee performance appraisals. Not every manager has the opportunity to impact or improve the overall performance appraisal system within which they must work. But, every manager has the opportunity to take the system theyve been dealt and turn the performance appraisal process into a positive, rewarding, beneficial process for both themselves and the employees who report to them.

The Components of an Effective Performance Management Process Direction allotment : There has to be a basic guideline from where they should start and how are they going to do regarding their job guideline.

Role amplification: Who will play which part should be recognized accordingly and the authority should clarify about the role the employee would be following regarding their work activity Goal coalition:

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Goal should be set up according and the terms should match with their real activity and the companys goal Developmental goal setting: The Goal should be set up in such way so that it can achieved throughout normal procedure of work Ongoing performance surveillance: The performance of employee should be provided with comparison, so that they can easily understand how far or how well they are performing Ongoing feedback: In case the employee falls into trouble there should be some people who would provide feedback if necessary and provide them solution training and support: Support people should be there, so that in case the employee falls into some trouble then instead of getting stuck they again continue work with problem to the solution Performance assessment (appraisal): Based on the performance appraisal system should be set inorder for employee to perform better.

Rewards, recognition, and compensation: This will encourage employee to perform better and thrive to reach organizational goal Workflow and process control and return:

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Workflow should be set up in such a way so that the chain of command is simple. (Collected from Course Material)

Conclusion:
Finally, from the above analysis we

can say, Rahimafrooz has an effective appraisal system by which they are monitoring the contribution of the employees and taking necessary remedial action to achieve the desired result.

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However, the Human Resource Department is not employing new employees, which we think is necessary to appraise the employees. Another critical point to be mentioned here, the appraisal is done annually, but for up to date appraisal of the personnel, the appraisal should be conducted semi annually. Apart from these reasons, Rahimafrooz has one of the most updated performance appraisal systems among the battery industry.

References:
Md M. Biswas, Kamol K. Das, Ifat A. Baqee, Mohammad A. H. Sadi,Hossain M. S. Farhad, July 2011, Prospects of Renewable Energy and Energy Storage Systems in Bangladesh and Developing Economics, Global Journal of researches in engineering.

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S. Islam, IDCOL, An off grid lighting solution in Bangladesh, International Renewable Energy Conference, Delhi, Oct. 2010.

DeCenzo, D.A. and Robbins, S.P. (2005). Fundamentals of HRM. Eighth edition, John Wiley & Sons, USA.

Blanchard, P.N. and Thacker, J.W. ( 2005). Effective Training. Second Edition, Pearson Education, Singapore.

DeNisi, A. & Pritchard, R. (2006, July). Performance appraisal, performance

management, and improving individual performance: A motivational framework. Management and Organization Review, 2(2), 253-277.

Bateman, T. S. & Zeithaml, C. P. (1990).Management Function and Strategy. Performance Appraisal (p.451). Chicago: Irwin.

Gomez-Mejia, L. R., Balkin, D. B., and Cardy, R. L. (1998). Managing human resources

(2nd ed.). Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Richard Charles Grote (2002). The Performance Appraisal Question and Answer Book:

Survival Guide for Managers." 28-29.

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English, Gary. Tuning up for performance Management, Training and Development Journal. 45, no. 4 (April 1991): 56-60.

Zemke, Ron. Do Perfomance Apprisals Change Perfomance? Training. 28, no. 5 ( May 1991): 34-39

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