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A SEMINAR REPORT

ON

CRYPTOGRAPHY

ABSTRACT

The requirement of information security within an organization has under gone two major changes in the last several decades. Before the widespread use of data processing equipment, the security of information felt to be valuable to an organization was provided primarily by physical and administrative means. An example of the former is the use of rugged filing cabinets with a combination lock for storing sensitive documents. An example of the latter is personnel screening procedures used during the hiring process.

With the introduction of computer, the need for automated tools for protecting files and other information stored on the computer became evident. This is especially the case for a shared system, such as a time-sharing system, and the need is even more acute for system that can be accessed over public telephone network, data network, or the Internet. The generic name for the collection of the tools designed to protect data and to thwart hackers is computer security.

The second major change that affected security is the introduction of distributed system and the use of network and communication facilities for carrying data between terminal user and computer and between computer and computer. Network security measure are needed to protect data during their transmission. In fact, the term network security is somewhat misleading, because virtually all business, government, and academic organization interconnect their data processing equipment with a collection of interconnected networks. Such a collection is often referred to as an internet, and the term internet security is used.

There are no clear boundaries between these two forms of security. For example, one of the most publicized types of attack on information system is the computer virus. A virus may be introduced into a system physically when it arrives on a diskette and is subsequently loaded onto a computer. Viruses may also arrive over an internet. In either case, once the virus is resident on a computer security tools are needed to detect and recover from the virus

Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques related to aspects of information security, such as confidentially or privacy ,data integrity and entity authentication. Cryptography is not only means of providing information security, but rather one set of techniques. Confidentially means keeping information secret from all but those who authorized to see it. Data integrity means ensuring information has not been altered by unauthorized or unknown means. Entity authentication means corroboration of the identify of an entity.

There are some characteristics of cryptographic algorithm. They are level security, performance , and ease of implementation. Level security defined by an upper bound on the among of work necessary to defeat the objective. Performance refers to the efficiency of an algorithm in a particular mode of an operation. Ease of implementation refers to the difficulty of realizing the algorithm in practical implementation.

There are several aspects of security. They are security service, security mechanism, and security attack. Security service means a service that enhances the security of the data processing system and information transfers of an organization. A security mechanism mean that is designed to detect, prevent, or recover from a security attacks. Security attack means any action that compromises the security of information owned by an organization.

Encryption means the process of converting from plaintext to ciphertext. A key is a piece of information, usually a number that allows a receiver. Another key also allows a receiver to decode messages sent to him or her. There are some types of encryption. They are classical techniques, modern techniques, and public-key encryption. In Classical techniques there are substitution techniques and transposition techniques. In substitution techniques there are Caesar cipher, monoalphabetic cipher and polyalphabetic cipher. In Modern techniques there are block cipher , stream cipher and DES algorithm. In Public-key encryption the RSA algorithm is there.

Cryptography has provided us with Digital Signatures that resemble in functionality the hand-written signature and Digital Certificates that related to an ID -card or some other official documents. There are some applications of

cryptography. They are secure communication, identification, secret sharing, electronic commerce, key recovery and remote access.

Modern cryptography provides essential techniques for securing information and protecting data.

INTRODUCTION

Due to the rapid growth of digital communication and electronic data exchange information security has become a crucial issue in industry, business and administration. Assume a sender referred to here and in what follows as Alice (is commonly used) wants to send a message m to a receiver referred to as Bob. She uses an insecure communication channel. For example, the channel could be a computer network or a telephone line. There is a problem if the message contains confidential information. The message could be intercepted and read by eavesdropper. Or even worse, some might be able to modify the message during transmission, so Bob does not detect the manipulation.

Cryptography has provided us with digital signature that resemble in functionality the hand-written signature and digital certificates that related to an ID CARD or other official documents. Modern cryptography provides essential techniques for securing information and protecting data.

Definition of cryptography

Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques related to aspects of information security, such as confidentially or privacy, data integrity and entity authentication. Cryptography is not the only means of providing information security, but rather one set of techniques.

There are main two types of cryptographic algorithm. 1: - Symmetric key 2: - Asymmetric key

Symmetric key

Sender and receiver share a key. A secret piece of information used to encrypt or decrypt the message. If a key is secret, then nobody other than the sender and receiver can read the message. If Alice and Bob each have a secret key then they may send each other a private message. The task of privately choosing a key before communication can be however problematic.

Asymmetric key

Solves the key exchange problem by defining an algorithm that uses two keys, each of which can be used for encryption. If one is used to encrypt a message, then other key must be used to decrypt it. This makes it possible to receive secure message by simply publishing one key (public key) and keeping the other key (private) secret. Anyone can encrypt a message using public key but only the owner of the public key is able to read it. In this way the Alice may send private message to owner of a key pair (Bob) by encrypting it using his public key. Only Bob can decrypt it.

Related Terms Plaintext: - An original intelligible message or data that is fed into

the algorithm as input.

depends on plaintext and secret key.

text that is known as Encryption.

known as Decryption.

Cryptography:

- The many schemes used for enciphering constitute the area of study known as Cryptography. Such a scheme is known as Cryptographic system or Cipher.

any knowledge Cryptanalysis.

'.

of

enciphering

details

fall

into

the

area

of

Cryptology:

Goals of cryptography

The main goals of cryptography are 1: - Confidentially or privacy 2: - Data integrity 3: - Authentication 4: - Non-repudiation

1) Confidentially or Privacy: -

Keeping information secret from all, but those who are authorized to see it. Confidentially is the protection of transmitted data from passive attacks. With respect to the content of data transmission, several levels of protection can be identified. The broadest service protects all user data transmitted between two users over a period of time. The aspect of confidentially is the protection of traffic flow from analysis. This requires that an attacker not be able to observe to source and destination, frequency, length or any other characteristics of the traffic on a communication facility.

2) Data Integrity: Ensuring the information has not been altered by unauthorized or unknown means. One must have the ability to detect data manipulation by unauthorized parties. Data manipulation includes such things as insertion, deletion, and substitution

3) Authentication: Corroboration of the identity of an entity. Authentication is a service related to identification. This function applies to both entities and information.

4) Non-repudiation:

Non-repudiation prevents either sender or receiver from denying a message. Thus, when a message is sent, the receiver can prove that the message was in fact send by the alleged sender. Similarly, when a message is received, the sender can prove the alleged receiver in fact received that message.

The main characteristics of cryptographic algorithm are 1: - Level of security 2: - Performance 3: - Ease of implementation

1) Level Of Security: Typically the level of security is defined by an upper bound on the among of work necessary to defeat the objective. This is sometimes called the 'Work Factor'.

Work Factor could be defined as the minimum amount of work required to compete the private key when given the public key, or in the case of the symmetric key scheme to determine the secret key. A functionality algorithm will need to be combined to meet various information security objectives. Which algorithm is most effective for the given objective ,will be determined by the basic functionality of the algorithm. The methods of operations algorithm when applied in various ways and with various inputs will typically exhibit different characteristics. Thus, one algorithm could provide very different functionality depending on its mode of operation or usage.

2) Performance:Performance refers to the efficiency of an algorithm in a particular mode of operation. For example, the number of bits/sec at which it can encrypt may rate an encryption algorithm.

3) Ease Of Implementation:This refers to the difficulty of realizing the algorithm in a practical instantiation, and might include the complexity of implementing in an either software or a hardware environment. The relative importance of various criteria depends to a large extent on the application and resources available. For example, in an environment where computing power is limited, one may have to trade off very high level of security for better system performance.

Aspects of Security

To assess the security needs, of an organization effectively and choose various security products and policies, the manager responsible for security needs some systematic way of defining the requirements for security and characterizing the approaches to satisfied those requirements. One approach is to consider three aspects of information security. 1) 2) 3) Security attack Security mechanism Security service

1) Security Attack: Any action that compromises the security of information owned by an organization.

2) Security Mechanism: A mechanism that is designed to detect, prevent or recover from a security attack.

3) Security Services: A service that enhances the security of the data processing system and the information transfers of an organization. The services are intended to counter security attacks, and they make use of one or more security mechanism to provide the service.

Security Attacks

A useful means of classifying security attacks, used in x.800, is in term of passive attacks and active attacks. A passive attack attempts to learn or make use of information from the system but does not affect system resources. An active attack attempts to alter system resources or affect their operation.

Passive Attacks: Passive attacks are in the nature of eavesdropping on, or monitoring of, transmissions. The goal of the opponent is to obtain information that is being transmitted. Two types of passive attacks are release of message contents and traffic analysis.

The release of message contents is easily understood. A telephone conversation, an electronic mail message, and transferred file may contain sensitive or confidential information. We would like to prevent the opponent from learning the contents of these transmissions.

A second type of passive attacks, traffic analysis, is subtler. Suppose that we had a way of masking the contents of messages or other information traffic so that opponents, even if they captured the message, could not extract the information from the message. The common technique of masking contents is encryption. If we had encryption protection in place, an opponent might still be able to obverse the pattern of these messages. The opponent could determine the location and identity of communicating hosts and could observe the frequency and length of messages being exchanged. This information might be useful in guessing the nature of the communication that was taking place. Passive attacks are very difficult to detect because they do not involve any alteration of the data. However, it is feasible to prevent the success of these

attacks, usually by means of encryption. Thus, the emphasis in dealing with passive attacks is on prevention rather than detection.

Active Attacks: Active attacks involve some modification of the data stream or the creation of a false stream and can be subdivided into four categories: masquerade, replay modification of messages, and denial of service.

A masquerade takes place when one entity pretends to be a different entity. A masquerade attack usually includes one of the other forms of active attack.

Replay involves the passive capture of a data unit and it's subsequent retransmission to produce an unauthorized effect.

Modification of messages simply means that some portion of a legitimate message is altered, or that messages are delayed or reordered to produce an unauthorized effect. For example, a message meaning "Allow John Smith to read confidential file accounts" is modified to mean "Allow Fred Brown to read confidential file accounts".

The denial of service prevents or inhibits the normal use or management of communication facilities. This attack may have a special target; for example an entity may suppress all messages directed to particular destination. Another form service denial is the disruption of an entire network, either by disabling the network or by overloading it with messages so as to degrade performance.

Active attacks present the opposite characteristics of passive attack where as passive attacks are difficult to detect, measures are available to prevent their success. On other hand it is quite difficult to prevent active attacks absolutely, because to do so would require physical protection of all communications facilities and paths at all times. Instead, the goal is to detect than to recover from any disruption or delays caused by them. Because the detection as a deterrent effect, it may also contribute to prevention.

A model for much of what we will be discussing is captured, in very general terms, in figure. A message is to be transferred from one party to another across some sort of Internet. The two parties, who are the principals in this transaction, must cooperate for the exchange to take place. A logical information channel is established by defining a route through the Internet from source to destination and by the cooperative use of communication protocol (e.g., TCP/IP) by the two principles.

Security aspects come in to play when it is necessary or desirable to protect the information transmission from an opponent who may present a threat to confidentiality, authenticity, and so on. All the techniques for providing security have to components:

A security-related transformation on the information to be sent. Examples include the encryption of the message, which scrambles the message so that it is unreadable by the opponent, and the addition of a code based on the contents of the message, which can be used to verify the identity of the sender.

Some secret information shared by the two principals and, it is hoped, unknown to the opponent. An example is an encryption key used in conjunction with the transformation to scramble the message before transmission and unscramble it on reception. A trusted third party may be needed to achieve secure transmission. For example, a third party may be responsible for distributing the secret information to the two principals while keeping it from any opponent. Or a third party may be needed to arbitrate disputes between the two principals concerning the authenticity of a message transmission. This general model shows that there are four basic tasks in designing a particular security service:

Design an algorithm for performing the security-related transformation. The algorithm should be such that an opponent cannot defeat its purpose. Generate the secret information to be used with the algorithm Develop methods for the distribution and sharing of the secret information. Specify of protocol to be used by the two principals that makes use of the security algorithm and secret information to achieve a particular security service. However, there are other security related situations of interest that do not neatly fit this model but that are considered here. A general model of this other situation illustrated by figure, which reflects concern for protecting an information system from unwanted access. Most readers are familiar with the concerns caused by the existence of hackers, who attempt to penetrate systems that can be accessed over a network. The hacker can be someone who, with no malign intent, simply get satisfaction from breaking and entering a computer system. Or, the intruder can be a disgruntled employee who wishes to do damage, or a criminal who seeks to exploit computer assets for financial gain (e.g., obtaining credit card numbers or performing illegal money transfers)

Another type of unwanted access is the placement in a computer system of logic that exploits vulnerabilities in the system and that can affect application

program as well as utility programs such as editor and compilers. Programs can present two kinds of threats: Information access threats intercept or modify data on behalf of users who should not have access to that data. Service threats exploit services flaws in computers to inhibit use by legitimate users

Viruses and worms are two examples of software attacks. Such attacks can be introduced into a system by means of a disk that contain unwanted logic concealed in otherwise useful software. The security mechanism needed to coped with unwanted access fall into two broad categories. The first categories might be termed a gatekeeper function. It includes password-based login procedures that are designed to deny access to all but authorized user and screening logic that is designed to detect and reject worms, viruses, and other similar attacks. Once is gained, by either an unwanted users or unwanted software, the second line of defense consists of a variety of internal controls that monitor activity and analyze stored information in

A study of these techniques unable us to illustrate the basic approaches to symmetric encryption used today and the types of cryptanalytic that must be anticipated. The two basic building blocks of all encryption techniques are substitution and transposition. We examine these in the next two sections. Finally, we discuss a system that combines both substitution and transposition. Substitution Techniques: A substitution technique is one in which the letters of plaintext are replaced by other letters or by numbers or symbols. If the plaintext is viewed as a sequence of bits, then substitution involves replacing plaintext bit patterns with cipher text bit patterns.

Caesar Cipher

The earliest known use of a substitution cipher, and the simplest, was by Julius Caesar. The Caesar cipher involves replacing each letter of the alphabet with the letter standing three places further down the alphabet. For example

Plain: meet me after the toga party Cipher: PHHW PH DIWHU WKH WRJD SDUWB

Note that the alphabet is wrapped around, so that the latter following Z is A. We can define the transformation by listing all possibilities, as follow:

Plain: a b c d e f g h I j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Cipher: D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C

Transposition Techniques: All the techniques examined so far involve the substitution of a cipher text symbol for a plaintext symbol. A very different kind of mapping is achieved by performing some sort of permutation on the plaintext letters. This technique is referred to as a transposition cipher.

The simplest such cipher is the rail fence technique, in which the plaintext is written down as a sequence of diagonals and then read off as a sequence of rows. For, example, to encipher the message " meet me after the toga party " with a rail fence of depth 2, we write the following. Mematrhtgpry Etefeteoaat The encrypted message is MEMATRHTGPRYETEFETEOAAT This sort of thing would be trivial to crypt analyze. A more complex scheme is to write the messages in a rectangle, row by row, and read the message off, column by column, but permute the order of the columns. The order of the columns then becomes, the key to the algorithm. For example, Key: Plaintext: 4312567 at ta ckp os t p on e du n t I l t woa m x y z

Cipher TTNAAPTMTSUOAODWCOIXKNLYPETZ

text:

A pure transposition cipher is easily recognized because it has the same letter frequencies as the original plaintext. For the type of columnar transposition just shown, cryptanalysis is fairly straightforward and involves laying out the cipher text in a matrix and playing around with column positions. Dig ram and trigram frequency tables can be useful.

Modern Techniques

Virtually all-symmetric block encryption algorithm in current use is based on a structure referred to as a Feistel block cipher. We begin with a comparison of stream ciphers and block ciphers.

Stream ciphers: A stream cipher is one that encrypts a digital data stream one bit or one byte at a time. Example of classical stream ciphers is auto keyed Vigenere cipher and the Vernam cipher.

Block ciphers: A block cipher is one in which a block of plaintext is treated as a whole and used to produced a cipher text block of equal length. Typically, a block size of 64 or 128 bits is used. Using some of the modes of operation explained later in this chapter, a block cipher can be used to achieve the same effect as a stream cipher. Far more effort has gone into analyzing block ciphers. In general, they seem applicable to a broader range of applications than stream ciphers. The vast majority of network-based symmetric cryptographic applications make use of block ciphers.

Diffusion and Confusion: The terms diffusion and confusion were introduced by Claude Shannon to capture the two basic building blocks for any cryptographic system. Shannon's concern was to thwart cryptanalysis based on statistical analysis. The reasoning is as follows. Assume the attacker has some knowledge of the statistical characteristics of the plaintext. For example, in a human -readable message in some language, the frequency distribution of the various letters may be known.

Or there may be words or phrases likely to appear in the message. If these statistics are in any way reflected in the cipher text, the cryptanalyst may be able to deduce the encryption key, or part of the key, or at least a set of keys likely to contain the exact key. Other than recourse to ideal systems, Shannon suggests two methods for frustrating statistical cryptanalysis: diffusion and confusion. In diffusion, the statistical structure of the plaintext is dissipated into long-range statistics of the cipher text. This is achieved by having each plaintext digit affect the value of many cipher text digits, which is equivalent to saying that ciphertext digit is affected by many plaintext digits. An example of diffusion is to encrypt a message M = m1, m2, m3, of characters with an averaging operation :

k

Yn = mn + i (mod 26)

i=1

Adding k successive letters to get a ciphertext letter Yn. One can show that the statistical structure of the plaintext has been dissipated. Thus the letter frequencies in the ciphertext will be more nearly equal than in the plaintext; the Digram frequencies will also be more nearly equal, and so on. In a binary block cipher, diffusion can be achieved by repeatedly performing some permutation of the sata followed by applying a function to that permutation; the effect is that bits from different positions in the original plaintext contribute to a single bit of ciphertext.

Every block cipher involves a transformation of a block of plaintext into a block of ciphertext, where the transformation depends on the key. The mechanism of diffusion seeks to make the statistical relationship between the plaintext and ciphertext as complex as possible in order to thwart attempts to deduce that key. On the other hand, confusion seeks to make the relationship between the statistics of the ciphertext and the value of the encryption key as complex as possible, again to thwart attempts to discover the key. Thus, even if the attacker can get some handle on the statistics of the ciphertext, where the transformation depends on the key. The mechanism of diffusion seeks to make the statistical relationship between the plaintext and ciphertext as complex as possible in order to thwart attempts to deduce that key. On the other hand,

confusion seeks to make the relationship between the statistics of the ciphertext and the value of the encryption key as complex as possible, again to thwart attempts to discover the key. Thus, even if the attacker can get some handle on the statistics of this, as Federal Information Processing Standards 46 (FIPS pub 46). The algorithm itself is referred to as the Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA). For EDS, data are encrypted in 640bit blocks using a 56-bit key. The algorithm transforms 64-bit input in a series of steps into a 64-bit output. The same steps, with the same key, are used to reverse the encryption.

DES enjoys widespread use. It has also been the subject of much controversy concerning how secure the DES is,. To appreciate the nature of the controversy, let us quickly review the history of the DES. In the late 1960s, IBM set up a research project in computer cryptography led by Horst Feistel. The project concluded in 1971 with the development of an algorithm with the designation LUCIFER (FEIS73), which was sold to Lloyd's of London for use in a cash-dispensing system, also developed by IBM LUCIFER is a Feistel block cipher that operates on blocks of 64 bits, using a key also of 128 bits. Because of the promising results produced by the LUCIFER project, IBM embarked on an effort to develop a marketable commercial encryption product that ideally could be implemented on a single chip. The effort was headed by Walter Tuchman and Cart Meyer, and if involved not only IBM researchers but also out-side consultants and technical advice from NSA. The outcome of this effort was a refined version of LUCIFER that was more resistant to cryptanalysis but that had a reduced key size of 56 bits, to fit on a single chip.

In 1973, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) issued a request for proposals for a national cipher standard. IBM submitted the results of its Tuchman-Meyer project. This was by far the best algorithm proposed and was adopted in 1977 as the Data Encryption Standard.

Before its adoption as a standard, the proposed DES was subjected to intense criticism, which has not subsided to this day. Two areas drew the critics fire. First, the key length in IBM's original LUCIFER algorithm was 128 bits, but that of the proposed system was only 56 bits, an enormous reduction in key size of 72 bits. Critics feared that this key length was too short to withstand

brute-force attacks. The second area of concern was that the design criteria for the internal structure of DES, the S-boxes, were classified. Thus, users could not be sure that the internal structure of DES was free of any hidden weak points that would enable NSA to decipher messages without benefit of the key. Subsequent events, particularly the recent work on differential cryptanalysis, seem to indicate that DES has a very strong internal structure. Furthermore, according to IBM participants, the only changes that were made to the proposal were changed to the S-boxes, suggested by NSA, that removed vulnerabilities identified in the course of the evaluation process.

Whatever the merits of the case, DES has flourished and is widely used, especially in financial applications. In 1994, NIST reaffirmed DES for federal use for another five years; NIST recommended the use of DES for applications other than the protection of classified information. In 1999, NIST issued a new version of its standard that indicated that DES should only be used for legacy systems and that triple DES (which in essence involves repeating the DES algorithm three times on the on plaintext using two or three different keys to produce the ciphertext) be used.

DES Encryption: The overall scheme for DES encryption is illustrated in figure. As with any encryption scheme, there are two inputs to the encryption function: the plaintext to be encrypted and the key. In this case, the plaintext must be 64 bits in length and the key is 56 bits in length.

Looking at the left-hand side of the figure, we can see that the processing of the plaintext proceeds in three phases. First, the 64-bit plaintext passes through an initial permutation (IP) that rearranges the bits to produce the permuted input. This is followed by a phase consisting of 16 rounds of the same function, which involves both permutation and substitution functions. The output of the last (16) round consists of 64 bits that are a function of the input plaintext and the key. The left and right halves of the output are swapped to

produce the preoutput. Finally, the preoutput is passed through a permutation that is the inverse of the initial permutation function, to produce the 64-bit ciphertext. With the exception of the initial and final permutation, DES has the exact structure of a Feistel cipher.

The right-hand portion of figure shown the way in which the 56-bit key is used. Initially, the key is passed through a permutation function. Then, for each of the 16 rounds, a subkey (Ki) is produced by the combination of a left circular shift and a permutation. The permutation function is the same for each round, but a different subkey is produced because of the repeated iteration of the key bits.

Public-key cryptography

The development of public-key cryptography is the greatest and perhaps the only true revolution in the entire history of cryptography. From its earliest beginning to modern times, virtually all cryptographic system have been based on the elementary tools of substitution and permutation.

The concept of public-key cryptography evolved from an attempt to attack two of the most difficult problems associated with symmetric encryption. The first problem is that of key distribution. As we have seen, key distribution under symmetric encryption requires either That to communicants already share a key, which somehow has been distributed to them; or The use of a key distribution center Whitfield Diffie. One of the discoverers of public-key encryption (along with Martin Hellman, both at Stanford University at the time), reasoned that this second requirement negated the very essence of cryptography, the ability to maintain total secrecy over your

own communication. As Diffie put to (DIFF88), " what good would it do after all to develop impenetrable cryptosystems, if their users were forced to share their keys with a KDC that could be compromised by either burglary or subpoena? " The second problem that Diffie pondered, and one that was apparently unrelated to the first was that of " digital signatures ". If the use of cryptography was to become widespread, not just in military situations but for commercial and private purposes, then electronic message and documents would need the equivalent of signatures used in paper documents. That is, could a method be devised that would stipulate, to the satisfaction of all parties that a digital message had been sent by a particular person? This is a somewhat broader requirement than that of authentication, and its characteristics and ramifications are explored. In the next subsection, we look at the overall framework for public-key cryptography. Then we examine the requirements for the encryption/decryption algorithm that is at the heart of the scheme.

Public-key cryptosystems: The public-key algorithms rely on one key for encryption and a different but related key for decryption. These algorithms have the following important characteristics: It is computationally infeasible to determine the decryption key given only knowledge of the cryptographic algorithm and the encryption key. In addition, some algorithms, such as RSA, also exhibit the following characteristics: Either of the two related keys can be used for encryption , with other used for decryption. A public-key encryption scheme has six ingredients.

Plaintext: - This is the readable message or data that is fed into the algorithm as input. Encryption algorithm: - The encryption algorithm performs various transformations on the plaintext. Public and private key: - This is a pair of keys that have been selected so that if one is used for encryption, the other is used for decryption. The exact transformations performed by the encryption algorithm depend on the public or private key that is provided as input. Ciphertext: - This is the scrambled message produced as input. It depends on the plaintext and the key. For a given message, two different keys will produce two different ciphertexts. Decryption algorithm: - This algorithm accepts the ciphertext and the matching key and produces the original plaintext. The essential steps are the following:

Each user generates a pair of keys to be used for the encryption and decryption of messages. Each user places one of the two keys in a public register or other accessible file. This is the public key. The companion key is kept private. As figure suggests, each user maintains a collection of public keys obtained from others. If Bob wishes to send a confidential message to Alice, Bob encrypts the message using Alice's public key. When Alice receives the message, she decrypts it using her private key. No other recipient can decrypt the message because only Alice knows Alice's private key.

With this approach, all participants have access to public keys, and private keys, are generated locally by each participant and therefore need never be distributed. As long as a system controls its private key, its incoming communication is secure. At any time, a system can change its private key and publish the companion public key to replace its old public key.

The pioneering paper by Diffie and Hellman [DIFF 76 b] introduce a new Approach to cryptography and, in effect challenged cryptologists to come up with a cryptographic algorithm that met the requirements for public - key systems. One of the first of the responses to the challenge was developed in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman at MIT and first published in 1978 [RIVE 78] the Rivest - Shamir- Adleman (RSA) scheme has since that time reigned supreme as the most widely accepted and implemented general - purpose approach to public - key encryption.

The RSA scheme is a block cipher in which the plaintext and ciphertext are integers between 0 and n -1 for some n. A typical size for n is 1024 bits, or 309 decimal digits. We examine RSA in this section in some detail, beginning with an explanation of the algorithm. Then we examine some of the computational and cryptanalytical implications of RSA.

The scheme developed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman makes use of an expression with exponential. Plaintext is encrypted in blocks, with each block having a binary value less than some number n. That is the block size must be less than or equal to log2(n); in practice, the block size is k bits, where 2k < n < 2k+1. Encryption and decryption are of the following forms, for some plaintext block M and ciphertext block C. C = Me mod n M = Cd mod n = (Me) d mod n = Med mod n Both sender and receiver must know the value of n. The sender knows the value of e, and only the receiver knows the value of d. Thus, this is a public-key encryption algorithm with a public key of KU = {e,n} and a private key of KR

={d,n}. For the algorithm to be satisfactory for public-key encryption, the following requirements must be meet: 1 -> it is possible to find value of e, d, n such that Med = M mod n for all M < n. 2 -> it relatively easy to calculate Me and Cd for all values of M < n. 3 -> it is infeasible to determine d given e and n.

For now, we focus on the first requirement and consider the other questions later. We need to find a relationship of the form Med = M mod n A corollary to Euler's theorem, fits the bill: Given two prime numbers, p and q and two integers n and m, such that n = pq and 0 < m< n, and arbitrary integer k, the following relationship holds: Mk(n) + 1 = mk (p-1)(q-1)+1 = m mod n Where (n) is the Euler totient function which is the number of positive integers less then n and relatively prime to n. for p, q prime, (pq) = (p-1)(q-1). Thus we can achieve the desired relationship if Ed = k(n) + 1 This is equivalent to saying: Ed = 1 mod (n) D = e-1 mod (n) That is e and d are multiplicative inverses mod (n). Note that according to the rules of modular arithmetic, this is true only if d (and therefore e) is relatively prime to (n), Equivalently, gcd ((n), d) = 1 We are now ready to state the RSA scheme. The ingredients are the following: P, q, two prime numbers n = pq e, with gcd((n),e) = 1; 1<e<(n) (private, chosen) (public, calculated) (public, chosen)

(private, calculated)

The private key consists of {d, n} and the public key consists of {e, n}. Suppose that user A has published its public key and that user B wishes to send the message M to A. then B calculates C = Me (mod m) and transmits C. on receipt of this ciphertext, user A decrypts by calculating M = Cd (mod m).

It is worthwhile to summarize the justification for this algorithm. We have chosen e and d such that d = e-1 mod (n) Therefore, ed = 1 mod (n) Therefore, ed is of the form k (n)+1. But by the corollary to Eulers theorem, provided here, given two prime numbers p and q, and integers n = pq and M with 0 < M < m: Mk(n) + 1 = Mk (p-1)(q-1)+1 = M mod n So, Med = M mod n. Now C = Me mod n M = Cd mod n = (Me) d mod n = Med mod n = m mod n

Besides ClassicSys ciphering at high speed, two more advantages make Classic prime candidate for THE standard application in cryptography :

1. ClassicSys uses only 1 secret key to meet ALL the cryptographic needs of an end user such as :

To authenticate himself To authenticate messages with a time reference To generate all the Session Keys he needs for Email (as one possible application) To generate several keys for other applications: banking, electronic commerce, electronic voting, casino games at home, ... 2. ClassicSys is designed in such a way that there is no valid reason to forbid it's use in any country in the world. ClassicSys gives all the required guarantees to its users and their government : secret keys must not be divulged and Security Services can always decipher suspect messages.

ClassicSys offers more than the known advantages of encryption solutions:

Very high speed of encryption (see below). The chip contains the SED algorithm and all the other features of ClassicSys. One system covers all cryptographic needs, for all applications. New applications can be added without updating the chip. ClassicSys works is fully automated, requests to the TA are returned directly, without human intervention. Private Keys are completely unknown to everybody, even the Trust Authority's manager! All keys are written into chips and are not accessible to humans or other machines. This guarantees the privacy of all the end-users.

Once an end-user has received the information to generate his Application Keys, he does not need the intervention of the TA anymore. Email for example, users do not need the TA to exchange messages between themselves. ClassicSys acts like a public key cryptosystem : every end-user has one public ID number, which is used in a similar way to public keys. Email for example, when somebody wants to communicate with another end-user, he sends to the TA his ID number and the one from his correspondent. In return he receives information from the TA to generate their Session Key.

ClassicSys is easy to implement in integrated circuits because: It uses only XOR and branching functions No reporting arithmetic bits are needed Programming can be done with a polynomial structure. The length of the blocks of key and data are identical and equal to 128 bits (16 bytes). Security of ClassicSys is enhanced compared to other systems because: Deciphering is not the reverse of ciphering The ciphering and deciphering keys are different All the PrivateKeys (end-users, TAs, NSSs) are included in an IC and therefore not accessible. There is no known way to reconstruct, by cryptanalysis, the secret key, knowing a clear and it's corresponding encrypted message.

Differential cryptanalysis is not suitable to the SED algorithm. On average, there is only one key corresponding to a clear and its associated encrypted text and therefore, each bit of the key has equal weight in the algorithm.

Only 1 secret key of 128 bits is enough to meet all the cryptographic needs of an end-user such as : To generate all the Session Keys he needs To authenticate himself To authenticate messages with a time reference To generate several keys for other applications (banking, electronic commerce, electronic voting, casino games at home,...)

Unlike the RSA algorithm, where every key requires a determined space, the SED algorithm can use every block contained in the space 2128.

The SED algorithm is very fast for the following reasons: The length of the blocks (key and data) is small (128 bits against more than 512 bits) but long enough to disable every exhaustive cryptanalysis. On average. It is possible to compute at 1/3 of the clock frequency (8 to 10 Mbytes/sec). The SED algorithm is completely transparent. Due to the theory of Multiplicative Groups we can confirm that there is no Trojan Horse in the SED algorithm.

The SED algorithm permits chained mode ciphering, allowing reduction of the authentication information to one block of 128 bits, whatever the length of the data to authenticate.

The table below compares the important features of the DES, the RSA and the SED algorithms, used within global cryptographic systems.

FEATURE speed Deposit of keys Country independence Trojan horses Data length block High Needed No

RSA High

SED

Same

Different

Application: Cryptography is extremely useful; there is a multitude of applications, many of which are currently in use. A typical application of cryptography is a system built out of the basic techniques. Such systems can be of various levels of complexity. Some of the more simple applications are secure communication, identification, authentication, and secret sharing. More complicated applications include systems for electronic commerce, certification, secure electronic mail, key recovery, and secure computer access.

In general, the less complex the application, the more quickly it becomes a reality. Identification and authentication schemes exist widely, while electronic commerce systems are just beginning to be established. However, there are exceptions to this rule; namely, the adoption rate may depend on the level of demand. For example, SSL-encapsulated HTTP (see Question 5.1.2) gained a lot more usage much more quickly than simpler link-layer encryption has ever achieved. The adoption rate may depend on the level of demand.

Secure Communication

Secure communication is the most straightforward use of cryptography. Two people may communicate securely by encrypting the messages sent between them. This can be done in such a way that a third party eavesdropping may never be able to decipher the messages. While secure communication has existed for centuries, the key management problem has prevented it from becoming commonplace. Thanks to the development of public-key cryptography, the tools exist to create a large-scale network of people who can communicate securely with one another even if they had never communicated before.

Identification and authentication are two widely used applications of cryptography. Identification is the process of verifying someone's or something's identity. For example, when withdrawing money from a bank, a teller asks to see identification (for example, a driver's license) to verify the identity of the owner of the account. This same process can be done electronically using cryptography. Every automatic teller machine (ATM) card is associated with a ``secret'' personal identification number (PIN), which binds the owner to the card and thus to the account. When the card is inserted into the ATM, the machine prompts the cardholder for the PIN. If the correct PIN is entered, the machine identifies that person as the rightful owner and grants access. Another important application of cryptography is authentication. Authentication is similar to identification, in that both allow an entity access to resources (such as an Internet account), but authentication is broader because it does not necessarily involve identifying a person or entity. Authentication merely determines whether that person or entity is authorized for whatever is in question. For more information on authentication and identification, see Question 2.2.5.

Secret Sharing

Another application of cryptography, called secret sharing, allows the trust of a secret to be distributed among a group of people. For example, in a (k, n)threshold scheme, information about a secret is distributed in such a way that any k out of the n people (k n) have enough information to determine the secret, but any set of k-1 people do not. In any secret sharing scheme, there are designated sets of people whose cumulative information suffices to determine the

secret. In some implementations of secret sharing schemes, each participant receives the secret after it has been generate

Bibliography:This document's some topics are just picked up by some of reference book and some excellent web site which give me good explore such references are following. www.google.co.in. Cryptography And Network Security (William Stallings). Computer Network ( Andrew S. Tanenbaum).

Conclusion :By Analysis of this report and their subtopics which are mentioned above, which are inherently guides us about various cryptographic techniques used in data security. By using of encryption techniques a fair unit of confidentiality, authentication, integrity, access control and availability of data is maintained. Using cryptography Electronic Mail Security, Mail Security, IP Security, Web security can be achieved.

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