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U.S.

Special Forces

Recon Manual

COPYBIGHT

Lancer Militaria Sims, Ark.71969

USA
1982

PREFACE

shftute for unit SOPs. Nor do any of the techniques in this nanual represent the lagt _yord. The success of any recon operation depends on the ability of the unit to develop its own procedures and to adapt and explolt those which pro-ye successful. Ultimately, of course, success depends on the motivation and training of the reeon team. This manual w111 provlde an introduction to the required training and a basis for continuanee of tralnlng. While no technique represents the final answer, those described here have been proven successful in several years of combat. To the beginner, thls book wi-l-l serve as a suunary of the techniques he must naster; to the "o1d-ti.mer", it will be a refresher and review. There is on1-y one type of recon man that has stopped learning recon - the dead type.
This book is directed only towards RT enpl-oynent. Therefore, always keep ln mind that taetics and techniques are directed towards one goal; the collection of intelligence. The patrolling tactics, lnsertion techniques, cornmunicati.ons, etc. are only means to accomplish that end.
(Publisherrs note: This manual- was developed for instruction purposes at the United States Army Institute for Military Assistance during the early 1970s. It contai.ns information very hard to find elsewhere, much of it in the form of "l-essons learnedtt from experiences ln Southeast Asia. I,Ie felt that the informati.on presented here deserved to be readily avail-able to the nilitary professional and we hope you will flnd lt useful in all of your military endeavors.)

The purpose of this manual is to provide a compendi-r:m of unclassified technlques and procedures used by reconnaisance patrols. It is no sub-

\
?1 l.

OF TABIE _.-_-_____

CONTENTS

-otganlzation and Composition of RTsi:-'-'


RT EqriiPrle-nt. . . rr'..'r-a.-:
8 """ " . - - -:: . .::: ::: .:::l; Combat Intallige'ce ""47 " " '53 ......77 92 96

II. III.

Premissiou-r-qePJitG;Techniques" Alr -tnflftratioiTi*iiltr"tton IV'' ?atrolling Techniques'' v. Tracking and Use of n**o S.ns"s'in Obtaining vr. VII. Intel-11gence.. VIII. FAC/FAG Procedures. .. . Employnent of ArtillerY' rx.
x. Foreigo
[,IeaPons

CHAPTER

ORGANIZATION AND COMPOSITION OF RTS

1.1 GEMRAL. There are essentially two basic recon teams--the 12-man team and the six-man team. Often the team will be augmented or diminished for specific missions. It is desirable that the RT leader be given a voice in determining the size and composition of the team during the planning phase of a mission. L.2
and

four indigenous a. b.

TI{E SIX-MAN TEAM. The six-man Eeam is usually composed team mernbers. It is made up as follows:

of two Americans

10 Team Leader (US). 11 Assistant Team Leaderfradio operator (US).


Team Leader.

c. 01 Indigenous e. f. 1.3 a. c.

d. 02 Interpreter.:k
03 M79 man.*-

04 Scout.* TEAI'I. A typicaL l2-man team may be organized as follows:

THE 12-MAN

10 Team Leader (US;.


(US).

b. lL Assistan! Team Leader


12 Radio Operator (US).
Team Leader.

d. 01 Indigenous t. g. i.

e. 02 Interpreter.*
03 M79 man.* 04 M79
man.?k

h. 05 Scout.*
06 Scout.
tc

j . 07 Scout.

r<

k. 08 Scout .:t 1. 09 Scout.:k


:'tlndigenous Team Member.

CHAPTER

II

RT EQUIPMENT

2.L INDIVIDUAI' following items: \ suit' tiger a. Steiile fatigues or port'ion of Panel sewn inside toP' with hat .FloP-brim b. c. e.
+

EQUIPMENT '

carry the [ach team member should normall-Y

Jungl=boscE"'
'
--L

d. ?istol- belt
Harness '

f. First aid Packet' (for contents ----__-g. Pill kit h. Knife i. j. k. l-.

see para 12'1)'

(heavY and sharP) '

tablets attached' Four canteens with purification color in the SOI)' Smoke (at least one of every
ComPass'

Smal-l-

survival kit'

m. Individual weaPon' n. Signal mirror' o.


Panel'

P. Strobe light' q. Pen flare gun with 4-5 fl-ares' r. Four or six para 2.4b(3) (a))' s. t. u. v. w.
Rucksack
may anrno pouches (canteen covers

be substituted--see

with reinforced straPs'

Rations '
WeaPon c1-eaning equiPment'
MaPs.

Poncho.

x.

Can opener

(or pocket knife with can opener).

y. Waterproofed matches. z. Insect and leech repellent. - aa. Jungle sweater (optional). bb. cc.
RT*10 radio.

Penl-ight. suspension cord).

dd. Six foot length of nylon cord (e.g. ee. Swiss seat.
f

Two snap l- inks

gg. hh. ii. jj. 11. nn. oo. 2.2

Notebook and penciL.


Two

plastic
cravat

bags.
(WP

Fragmentation grenades
Two
bandages.

or other can be substituted).

kk. S0I

and KAC.

Gloves. socks.

[rn. Extra

Cl-aymore.

Serum albumin

unit. of
each

normally be carried on a team:

TEAI'{

EQUII}'IENT. One

of the following items of

equipment should

a. c. d. e. f.

Camera and

film.

b. Binoculars.
AN/PRC-25 M79

with extra battery.


anrnunition.

with assorted types of

M14 mines and boobytraps

as required.

Anti-intrusion devices as required.

2.3S?ECIALEQUI-I${ENT.Specialequipment,".g.,equipmentforprisoner requires' snaLches' eLc., is c-btried as the mission

-\

2.4

WEARTNG AND TNSPECTTON..OE EQUTn',IENT

are- tlrg-:.C.utt"ttl, "?:":*:t::::": in a. Gener3l. There iP*" q,, ipin r,ffffi t I I' I :: - 3 :-*u:' "t - :h::-*11 : -:' :t? -' " it becomes :ilti:il';" U;; ir 1:t::"::-:^l?::'::lilq*:: nd, """urt"v. ;"'b."1 t imi J: * :i'-1 : : : 1" ::'::1:?3"1' be should gear :"; "::":'"i"i',ii'u' ; ";; possible J:' : survival and " i"-;;; ;;"i;; extent self-sufficient is ":::L':l vidual so that po"ket"-or the unirorm ::#"i";;-;;; t --,- ^1- ^ ^ ^1, The third Point is that equiPment rucksack' and :;;';; il i;;"; his web gear ?"'n"'.i.-"o*ro'. and ease or access and handling'

the wearing of

"fflrltol""l::il";':"'::

-cgtZi4l equiPment' (1) Individual uniform'

b.'l+itF.-the.Ebovepa'8t51-nmind,followingisarecorrunendedwayof

(a)Trousersareheldupbythreadingatriangularbandage(cravat) be worn around the neck for use through the beli ioop". (motn""t U"ttatgu ""tt can be used for emergency (The two bandages as a sweat band] ii-i"tit"a.) firstaidifrequired.)Trousersarenott'uckedintotheboottoP. (b)Thejacketiswornwithsleevesrol]-eddownandbuttonedatthecuff and to camouftage the Lo provide protection against thorns and brush order in loosely to facilitate skin. The col-lar is unbuttoned. The jacket shoul-d fit ventilaLion. (2) Equipment carried in individual uniform' (a)
Lower

left leg pocket' Insect repeltent in plastic bottle'


Pocket'

(b) Right leg


-1. One

prepared meal-,

or an emergency ration'

)
3

Panel.

Pen

flare

gun

with flares

'

(c)

left leg pocket' RT-10 radio' (d) Right hip pocket' Six-foot nylon cord or
Upper

suspension

line'

(e) Left breast

Pocket

! . SOI and KAC.


2
MaP.

Notebook and Pencil

NOTE: The above three items are carried proof container.

in a plastic bag or other water-

4..Signa1 mirror attached to uniform with cord (not attached to harness).

(f) Right breast pocket.

I
3

2 Compass attEchqd to uniform with cord (not attached to harness).


Morphine syrettes

\.--

in crush proof

box.

(3) Pistol belt

and harness.

(a) Aimnunition pouches are placed closest to the buckle of the pistol belt on either side. In the bottom of each pouch place one sterile field dressing or bag of prepared rice in order to elevate magazines for easy access. Also cut the top seam of the pouch away. Each magazine is equipped with a pull tab made from waterproof tape. Four magazines are placed top down in each pouch, all facing in the same direction to minimize funbling. A good technique is to have the first three and last three rounds of each magazine tracer (see para 5,2). (canteen covers can be used in lieu of
magazine pouches as they hold more magazines.)

(b) Grenades. Carry at Least four fragmentation grenades. Attach them to the innerside of armno pouches. W? or other can be substituted for frag. Smoke grenades are attached to the outside of the pouches. Each grenade shouLd be inspected to ensure that the cotter pin is securely in pl-ace and not corroded. Also check the fuze to see that it has not been tampered with or substituted for. Do not tape down the handles; if you have to use grenades you will" have to do so quickly. (c) Canteens. Attach two canteen covers with plastic canteens as close to the aflmo Pouches as possible in order to allow the wearer to lie on his back cornfortably. Once an operation is begun the pistol belt and harness should not be removed. One bottle of water purification tablets is taped to the lid of each canteen. (d) Left harness strap. On the shoulder tape a serum alburnin container. Directly beneath the serum albumin can fasten a snap link with the Swiss seat attached. The snap link is fastened to the harness with the gate up so that it can be quickly snapped to the rung of a rope l-adder if required. (e) Right harness strap. Tape a bayonet or knife with the scabbard point up. Tie the strobe light pouch over the scabbard so that it opens up (this way the strobe light can be turned on inside the pouch so that it shines upward and does not have to be held in Ehe hand).

(4) Indigenous rucksack' -re]_ put one full canteen with purification tablets taped to the top in (NOTE: During rhe operation rhis warer should be Ji'in{il"-po"t "t" "."r, if the rucksack *n"t b" dropped in an ernergeniftewo\5utl drunk first "d<trt -'*--tQ-e \elt) canteens remain ..- ---- =... - --...-----_____ (b) Rear Pocket.---?oncho. (c) Main carrYing comPattme-n!' _=\ #;/ 1. Extra socks in Plastic
bag"
.a

f.

PiLL

kit.

claYmore '

--1 !.
!.
7

Mines and boobYtraPs.


Sweater

in Plastic

bag.

Gloves. team and

8. Extra

individual equipment'

9. Special mission equiPment. (d) put a snap link through a loop on the rucksack so that it can be snapped to a rope ladder extraction device, .8., I"leGuire Rig. (5) Weapon. Prepare the M16 or CAR-15 as follows:
the muzz1e to prevent foreign matter from entering the bore. (b) Tape the handguards to break the outline of the r/eaPon' Tape a broken-down cl-eanirrg .od to the handguard. Use enough tape so that there is sufficient left over for other uses, .8., taping the mouth of a prisoner'

(a)

Tape

(c)

if accidentallY (e)

the st,ock (M-16) to break the outtine of the weapon. (d) Tape the dust cover so that it will not make a metallic 'rclicktl
Tape
oPened. Remove

the front sling swivel. Attach a length of suspension line or a Gp strap to the front sight and the rear sling attachment (CAR-15) or carrying handl-e (M-16). This improvised sl-ing should always be on so that your hands can be free of taking pictures, climbing ladders, etc'

;
$r

I l'r

(f) Put bore bruoh, grease, and patches inslde the hand grip. A rubber magazine cover from a carbine magazine \.ril.l fit over the bottom of the hand grip to keep these items.dry. (6) The radio operator should carry onLy those items Listed as being carried in the individual uniform and on the harness and pistol- beLt. Otherhe shouLd carry onLy the radio. The extra battery for the radio should be taped to the radio. The remainder of his rations, etc., should be distributed artong the other team members. (7) The team member who carries the camera also earries the binoculars (for long-range photograph--see para 6.3). Egch other team member must know where he carries the camera and exposed film so that they can be recovered if he becomes a easualty.

CHAPTER

III
tingen-

PRNMISSION PREPARATION

:l'li: 3il" ltTtot"":il:i')!;"ul""1 "i"";; i*:-:::' ?ii :?::'ff:"X1"'l; "iio'',T:l:::; ;; #i:e= the tolrowlng Plarrtrr i i.3",;:"?:iiffi:;* thorough follow a : ?: ( make nust ;il : : i::*l-, ::' :?,'''i, ) n'otdur; ^:: sr!saFi'ox:_1:I::"::-:::*l? men, selecr ,i*",-iir srqq_!!e. ;i;;;i"Jji cor "' \vvrr( coororlrdLv (s,l i l!il;#i"i;:;; :: :'fi study; ;:l detailed :] : map ::T" l,,' (8) :3*'' compl-ete : Gl: i'f*: iH:::T:i ;l' ,r".; "T" " ":' ;&;;;, -'{'Lq"ip'ment' lll^i::: ?';i";l?:HL. -somerimes the time spa steps ' fhil::i'":;;'';'"";;;; iror -g1i3t"* -:'T:':::: :?"J::: tn'"" :i:: n *ffi#',"'"lll"io'"iti-n';;i;e"'compleri:"_o:-oo"-::,^:::' ::" consideration must
?

3.1

PATROL PLANNING.

For

a successful recon operation-all.possi

However' ptl"fude a.Y*;' r'.,r examplEitTme-(o- weather) *ty prlclude ".YR' ;::':i:ifr:"at+#l#;:'il;;;-;;t "o'Ytlut' time' available to all of these steps witlin the

be given

making a time schedul-e the RT : It method. Just as in loading airteader should employ Lhe backw";fiG;ing f" last on the ground are'loaded craft, where the equiprnent or- personnel to of -his time by starting wiLh the first, the nr reader iegins Lhe-planning of receipt of the warning time of insertion and wJrking uact to the time

a.

order. mine Lhe RT leader's

b.Studvthe'gitgation.Theenemyandfriendlysituationswilldeter.
P1-an'

c.Issuewarningorder.Attheear]-iestposs,ib].etimetheentireteam datl. u.s' tearn members should be should be alerted to the p.orpu"tive target in planning to the extent possible' kept informea tiioughout and incLuded to keep their told on1-y what is necessary for them Team memb"." briefing comp1ete a receive 'torrrd-be es a rull ttr"y rrtorrld not preparatioo" ",-,ir"rrt. alerted' are they and shoul-d be restricted to the camp once *1P study the-team leader looks d. Make a thoroueh map--studvt I^ :*. points RON positions, E&E routes' and for possifle lZilroutes, -rallffiints, the to photos aerialby be supplemented of interest. The map study strouia folder target the check t.am retaer shouLd alst maximum extent possible. The

ontheareatoseewhat''p"o''"ctionsandsketchesotherteamshaveturned in. air, artil-lery, reaction/exploitation e. coordinate. coordinaEion with the responsibility of the launch is forces, and "orilnGr"rtion activitiesshould keep himself inforrned on this coofficer and/or;-t, The RT leader ordination,however.Fromtheearliestpossiblemomenttheteamleadershou].d pilots who wil-l- be flying his contact the FAC or FAC rider and the helicopter atl three el-ements'is vital to the missibn. I,Iutual understanding between the insertion' success of the mission, especially during or not additional- or f.. Seleclmen. gegpons, an4-e'quip'm9nt' ined . Whether mission and terrain' the by special eqnip or mental conphysical personnel should be removed from the team if their ditianwould*,t.eth.madetrimenttotheteam.Physicalconditionsthat colds, coughs, X. an RT member from a mission include bad by the team leader wou].d disqualify exercised haustion, etc. 'Caution and good light must be

in eliminating personnel from a mission for such reasons. s. Make a reconnaissance. This could be the single mosE important made withelement of the team leaderts preparatlon. As many VRs as--can be be should purpose of the flight the to attention enemy's o"i--ai"ri-ng the helicopter possible, the If two. than more no is executed. Usually this For this reason the 0-2 is the mission cormnander should also fly the VR. 'the helicopter mission C0, and the FAC, the desired aircraft. This enables The VR should be aimed at conteam l_eader to make the VR simultaneously.

characteristic

s: maximum

effective use of helicopters LZs should be located to have l-andings and takeoffs into the wind. (1) For (2) Size. Under ideal conditions (See chapter IV) a helicopter can land on a plot of ground slightly larger than the spread of its landing gear, provided there is clearance for Lhe roter blades. A safety factor is required for night operations, as follows: (a) (b)
An area 50 meters

in diameter cleared to the ground.

An area surrounding the cleared area, 20 meters wide, cleared within one meter of the ground.

(3) The surface shouLd be relatively level free of obstructions.

(maximum

slope 15 percent)

and

(4) A helicopter is considered to have a climb ratio of 1:5. This means, for exampLe, that there should be no obstacles higher than 20 meters within 100 meters of the touchdown area. There should be at least one path of approach to the LZ measurLng 75 meters wide. (5) Operational considerations may necessitate relaxation of one or more of the above requirements. However, requirements should be complied with to the extent possible. The helicopter flight cormnander is the final authority on the suitability of LZs. h. Complete detailed p1ans. This includes assigning duties to each member o1 ttre team and preparation of the briefback. Adjustments to the original plan are made based on the changing intelligence situation and on information gained during the VR. Helicopter pilots and FAC should be included in the preparation of the final plan. i. Rehearsals and i.nspections. Rehearsals of special phases of the U" o" terriin similar Lo that in the target area' if possible. mission "tto,rfa Items to be rehearsed include inrnediate action drills, RON procedures, hand and anirs signals, helicopter unloading, rappelling and/or rope ladder if

applicable, and actions at danger areas. A sand table should be eonsttucted a\a to the whoLe team. to give a three-dimensional- representation of the and team equiFnent (eonducted individual of rnspections should be conducted cl-ose to their rated range as checked as in chapter II). Radios should !e as possibie, e.Bl , 8 KM for the PRd;25..-={Ce-e\iqellaJt:h batteries, such as lighis, should also be ehecked for proper operation' Weapons shouLd --------------*trobe becrebnea*testfired,andthennotdisassembledagain. j. Briefback. The briefback is the team leaderrs deteiLed plan, as and actions he wilt take to explairr"aEn" "ordlander, crf the procedures to {he f ive=< is-BlrilLlar accomplish his mis-ciq!- --Thg tolaat lirnit-Etl to, the following points: nor is but hti"iu"i[="ovtr=,
.--_---=--

.r"""-"i*.::it;

(1) Situatlon. Team leader describes the enemy and friendLy situation as Pertains to his oPeration. Team Leader states the mission <rf his team as it was pre_ sented to Mission. httn aE Etre operaElons and intelligence briefing and as he understands -tZJi. --(3) Execution. (b) !.
Concept

of Operations:

(r) Organization of
Planned routes.

team.

Inf iLtration/exf il-tration LZs.

2, Rally points. 3. Areas of interest,. (c) Formation of (d) Flight plan. -t.
Check points.

team and

location of each

team member.

2, Flight tiile. (e) Actions uPon landing.


-t.

Fired on prior to Landing. Fired on after Landing.

2.
-1.

If aircraft is shot down.


Types

(f)

of security.

t. During movefient. 2, Short and Long haLts. -1.


During radio contacts'

a
!.. Overnight. (g) Inrnediate action dri1l' l-. Break contact. 2. Actions after conLact (h) Designation of rallY Points'
;

-L. Z. (i) (j) -t. 2.

How

long to wait.

Subsequent action.

Methods

of marking exfil-tration LZ
and

and confirming

signal to aircraft.

Artillery
How
How

air support availabLe.

to call for artillerY. to direct airstrikes.


(PoI^I,

-1. How to direct FAC. (k) special mission procedures.

special equipment, etc . )

(4) Administration and logistics. (a) Rations and equipment to be carried by each member' (b) (5) (a) -t. Z.
$hortages.
and mental-

(c) Physical
Cormnand

condition of

team.

and Signal-.

SignaL.

Type radios and antennas carried. Type contacts and contact schedul-e.

-3.. Air relay flight schedule !.. Actions if contacts are missed.

I. g.

Frequencies.
Base.

!.. Patrol. g. Artille_r;r-

11

g.
s..

Air.
Azimuth

to base station'

(b)

Connnand.

-L. Chain of

conrnand'

Z. Pos{tion of

each American

in the team'

'_----\

3.2sA},lPLEPREMISSIONPREPARATION.Thefollowingexampleisidealizedln.that obviously this will seldom be the case' five days are available for planning. of the procedures can be illustrated' ;11 The time frame is extended so that RT leader receives warning order. then gl-e-rts Leam of
expecE6a

a. Prior.E-a--D-s. ta;seEffie:

b. D-5. U.S. team members recej-ve operations and intelligence briefings. 0P briefing consists of operations order. Intelligence briefing concerns latest intelligence pictures of target area. Team then conducts map and photo studies, selecting possibLeLZs, points of interest, routes, rendezvous points, elc. Using large scale maps, the team constructs a sand table, depicting the terrain of the area. c. D-4. RT leader makes VR to confirm or deny information gained from map and photo study. Also attempts to determine level of enemy activity. While VR is being conducted, rest of team practices SOPs such as hand and arm signals, IA drills, RON procedures, etc. Upon completion of VR, Leam
updates information and continues planning.

d. D-3 Planning Continues. Special equipment and corm gear are drawn and tested. Begin rehearsal in area similar to target area. Practice special phases of mission. e. D-2. Continue planning and rehearsal. Stay abrease of intelligence situation. f. D-1. RT leader and flight leaders conduct final VR to confirm earlier information and plans, and to choose air routes to and from the target.area, orbit areas. The chopper pilots should determine the suitability of the LZs (at least 2). Upon completion of the VR, the RT leader and flight leaders should discuss special signaLs and the method of insertion. Assistant team leaders supervise cleaning and test firing of weapons and conduct equipment checks. RT leader should then leadJeam-thfough talk-Lhrough of mission. Everyone packs. RT leader presents brief back. g. D-Dav. Conduct final inspection of-personnel and equipment. Conduct thorough cormn checks. Move to )alaneF site and receive final briefing. Briefing shoul-d be gi-.ven;e-a1l U.S. team members as well as the FAC and helicopter pilots. --,,L2

CHAPTER

IV
TECHNIQUES

AIR INFILTMTION/EXFILTMTION

+.i =Gp1wq41,. Recon teams can be infiltrated and exfittrated by land, sea' or air, or in combinations. The most common method currenEly in use is by air--more specifically, by helicopter. This chapter will concentrate on the use of the helicopter in inserting and extracting RT's; however, the RT leader shoul-d not lose sight of the fact that other methods of infiltration may be more appropriate, such as wal-k-in, stay-behind (when the team is inserted with a larger unit) or parachute. It should also be kept in mind that the enemy is quite famitiar with the helicopter tactics that have been employed over the last few years. It is therefore incumbent upon everyone concerned to use imagination and ingenuity in adopting the techniques that will be described in this chapter to their own situations. In al-l cases, avoid setting a pattern for the enemy to detect. 4.2 CHAMCTERISTICS OF I{ELICOPTERS. A11 RT leaders must be aware of the capabilities and limitations in support of RT operations. There is a balance between these capabilities. When one of three variables--fule, range' or payl-oad--is changed within existing weather conditions, at least one of the other variabl-es will al-so change. a. General Capabil-ities. (1) Under normal condition, helicopters can ascend and descend at relatively steep angles, which enables them to operate from confined and unimproved areas.

(2) Teams and equipment can be unloaded from a helicopter hovering over a hundred feet off the ground by rappelling or rope ladder. The rope ladder or extraction devices can also be used to toad personnel- when the heLicopter cannot land. ,Troops may atso jump from low-hovering helicopters.
Resupply can be transported as an external- Load and delivered to otherwise inaccessible areas.

(3)

(4) Normally, helicopters are capable of flight in any direction. of a wide speed range and high maneuverability at slow speeds, helicopters can fly safely and efficiently at a low aLtitude, using terrain and trees for cover and concealment. (5)
Because

cause

(6) Helicopters can operate under marginal weather conditions beof their ability to f1-y at low or high aLtitudes, to decelerate rapidly, their slow forward speed, and their capability for nearly vertical
landing.

(7) Nigtrt_lga-itreE--a*#=takeoffs can be made r^rith a minimum of light. / -Helicopters flying at 1ow levels are capabLe of achieving sur<8) prise, deceiving the enemy as to landing areas, and empLoying shock effect
l3

ttqough the use of suppressive fires.

-\ (9)- enBine=n-d-sooto-r noise may deceive the enemy as to the direction\_ of approach and intended ftieht path. b. General Limitations. Helicopter support may not always be available in the kind or amount desired. Thd-RT leader should remember that heLicopters .---are-eomplicated and relatively delicate machines, and that they are a resourc for whie[ _t_here is a high demand. They cannot be expected to""ui"" be sunrnoned like taxis. Ll) The h-igh fuel consumption rate of helicopters imposes limitatlons -on-{1nge and allowab1e cargo load (ACt). Helicopters may be partially defueled to nelmit--a1ACL. However, partial defueling reduces the range and flexibility, graph 4.3a (r1) ) .

gh-icontrol. Loads must be properly to keep the center of graviry wirhin .ir"i"ii" il'ir;' (:::T;lland gusty winds (30 knots

(3) Heavy rains use of helicopters.

or more) will limit or preclude

(4) Engine and rotor noise may compromise secrecy. (5) Aviator fatigue requires greater consideration the operation of helicopters than in fixed wing aircraft because of noise,in vibration, etc. (6) The load-carrying capabili.ty of helicopters decreases drastically with increases of altitude, humidity, and temperature. Engines operate more efficiently at low temperature and humidity. This limitation may be compensated for through reduction of fuel load. (7) I'Iind velocities above 15 knots for utility and 10 knots for medium and heavy helicopters affect the selection of the direction of landing and takeoff. This means that otherwise suitable LZ's may not be "ut" to be used. c. Factors Affecting Hel_icopter Lifr Capabilitv. (1) As mentioned above, temperature, altitude, and humidity are factors which affect the lift capability of helicopters. An increase in temperature, altitude' or himidity will result in a great decrease in lift capability. (2) If a hel-icopter can takeoff and land into a steady wind its payload can be increased as less power is required for the same flight performance with wind than without it. (3) For hovering flight closer than one half rotor diameter the ground, the lifting ability of a helicopter is increased by ground effect. tosrated another way, a heLicopter hovered close to the ground requires less power a heLicopter at the same gross weight hovered at a hsigSi greater tharr onethan half

rotor diameter. Thus the maximum gross (fCf; is grearer rhan that for hovering weight for hovering in ground effect out of ground_ effecr (OGE) . This important to remember during rope extractions, rappelling, and rope ladder is operations.
given bel ;*{frl::;
should be
(1) (a) (b)
UH-lD above

specific conside{ations.

X;--gilG;.:'T:l; : \....
---

capabilities and rimitations stated or .::":;j:;^:":::'ll:1:; "o,*o,,if*,,""0 helicopters are io r g iven d;;";"."il*f;
The

";;

ii;;: ff;

":iff

Internal fuel capacity, 220 gallons (1320 1bs) Cargo - internal - 22 cubic feet
external 40OO lbs

(c) capacity (us) - 2 pilots, 2 gunners, 9 troops


Gross weighr alb)
Max s 8800

9500 (max)
110/110

sea leve (sea Level 4oo0 ' )

kts
nm1

114/LT4
260/ 274

2sr/ 2s9

ceil ing
8, 600
I
IL

5,500

)u0

(2)

uH-lF.

(a) Internal fuel capacity _ 245 gallons (1470 tbs) (b) Cargo - internal - 140 cubic
feer

external - 4000

j.bs

(c) Capacity (US) - 2 pilots, L ww chief, 6 troops

Gross,eignr(l;.F
kts
nmi
15

600

9000

(max)

LIs/LL5
301/330

100/100
283/ 306

Hovering ceiling

fr

a larger engine' A11 following Performance data:

(3) UH-lH'

rhe UH-IH

the IIH-ID excePt for is the same helicoPt'er assame excePt for the the of the characteristics are

,-Gross weight (1b)


8800
r

e500

M."

speed (sea 1-eveLl4000


'

--leax rAnga (s-+svf


fCU (U"tow 24
OcE (above 24

) ,-"'/ {:::: I4OUU' )

KES

LL4/LL4
267

r10/110
260/ 275

nmr

I 287

llovering ceiling

ft) tE)

tE
rE

16,400 9,800

L2,7OO

1,000

(4)

cH-34 l-bs)

(a) lnternal fueL capacity - 250 gal1-ons (1524 (b) Cargo - internal - 450 cubic feet
external - 5000 lbs

(c)

CapacitY (US)

- 2 pilots, crew chief, 12 trooPs


12,000
13,

Gross weight (1b)

500 (max)

@ell4ooo')

level- /4000' )

kts
nmi

@7+ooo')

L6

4.

INSERTION BY HELICOPTER

a' General consideration. A s Eandardized cedures"ffiisapp1iestotimeofinsertion,f1ight routine of insertion proformations, vR's prior to insertion, LZ preparation, emplo;nnent \-'-=- etc' of gunships, The general routine which has been established ovlr the past )ears is by now well-known by the enemy with the result that they several have formulated efiective counter tactics to be initiated whenever they sense this
routine occurring:

(1) Time of inse-rtion. The weaLher and enemy and friendly situations will often determine the actual time of insertion, but general two times in shouLd be avoided. These are the,afternoon ;prk time,r and light' Pak Time should be avoided because no one moves absolute last during this period except Americans, and a team moving away from an LZ is not likely to be mistaken for anything other than what it is. Absolute last light has the advantage of providing additional cover for the insertion, but it has the disadvantage of not allowing the team sufficient daylight to move away from the LZ in case the enemy hai deterrnined the location of the LZ. Also, if the LZ is so hot Lhat the team cannot stay on the ground then there should be enough time left so that the extraction can be performed in daylight. However' consideration should be given to insertions. These have the advantages of making the helicopters less "igha vuinerable to enemy ground fire, and the enemy has greater difficulty in determining the location of the LZ. Night insertions have disadvantages also. Air crews require a higher state of training than for daylight operations. Larger LZrs must be found. Multiple ship inserts on one LZ become very difficult at night. From the standpoint of the team, assembly and oriena.iio., are more difficult, and if the enemy does. succeed in pinpointing rhe lz then the team may either have to run all night or attempt a difficult night extraction. (2) Helicopter resources. The composition of the helicopter insertion team is usuarly as follows: one to four helicopters to carry the team (depending on the size of the RT and the factors mentioned in para 4.2 above), one recovery helicopter with used in the event that anothlr helicopter go",medic on board to be down, a cornnand and control helicopter from which the insertioi i" directed tions the insertion is directed from the FAC aircraft), (in some operaand one or two fire teams (i.e., two or four armed helicopters, respectivery). The composition of this team is often a matter of sop of the supporting aviation unit and cannot be varied by the RT reader. That presented above is one type. Also one or two FAC aircraft will to direct air strikes and artillery. usualry-iro TAC accompany in order fighter aircraft fly cover for each insertion. (3) Landing zones. As noted in paragraph 3.3, at least two LZ,s will be chosen for each insertion, one aesignated the primary LZ and one the alternate' selection will depend on agreement between the RT leader and the helicopter flight leader. mufual These LZrs should be two to three kilometers apart so that it would be difficult for the enemy to prace simultaneous fire on both of them. rf necessary or desirabl-e in the jungle by large bombs. Routin" pr"prrutory fires LZrs can be made on an LZ by TAC air or artillery is normally not advised for .""o. operations, however.
T7

:" ;; il;; are: " "o*uination fne ' Some of these techniques tftt leadet't"a with fhc--trg6t -.- -'--- '1"-::-.11 i^rr+ narf.rrms what took like insertions T lh"
rhe
employrneqq

"i.iiif rhese,- ho'.'"'i,' !' t1't in the nllll:-'k-l"iliui?tlll"il"olni"l?l';; ial" of the toeatiOn' hair-e will t," i.r" r airerdf "" rhe L.r"r,r _goes of the tE-otics RT leader shouLd be aware The :sures' or- - ' (s) Deceptive T"1:g-1"::-^t:: :-'.":;;:=;n"""r"rt as to -- the numbef d d i cus s l:.i lI"' lli'il? . tt" "t,ou1
s

- .-(4I -^ie6^r'amefttDl-ans'Flightroutes'start-Po'r-ntstaerialcontrol Air movemenL.l ity of the helicopter f 1-ight

;:?:":;?"*klt;i"':il;*"1,, qf -:* ot

"} during coordination iechniques

--d}--*e-lol4ulq t'z'" $1r :fi


i:;

J?;';il,?"tr-ilifi:ll' rlli:til?"n:il"opi.' "j*: "; -ar.Ler-,rhe--acruar!*;;i"; down with it' go fiHftffi ;";;'a"'*''"r

hould observation) ' J."*y o rme-trp r r e " e b d r shou I"*"'" ;;;';; i; ns the

is

shot down durins

(b)Anothertechniquethatcanbeusedistohavetheaircraftflyin the RT' followed by the recovery airerrii lead the with "."aaining formation LZ, the lead aircraft (if used) . upo,' '"'"hi,,g t:ne C&C the the and aircraft After th; RT is inserted' others'ov.tf1y. Lhe while technique hover This come to low tt,"-iiigt't in- ttre iaiL positions' any aircrafr carrying ir rejoin ground to tell when, where' or if with ;"-;i; anyone for makes it difficul-t if it is used in conjunction

of

rhe

dunnnY

insertions

nericopil;; ;;;"-iura"al".Jp."i"rrv
'

(c)Leapfrog.Thehelicoptersplaythisgameinpairs'onefl.yinglow pi"I"" in 9!e air in a leap frog swiich. trelil;;;;t" tt,e and one flying high. many he1-icoPters are being ttr"-'.""*y be cormnenced ori"r-?o-a"""r-.r" i, -to.horo "" fashion of LZ's' The technique can i;";;;;; exact shoul-d pattern no employed insertion' rn any event "I-.o-.i" r"irr.r "rra the afEer or during, before,
be established'
reach the LZ' (d)llighcontro]-/lowlevelflight.Atthereleasepointthehe]-icopters of tnt-""tttt" methlds Lo i"u-inlp leve1 aircraf t tree-top The to descend "rra either-ttt" r'n'c or c&c' made' high a Dunmy air.li.J-iy They are "ii"i"rt, the insertion has been aftei f"v"i for their shoul-d continue insertions can be made' is more (e)TheenemylsattentioncanbedivertedfromtheLZbyairstrikes' a3vilSs in other areas' This of."igtii"t"t: use or artil1-ery fire, tnl ""t itt which the diversion is in ,ru-t.de insertioni dunnny effective if
created.

a large the enemy can be deceived ifdistance from (f) After the actual insertion some arrr*,y insertion or,. Ir-,r""a trrtri" radio volume of dunrny the actuaL LZ'

18

l-.
(6) Use of alternate 1-anding zones. Normally, if fire is received in the vicinity of the primary LZ the fl-ight wil-l continue to the al-ternare. If the alternate also cannot be used, then one of two predetermined options ----.c}n--he exercised. Either the mission can be aborted, or the FAC or c&c pilot can cnoos of opportunity into which to insert the team. No matter what LZ Ls used, the m shouLd get a "fix" from the FAC or c&c as soon as possible after insertion.
(7)

Other cont ingenc ie-E:-

---.-.

(a) In the event a helicopter is downed the RT leader shoul-d be prepared to assimi-late the helicopter crewmen into his team and command them until they can be extracted. (b) A cormnon enemy tactic is to wait until a portion of a team is on the ground before opening fire. If this h-appens the portion of the team already on the ground must attempt to return to the h-licopter for iurnediate extraction. If it is impossible for the helicopter to remain on the LZ, or if it has already taken off, the portion of the team on the ground should display a panel, indicate to the FAC the direction and distance to the enemy fire and prepare for emergency extraction as soon as possible. (8) Actions on LZ's. As soon as the team hits the ground, all in a predeEermined direction from the helicopter, assemble, and members move off of the LZ As soon as the team leader sees that all members are assembled uninjured and there is no enemy contact, he transmits a t,team 0K" (usually and using a brevity word) to the FAC or C&C. (Since it is such a critical p"iioa the team leader should be carrying the radio during the insertion and the radio should be turned on before loading the helicopter. Regardless of the technique of insertion the team leader shoul-d be the tirst man on the ground). After transmitting his team 0K the team leader will find a defensibl" porition in the iunnediate vicinity of the LZ and establish a perimeter. Afler a wait of l0 to 15 minutes, or sufficient time to determine whether or not Ehe enemy has observed the infiltration and is attempting to locate the team. During this tirne, the insertion aircraft and accompanying air support remain on station at sufficient distance from the LZ so that it is not compromised by their presence. At the end of the l-0- or L5-minute period the team leader transmits a situation report to the FAC or C&C. If this report indicates that the enemy is not seeking the team in the vicinity of the LZ the aircraft are normally released to return to base and the team comrences its recon mission. If the enemy is pressing the team right after the insertion, however, then the team is cLose enough to the insertion LZ to use it for an emergency extraction. (9) Use of armed helicopters. Two to four armed helicopters usually accomPany each insertion. These helicopters accompany the troop carriers to the RP, then move to an orbit area far enough from the insertion LZ that their presence does not compromise the LZ. When the troop carriers have accomplished their insertion they will marry up with the gunships to await the teamrs sitrep. When the helicopters are released the armed helicopters will escort the troop
move
L9

utilize the armed helicopters carriers back to base. If it is necessary to forsuppression-.ortosupportanimmediateemergencyextraction,theiremploy. *unt tiil be as deqcribed in chapter VII ' (10)Downedaircraftprocedures.Ifanaircraftgoesdowninthevicinity aL1 efforts made to should-"tt*"1f operation !?-ab'drb'd'!a'n-d the -of-t!e-qz the downe'l craft (the function of recov-d-r s-urvivorsr-b-dc-ii*. and *q"ip*E*t surviv"s=:;;;;; remain in the irmnqdiate vicinitv of the the ch'a+e- srLltd ' The rescue' utt}.tt lhe enemy situation P-rqhibits' one --fdfued helicopttsr for a|| ailclaft conunanders) is rechnique (wnictr requires prior ":;idi;*:i-_9ai'it1i to a point approx-rnr"tU..50 meters_diieetly in front for the survivors Eo move bodies?nd-eqejrD-*'=-ff"-f* bt tte downed aircraf t, taking with thlm surviva1andf;!rse.qidkiLS)fromthea.^r^i-.e,.-'ffimembershou1dbe door gunner in removing his machineThe survivors designatgdlefore take-off to rn-lJaGach that a troop cairier goes down)' to be 1-ikely is Ev*,-a66-amrrunrtion-in--thc--q1ent helicopter because it ___-*svc : thj.s short - disLancu "i>y-s*E-tt" g round t -rh * rar ge r ro r ;"' ",,-*v aircraft and para tire'downed of on either side (see figure below)

r*lj=rm4ruu#:::'n,;i[':'""
Survivors

ll]l*

,{
=

w
(a) Wounded if avaitable, should ride "forrg'to assist
(b) HelicoPter crew'
(c)
(d) (e)
wounded

Gunships fire suPressl-on in shaded areas.

picks up normallY in the following The chase ship folLows the gunships and order: (if the pickup is by extracLion device an unv/ounded man'

in the rig)

'

Bodies (if situarion will permit)


Team members.

'

U.S.Teammembers(l0last,carryingtheradio). to destroy the radios in the heliThe senior aircraft c-rew member may decide Some reason RT will assist as he direct's. If for "u"".h" ""p..',_-\^7h-i.h Ehe-cha-seshipcannotmakeLherescue(we-atier'enemygroundfire'etc')the (6) above' team leader must be prepared to act as in
20

(11) Helicopter loading. Regardless of the technique used to leave the heLicopter, certain general considerations apply to Loading and riding. (a) The aircraft center of gravity must be maintained to ensure that flight characteristics remain constant. (b) Sudden shifts of weight wilL cause temporary 1-oss of aircraft control. Passengers should be reminded to remain as still as possible during fLight, parLicularly during landing and hover operations. in maintaining aircraft stability. (d) 0n UH-l- type aircraft either or both doors but the pilot must be notified in advance. (c)
Team members shouLd

unload individual-ly in order to aid the pi1-ot


may be used

in unloading,
RT Leader

(e) Hand and arm signal-s to be used between the must be discussed and decided upon in advance. (f) (g)
UH-L type

pilot and the

The L0

is always the first to

unload.

position himself between the pilot and copilot in aircraft during fLight. In the H-34 he should sit in the door next to the crew chief in order to receive information from the pilot.
The 10 shoul-d

(h) When using more than one ship for insertion and the team cannot be divided equal-ly between the ships then the heavy part of the team shouLd be on the first ship in, .e .9., if L1 men are on the team, six should be in the first ship and five in the second. b. Hel-icopter Landing. HeLicopter landing (touch down) is generally the most desirabl-e method of insertion by helicopter. It is the safest from the standpoint of air safety and simplicity. The major disadvantage is that a suitable Landing zone (as described in paragraph 3.4) must be found, along with at least one al-ternate. The scarcity of such LZ's in many areas is a severe limiting factor on the security of helicopter landing insertions, as the enemy may have possibLe LZ's covered by fire or mined. It is for this reason that al-ternate means of insertion, e.g., rappelling, should be considered by the RT leader during his planning. It is a waste of time and resources to have a team I'shot offt' of an LZ. If this method' is chosen, the following considerations apply: (1) Team members should move in a predetermined direction aft,er exiting the helicopter. I^Iith UH-1 model helicopters this direction is usuaLl-y 1o'cLock or 11 o'clock, depending on which door is being used (the nose of the aircraft is L2 o'cLock). I^lith the CH-34 the direction of exit should be toward 5 orclock. These directions of exit permit the helicopter to take off in the same direction it landed and at the same time keeps team members from crossing the door gunnerts line of fire.

2L

(2) Team members should be cautioned to stay clear of rotor blades tail rotors. Lr/hen landing on a slope, team membeis should be especially reminded not to run uphill into the rotor blade.

and

(3) During premission coordination the pilots should be told to land close to the edge of Ehe LZ so that the team can get into concealed positions as soon as possible. c' Rappelling. Rappelling as a method of insertion the advantage that a large LZ Ls not required--a team can rappel at any has point at which it can see the ground and the helicopter can get ritt,i.t roplts length of the ground' However, there is some degree of Janger in the procedure and teams must be intensively trained in the technique before they can emproy it tactically' with a well-trained team, however, and a reasonably ground (such as a bomb crator), the element of surprise canclear spot on the make rappelling the most desirable method of infiltration into an area of intense enemy ac t ivi ty. (i) Preparation of the individual for rappelling. The first step in preparing for rappelling is to thoroughly inspect a1r ropes for cuts' and burns. The individuals shirt shouli be tightly tuckedfraying, in his trousers so that the ropes do not slip up underneath and inflict burns on bare skin. The Swiss seat is prepared as follows: (a) Put the midpoinr of the sling rope over your left hip (right hip for left-handed persons).

(b) Make a full turn around the waist, bringing running ends around the front (at this point the right end of the rope is both longer than the left).
(c) Pass the running ends through the legs (forming an x). (d) Tie the rope off over the left hip, using a square knot and half-hitches.

two

(e) Attach the snap link over the X at the fronE of the body in such a fashion that the gate closes up and out. (f) when threading the rappelling rope through the snap rink, first, it in from the wearer's left to the right ih"t the rope passes around the right side of the wearer's body. Then irasp "othe rope in irorrt of the snap link and make a loop, snapping the loop in From right to left. Two or three turns of the rope are made around the snap link, depending weight and desired rate of descent (the more turns around on the rappellerrs the snap link, the
snap

slower the descent).

22

C)
4

FI
FT

frf

P{
O{

& &

o flt a
I
ts!/ 'F)

z H

(5
C5

&. cfl N

o
CO

b0

P1

$?+nl:

.#

E
0J

0q

o
t\

N)

w
6)

H z CI
H rJr

c)

ts U
i:d

ffi

F F P
hd

rq t-t

z C)

r H

(2)Preparationofthehelicopterforrappelling.Usuallyfourropes is norataEimecanbeemployed'h",,.,.i,'guott,doorsofUH-ltypehelicopters. The running end of the rope folded cH-34. the is is rope rope one only (Griswoll [ug) ' The ""!a "iarl in the mally stowed inside a weapon "oni.irrut tith "lu"tic letaining bands' ,.""t"a toops the and secured'style and accordion are folded 1i;;;-or, r p"rrct,rtewith a sandbag' when the same fashion that suspensio" is;;;*;;";,',r".r"11y rope rnl or end deploys The running to-the'sloltta and Lhe rope attppla is tt'" LZ Lsreached when !'/eapons containers are """arag hericopter' tire in rope weaporr, out of the to stow the accordion-folded "orra"lnermethoi i' "in"-uottom not available, "" "tt"t"ate of th'e rt''cttsack is dropped to the rucksack. inside an indigenous is just groundandthe'op"auproysfromit.There"'u..,",,"'alrnethodsoftyingdown The method described belorv t,uri"opt"r. rhe sranding ".d-"i;r;;;-;'h" uH-l;-t,'uii"opr"t. wt,"tuttut helicopter is used' one example, gii.l-"id rhe be kept in mind: the folloti,,g poi;t' should
(a)

in the maximum separation of ropes Allowance should be made for

door.

in to at least three tie-down rings (b) Each rope should l: l'"d down to tie-down rings) ' fa"tt""d the helicoPter itt to snap link" ropes Eogether' (c) There should be no rubbing of (d)Thefloorofthehelicoptershouldbepaddedattheedgesothat metai corner of the floor' Lhe rope does not rub on the d.RopeLadder.TheropeladderaSameansofinfiltrationcannormally although it is more time-cont.ppelling, rather be used under tnffime """a1li"""-'"" be straddled from the side ir;;";-ii rhe should "i'ot'ra suming. when a.".."Ji"g r only a *"*i*t'* of three people is quite on as down climbing than "a"pi"aa"t. the ladaet-i"tia" the helicopter s.;;;;;; rime. one ar ladder a on be end with snap links (gate up) faste-"-:?:n and together Pull t'it tt"'g'

simple. totie_downringsinthehelicopter.Fourpair"oft,,,'gsshouldbefastenedin this manner' 4.4


EXFILTRATION

may prevenL-lbe: tt,et3,*ffi,"'i::;;.,1i:.:i:*iffi!l!,:}!:1i.?],'l,,i'l:i: and the terrain Wt'ii" time' shortest soners in the
enemy

however, rhe rollowing

ue saiGfied' selecLionofanLZwhichmeetsallofthestandardcriteria.If-pos5ible, conditioi;-";;"ii o" ";;";;t"a-it not exceed 15 Percent' (1) Maximtrm sloPe of the LZ should ground' An should be cleared to the within one diameter in meters 50 to (2) An area area' 20 meters wide , is cleared the surrounding area "i""t"a meter of the ground'
25

:l::.iii:"1"1;;"::i,li,il".f;:i'lf:::'";:"*";"a within 100 meters of the touchdown


point Lz,

climb-to-glide ratio or 1:5. trees higher than 20 *;;;;"


rhe

":2'.,

ll;r:;:;"::::',iJllll

"n""td be advised or any pecul"iariries or

(5) under ideal conditions-(see para 4.2) a_helicopter area slightly wider than can land in an itr-"tia o, d;;1 Jor" ,t rotor clearance However, if rhe requireme"." exists. usually best to consider an alternate cannor be mer ir is ":^-:l;-r;;;;-rJilor."*.rphs methoJ-ir be1ow. "*a.action, su"tr as discussed
Next to helicopter landing, a"sirrbleltr?EF.*rii.J"iior,, the ladder is the most as ir allows- rhe reamrope ,"ru"r" ro ger inside :ff ,ffH:ii'il; Ii, ri; ;ri;r.lir:J;":#,ll i"oo i.,;;. o rr-wh i ie ";;-i ladder will snap" the s,,'p-iid'on -rr,an.rhree rheir n"ri""lll"(;l::"r:"ii.?il,aii-r rung of the ladder. rrro *o." :r" time' Rucksacks ;;;;i; shouia i"-in-ln"

b'

Rooe

T'adder'

;lilltli il;, whichisffif;']ffHffTi:iiJ;.::"l;.:'I":'Y;::.'::ffi::i::}""


touch-down LZ.

;;-;";;o"d ro thi-;;;;"* li"tlr:::"Iioi"ri .n" 'op. r'JiJr


shourd

ladder ar one rung or rhe radder before snoura be ascenaed by srrad-

i,,,ia"(1lr,"tl;-i;":;st:"Tliiffl:s or the rig and a merhod or rigging


(a) 25-ft tie-down (b) 4nx4[x5 ' yoke. (c) 10 snap links. (d) 3 weapon containers. (e) 3 harnesses. (f) (g)
3 120-fr 3600_lb resr nyton
Drop box.
ropes

rhem

rope.

(h) 5-ft section of nyLon rope. (i) 3-fr retainer strap. (j) 3 16" x 3/4n bolts with
(k)

nuts.
opening.

6 washers, 3rr diametet

3/4t

26

(2)Characteristics.TheyokeisasafeLydevice'9-loldropesincase The 16" bolts are inserted one becomes broken or untied insiae the helicopi"t' throughtheyokeandbenttoformaring,thenwe].dedattheendofthering. one with the gate opening up and one Two snap links are fastened to each ring, is snapped to a tie-down ring opening down. one of eaeh pair of snap-iinks to the 25-foot tie-down' The 25-foot in the helicopter. The othlr i" ".tppld rings on the opposite side of the tie-down is run through no Less than tour with a square knot and two half-hitches' helicopter from at," rir,gr, and secured by tying a cl-ove hitch around The 120-foot ropes are secured to the helicoptei ttt""iog each rope through three the yoke, prr"ilg-under the 25-foot tie-down, a bowline (the rope shou1d be rings in triangui"r rarttion and Lyittg orr with are attached to the ropes with a stretched prior to rigging). The harnesses attached to the cenEer harness' bowline and four half-hitches. one snap link is Adropboxisattachedbyafivefootropetothebottomofeachrig.The the rig and rope. The ropes drop box can be anything heavy ",.ough to deploy same fashion as described for axe stowed inside the weaporr" "orrt""iners in the rappel.ling.Theretainerstrapisused!osecurethebagstothehelicopter for extraction, the rucksack is first f].oor. When mount'ing the Mccuire rig saddl-e' The Person being extracted snapped to the o-titE on the bottom Jf tt'u wrist through the wrj'st loop' when al-l then sits in the saddle and puts onerrrupped togelher by the-snap link attached three saddles are occupied they ri. rigs togeiher aLl riders at the same to the niddLe harness. snapping the if one roPe keeps breaks or is shot through' and prevents a man frorn ralling
Level,

27

l
' t' i I tr .,: :: --. t , - _.-; -:j_rr

Fd
0J

oq

oo

o l\)

o o H z o
l5r

6)
rd
H

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6)

c, H
14

&
H
rh

rt
H
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z
H

1r:

:hr,,

(J
(-t

&

o\ N

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c0

b0

tr{

t%

:s.

-C

*.lut""!-*:1,

\*

l*ls,:'.
ffiffiiijr
ip:li::i:t:i

i'f

ib e

Fd
FJ

0c

(.^)

N rl
H

E. o: --i H

C).''

6)

'i r,.
'.
,r'-i

'i',

b
fd

U fq| FU H

::,, ,lnl

.:i:il

"'i

d.

STAsO

Ris.

(1) rt has been evident for some months that there are some serious safety hazards associated with the use of the McGuire rig as an emergency extraction device. The most serious are that unconscioui personnel and personnel under fire are unable to snap themselves properly into the rig and thus either cannot be extracted or are subject to falling out. The rig is also sometimes difficult to mount unless it is hovered at just the right J-"s height (2) As a result of these deficiencies personnel the Recondo school, 5th sFG (ABN), designed and built a harness which theyfrom named by utilizing the first initial of each of the 5 men primarily irs development' S-T-A-B-O. The theory behind it is that if ";;;;iri"J-"ith a minimum:ooo po,rrrd load bearing harness could be sutstituted for the standard u.s. Army suspenders, normally worn in the field, that it could u"-"".i"'ror combat pack emergency extraction. (3) The srABo rig consists of two shoulder straps in which loops have been built to acconrnodate the standard issue pistol belt and. ,,D,, rings have been sewn for use in extraction, to this is included t\.^/o crotch straps which can be snapped in place or detached. During field operation the croEch straps are unsnapped and rolled up in the back. They can be taped in place or held by a rubber band' when required for extraction they are unrolled and snapped

in place' For comfort it is important that the crotch straps are properly spaced' Recournended procedure is to have them box stitched into place when the proper lateral adjustment has been determined. The sTABo rig is part of an individual's personal equipment and will be issued one per each individual.

(4) For extraction a nylon rappelling rope is used. one end is anchored to the aircraft. on the other end is tied two bowlines on bights, providing two long loops into which snap links are connected. These in Eurn are snapped into the two 'tDtr rings on the harness for extraction. (5) Additional equipment which can be used with the srABO are cotton shoulder pads and a safety strap. The shoulder pads are used to rig ,D,, keep rings from rubbing on the collar bone and the safety strap, a short the Gp strap with 'rD, rings on-.either end, is used to attach t\.{o extractees to each other by their harness I'Dt'ring snap 1inks. This provides an additional safety factor.

31

i&S/4;'t:

Page 32

STABO

RIG

FRONT VIEW

Page 33

STABO

RIG

REAR VIEW

'*,u
i:rlq#Srn*
I

iri.

i: :l i' r !i: . .

Page 34

STABO

RIG

READY FOR EXTRACTION

Page

35

FOLDED A7A STRAP WITH SNAP

LINK

HANSON RIG

fi

,,iiiil

rii+iff
'it1,iit
i;: i l:'*

i:iii!,,:li#

Fage

36

MEASURING THE

LOOP HANSON

RIG

: iat: iir:il

i!,:r.ii:.tl

i;i*;9i

age

37

DONNING HANSON

RIG

STEP

#fi

Page 38

DONNING HANSON

RIG

STEP

Page 39

DONNING HANSON

RIG

SIIEP 3

PAgC

40

FfiADY FOR EXTRACTION E FRONT

Page 4L

READY FOR ECTRACTION

REAR

CHAPTER V

j:j:":j:H:,jii:"iiiiirili",:::il:1.,:"'ff";:!.j.,t:^:"
"

5.

PATROLLING TECHNIQUES GENEML.

":,."::o pa,r.1ling
r,
:

;d;;rteam which determir"3"1n"-"ii"o*u ream reader, rn this regard. rhere ;;;"t-;;ilent, of rhe mission. tions contJin r"r""tioi; for team rraining.-J;;'foltowing
;

ff :I ;" qtr : iil,lit;' :: "i": ;;r : :lt runot exotic telhni.q.r"" J" fu:+i i: Iand the good.3"agm";;*o*i"a'n" "

",i:t"

i*rl

:;i;
=

13";"j,Hj;,",.. ::'"
PATROLLING TIPS

5.2

"i:"*: "1" T::"Hil:..f:1.;:, Rr i, _" isec_ ffi ". *:"i:i|: rpplicability to


_

; ;;:titute

a. Preparation

phase.

." n"rp-r".'";"T"1:1ff;"J:"r
, have !2) less
Use of chance

(1) Thorou short parrols. ,91 *?o study' Know the terrain route;

roi

i;;;'ilJ;rl:":"i:::"::::"i;";;":;.""

"Offsetr,method should be employed on rout magneric f^nfannSa to an objective. deviarion ro rhe , iir, t " o, i" ri "l'i ".i
NOTE: Each der

(3)

difficult terrain. Impassable terrain is verJr rare ,f and you "i""".a"lrr, an" enemy along your route.

j lllil;n.oirljrj;iJ:,

lerr r"I-]""i*"ffi; illl"l5tffj


(4) tr,.
Alrer

[*"T:""

rou abour 17 merers ro rhe right or


arrernare rarlying points

evenr

(5) Consider the use of special (a) Grenades.


r

"n",yTi:

;::lii:i ;fi:.i;r.j:i:cr

in rhe

equipment.

-1. White breaking conract or for desrroying caches "quipi"nt^;r";"31:sphorous--for of

"n"#i,, :;:T::;.i:";;r:;.:ff;Tns.
_3.
Smoke__marking LZ,

conract and making boobykaps ro delay

s, airstrikes, etc. (b) r47s Grenade Launcher_ _"orr"iJ"i be operating. If dense, type oE-i perhaps
you

which will not r^/ant to :+:aa=tn carce an I"179:

you

will

42

chasing (c)Clayrrroremines.-Extremelyusefulforprotectingyour.perimeter th" ""n;;-ii !"L"t he is fol'i";;;;;; during long halts, roobytr.p, you, ambush, etc'

.,",,"fu",, :'::il;;l:"*"";i:':i:::"':i"'::i:"i";: a pair of gloves' nitely want to carxy

l5 l:;':ir";":"Jil: 13"T:?:'

(e) Rope--Again, to_ use Itr rqvrv---- e " I:"..::'?"'?:;?"it::-i jJ'take a rope
'o"rrt ri*it-b"

-i:::i::'::";::''il?:
.i

, -cL. some tu"ted to'destrov (f)Flares--Flaresarerrsefulforsignallingaircraft;inaddition, event-yoi fi;;;"i"-the storage atea' etc' Lhey are ,r""r,ri"ir, "iriri"g ;;"; cache' rit:i ot "t*o type or trt*"uorl"t"i"titr; ''ill

for tying prisoners

along

i?:::'il,l:i*;:::ll'l:::: :il i:
be used as an irnprovi"ea inB streams '

(e)

Fl,ashligh.-:1'. -the-:venL

a man

H::"

:i1'l';'t'

:: T:":i::"!"t!i:::tni:';:?':::
ing
devic
e

dry when y"". (h)Poncho'-Inadditiontoprotecting.youfromthe-rain,theponchocall ""';;;;-.."r.!.i "q"ipmenr rirrer,


_ __-1

cross-

vision

"t

,, ,,igii. They "rro ttl:;"';':::':r*:ilr-::'o"

^so i..rpase Vour when taking pictures (i)Binoculars-.forobservation.In.addition,binocularsincreaseyou *1r."-;-it"u

"1";;;;;-it""

words," way rhere

1H:,':t:*
sharp knif

"";;;-no j:i"i?:llii
sharp

bi:k-:;';;";'1"::t:::4::' tli*i;*:"til:': i, gooa'? to show size doubt that vrhat vou sav,:":JI;;'Ti:::"*ent

the ord-saving'

I'A'pi9t:':-'i" worth a thousand


e

tt;:-i::"T[:
rr
a

r;iH":::."::fl;:';"1: ;l.i:;il;;;;'L

in

(k)

e'"irt"t"-is

here.t: i:t..::r!iX""""'n:li;'#:":" knire--th".:ip anything as ul hardly


weaPons'

caxtv

(6) Test firing of

(a)onceyouhave.testfiredyourweapon'don'ttake.itaparttocleanit ,orri"u.roi,,.-itL ""'uo*1"'i"-;"r;::;..:il:"::"3:lo'u-"11 e-a1r.-i-t-wol again. ,, ,oi i?""p"ti, '6r,"" rake you l::99-"or ir go.

ii.

ler

to ge the

Lv+-t+'' r " g"i;=94i!-t-t"tJ

43

rod along wirh you. rhis ""n. "i"lo ;;;";"ffi;tJli""l:.:"Tg " lil' ; " s"'i*: "'u ::i:ru1,ryi'i:li:ii: "l; to pu1l rhe carrridg"-";;-ri;; i :i: *ii "+ if:ig" iii* your fing"r.,riir- :r a simnl" t"tt"r"oi".ur,ring ii ao'i-tr," you_ir;;"d:;.ji{ni* #l;rlt"i;.
o

(b)

Alwa.

ro.L

(7) Signalling. (a) A* ,ld_land- signals_-pracrice and er all arm and hand signals-i"J-nt"" ro use "" ,"J;";:r:;;: (b) practice the signaLs you wiLl use after dark. (8) Cormnunications. (a) Tape emergency e frequencies of ."iio. '-r=
by the
and

"nJ-r.io"ri'g rhe car_

ream member knows

artilLery request format to

handset

(b) put uo field expedient antenna each night enemy yo,, ,or,.; ;;;;-;;; in the event you are hit rroubte reaching he1p. (c) preset artilLery frequency.
phase. compass man occasionally. Change Use

b. Execution (1) (2)

point man and

of terrain.

(3) Carrying of weapons. (a) Alwavs weapon pointed in the direction in which you ff you donrt, ihehave sptit it looking. takes you to move it may cost youare """ord your life. (b) preparation of Weapon. -t. 2'
Remove

sling swivels. to
keep

Tape bore

out dirt and debris.

-1. Tape upper hand guard to prevent rattling. !. Tape dt cover to prevent merallic aenrJiy;;fiJ:"t "click,,in rhe evenr ir is acci-

,",,"r:io

::;"r::il1"::,0::;:,:":*: :f ffii:h, :l:: -,,


44

also be used in

emer-

Due to a l-ack of maps' these (1) Avoid trails' streams' and roads' arethe'o"."o*'onroutesoftravelbythee]lemy.Inaddition,don't through lire 3ungre' Trail- watchers whil-e-r..ring" l;"", eheck;;; ro forger

often use

them'

(2> Crossing of traits' streams' (a) Skirmish (b)


Fil"e '
l-

and roads'

ine '

(c) A few at a time' (3) Avoid human habitations' (4) Steril-ize trail ' (5) Actions at halts' (a) SecuritY. (b)Ifmenhavedifficultyinstayingawake,havethemkneelratherthan sit. (.)
Sleep close enough

to touch

each oLher'

t.
zc.
(1) (2) (3) stakes.

around mouth' If you snore, Put handkerchief sleeping' Do not remove equipment while Lessons Learned'
Dead

foliage

may be ol-d canouflage'


dovm brush may

Tied down or cut

be a firing

1'ane'

contain Punji an inhabited atea; they may Avoid streams and moats in
boobytraps' Unoccupied houses may contain

(4) (6)

(5) Be cautious of all- civil-ians'


not set a Pattern' -----\ (7) AlwaYs exPect an ambush weaLher; however' (8) Take advantage of inclement extlaction' or call for cannot call an ;;;;;;;;" -O-v"r fhe same route ' (9) Nevef-r't"rn
Do
45

b..E-<'4gg:ful

because You

hra

"tooen engagements, fire 10w. A richochet is berrer than "11:lr.tt (11) In selection of LZs, avoid overuse or ,,likely,, LZs. (L2) Smoking.

no

(a) (b)

Take medicine

for

men who cough.

Method

of

coughing.

(13) Noise discipl_ine. (L4) Merhod of walking. to heel. (b) Soft ground - entire foot. (15) Actions at meal ha1ts. (a) (b)
the
One man

(a)

Hard ground _ Toe

eats at a time.

One man goes

for

r,rater.

oie'ro,,=i5o"l:";:::;".fl:'i:ff1.::

(c)

Keep

;::rrimes.

prepare one

rarion, rhen

ear

46

CHAPTER

VI

TRACKING AND USE OF HUMAN SENSES


CO}{BAT ]NTELLIGENCE

IN

OBTAINING

6.1 HIIMAN SENSES. The use of the human senses in obtaining and developing eombat intelligence is very important, especially in a guerrilLa type environment such as exists in Vietnam. Just by smelting, touching, and/or tistening,
valuable information can be gained about the
enemy.

a. (1)
enemy

Smell-.

Srnell- is very important in that it can be empLoyed to detect the before he sees you, and also to determine what he is doing now, or has been doing in the past. Cigarette smoke can be detected up to one quarter miLe if wind conditions are right. You can aLso smell fish, garlic, and other foods being cooked for several hundred meters. You may even be able to detect a Person who has been eating garlic, or other specific food, from a considerabl-e distance, thus discovering a guerrilla ambush before your patroL walks into it. In Vietnam, there are many types of wood used for fueL. By being able to identify the smell of some of these types of wood, you may be able to determine the purpose of the fire and the general location of the fire, or guerril-La camp or

patrol

base.

(2) For the man who seldom or never uses soap, after-shave lotion, and other such toilet articles, it is easy for him to detect a person using these items for a considerable distance. In some areas of the world, the best \^/ay to prevent detection is not to use these items. The British discovered this in Malaya. Once they set an ambush on a known guerrill-a trail-. The guerriltas avoided and bypassed the ambush. Later, one of those guerriLl-as wae captured, and he told the British that he was in the guerril-La patrol that they were trying to ambush. He said they smelled the bath soap which had been used by the ambushing party. In other cases, the guerril-las smelLed the food that had been previousLy eaten by ambushing parties and were alerted. Insect repellent is another item that you can smelL for a distance. If the l-ocal indigenous popula-tion doesn't use it, your recon tearn shouldntt either.
clothes.

that

someone has been

(3) Another item emitting a distinctive odor is explosi-ves. You can teLL working with them just by the smel1 of his ha'iids or
Touch.

b.

(1) In the future you may find yourself having to search buildings enemy dead at night with no means for lighting the area; or lights cannot be used for security reasons. When this happens, you must reLy principally on touch, hearing, and smell-.
tunnels, or

(2) To use the .s'ense of toucll_Lo-ifenttfy an- object, you consider four facborc--shape, moisture, teh-Fer-eture, and texture. By shape we mean the generaL outline of the object. Moisture refers to the moisture content of the object (wet or dry). Ternperature is the heat or l-ack of heat of an object.
47

Texture is the smoothness or roughness of the object. By considering all these aspectst You will be able to basically identify Ine ou3ect. your ability to determine what object is by touch may save your l-ife. A good example -an of this is the timely detection of trip wires by using the exposed portion of your arm for feeling' Another method oi searching for'trip wires is the use of a very fine branch' Hold it in front of you r.,J you can feel it strike anything. Another method is the use of a piece of wire with a small weight on one end, holding it in front of you as you walk. This method has proven to be quite effective' During the Korean Inlar, on occasion, the Turks wourd remove all their clothing prior to departing on patrol. rf while in,,no-man,s land,,,they came in contact with someone, they meiely felt or touched them and if they felt clothing, they kilred them. This, too, nu" f.o.,r"n effective.

c.

Hearing.

(i) The sound of a safety latch being released could warn you of an ambush or a sniper. ihe sound on a rifle or machine gun animals or birds may indicate enemy movement. The of sudden flight of wild sounds of dogs barking could warn others of your apProach to a village. You must be able to determine whether you have been discovered or whether the dogs are barking for another reason. Sudden cessation of normal wildlife ,roi""""rn"y inaicate passage of enemy, or the animal's or bird's detection of you. Thus, ii is important that familiar with distress or warning cries of birds and wild animalsyou become of the area of operations' The sound of a man talking, running, or crar^/ling are important sounds to recognize. rn reconnaissance rJit, the ieam should always move cautiously enough to hear sounds made by the enemy before the enemy hears or sees the recon team', Another very important sound is the striker of a hand grenade and the sound of the handle flying off. Sound also can assist you in determining range to an explosion or blast. rf you can see the flash of the explosion and can determine the number of seconds from the flash to the time you hear the sound, you can determine the approximate range. To use this method you must be able to see the flash of the explosion. Sound travels at about 1160 reet per second. For all practical purposes' we can say travels at 400 meters per second. with a 1itt1e practice you can learn io sound deterrnine range of enemy weapons using flash/bang method of range determination. It is also important that you be able to identify the type and calibre of variou" ayp"" of weapons by sound of the report of the weapons 6'2 TMCKTNG' Tracking, combined with the use the basic human senses is another important source of combat intelligence,of as evidenced by the following example:
As the recon team moved through the jungle, it came upon a crest which had recently been evacuated by the enemy. The ciest was pocketed with rifle pits. rn the spoil around the pits were biurred footprints. The holes were deep but not as wide as American Gr's dig them. rt was concluded from these signs that the hill had recently been held by the enemy.

48

t.';.

*:i:i;*l##*is*

Severalmenprowledthejunglebelowandfoundnumelouspilesof 20 of the animals had elephant dung; enough to sugglst"th"t ugwl{s of fresh--about two days been picketed there. The dung was stili fairly frame house' carefully camouthey figured. In one area thEre was a small post' There were a flaged and well-bunkered in; it looked like a cormnand

dozenorsosplitgourdsStrewnabouttheroom.Bitsofcookedrice..perhaps15or20grainsinall..stillclungtothesides.Theywerestill things togetherr it_ w1s speeulated soft to the touch. Adding all these battalion strength had held the same that an enemy force of "pp.o"irnately
ground not more than 48 hours before'

\-

Theabilitytoreadandinterpretsignsleftbytheenemyisofcourse but this ability takes on important in a conventional warfare enviornment, because this evidence of increased importance in the guerrilla environment, you may find for days, the guerrilla--the signs lef? by him--is all that weeksrorevenmonths,whileinvolvedincounter-guerrillawarfare.The following are the basic elements of human tracking:
from iLs natural state'

a.Displacement.ThedisLurbanceofsoil,vegetation,orwildlife

(r)Footprints.Footprintscanindicat'eseveralthings:Thenumber ofpersonnelinaParty'directionofmovemenL,sex'andinSomecasesthe typeofloadbeing.bornebythePersonorpartymakingtheprints.Persons o,,t "ut of clear footprints' Ehese traveling in a group will usually leave studying-a set of prints for being made by the last Person in the group' BypatLern of the soles' one may tread r^7orn or unworn heels, cuts in the heels, from Also note the angle of the impression be able to recognize them again. deep 'uorr"rly spaced prints with exceptionally the direction of movemeng. the prints was probably carrying toe prints indicate that the person leaving t.y iita where the load was placed a heavy load. If you follow the tracks you these prints and the on the ground during a rest break. Then by stldying surroundingarea,IoUmaygetsomeideaofwhattheloadconsisted. (2)Vegetation.Whenvegetationissteppedon,draggedoutofplace, undersides will show unnatu\-- or when branches are broken, tie light.r "olorld trail into the sun' rally. This will be .a"iur'to see ty looking at the Vineswillbebrokenanddragg.dp"rallel-toortowardthedirectionofmove. be bent towards the direction of usuallf stepped when Grass, ment. "il-riir the lighter inner wood movement. when the bark on a log or root is scuffed, wilL show, 1-eaving an easily detected sign' (3)ShredsofcklEtrirrg-T[qjungleenvironmentisveryhardonclothing. clinging to the underbrush' It is not uncorEfron to find tt,t""a"Gi-tit-*-"i-"foth iatli"ularly if movemenL was hurried' may occur when wild (4) Birds and animals. Another type oi*i*pt"cement in iiorn their hiding places' Birds' birds and animals are "rraa"rrff ilusnea also disturbed. Animals will particqlar, usually emit .;;;'" oi "rr* when iu familiar w{th the distress signats run a\^raJ--from man. Vo,, "noJil l"ri"it"fy birds of your area of operations' of the tiri-iJ*ti" ""d
t+9

b. Stalning. Location.
underbrush tency.

The deposition

of liquids or soils not natural to a specific

(1) Bloodstains. Look for bloodstains on the ground and on leaves and to the average height of man. Examine stains for color and consis-

(2) Soil. Observe logs, grass, and stones for signs of soil displ.acement from footgear. The col-or and composition of the soil may indicate a previous location or route over which a party has been moving. The muddying oi clear water is a sign of very recent movement which can be picked out by the untrained eye. If the \nrater in footprints is clear, thi." may indicate most the trail is an hour or more old. LitterinP. Littering is a direct result of ignorance, poor discipline, or both. rf the enemy should litter the trail, take full adva.rt"gu his carelessness. Some examples of littering are cigarette butts, scraps ofof paper and cloth, match sticks, ration cans, and abandoned equipment. Observe along the trail and to the flanks for these items. Uncovered human feces is another example of littering. trail-d' signs. (1)
Weathering. The effect of rain, wind, and sun on the appearance of
Rain.

(a) on footprints. A l-ight rain wil-l I'round out, footprints and give the appearance that they are old' A heavy rain will- completely oufiterate footprints in a very short time. flatten paper scraps and other litter such as scraps. By close examination you can determine whether the litter \^Ias discarded before or after the last r"in. Thus, it is very important that you always remember the day of the last significant rainfall. (2) Sunlighr. (a) on footprints. Footprints, when first made, will a ridge of moist dirt pushed up around the sides. sunlight and air willhave dry this ridge of dirt' causing a slow crumbling effect. rf actual crumbLing is observed the tracker, this is an indication that the prints r^rere made very recently by and
increased stealth should be employed.

(b) On litter. Rain will armnunition bandoleers and cloth

(b) on litter. sunlight bleaches and discolors light coLored paper and cloth' Such colored litter will first go through a yellJwing stage and then eventually, turn comPletely white. of most interest to us is the-yellowing stage' After one night, yellow spots will begin to form; it takes about 30 days for such litter to become completely yellow. on dark colored paper or cloth, You must determine how much paper has faded. The only guideline for this is experience.
50

(3)

vJind.

blowing.

(a)0nfootprints.Windmaybl.owgrass,leaves,sand,andotherlight whether is has been litter into Lhe prints. Examin" it. litier to determine crushed.Ifnot,itwi]-lbeimportanttorememberwhenthewindwaslast
therefore, it Litter maY be blown away from the trail; litter' it' locate to along the trail may be necessary to search back and forth of weather wiLl cause metal. (4) Combination of above. Al-1 the elements of metal. For exampte, closely willto rust. check recentl-y "*por"d fortions stripped the paint' Rust examine the rim of ration cans whlre the oPener forn in these pLaces within l-2 hours or less'

(b)

On

(5)Effectofwindandaircurrentswhi].etracking.Beawarethatwind can be used to your and air currents carry sound and odor. This knowledge - advantage when atLempting to locate the enemy' the upper body with the I^lhenever you hear a noise, if you roilL-rotate direction you loudest ' the ears cuppea wiih Lhe hands untit thl noise is the arefaeingwillusuallybetheSourceofthenoise.Whenthereisnowind, night and uphi11- in daylight' These air currents general-ly fLow downhil-l at if following a trail that elements can also be a disadvantage; for example, your back' dogs may bark leads into a guerril-la vilfage,-.ia'att. wind is to considers alt these factors' warning of your approach. A good tracker constantLy basic methods of getting trackers off 6.3 EVADING TRACKERS. There are three (2) use of of the trail of an RT. These are: (l) ambushing the trackers; demolitions; and (3) covering trail-' a.AmbushingTrackers.Thisisusual]-yarelativelysimplematterin The danger is the possibility of itself , since trackers "t. ,rol:trI.ily ,rnarrned'effective tactic is to double an armed force following close behind. An often and 1ay. the ambush' This back on the trail- at an angLe of forty-five degrees ambush site after it is the reaching may cause some de1ay in a reaction force \- triggered because of possible uncertainLy as to Ih" "*t"t direction of travel oftheteam.Whatevertheconfigurationoftheambushselected(seeparagraph as possibte once it is triggered' and 5.4) it should be accompl-ished aI quickly the direction of' movement the site inrnediately departed at a directiot "t"y from into the ambush. procedures utilizing demol-itions may b. use of Demotitions. The following tri"kur". see chapter x for:neLhods of preparation' de1-ay oI. "liffilT; (1)Claymorewithtimefuze.Setthisonthebacktrat.lwiththefuzecut to be behind-you' to the approximate lcngEb--* ti*"-you estimate the trackers if the mines are planted in (2) M14 Mines. Thls method is most effective of these min6's must be a triangular pattern about lqo feet aPart' The location recorded and reported as with bny others'
51

(3) Grenade with Trip wire. This has the disadvantage of more time to install than other methods, but unless seen first will ,ho"t taking always be detonated by anyone following. This method has the advantage over the t'114 of larger casualty radius. Grenades employed in this fashion must be recorded and reported in the same fashion as mines. (4) Whether or not these devices actually cause casualties, their detonation or discovery by trackers may cause them to proceed more s1owly. They also provide early warning to the team.
covering Trai1. This should be done as a matter of course The "tail gunner" is the man upon whorn responsibility for this lies. at all times. team should proceed slowly enough so that he has enough time to do a properThe job rubbing out footprints. Bending back foliage, etc. Any item of diseard of which may give away the presence and/or direction of movement of the team, such wrappers, pieces of tape' etc., should be stowed in a bag to be disposed as gum completion of the mission. Rest and RoN areas must be tf,oroughry policedof oi sterilized, to include replacing bent foliage into its original position, and erasing footprints, etc. when it is necessary to evade trackefs, it may be possible to deceive them by making an obvious trail, then doubling back and moving off at an angle, covering the new trail. Because of the abiiities of most trackers, this method will not work unless the start of the new trail is carefully covered. In most cases' once trackers are on the general trail of a team, it is best take some active measure against them such as in a and b above. Frequent to changes of direction will make the trackers' job more difficult, however.

---\

52

CHAPTER

V1l

INTELLIGENCE

7.1

REPORTING ENEMY ACTIVITY

a. General-Kev \"Iord Salute (f)


Stze.

'

(2) ActivitY. (3) Location. (4) Unit identification' (5) Time. (6)
h

EquiPmenL.

- Gun Positions.
TyPe.

(r) (3)
c. (f)

(2) StrengLh.
Ase.

(4) Field of fire*


Enemy TrooPs ' Number.

(2) Uniform. (3)


hleaPons.

(4) Foot gear. (5) Dire-stjLon of moyeT]!'(6) Language. d. Vehicles. (l) General descriPLion' (2) TYPe cargo
'

-'-=-'-

(3) Number of wheels / tracks (4)


- --(5)
TYPe engine '
SPeed '

'

53

;s

1" .

-rii;i:+;:;;l-';a::;;,i;r::;-x+;3r4*,;+e;)i;i.:,:.-:i,,::;;-;;;t:;;::;i..;.::;;*:.:.;.:,ii:

(6) Direction. (7)


Number

of vehicles.
l- .

(8) Interva (9) Lights. (10)

Markings.

(11) Security. (L2) Size of tracks on road-depth, width, e. Terrain and Vegetation. (1) (2) (3)
El.evarion. Slope.
Bamboo and

width between tracks.

& trees - height and diameter.

(4) Vines - length and diameter. (5) Shrubs. (6) f. (2)


Type canopy.
Weather.

(1) Cloud cover.


Temperature range.

(3) Visibil_ity. (4) Precipitation - frequency (5) Moon ilLuminarion.


o o.

and amount.

Streams and Rivers. r^Iidrh. Deprh. banks. banks. banks.

(1) (2)

(3) Angle of

(4) Height of

(5) Composition of (5) Direction and

speed

of current.
54

(7) Water clear or (8) Potable water. h. Trails (2) (3) (4)

cloudY.

and Roads.

(1) Direction.
Type surface.
Canopy overhead.

Widrh.
use.

(5) Indications of (i) (9) (10)


AbLe

(6) Vivibility from alr. to observe aircraft from


markers. ground'

(8) Signs or
Tracks.

Wheel vehicle.

(11) Cart. (12) Track vehicle. (13) Bicycle. (14) Foot. (15)
Draf

anirnals.

(16) Turn-around Points. (17) Rest-stoP areas (18) Installations (19) Security. (20) Soil i. (1) (3)
eamPle.

nearbY.

Br+ases.

Type construction.

--\
t.............------

(2) Capacity.
Number lanes.

55

(4)

I^Iidrh and length.

(5) Type (vehicle or foot). j. Fords. (1) (2)


Banks.

Depth.

(3) Direction and speed of current. k.. 7.2


DEBRIEFING FORMAT

a. Visual

Recon.

(1) Significanr

enemy

sightings.

(2) Indications of enemy activiry. (3) Primary and alternate Lz data. b. Organization. (1) Composirion (i.e., 3 US, 9 INDIG) (2) List by name. c.
(

Equipment.
hteapons
.

1)

(a) Individual (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (a) (b)
Mines.
Grenades.

smal1 arms.

Boobytraps.
Demol

itions.
LAI4r.

M-72
Spec

ia1

rveapons

(2) Signat.
FM Radios.

HT-1's.

56

(c)

Smoke.

(d) ?anels. (e) Signal I'lirrors (f) (g) (h) (3) (a)
Strobe Lights'
UHF URC 10. PEN '

Flares.

Other.
ConPasses.

(b) FlashI-ights. (c) Individual (d) (e)


BinocuLars.
Cameras.

Items '

d. I"lission.
An exact duplicate

of the mission

assigned

to the team.

e. Terrain. (1) Landform. (2) Vesetation' (a)


Lowland.

(b) Ridge and mountain sides' (c) High ground, ridge toPs and hilltops' (3) Rivers ag! (a) Location.
(b)---w!!lrh.
streams'

(c) DePth. (d) (e) (f) of

_-

direction) ' Current (speed-4nd


S1'oPe

bank'

Composition of

soil on tittio* \t

and banks'

(g) .

Dlmensions

of dry

bed.

(h) Are large streams navigable. (4) Trails (Identify by nr:rnber as location durlng (a) Direction and locatlon.

opn)

, (b) width. (c) Estlma-te of use (man or animals, footprints (describe prints: barefeet, cleated sores, hard soles), air""tion-Jr movement). (d) overhead canopy. (e)
Undergrowth along sldes

of the tralL.
the route.
dead vegeration;

(f) Directlon slgns,

s5znbols, signals found along

llghttfl"iT:ff:r:t:l!!:erlstics
(5) (b)
Roads.

(hard packed

or sofr earth,

(a) Direction.
tr'idrh.

(c) Surface Material. (d) Indicatlons of movement on the road. (e) Malntenance of road (craters repaired, (f) Description of vehlcLe tracks. (6) soil. (a) (b)
Appearance Hardness

etc.).

(color).
muddy, very ruuddy).

(dry, wet,
Lrater.

(c) Standing
etc.

(7) Note deviations from f. (2)


Weather.

map

of landforms, treelines,

water-rn/ays,

trails,

(1) VisibiLity.
Cloud cover.

(3) Rainfall.
s8

(4) (5) (6)

Ground fog'
Winds '

TemPeratures '

(7) Il-l"umination' (8) Effects on Personnel g. (1) (2)


Cormnunications
'

'

Was jarmning encountered?

Problems

in contacting air-relay'

(3) Difficulties with set' (4) Indications of enemy RDF capability'


(5)Wasgroundrelayused(Army/t"tarines)'ifsoproblemsencountered,if
any.

h. Narrative'
Thenarrativeisachronologicaldetai].edstatementemphasizingtime' within the area of operations' movement acrivities, and obser";;i;";
(1) (2) (3) (a) (b)

Insert

(Tiure and Pl-ace) '

Movement

(Direction of

and

distances)

tlhere were PeoPle


When?

seen?

(c)
(d) (e)

Number.

Civilian or mi1-itarY'
Ethnic grouP,
la1rguaBe

(f) (s)
(h)

headgear' trousers, shirtd; - 'footgear' condition) (co1or, Clothing ' ion{ition) ' Equipment (coLor, size, shape'
Sma1l

'

etc '

arns (condition/tYPe)' the PeoPle doing?

(i)

What were

(i) If rnilitary, well-discipl-ined or para-military'


(k)

Apparent PhYsical condition'


59

(4)

(a) (b) (c)

Where located?
How rnsny!

Shape,

size,

purpose.

(d) Construction materials. (e) Markings. (f) Contents of structure. (g) Estimate of last use. (h) Indications of family

occupancy.

(i) Animals or animal pen near structures. (j) Crops close to structure. (5) Ob"".""tir"" ,f "* (a) Where (trenches, foxholes, (b)
Type.

bunkers,

AW

positions)?

(c) Field or paddy size. (d) Care of crops. (e) Stage of development. (f) (g) (h)
Food cached
Abundance

in

area.
compared

of crops
made

to the number of

people.

Any

efforts

(6) Observations of animals. (a) trrlhat type, where, how (b) L/ild or rame. (c) condirion. (d) (7) (a)
Drayage animals.
Enemv

to hide erops from air.


many?

tactics.
the enemyrs reaction to the
60

trrlhat was

team?

(b) How in the area? (c)

presence was aware of the team's he that did the enemy indicate
a

- by how large Was the team followed

forc

e?

aggressively (d) was the team attacked

when

discovered?

(e) Was the Leam surrounded? (f) (g) the


Leam

Lo avoid contact' Did the enemy atLempt he was attacked? enemy have when the did What reaction

(h)Whatactiondidtheenemytakewhenhelicoptersarrivedtoremove a large force? ot i""ti (i) (j) Signals if any' force' DisciPline of enemY

training and discipline' (k) Indications of enemy i. (1) Air-strikes


How manY
'

were called?
'

(2) Locations

(3) What results?

against the target? effective ordnance the (4) Was but observed in area team by called (5) Include those not (6) Effects of ARc lights' conrnando lava' (7) Report effecLs of j.
I4ines
'

(1) Exact location' (2) Details of Placement' folder) (3) Sketeh (for target (4) TYPes of mines
emPloYed'
'

(5) Number of mines ' & results if known' (6) Detonation of mines k.
Added Information
61

(1) Anything not otherwise covered. (2) General estimate of the extent of military activity in the (3) SienaLs.

area.

(a) was there an identifiable pattern to the signals? what was the pattern? Are different methods of signalling integraled in the system? (b) Were the signals related to enemy activity? (c) tr{hat was the apparent meaning of the signals? (d) Are different types of signar.s used in different 1. Recormendatlons.
operational capability.
areas?

(1) rtems of

equipment

or material- that can be used to improve our

(2) Operational techniques that can be used to improve operations. (3) Performance bonus for indigenous personneL. m. (2) (3) 7.3 a. (1)
Res

er.
l_osses.

(1) Friendly

Enemy losses. Enemy

sighrings.

HAND HELD AERIAL PHOTOGMPHY

Camera Operation.
.

(a) Detennine ASA speed of film. (b) set the ASA speed in the window at the top of the shutter contror.. (c) Attach the desired lens, i.., 200_nur or 55-rmn. (d) Set the shutter speed dial so that the desired speed is read opposite the reference mark. Try ro use 1/r,000 at;-d;""ver possibre. (e) rf filters are used attach them to the camera prior to turning on the exposure meter.
switch up. (g) Rotate aperature ring to obtain the correct rrf-stontt or aperature setting. t te ed.
62

(f) Turn

Spotmaric Meter

on

by pushing the

rrswrr

(h)Correctexposurewillbeindicatedwhentheneedleontherightside opening' The needle pointing of the vierv-finder is centered on the reverse Cneedle pointing to the - sign to the * sign indicates overexPosure while the located in shadorvs indicates underexposure. I,Ihen photographing objectives causedbyheavytreecanopy,youmayhavetooverexposethephotograph. center the exposure (i) Do not adjust the shutter speed unless you cannot Then the shutter needle and there are no more f-stop settings available' All aerial photography should speed dial can be moved from 1/100b to /fSOO. 1/1000 sec' T1-ris be Eaken at either of these two shutter speeds, preferably ivill reduce image motion or blur to a minimum.

(2)

Focusins.
be

kept at infinity 00. With the 200-nrn lens set on appear sharp on 00, everYthing from 200 feet to infinity rvill be in focus and the photograPh.

(a) Focusing should

(b)Whenusingthe200.mmlensitissuggestedthatmaskingtapebeused that aircraft vibrato secure the focus at 00 (lnfinity) ' This rvill ensure of focus' tions and accidental bumps rvill not put the camera out b. Factors of Good PhotograPhv' (1) Cameras and equiPgent. lens has Proven to (a) The Asahi Pentax 35-mm camera fitted with a 200-nrm The lens has aircraft' UH-ID be an ideal system for use in the O-1, O-2' and second' a of f/1000th f-stop from F/4 to Fl22 and shutter speeds up to (b)Takingphotographsfromanyaerialplatformissimpte'butoneimpor. rn" speed and vibrations of the tant factor must be understood a;d ;;memqeredl moveth; t".g"L t;1 t"lation to the camera' This aircraft ".uut"rGilffiTof must blur This film' image on the ment creates image motion or blurrin! of the photograph the cn subject matter be minimized, if not completely stopf,ed, or the will not be recognized' (c)Highshutterspeedisthebestr^layofstoppingimagemotion.The lighting conditions 1/500th of reconrnendea setting i" t'l 1000. Under poor image motion' can be ,r""al however, this incrlases the chances of
second
a

(d)Theaperature(f/stol)isdeterminedbyboththebrightnessofthe Standards Association being light and the e.!e speed of the fi1m. The American to make a proPer exPosure equal 200 ASA film needs twice the amount of light as on with a sPeed of 400 ASA' (e)Anultraviolet(UV)filtershouldbeusedatalltimesasitwill eliminate most of haze and mist' (2) Techniques. (a)onmostaircraft,vibrationisextensive.ThecamerashouldNo!be Vibrations can be absorbed by the photobraced on any portion of the aircraft. close to your body and you will not grapher's body and arms. Hold your elbows steady the camera' only eliminate some of the vibrations' but
63

(b) If at all possible take your photographs with the sun at your back. By shooting with the sun you wi1-1- minimize the effect of haze, eliminate gLare and, of course, obtain much better photography. Acceptable photos may be obtained shooting into the sun, if the sun is high in the sky and you use a lens shade. Horvever, you usually obtain much higher quaLity photos by shooting with the sun at your back. (c) Glass or p1-astic windows. Do not attempt to photograph through glass or plastic windows of an aircraft, since these windows are not opticall-y perfect and definition wiLl be lost. Not only wil-L the amount of light passing through the windows be reduced, but they will reflect light rays and thus tend to throw images out of focus. Plastic windows have about the same image deteriorating effectS as plate glass. (d) If at all possibLe it is suggested that the photographer shoot foraircraft's f1-ight path to an angl-e of no greater than 45 degrees to either side. The photographer observing from this position can search for approaching point targets, since the flight path is heading him toward the target. Shooting forward reduces image motion and results in better photos. This technique can be utilized when flying as low as 500 feet if the 5O-rnrn lens is used.
ward along the

$
4lo

:;,--rY

(e) If, because of aircraft obstructions (wing struts, etc.), it becomes necessary to photograph your objective at an angle greater than 45 degrees from the fLight path, it is best to use a panning technique. This is required to negate the blurring effect due to the relative motion of the objective. The subject is first picked-up in the viewfinder at some distance ahead of the aircraft. Swing the camera keeping the objective centered in the viewfinder as the aircraft approaches it. When the objective is closest to the aircraft take the picture and follow thru with the swing as the objective passes to the rear. This is the same technique as you would use in bird or skeet shooting. (f) In cases where a series of photos of 1-arger objectives is desired the pilot can put the aircraft into a tight turn around the objective. This would give the photographer enough time to take the pictures. In this case it should not be necessary to pan but merely snap your pictures as the relative motion of the objective is greatly reduced.
64

(3)

Davl-isht exposure tabl-e for btack and white films.

FILIVI ASA

BRIGHT

(Distinct
Shadows)

SUN

CLOIIDY BRIGHT

(No Shadows)

HEAVY OVERCAST

PLUS-X

1/1000 sec. F

ASA 125

/5.6

1/5oo see. F/4

NOT RECOMMENDED

PLUS-X*

1/1000 sec. F/S

at
ASA 250

f/1000 sec.Fl4

1/500 sec. Fl4

TRI.X
ASA
4OO

1/1000 sec. F/ 11

1/1ooo sec. Els.6

1/1000 sec. F/4

?tspeciaL Development. The photo lab would need to know thaE You exPosed the ro11 at this higher ASA than normal. Also, you musL expose the comPlete

rolL at this higher ASA rating.


7.4
REQUIRED DATA

operational data from the

a. To properlY Process (1) (a) (b)


FiLm processins. Type
ASA

the

Photos

film and to obtain the maximum intelligence and certain data is required for each frame/roll.

of

camera/l-ens.

raring used (Not ASA printed on fil-m pack but ASA setting used on

camera)

(c) Shutter speed/f-stoP. (d) Lighting condiLions, i.e., bright sun, etc'

65

Pho

tographer/Targe

Camera/Lens

Shutter/ f- s top
ASA

Rating

Used

Lighting

66

Lancer Militaria
Sims, Arkansas

Hall Printere 3338 Hot Springs, Arkansas