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Solution Submission Form
My Solution:      

Synthetic compounds of biodegradable polysesters are tending to complement


one another, like a compound of PLA, thermoplastic starch and other organic materials.
Thesematerials are what is referred to by biodegradable starch combinations and has not
as of yetworked.

"PLA films with thickness of 8-510 microns have been obtained from commercial
film casting equipment and can be difficult to process into film due to instability at
elevated processing temperatures controlling the polymer composition as well as adding
stabilising or catalysing-destablising agents." - taken from the webpage on google book
on the market report on biodegradable polymers

In what I've read these past few days, all material written on the use and nature of
polymer compounds in use for plastics or to play the role of these biodegradable
materials, polymer molecular weight plays a role in it's processability polymer
morphology is important and so is the attributes related to it. Semi-crystalline PLA is
suitable for processing into films with desirable barrier properties. Most common PLA
uses in these plastics use less than 15% meso-lactide and the remaining weight l-lactide
in lieu of plasticising agents such as dioctyl adipate and nucleating agents such as talc
orientation during film casting or blowing or after it has been cast or blown. Types of
other methods for creation of films and usable material forms of polymers include heat
setting and "orientation during film casting" and these methods have been patented by
NatureWorks, however injection molding, which is being tested for use in nanocomposite
polymers in plastics used in optical products such as glasses and glass-substitutes is a
method that's fairly straight-forward as machining.

PHBV would be a better candidate for injection molding and PLA doesn't have a
fast enough crystallization rate to justify using injection moulding techniques.
Fiber spinning or biaxial orientation on the other hand when creating films used to
create products is more suited to the rate of crystallization that PLA and PLA associted
or based products presently in use and manufacture.

In nanoclay filled PLA compounds and also in other nanoparticle filled


compounds, the rate of crystallization was sped so much that I consider these compounds
to be definite candidates for use in injection moulding techniques. Nanoclay is typified by

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materials, usuallysilica or inorganics and isn't your standard material that you think of
as "clays".

The pla / layered silicate nanocomposites have been investigated repeatedly


because they might be used in as of yet unknown manners or with methods used today
which are impossible for compounds such as PLA in their traditional formation. The
processability of these materials, specifically the intercalated systems of PLA
nanocomposite materials, in their already known use,

which are not being used in injection moulding techniques gives a great advantage to any
producer that wishes to start using these technologies in a new way that others havent
considered due to additives such as celluloses (starches) and inorganic compounds not
producing a biodegradable product with the characteristics which are being sought.

A composite formed of 5 or more percent of nanocomposite silicate in


‘intercalated systems’, which increase the crystallization rates in these polymer
compounds or in ‘exfoliated systems’ of these compounds decrease the crystallization
rate in the compounds and also increase attributes such as shear rate and lessen
viscosity when compared to pure PLA compounds.

Exact statistics are shown in the pictures in the .pdf file that these materials meet
therequirements you are seeking and your company will also be able to create more
products that are just as effective using slightly different materials using the technologies
described in this challenge solution.

In any approach, whether different ratios of materials is used, different


nanoclays, nanofillers, including combinations of any approach and substituting for
experimentation, or entirely different means are approached as in another form of
nanoparticles such as nanoglass textiles and other nanosilica used in medecine are
tested.

All these compounds are relying upon montmorillonite and other nanoclays are
being used and MMT is prevalent because of the raw products to create it being readily
available thus leading to a reasonable price for MMT additives as used in common
polymer nanocomposites and polymer nanocomposite experimentation.

I know that PLA isn't a choice but the materials are getting better and hopefully
sometime soon you can use them. Instead, I'm stating that the solution you're looking for

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is aliphatic polyesters used in nanocomposites, PBS and PPDO nanocomposites
technology are choices that meet your needs. PBS nanocomposites are available now for
the price you need from Showa Highpolymer of Japan. PPDO nanocomposites will be the
next technology that you should consider using when a commercial supplier begins
production. PLA, if it ever becomes ready for use in the packaging industry for more than
cold food and temporary products that more readily melt before the eyes than
function. PLA is available in grades that are much better from Cargill-Teijin Nature
Works but nanocomposites aren't carried. Though Koreean company EcoMassKorea
carries a PLA nanocompsite, it's not the same type of work and from what I learned is the
nanoparticles in that nanocomposite are mainly a filler material meant to cause PLA to
break up into smaller pieces of easie acceptance into environments when
degrading.Those technologies that are being most considered for application improve
these materials in biodegradability but still don't prove to prevent breakdown in normal
environments and on minor exposure to water , with time they seriously damaged and
become poroous. All the attributes I listed above, regardless of application are true, but
with any but the PBS produced by Showa Highpolymer, you won't achieve the results you
desire.

Paper on Progress in nanocomposite of Biodegradable Polymer


From CDFPM, Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu, China

[PDF document WITH PICTURES relating to decomposition (important pic, figure 7]

http://www.cheric.org/PDF/JIEC/IE13/IE13-4-0485.pdf

http://74.125.113.132/search?q=cache:64Q6HnkP9TkJ:www.cheric.org/PDF/JIEC/IE13/IE13-4-
0485.pdf+nanotechnology+biodegradable+polymer&cd=20&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

[HTML FORMAT OF PDF DOCUMENT


VIEWABLE WITHOUT ADOBE READER OR ANOTHER PDF READER IN A WEB BROSWER
(WITHOUT PICTURES)]

Patent for use of biodegradable film

http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20080214702

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Google Books: Biodegradable Polymers: Market Report

http://books.google.com/books?id=Jtt2MFkYiP0C&pg=PT19&lpg=PT19&dq=PLA+compost+aliphatic+
polyester+days&source=bl&ots=NBNYV4Hz61&sig=4oA03btl9SjIcuHLiJkWh3joKbc&hl=en&ei=-
srCScXyLsTjmQea2MHwCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result#PPT22,M1

Nanoglass textiles in human medicine:

http://www.tg-supply.com/article/view.html?id=14670

Biodegradability of nanocomposite polymer compounds

http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=author:%22Pandey%22+intitle:%22An+overview+on+the+
degradability+of+polymer+nanocomposites%22+&um=1&ie=UTF-8&oi=scholarr

Cellulose acetate bio-plastic and clays use together to increase biodegradability in nanocomposites

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0032386106009104

Plastic nanocomposites with nanoclay in 2-10% of the mixture yielding up to a tenfold increase in
decomposition – Starch based nanocomposites

http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/pi.1478

PHB problem solving to increase future use of PHB polyester over PLA polyester in plastics with
nanocomposite creation using nanoclays, solving brittleness in PHB (this may be used in many forms,
including the creation of injection mouldable PLA)

http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/Packaging/Biodegradable-PHB-with-nanoparticles-resolves-brittle-
problem

In Business, creating sustainable enterprises and communities

http://www.jgpress.com/inbusiness/archives/_free/001436.html

“Nanohybrid” Plastic expanding use of biodegradable plastics

http://www.nanotechwire.com/news.asp?nid=5304

Emerging novel and new uses of nanoclays in plastics technologies

http://blogs.zdnet.com/emergingtech/?p=396

Nano-biocomposites

http://www.omnexus.com/resources/rdhighlights.aspx?id=22237

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PCL starch blend polyesters reinforced by nanoclays

http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/pat.816

http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:d8f3SxaUdTIJ:www.e-
polymers.org/journal/PAT2005ePolymers/page/Oral%2520Presentations/Section%2520D/Murakami_Atsus
hi.pro.373180524.pdf+biodegradable+plastic+nanoclay&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

PLA, nanoclay and core-shell rubber composites

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3367/is_10_46/ai_n29296038

Nanoclay seller and information on their products

http://www.stratek-plastics.com/index.php/nanoclays

Nanoclay Case History

http://stratekplasticlimited.com/index.php/nanoclays/57-nanoclays/85-nanoclay-ch-1-pa-i30p

Biodegradable polymers and plastics : Proceedings in the 7th world

http://books.google.com/books?id=t-
UsPQyHHGUC&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26&dq=biodegradable+plastic+nanoclay&source=bl&ots=imjrncH8W
K&sig=8NIACjvGOS8bIFiEV22hha721Uo&hl=en&ei=UdLDSfX-
IcGGtges0ODKCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result

Reinforcing plastics with nanoclays (ceramic industry innovation)

http://www.ceramicindustry.com/Articles/Column/BNP_GUID_9-5-2006_A_10000000000000158022

Nanoadditives in nanocomposites : Nanoclay Resources

http://resources.bnet.com/topic/nanoclay.html

Invention site proposal for uses of nanoclay

https://www.inventables.com/technologies/biodegradable-disposables

Effects of nanoclays on properties of PLLA-modified polymers

http://www.springerlink.com/index/28830528532L8U38.pdf

READE.COM Biodegradable Super Strong Lightweight Plastics

http://www.reade.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=597&Itemid=10

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Rapid Report: Starch Based nanocomposites by reactive extrusion information


By SB Kalambur

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jws/pi/2004/00000053/00000010/art00002?crawler=true

Purdue DOW Graduate Seminar information regarding nanocomposites and


the use of nanoclay (montmorillonite)

https://engineering.purdue.edu/ChE/AboutUs/Events/SeminarSeriesBiodegradablePolymerNanocomposites

Nanoclays in foam and plastics use: "Polymeric Foams: Science and Technology"
Lee, Park and Ramesh

http://books.google.com/books?id=7DMryMloSN4C&pg=PP21&lpg=PP21&dq=biodegradable+plastic+na
noclay&source=bl&ots=Dxsn0GGxyb&sig=1RDDPvpCudBzK4d_6NoZAD0FzIQ&hl=en&ei=uNPDSfeT
L8Lktge19qzJCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result

Polymer microstructure modification effects made upon nanocomposite


creation with nanoclay

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/am800020k

HDPE/Wood composite effects made by nanoclay in wood and hdpe nanocomposites

http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:hQuDu4Wgr88J:www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf2007/fpl_2007_lei00
2.pdf+biodegradable+plastic+nanoclay&cd=35&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

Nanoclays speeding biodegradable polymer decomposition

http://www.livescience.com/environment/071220-bio-plastic.html

Patent application, Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers

http://www.freshpatents.com/Biodegradable-polymeric-nanocomposite-compositions-particularly-for-
packaging-dt20070215ptan20070037912.php

Page, Information pertaining to biodegradable plastics, pdf format in html thanks to google

http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:hQuDu4Wgr88J:www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf2007/fpl_2007_lei00
2.pdf+biodegradable+plastic+nanoclay&cd=35&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

News article about glass fibers and replacing such technologies with nanocomposites

http://www.dailycardinal.com/article/4466

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