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Get Yourself Familiarized with the use of " I have something + (verb) " I have something + (verb) When

using the expression 'I have something' you are communicating that you possess something or need to do something that is unspecified or undetermined. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I have have have have have have have have have have have something something something something something something something something something something something to complete." to share with you." important to tell you." to encourage you." to explain to you." special planned for your birthday." else to consider." to apologize about." to attend tonight." to ask you." fun for us to do."

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Familiarized with the use of " I'm here to + (verb) " I'm here to + (verb) You are informing someone that you are at a particular place to accomplish something. Here are some examples: "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm here here here here here here here here here here to to to to to to to to to to apply for the job." take a test." receive my gift." support all your decisions." watch a movie." work on your computer." welcome you to the neighborhood." raise awareness for cancer." start the job." receive the award."

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Get Yourself Familiarized with the use of " I want you to + (verb) " I want you to + (verb) 'I want you to' is telling someone that you have a desire or would like for them to do something. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I want want want want want you you you you you to to to to to clean the dishes." come home right after school." call once you get there." explain yourself to me." educate me."

By using the word 'need' instead of 'want' you are expressing something that is required or wanted. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I need need need need need you to study harder in school." you to stop and listen to me." you to greet our guests." you to introduce me to your family." to request a refund."

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Familiarized with the use of " I'm not used to + (verb-ing) " I'm not used to + (verb-ing) Here you are using 'not used to' to inform someone that you are unfamiliar or uncomfortable with a topic at hand. Here are some examples: "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm not not not not not not not not not used used used used used used used used used to to to to to to to to to talking English." studying so much." being around new people." talking in front of groups of people." having so much stress." traveling so much." working so early." having so much responsibility." drinking so much."

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Would is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use would mainly to: talk about the past talk about the future in the past express the conditional mood We also use would for other functions, such as: expressing desire, polite requests and questions, opinion or hope, wish and regret... Structure of Would subject + would + main verb The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to"). subject auxiliary verb main verb + She would like tea. 'd - She would not like whisky. wouldn't ? Would she like coffee? Notice that: Would is never conjugated. It is always would or 'd (short form). The main verb is always the bare infinitive. The main verb is always the bare infinitive. We cannot say: I would to like coffee. Be careful! Would and had have the same short form 'd: He'd finished. (He had finished.) He'd like coffee. (He would like coffee.) Use of Would would: Talking about the past We often use would as a kind of past tense of will or going to: Even as a boy, he knew that he would succeed in life. I thought it would rain so I brought my umbrella. Using would as as a kind of past tense of will or going to is common in reported speech: She said that she would buy some eggs. ("I will buy some eggs.") The candidate said that he wouldn't increase taxes. ("I won't increase taxes.") Why didn't you bring your umbrella? I told you it would rain! ("It's going to rain.") We often use would not to talk about past refusals: He wanted a divorce but his wife would not agree. Yesterday morning, the car wouldn't start. We sometimes use would (rather like used to) when talking about habitual past behaviour: Every weekday my father would come home from work at 6pm and watch TV. Every summer we'd go to the seaside. Sometimes she'd phone me in the middle of the night. We would always argue. We could never agree. WOULD for Past Habit would: Future in past

When talking about the past we can use would to express something that has not happened at the time we are talking about: In London she met the man that she would one day marry. He left 5 minutes late, unaware that the delay would save his life. would: Conditionals We often use would to express the so-called second and third conditionals: If he lost his job he would have no money. IfI had won the lotteryI would have bought a car. Using the same conditional structure, we often use would when giving advice: I wouldn't eat that if I were you. If I were in your place I'd refuse. If you asked me I would say you should go. Sometimes the condition is "understood" and there does not have to be an "if" clause: Someone who liked John would probably love John's father. (If someone liked John they would probably love John's father.) You'd never know it. (for example: If you met him you would never know that he was rich.) Why don't you invite Mary? I'm sure she'd come. Although there is always a main verb, sometimes it is understood (not stated) as in: I'd like to stay. | I wish you would. (would stay) Do you think he'd come? | I'm sure he would. (would come) Who would help us? | John would. (would help us) would: Desire or inclination I'd love to live here. Would you like some coffee? What I'd really like is some tea. would: Polite requests and questions Would you open the door, please? (more polite than: Open the door, please.) Would you go with me? (more polite than: Will you go with me?) Would you know the answer? (more polite than: Do you know the answer?) What would the capital of Nigeria be? (more polite than: What is the capital of Nigeria?) would: Opinion or hope I would imagine that they'll buy a new one. I suppose some people would call it torture. I would have to agree. I would expect him to come. Since you ask me I'd say the blue one is best. would: Wish I wish you would stay. (I really want you to stay. I hope you will stay.) They don't like me. I'm sure they wish I'd resign. Note that all of these uses of would express some kind of distance or remoteness: remoteness in time (past time) remoteness of possibility or probability remoteness between speakers (formality, politeness) would: Presumption or expectation That would be Jo calling. I'll answer it. We saw a police helicopter overhead yesterday morning. | Really? They would have been looking for those

bank robbers. would: Uncertainty He would seem to be getting better. (less certain than: He seems to be getting better.) It would appear that I was wrong. (less certain than: It appears that I was wrong.) would: Derogatory They would say that, wouldn't they? John said he didn't steal the money. | Well, he would, wouldn't he? would that: Regret (poetic/rare) - with clause This rare, poetic or literary use of would does not have the normal structure: Would that it were true! (If only it were true! We wish that it were true!) Would that his mother had lived to see him become president. Thanks

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Familiarized with the advanced use of " I feel like +(verb-ing) " I feel like + (verb-ing) Here you are expressing to someone something you would enjoy doing. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I "I "I feel feel feel feel feel feel feel like like like like like like like going for a bike ride." going to the beach." having a snack." talking." dancing." having friends over to my house." watching TV."

By adding 'don't' or 'do not' you can change what you are saying to express something you would not enjoy or express a concern about something. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I don't feel like leaving yet." don't feel like explaining." don't feel like going to bed." do not feel comfortable talking about it." do not feel like we are going in the right direction."

Get Yourself Familiarized with the advanced use of " I'd rather + (verb) "

I'd rather + (verb) 'I'd' is a contraction of the words 'I had' or 'I would.' When using it with the word 'rather' you are suggesting you would like to do or prefer one thing more than another. Here are some examples: "I'd rather talk about this later." "I'd like to eat at home than go get fast food." "I'd rather ski than snowboard." "I'd rather stay late than come in early tomorrow." "I'd rather handle the problem myself." "I had rather go home than stay out too late." "I had rather listen to my parents or get in trouble." "I would rather exercise than sit on the couch all day." "I would rather complete my task early." "I would rather know the answer." --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Familiarized with the use of " I promise not to + (verb) " I promise not to + (verb) When using the word 'promise' you are giving your word that what you are saying is true. You might also be assuring someone a guarantee that you will follow thru on what you are saying to them. When using 'promise not to' you are stating you will not do a particular thing. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I promise promise promise promise promise not not not not not to to to to to tell." leave without you." be so late." hurt your feelings." wake you up."

You can also just use the word 'promise' to assure someone of your intentions. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I promise promise promise promise promise I am telling the truth." to practice my math." to call you." I will tell you." I will come to your party."

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Familiarized with the use of " I don't have time to (verb) I don't have time to + (verb) The word 'don't' is a contraction of the words 'do not.' When adding 'have time to' you are simply stating that you have other obligations and all other things considered must wait. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I don't don't don't don't don't have have have have have time time time time time to to to to to explain." eat." exercise." watch my favorite TV show." talk."

You can also use the phrase 'I don't' to express things you do not like, things you do not understand, or things you do not do. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I "I don't eat meat." don't like the rain." don't understand Spanish." do not understand what you are saying." do not like scary movies." do not like sports."

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Familiarized with the use of " I didn't mean to + (verb) " I didn't mean to + (verb) The word 'didn't' is a contraction of the words 'did not'. When using it in a sentence with the words 'mean to' you are informing someone that you did something you regret or are sorry for. This could have been a physical, mental or verbal action. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I didn't mean to hurt your feelings." didn't mean to call you so late." didn't mean to lie about what happened." didn't mean to embarrass you." didn't mean to stay out so late." did not mean to say those things." did not mean to leave you out." did not mean to make you confused."

"I did not mean to think you were involved." "I did not mean to cause trouble." ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Familiarized with the use of " I was about to + (verb) " I was about to + (verb) When stating 'I was about to' you are informing someone that you are going to be doing something at that moment or in the very near future. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I was was was was was was was was was was about about about about about about about about about about to to to to to to to to to to go out." go to dinner." go to bed." go to work." say the same thing." call you." send you an email." mow my grass." order us some drinks." watch television."

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Familiarized with the Advanced use of " I've decided to (verb) I've decided to + (verb) 'I've' is short for 'I have' and including the word 'decided' you are stating that you have made a decision or come to a conclusion. Here are some examples: "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've decided decided decided decided decided decided decided decided decided decided to to to to to to to to to to accept the job." complete my degree." change my bad habits." extend my membership at the gym." form a chess club." hand over my responsibilities." help you move." interview for the job." increase my work load." manage a store."

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Get Yourself Familiarized with the Advanced use of " I plan to + (verb) " I plan to + (verb) 'Plan to' describes something that you would like to do in the near future. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I plan plan plan plan plan plan plan plan plan plan to to to to to to to to to to find a new apartment." relax on vacation." surprise my parents." wash my car." adopt a child." impress my boss." watch a movie." save more money." read a book." learn new things."

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Familiarized with " Clauses and Phrases " In English : A clause has a subject and a verb, but it may or may not be a sentence. Some examples: Because he likes the house. This clause has a subject (he) and a verb (likes) but it lacks the main part of the sentence. However, it's okay as an answer in a conversation. Also, avoid beginning a sentence with "because" unless you put two clauses together, such as.... Because he likes the house, he decided to buy it. In the Orange Level you will learn about many different kinds of clauses. A good knowledge of clauses will help improve your writing and speaking. There are two basic kinds of clauses. Independent Clauses Dependent Clauses An independent Clause has a subject and a verb and it can stand on its own, serving as a complete sentence. A Dependent Clause has a subject and a verb but it can not stand on its own. It needs an independent clause. Before I went to school, I ate some breakfast. Dependent clauses often begin with words such as before, after, while, during, when, because, if, etc.

Knowing how to use clauses will provide more options for you to express yourself. You can also say.... I ate some breakfast before I went to school. ---------------------------A phrase is a group of words that does not have a subject and a verb. For example: In the morning This phrase tells us when something will happen, but there isn't a subject, a person or a thing, and there isn't a verb describing activity or existence. Here's how to fix it: I go to school in the morning. Phrases are very important in English because they provide necessary information, as the examples below (with phrases in blue) demonstrate: Here are some examples of phrases: The children are playing in the sand. "...in the sand" tells us where the children are playing. We could write the sentence like this: The children are playing. This is a good sentence but the phrase in the sand provides important information. The table in the dining room is very long. A: What's your favorite thing to do on the weekend? B: Playing guitar. (Playing guitar is my favorite thing to do on the weekend. A response that doesn't have a clear subject or verb is a phrase. Many people use them in conversation, and that's okay.) Get Yourself acquainted with Prepositions "On","At",and"In": A preposition is a word that links a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to some other part of the sentence. Prepositions can be tricky for English learners. There is no definite rule or formula for choosing a preposition. In the beginning stage of learning the language, you should try to identify a preposition when reading or listening in English and recognize its usage.

to the office at the desk on the table in an hour about myself A preposition is used to show direction, location, or time, or to introduce an object. Here are a few common prepositions and examples. (1) On (a) Used to express a surface of something: I put an egg on the kitchen table. The paper is on my desk. (b) Used to specify days and dates: The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays. I was born on the 14th day of June in 1988. (c) Used to indicate a device or machine, such as a phone or computer: He is on the phone right now. She has been on the computer since this morning. My favorite movie will be on TV tonight. (d) Used to indicate a part of the body: The stick hit me on my shoulder. He kissed me on my cheek. I wear a ring on my finger. (e) Used to indicate the state of something: Everything in this store is on sale. The building is on fire. (2) At (a) Used to point out specific time: I will meet you at 12 p.m. The bus will stop here at 5:45 p.m. (b) Used to indicate a place:

There is a party at the club house. There were hundreds of people at the park. We saw a baseball game at the stadium. (c) Used to indicate an email address: Please email me at profsaghirisonline@gmail.com (d) Used to indicate an activity: He laughed at my acting. I am good at drawing a portrait. (3) In (a) Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year: She always reads newspapers in the morning. In the summer, we have a rainy season for three weeks. The new semester will start in March. (b) Used to indicate a location or place: She looked me directly in the eyes. I am currently staying in a hotel. My home town is Los Angeles, which is in California. (c) Used to indicate a shape, colour, or size: This painting is mostly in blue. The students stood in a circle. This jacket comes in four different sizes. (d) Used to express while doing something: In preparing for the final report, we revised the tone three times. A catch phrase needs to be impressive in marketing a product. (e) Used to indicate a belief, opinion, interest, or feeling: I believe in the next life. We are not interested in gambling. [Quiz 22.1] Identify all prepositions in the following sentences. After flying for many hours, we finally got off the air plane. We walked out the exit and went

to the baggage claim area. There were hundreds of different bags on the conveyor belt. I almost picked up the wrong one because it looked like mine. [Quiz 22.2] Choose a correct preposition in the sentence. 1)I want to lose 5 kilogram (on, at, in) one month. 2)Could you get me this pants (on, at, in) a larger size? 3)She seems to be interested (on, at, in) Psychology. 4)I will come to pick you up (on, at, in) 2 pm tomorrow. 5)This class will be held (on, at, in) Mondays. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Let's get started: " HAVE YOUR SAY " Good Morning, Dear Students, Today I am gonna deliver my lesson about the " Different way of Greetings "There are many ways of greeting people, both formal and informal. The speakers task is to choose the appropriate one for the situation. It is also useful to know lots of different ones so as to not repeat yourself when you meet a number of people at the same time. As with any other aspect, you need to be careful about using informal expressions with people who you do not know well or whose rank or status is higher than yours. General greetings (Formal) Hello! How are you? How are you doing? How is everything? Hows everything going? How have you been keeping? I trust that everything is well. General greetings (Informal) Hi. Whats up? Good to see you. How are things (with you)? Hows it going? Hows life been treating you? Greeting a person you havent seen for a long time (Formal) It has been a long time. Its been too long. What have you been up to all these years?

Its always a pleasure to see you. How long has it been? I'm so happy to see you again. Greeting a person you havent seen for a long time (Informal) How come I never see you? Its been such a long time. Long time no see. Where have you been hiding? Its been ages since we last met. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Let's get started: " HAVE YOUR SAY " Good Morning, Dear Students. Let's suppose, Someone has had a service that wasn't good. Someone got something that didn't work. Here are some rules for writing a "Complaint" Letter. 1. Tell the problem specifically. Example: I bought high-speed Internet, and it only worked for half a day. 2. Tell what you did to fix the problem. BE SPECIFIC. Example: On June 6, I called your telephone support. They said to . . . I followed their advice, but it's still slow. 3. Tell what they promised. Example: You promised a high-speed Internet, but mine is slow. 4. Tell when you what you want them to do, and when. Give your contact information. Example: I'd like to talk to a supervisor before the end of the week. My telephone number is (999999999). 5. End politely. Thank you. Let's try it. I'd like everyone to COMPLAIN Here!!! --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself prepared to get through the Acid Test of English : Let's See How Smarter Are you At Speaking English ?

Cambridge English Level Test /Prepared By Prof.Saghir Javed Entry Test Level 11 If you ................. to Paris, you'll see the Eiffel Tower. (a) will go (b) went (c) go (d) would go 12 He's been living in London ................. ten years. (a) ago (b) since (c) for (d) during 13 He came into the room while l ................. T.V. (a) watched (b) was watching (c) am watching (d) watch 14 "I am going to a film this evening." He said he ................. to a film that evening. (a) had been (b) went (c) was going (d) did go 15 You ................. stop smoking or you will get ill. (a) ought (b) should (c) can (d) better 16 Peter ................. golf since he was 16. (a) has been playing (b) was playing (c) will be playing (d) plays 17 I ................. English since last December. (a) will be learning (b)have been learning (c)am learning (d)learn 18 Whisky is ................. in Scotland. (a) done (b) made (c) make (d) doing 19 Shakespeare is ................. to understand than Agatha Christie. (a) difficult (b) most difficult (c) more difficult (d) the most difficult 20 She's seeing him tomorrow, ................. ? (a) is she (b) isn't she (c) will she (d) won't she ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself prepared to get through the Acid Test of English :

Let's See How Smarter Are you At Speaking English ? Cambridge English Level Test /Prepared By Prof.Saghir Javed Entry Test Level 1 I haven't got ................. cigarettes. (a) some (b) any (c) little (d) few 2 My teacher ................. English. (a) are (b) am (3) speak (d) is 3 ................. you go to the cinema yesterday? (a) Have (b) Do (c) Did (d) When 4 The teacher said: " Simon, please ................. the window ". (a) you close (b) closing (c) opened (d) close 5 ................. you like a cup of tea? (a) Would (b) Could (c) May (d) Does 6 She ............... coming to dinner tomorrow. (a) will (b) is (c) shall (d) can 7 The examination is ................. Tuesday. (a) in (b) by (c) on (d) at 8 She's going to Spain ................. March. (a) on (b) in (c) at (d) by 9 This pen isn't yours. It's ................. (a) mine (b) your (c) me (d) to him 10 He ................. to America 5 years ago. (a) goes (b) is going (c) has gone (d) went ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Get Yourself Familiarized with " Conjunctive Adverb "In English: Advanced Level of using Even though: "Even though" is similar to "although." It's used to show contrasts and differences in things that are true. Examples 1. Even though the price of gas is starting to come down, many people are choosing to take the bus or the train instead. 2. They're very good friends even though there are many differences between them. 3. Even though the city is a crowded place to live in, there are days when you feel very alone. 4. I'm not going to go there even though it's cheap. 5. The queen decided to have him executed even though he made a great speech in his own defense. 6. Even though her English is really good, Alice still feels a little nervous whenever she uses it on business trips. 7. Even though most students think that these kinds of diagrams are boring, they're necessary to study. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Get Yourself Acquianted with " Reductions In American English " Good Night, Dear Students. Here I have endeavored to articulate paramount importance of reduction in American spoken language. American English speakers don't always speak words perfectly. They sometimes shorten words and phrases to make them sound more natural.These are called "Reductions." Anyway, lets have a look at the most typical shorten words and phrases that make the sound more natural at speaking American English language one by one. For example: Give me = Gimme, What is her = Whatser 1. Reductions formed with what + is + word (A) whassup Formation: whassup = what + is + up Usage: Hey, whassup?

Meaning: Hey, what is up? (B) Whatser Formation: whatser = what + is + her Usage: Whatser name? Meaning: What is her name? (C) Whatsiz Formation: whatsiz = what + is + his Usage: Whatsiz name? Meaning: What is his name? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Acquianted with " Useful Expression in English " Asking For Information Sometimes you want to ask English people for information. In English it is not very polite to start a conversation with a direct question. For this reason we have a number of phrases. Ten Expressions to Use In Speaking And Writing 1. Can you tell me...? 2. Could you tell me...? 3. I'd like to know... 4. D'you know... 5. (Got / Have you) any idea...? 6. Could anyone tell me...? 7. (Do / Would) you happen to know...? 8. I don't suppose you (would) know...? 9. I wonder if you could tell me...? 10. I wonder if someone could tell me...? How To Use These Phrases In Your English Phrases 1 - 10 are all followed by indirect questions. So 'What's the time?' becomes 'Can you tell me what the time is?'. Phrase 2 is a little more formal and polite than phrase 1. Phrases 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are polite and are good to use if you are asking a stranger or you are asking at a public information desk. Phrase 4 is more informal. Phrases 5 and 7 are more informal if you say them with out the part in () brackets. Phrases 9 and 10 are very formal and in an informal situation some people may react strangely if they think that you are being sarcastic.

By using phrases 1 to 10, we make it easier for the listener to say 'Sorry I don't know'. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Let's Get Celebrated. " HAPPY NEW YEAR 2013 " CONGRATULATION: Good Night. Dear Students. I am so delighted and excited to wish you all " Happy New Year " with the warmth feeling of my heart for you with never ending happiness and rejoice in your upcoming life through all the years until you get your destined destination with flying colors. I really Love all the human being cause I was born tohelp and encourage everyone of them in order to get them their destination with flying colors and bring them flash of smile on their face with the feeling of self-satisfaction. Merci New Year is the occasion to Open new Ways & Make new dreams, to Again find the power & faith within you, to rejoice in simple pleasures & Go for some new challenges. Wish you happy New Year 2013 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Your ready to have a test for Advanced English in order to evaluate yourself at Speaking English with Standard /Level : 'must' and 'have to' Differences For each space, choose which is better - must or have to. 1. Professor Watkins told me today that I __________ give in that assignment by Friday at the latest. 2. John! This is a one way street. You __________ turn back and use Smith Street. 3. My back has been hurting for weeks. I __________ go to the doctor's. 4. My company said that if I want this promotion, I __________ go to the doctor's for a thorough medical check-up first. 5. I went to see "Alien 9" at the cinema last night. What a great film! You __________ go and see it! 6. Jane. Thanks for everything. It was a great party. I __________ go now. I am really tired. 7. Jane. Thanks for everything. It was a great party. I __________ go now. My husband is waiting for me outside.

8. I am taking out a bank loan this month. I __________ pay a lot of taxes all together. 9. Hey, you boys!! You are not supposed to be in this room. You __________ leave now!! 10. The local council is really strict about protecting that piece of lawn! You __________ walk around it. Thanks
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Get yourself ready to be cognizant with advanced vocabulary: callous (adjective) insensitive and unfeeling toward others The teacher was particularly callous in her treatment of the children. emulate (verb) to imitate or model yourself after Children often emulate adults that they look up to. finite (adjective) limited In a world of finite resources, if some people have more, other people must have less. laud (verb) to praise The school's principal lauded the teacher for her ability to discipline her class. nocturnal (adjective) active at night Mountain lions are primarily nocturnal and do almost all of their hunting at night. noxious (adjective) harmful or unpleasant Be careful applying pesticides. Their fumes are often quite noxious to humans. recant (verb) to take back what one has said; to say that one no longer holds a belief or opinion Max recanted every bad thing he said about Mary. Thanks -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get yourself ready to be acquainted with Advanced Vocabulary: agony (noun) intense suffering and pain Max cried in agony when he broke his leg. allege

(verb) assert or claim wrongdoing by someone (typically without proof) The teacher alleged that Max cheated on the exam. caricature (noun) a picture or description of a person or thing with comically exaggerated characteristics Max drew a caricature of his teacher. disperse (verb) cause to go in different directions The crowd dispersed as soon as the concert was over. incite (verb) to stir up or encourage (violent or unlawful behavior) Max incited the other students to rebel against the teacher. polarize (verb) to divide or cause to divide into two sharply contrasting groups The issue polarized the public. precipitate (verb) to cause to happen suddenly or sooner than expected Extremely high gas prices precipitated the demise of the SUV. sanction (noun) official authorization, approval or ratification of a law Max received the official sanction of the Federal Darts Association to hold a tournament in the school. Thanks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get yourself ready to get acquainted with this Approach of Clause. Relative clauses What is a relative clause? We can use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give more information about something. I bought a new car. It is very fast. I bought a new car that is very fast. She lives in New York. She likes living in New York. She lives in New York, which she likes. Defining and Non-defining A defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about: I like the woman who lives next door. (If I dont say who lives next door, then we dont know which woman I mean)

A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something. We dont need this information to understand the sentence. I live in London, which has some fantastic parks. (Everybody knows where London is, which has some fantastic parks is extra information) Defining relative clauses: 1: The relative pronoun is the subject: First, lets consider when the relative pronoun is the subject of a defining relative clause. We can use who, which or that. We use who for people and which for things. We can use that for people or things. The relative clause can come after the subject or the object of the sentence. We cant drop the relative pronoun. For example (clause after the object of the sentence): Im looking for a secretary who / that can use a computer well. She has a son who / that is a doctor. We bought a house which / that is 200 years old. I sent a letter which / that arrived three weeks later. More examples (clause after the subject of the sentence): The people who / that live on the island are very friendly. The man who / that phoned is my brother. The camera which / that costs 100 is over there. The house which / that belongs to Julie is in London. Try an exercise where the relative pronoun is the subject here 2: The relative pronoun is the object: Next, lets talk about when the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. In this case we can drop the relative pronoun if we want to. Again, the clause can come after the subject or the object of the sentence. Here are some examples: (Clause after the object) She loves the chocolate (which / that) I bought. We went to the village (which / that) Lucy recommended. John met a woman (who / that) I had been to school with. The police arrested a man (who / that) Jill worked with. (Clause after the subject) The bike (which / that) I loved was stolen. The university (which / that) she likes is famous. The woman (who / that) my brother loves is from Mexico. The doctor (who / that) my grandmother liked lives in New York. Try an exercise where the relative pronoun is the object here Try an exercise about defining relative clauses, both subject and object here Try another exercise about defining relative clauses here Non-defining relative clauses: We dont use that in non-defining relative clauses, so we need to use which if the pronoun

refers to a thing and who if it refers to a person. We cant drop the relative pronoun in this kind of clause, even if the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause. (Clause comes after the subject) My boss, who is very nice, lives in Manchester. My sister, who I live with, knows a lot about cars. My bicycle, which I've had for more than ten years, is falling apart. My mother's house, which I grew up in, is very small. (Clause comes after the object) Yesterday I called our friend Julie, who lives in New York. The photographer called to the Queen, who looked annoyed. Last week I bought a new computer, which I don't like now I really love the new Chinese restaurant, which we went to last night. Prepositions and relative clauses If the verb in the relative clause needs a preposition, we put it at the end of the clause: For example: listen to The music is good. Julie listens to the music. The music (which / that) Julie listens to is good. work with My brother met a woman. I used to work with the woman. My brother met a woman (who / that) I used to work with. go to The country is very hot. He went to the country. The country (which / that) he went to is very hot. come from I visited the city. John comes from the city. I visited the city (that / which) John comes from. apply for The job is well paid. She applied for the job. The job (which / that) she applied for is well paid. Whose Whose is always the subject of the relative clause and cant be left out. It replaces a possessive. It can be used for people and things. The dog is over there. The dogs / its owner lives next door. The dog whose owner lives next door is over there. The little girl is sad. The little girls / her doll was lost. The little girl whose doll was lost is sad. The woman is coming tonight. Her car is a BMW. The woman whose car is a BMW is coming tonight. The house belongs to me. Its roof is very old. The house whose roof is old belongs to me. Where / when / why We can sometimes use these question words instead of relative pronouns and prepositions. I live in a city. I study in the city. I live in the city where I study. I live in the city that / which I study in. I live in the city in which I study.

The bar in Barcelona is still there. I met my wife in that bar. The bar in Barcelona where I met my wife is still there. The bar in Barcelona that / which I met my wife in is still there. The bar in Barcelona in which I met my wife is still there. The summer was long and hot. I graduated from university in the summer. The summer when I graduated from university was long and hot. The summer that / which I graduated from university in was long and hot. The summer in which I graduated was long and hot. Thanks " Live For Others". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get yourself prepared to have acquainted with Causative Verbs. Let / Make / Have / Get The following is a mini-tutorial on the use of the causative verbs "let," "make," "have," and "get." After you have studied the tutorial, complete the associated exercises. If you already know how to use these verbs, you can skip the explanation and go directly to the exercises. Let FORM [let + person + verb] USE This construction means "to allow someone to do something." Examples: John let me drive his new car. Will your parents let you go to the party? I don't know if my boss will let me take the day off. Make FORM [make + person + verb] USE This construction means "to force someone to do something." Examples: My teacher made me apologize for what I had said.

Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat? She made her children do their homework. Have FORM [have + person + verb] USE This construction means "to give someone the responsibility to do something." Examples: Dr. Smith had his nurse take the patient's temperature. Please have your secretary fax me the information. I had the mechanic check the brakes. Get FORM [get + person + to + verb] USE This construction usually means "to convince to do something" or "to trick someone into doing something." Examples: Susie got her son to take the medicine even though it tasted terrible. How can parents get their children to read more? The government TV commercials are trying to get people to stop smoking. Get vs. Have Sometimes "get someone to do something" is interchangeable with "have someone do something," but these expressions do not mean exactly the same thing. Examples: I got the mechanic to check my brakes. At first the mechanic didn't think it was necessary, but I convinced him to check the brakes. I had the mechanic check my brakes. I asked the mechanic to check the brakes. Thanks ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get yourself ready to get acquainted with these two Approaches.

I'm dying to + (verb) When using the word 'dying' in this manner you are referring to wanting or desiring something greatly. Here are some examples: "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm dying dying dying dying dying dying dying dying dying dying to to to to to to to to to to relax on the beach." pick some fresh fruit." order some desserts." find out if I got the job." move to a bigger house." look at all the work you've done." learn more about you." introduce you to my parents." expand my business." check my score on the test."

I'll help you + (verb) This lets you inform someone that you are willing to provide assistance. This could refer to something physical or mental, like helping someone to 'think' or 'remember' something. Here are some examples: "I'll help you cook dinner tonight." "I'll help you raise money for your charity." "I'll help you register for your class online." "I'll help you move to your new house." "I'll help you prevent that from happening again." "I will help you park your car." "I will help you provide all the information you need." "I will help you realize your potential." "I will help you stop smoking." "I will help you shop for groceries." ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get yourself ready to get familiarized with these two Approaches. What if + (subject + verb) Here you are asking a question about 'in the event of' or 'in the event that.' Usually you are looking for an answer at the time of the question that is being asked. Here are some examples: "What if I miss the bus?" "What if I were late to dinner?"

"What "What "What "What "What "What "What "What

if if if if if if if if

I called her tomorrow?" I don't understand?" someone sees me?" no one is home?" they decide to stay?" it rains while we are camping?" I do not finish on time?" we introduce ourselves first?" The point is that + (subject + verb)

By stating 'the point is' you are stating in your opinion the meaning about what is actually happening. Here are some examples: "The "The "The "The "The "The "The "The "The "The point point point point point point point point point point is is is is is is is is is is that that that that that that that that that that if you study you will do well in school." she does not understand." we need this done today." the world would be a better place." we should help." snakes can be dangerous." leaving a baby alone is not a good idea." if we do not leave now we will be late." she needs to be more responsible." we need to work together."

Get Yourself Familiarized with the use of " I'm looking forward to " I'm looking forward to When telling someone that you are 'looking forward to' you are saying that you are waiting or hoping for something, especially with pleasure. Here are some examples: "I'm looking forward to meeting you." "I'm looking forward to talking with you." "I'm looking forward to going on vacation." "I'm looking forward to spending time with my family." "I'm looking forward to learning the English language." "I am looking forward to visiting another country." "I am looking forward to having a family." "I am looking forward to graduating from college." "I am looking forward to watching the baseball game." "I am looking forward to running in a race." -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Acquainted with the advanced use of " I'm calling to + (verb) "

I'm calling to + (verb) When using the words 'I'm calling' you are stating that you are actually using the phone to call and relay information. Here are some examples: "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm calling calling calling calling calling calling calling calling calling calling to to to to to to to to to to tell you about my day." accept your invitation." answer your question." book a reservation at your restaurant." complain about something." thank you." support your decision." remind you of our dinner plans." report a lost wallet." receive my prize."

Get Yourself Acquainted with the advanced use of " I'm working on (noun) " I'm working on + (noun) 'I'm' is a contraction for the words 'I am.' The phrase 'working on' relays a physical or mental effort towards an accomplishment. Here are some examples: "I'm working on a big project." "I'm working on training my dog." "I'm working on making new friends." "I'm working on educating myself." "I'm working on my homework." "I am working on painting a house." "I am working on a new idea." "I am working on my computer." "I'm working on my website." -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Recognized with the use of " It's my turn to + (verb) " It's my turn to + (verb)

Good Morning, Dear Students, I am so thankful to all of you. Who have wished me for my Happy Birthday from the depth of their kind heart. Today I am gonna teach you about the use of " It's my turn to + (verb) " . Thanks The word 'It's' is a contraction of the words 'it is.' When stating 'my turn' you are telling someone that it is time to change position or position focuses on to you. Here are some examples: "It's my turn to walk you home." "It's my turn to do laundry." "It's my turn to wish all of my students for their Happy Birthday." "It's my turn to take out the trash." "It's my turn to choose where we eat." "It is my turn to pay for dinner." "It is my turn to roll the dice." "It is my turn to provide an answer." "It is my turn to try and play the game." "It is my turn to attempt solving the problem." ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Familairized with the use of " It's hard for me to + (verb) " It's hard for me to + (verb) When saying that something is 'hard for me' you are informing someone that what you are talking about is difficult or challenging for you. Here are some examples: "It's hard for me to accept what you are telling me." "It's hard for me to argue your point." "It's hard for me to balance my check book." "It's hard for me to concentrate on the task." "It's hard for me to consider your other options." "It's hard for me to depend on you." "It is hard for me to decide where to go tonight." "It is hard for me to explain my actions." "It is hard for me to guarantee your success." "It is hard for me to handle so much pressure." ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself Acquainted with " I'm having a hard time + (verb-ing) " I'm having a hard time + (verb-ing) By stating you are having a hard time you are letting someone know you are having

difficulty with something. This could be something physical or mental and something that could be overcome with effort. Here are some examples: "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm having having having having having a a a a a hard hard hard hard hard time time time time time writing." understanding you." answering your question." downloading songs to my iPod." agreeing to the terms."

With the addition of a verb you can express in more detail just how difficult something is for you. Here are some examples: "I'm "I'm "I'm "I'm having having having having an extremely hard time trusting you." an extremely hard time with my wife." a very hard time finding a job." a very hard time finding parts for my car."

Get Yourself Acquainted with the use of " I think I should + (verb) " I think I should + (verb) Here you are telling someone that you feel strongly about doing a particular action. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I think think think think think I I I I I should should should should should practice my reading." join a study group." handle this as soon as possible." earn my degree." explain myself."

By adding the word 'don't' you have changed what you are conveying from something you are thinking of doing, to something you are against. Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I do do do do do not not not not not think think think think think I I I I I should should should should should complain so much." attend that event." borrow more money." doubt you." decide until later."

------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself familiarized with the use of "I've heard that + (subject + verb)"

I've heard that + (subject + verb) You are letting someone know that you are aware of something or that you have been informed of something that is taking place. This could be something that has already happened or something happening in the near future. 'I've' is a contraction of the words 'I have.' Here are some examples: "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've "I've heard heard heard heard heard heard heard heard heard heard that that that that that that that that that that you got a new job." you want to leave your job." you got a new car." you like to jog." you fix computers." you've never been to Canada." you like to shop." you and your boss don't get along." there is no school next week." your wife is a yoga instructor."

Get Yourself familiarized with " It occurred to me that (subject + verb) " It occurred to me that (subject + verb) The word 'occurred' informs someone that something has come to mind or has been found. You are letting someone know that you suddenly have thought or remembered about something. Here are some examples: "It "It "It "It "It occurred occurred occurred occurred occurred to to to to to me me me me me that I forgot your birthday." that we both belong to the same gym." that we enjoy a lot of the same things." the price for homes are more expensive here." that eating healthy makes me feel better."

Using the word 'had' or 'has' can change what you are saying to represent something remembered in a past time. Here are some examples: "It "It "It "It had occurred to me that I forgot something at the grocery." had occurred to me I might need to change my email address." has occurred to me I forgot my mom's birthday." has occurred to me before."

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Get Yourself familiarized with the Advanced use of " Let me + (verb ) " Let me + (verb) 'Let me' is suggesting that you are asking for permission or an opportunity to do something. Here are some examples: "Let "Let "Let "Let "Let "Let "Let "Let "Let "Let me me me me me me me me me me make my own decisions." offer to help you." open the door for you." pause and think about what we are doing." welcome you to the neighbourhood." save you the trouble." make a suggestion." try and fix your car." taste the soup before you add more spices." treat you to some ice cream."

Get Yourself familiarized with the Advanced use of " Thank you for " Thank you for Saying 'thank you' is telling someone you appreciate what they have done. This can either be something they did for you or for someone else. Here are some examples: "Thank "Thank "Thank "Thank "Thank "Thank "Thank "Thank "Thank "Thank you you you you you you you you you you for for for for for for for for for for inviting me." helping me move." informing me about the job opening." mailing that package for me." working so hard." stopping by to visit." replying to my email." providing me with the answers." heating up dinner." hurrying to get here."

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself familiarized with the Advanced use of " Can I + (verb) " Can I + (verb) When ending a sentence with a question mark (?) you are asking the person or people you are talking to a question for which you would like an answer. Here you are asking permission

to do a particular action. Here are some examples: "Can "Can "Can "Can "Can "Can "Can "Can "Can "Can I I I I I I I I I I answer your question?" attend the event?" move to another spot?" call you tomorrow?" complete this later?" explain myself?" help you with your homework?" include you in our plans?" introduce you to my co-workers?" inform you of some bad news?"

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself familiarized with the Advanced use of " Can I get + (noun) " Can I get + (noun) The phrase 'Can I get' can be used in a couple different ways. You can use it to ask a question. Here are some examples: "Can "Can "Can "Can "Can I I I I I get get get get get a cup of water?" a dog?" lunch?" sugar in my coffee?" popcorn at the movie?"

You can also use it when offering to help someone or do something for them. Here are some examples: "Can "Can "Can "Can "Can I I I I I get you another drink?" help you move that?" recommend a good place to eat?" take you home?" help you finish your project?"

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself familiarized with the use of " I'm not sure if (subject + verb) " I'm not sure if (subject + verb) 'I'm not sure' expresses a feeling of uncertainty or lack of confidence on a particular matter.

Here are some examples: "I am not sure if they will offer me the job." "I'm not sure if she'll return my call." "I'm not sure if my wife will understand." "I'm not sure if we will go out tonight." "I'm not sure if I understand your question." "I am not sure if I can handle it." "I am not sure if it will happen." "I am not sure if it will matter." "I am not sure if my mom will notice." "I am not sure if they will permit us to park there." ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Do you mind if I + (verb) You are asking someone in present tense if they object to something you are asking. Here are some examples: "Do "Do "Do "Do "Do you you you you you mind mind mind mind mind if if if if if I excuse myself?" we left early?" I take a nap?" I ask your mom?" it snows?"

You could also use the word 'would' Here are some examples: "Would "Would "Would "Would "Would you you you you you mind mind mind mind mind if we went out to eat?" if I opened the window?" telling me what you're doing?" being quiet for a minute?" if I changed the channel?"

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Get Yourself familiarized with the use of " I don't know what to + (verb) " I don't know what to + (verb) You are letting someone know that you are not sure about what is being asked. You may also have no knowledge or opinion on a topic.

Here are some examples: "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I "I don't know what to eat for dinner." don't know what to buy you for your birthday." don't know what to say." don't know what to do with my spare time." don't know what to do for vacation." do not know what to do to make you happy." do not know what to do to help you understand." do not know what to think." do not know what to do to prevent this." do not know what to order."

Get Yourself Acquainted with the use of " You're supposed to + (verb) " You're supposed to + (verb) 'You're' is a contraction of the words 'you are.' When using 'You're' with the words 'supposed to' you are making a suggestion that something you strongly believe ought to happen. Here are some examples: "You're supposed to keep that secret." "You're supposed to let me know when you leave." "You're supposed to stop when at a red light." "You're supposed to unpack once you get there." "You're supposed to return the movies you rent on time." "You are supposed to remain calm." "You are supposed to fasten your seat belt." "You are supposed to invite all your friends." "You are supposed to encourage one another." "You are supposed to decide before next Thursday."