I U j + + = (2.5a)
( )
K m b K
K
K r K
p
dt
d
R
r
r
r r
j
I U + + = (2.5b)
K M K s K
L L
r s s
I I + = (2.6a)
K M K r K
L L
s r r
I I + = (2.6b)
The equation of the dynamic rotor rotation can be expressed as:
 
m L e
m
B M M
J dt
d
=
1
(2.7)
where:
e
M electromagnetic torque,
L
M load torque,
B viscous constant.
In further consideration the friction factor will be negated ( ) 0 = B .
The electromagnetic torque
e
M can be expressed by the following formulas:
2.2. Mathematical Model of Induction Motor
9
( )
r s
I I
*
Im
2
M
s
b e
L
m
p M = (2.8)
( )
s s
I
*
Im
2
s
b e
m
p M = (2.9)
Taking into consideration the fact that in the cage motor the rotor voltage equals zero
and the electromagnetic torque equation (2.9) a complete set of equations for the cage
induction motor can be written as:
K K
K
K s K
dt
d
R
s
s
s s
I U j + + = (2.10a)
( )
K m b K
K
K r
p
dt
d
R
r
r
r
I + + = j 0 (2.10b)
K M K s K
L L
r s s
I I + = (2.11a)
K M K r K
L L
s r r
I I + = (2.11b)
( )
(
=
L
s
b
m
M
m
p
J dt
d
s s
I
*
Im
2
1
(2.12)
Equations (2.10), (2.11) and (2.12) are the basis of further consideration.
The applied space vector method as a mathematical tool for the analysis of the
electric machines a complete set equations can be represented in various systems of
coordinates. One of them is the stationary coordinates system (fixed to the stator)
in this case angular speed of the reference frame is zero 0 =
K
. The complex space
vector can be resolved into components and .
s s K
U U j + =
s
U (2.13a)
s s K
I I j + =
s
I ,
r r K
I I j + =
r
I (2.13b)
s s K
j + =
s
,
r r K
j + =
r
(2.13c)
In coordinate system the motor model equation can be written as:
dt
d
I R U
s
s s s
+ =
(2.14a)
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
10
dt
d
I R U
s
s s s
+ = (2.14b)
r m b
r
r r
p
dt
d
I R + + = 0 (2.14c)
r m b
r
r r
p
dt
d
I R + = 0 (2.14d)
r M s s s
I L I L + = (2.15a)
r M s s s
I L I L + = (2.15b)
s M r r r
I L I L + = (2.15c)
s M r r r
I L I L + = (2.15d)
( )
(
=
L s s s s
s
b
m
M I I
m
p
J dt
d
2
1
(2.16)
The relations described above by the motor equations can be represented as a block
diagram. There is not just one block diagram of an induction motor. The layout
Construction of a block diagram will depend on the chosen coordinate system and input
signals. For instance, if it is assumed in the stationary coordinate system that the
input signal to the motor is the stator voltage, the equations (2.142.16) can be
transformed into:
s s s
s
I R U
dt
d
= (2.17a)
s s s
s
I R U
dt
d
= (2.17b)
r m b r r
r
p I R
dt
d
= (2.17c)
r m b r r
r
p I R
dt
d
+ = (2.17d)
r
r s
M
s
s
s
L L
L
L
I =
1
(2.18a)
r
r s
M
s
r
s
L L
L
L
I =
1
(2.18b)
2.2. Mathematical Model of Induction Motor
11
s
r s
M
r
r
r
L L
L
L
I =
1
(2.18c)
s
r s
M
r
r
r
L L
L
L
I =
1
(2.18d)
( )
(
=
L s s s s
s
b
m
M I I
m
p
J dt
d
2
1
(2.19)
These equations can be represented in the block diagram as shown in Fig. 2.2.
s
b
p
s
I
r
I
s
s
U
s
R
s
R
s
L
1
r s
M
L L
L
r s
M
L L
L
r
L
1
r
R
r
r
R
r
L
1 r
I
s
R
s
L
1
r s
M
L L
L
r s
M
L L
L
s
U
2
s
b
m
p
e
M
L
M
s
I
J
1
Fig. 2.2. Block diagram of an induction motor in the stationary coordinate system
This representation of the induction motor is not good for use to design a control
structure, because the output signals flux, torque and speed depend on both inputs. From
the control point of view this system is complicated. That is the reason why there are a
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
12
few methods proposed to decouple the flux and torque control. It is achieved, for
example, by the orientation of the coordinate system to the rotor or stator flux vectors.
Both control systems are described further in Chapter 3.
The equations (2.17), (2.18), (2.19) and the block diagram presented in the Fig. 2.2
can be used to build a simulation model of the induction motor. It was used in a
simulation model, which is presented in Appendix A.2.
2.3. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
The threephase two level VSI consists of six active switches. The basic topology of
the inverter is shown in Fig. 2.3. The converter consists of the three legs with IGBT
transistors, or (in the case of high power) GTO thyristors and freewheeling diodes. The
inverter is supplied by a voltage source composed of a diode rectifier with a C filter in
the dclink. The capacitor C is typically large enough to obtain adequately low voltage
source impedance for the alternating current component in the dclink.
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
4
D
5
D
6
C
2
dc
U
2
dc
U
C
0
S
B
+
S
B

S
A
+
S
A

S
C
+
S
C

T
1
T
2
T
5
T
6
T
3
T
4
DC side
U
AB
A B C
N
I
A
I
B
I
C
U
A
R
A
L
A
E
A
U
B
R
B
L
B
E
B
U
C
R
C
L
C
E
C
AC side
IM
PWM Converter
Fig. 2.3. Topology of the voltage source inverter
2.3. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
13
The voltage source inverter (Fig. 2.3) makes it possible to connect each of the three
motor phase coils to a positive or negative voltage of the dc link. Fig. 2.4 explains the
fabrication of the output voltage waves in squarewave, or sixstep, mode of operation.
The phase voltages are related to the dclink center point 0 (see Fig. 2.3).
a)
0
U
B0
t
2
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
0
U
A0
t
2
1 2 3 4 5 6
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
0
U
C0
t
2
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
2
dc
U
3
2
0
U
AB
t
2
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
dc
U
dc
U
3
2
dc
U
3
2
0
U
A
t
2
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
3
1
b)
c)
d)
e)
Fig. 2.4. The output voltage waveforms in sixstep mode
The phase voltage of an inverter fed motor (Fig. 2.4e) can be expressed by Fourier
series as [16, 66]:
( )
( )
( )
=
=
= =
1 1
sin sin
1 2
n
n m
n
dc A
t n U t n
n
U U
(2.20)
where:
dc
U  dc supply voltage,
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
14
( ) dc n m
U
n
U
2
=  peak value of the nth harmonic,
n = 1+6k, k = 0, 1, 2,
Derivation of the formula (2.20) is presented in Appendix A.1.
a) b)
c) d)
e) f)
g) h)
U
1
(100)
A B C
U
dc
U
2
(110)
A B C
U
dc
U
3
(010)
A B C
U
dc
U
4
(011)
A B C
U
dc
U
5
(001)
A B C
U
dc
U
6
(101)
A B C
U
dc
U
0
(000)
A B C
U
dc
U
7
(111)
A B C
U
dc
Fig. 2.5. Switching states for the voltage source inverter
From the equation (2.20) the fundamental peak value is given as:
( ) dc m
U U
2
1
= (2.21)
2.3. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
15
This value will be used to define the modulation index M used in pulse width
modulation (PWM) methods (see section 2.4).
For the sake of the inverter structure, each inverterleg can be represented as an ideal
switch. The equivalent inverter states are shown in Fig. 2.5.
There are eight possible positions of the switches in the inverter. These states
correspond to voltage vectors. Six of them (Fig. 2.5 af) are active vectors and the last
two (Fig. 2.5 gh) are zero vectors. The output voltage represented by space vectors is
defined as:
=
=
=
7 , 0 0
6 ... 1
3
2
3 ) 1 (
v
v e U
v j
dc
v
U (2.22)
The output voltage vectors are shown in Fig. 2.6.
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
U
7
(111)
U
0
(000)
Im
Re
Fig. 2.6. Output voltage represented as space vectors
Any output voltage can in average be generated, of course limited by the value of the
dc voltage. In order to realize many different pulse width modulation methods are
proposed [13, 27, 30, 38, 46, 47, 51, 52, 105] in history. However, the general idea is
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
16
based on a sequential switching of active and zero vectors. The modulation methods are
widely described in the next section.
Only one switch in an inverterleg (Fig. 2.3) can be turned on at a time, to avoid a
short circuit in the dclink. A delay time in the transistor switching signals must be
inserted. During this delay time, the deadtime T
D
transistors cease to conduct. Two
control signals S
A
+, S
A
 for transistors T
1
, T
2
with deadtime T
D
are presented in Fig.
2.7. The duration of deadtime depends of the used transistor. Most of them it takes 1
3s.
t
t
T
s
T
D
T
D
S
A

S
A
+
Fig. 2.7. Deadtime effect in a PWM inverter
Although, this delay time guarantees safe operation of the inverter, it causes a serious
distortion in the output voltage. It results in a momentary loss of control, where the
output voltage deviates from the reference voltage. Since this is repeated for every
switching operation, it has significant influence on the control of the inverter. This is
known as the deadtime effect. This is important in applications like a sensorless direct
torque control of induction motor. These applications require feedback signals like:
stator flux, torque and mechanical speed. Typically the inverter output voltage is needed
to calculate it. Unfortunately, the output voltage is very difficult to measure and it
requires additional hardware. Because of that for calculation of feedback signals the
reference voltage is used. However, the relation between the output voltage and the
reference voltage is nonlinear due to the deadtime effect [8]. It is especially important
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
17
for the low speed range when voltage is very low. The deadtime may also cause
instability in the induction motor [52].
Therefore, for correct operation of control algorithm proper compensation of dead
time is required. Many approaches are proposed to compensate of this effect [2, 3, 8, 29,
54, 64, 76].
The deadtime compensation is directly connected with estimation of inverter output
voltage. Therefore, compensation algorithm, which is used in final control structure of
the inverter is presented in Chapter 5.
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
2.4.1. Introduction
In the voltage source inverter conversion of dc power to threephase ac power is
performed in the switched mode (Fig. 2.3). This mode consists in power semiconductors
switches are controlled in an onoff fashion. The actual power flow in each motor phase
is controlled by the duty cycle of the respective switches. To obtain a suitable duty
cycle for each switches technique pulse width modulation is used. Many different
modulation methods were proposed and development of it is still in progress [13, 27,
30, 38, 46, 47, 51, 52, 105].
The modulation method is an important part of the control structure. It should
provide features like:
wide range of linear operation,
low content of higher harmonics in voltage and current,
low frequency harmonics,
operation in overmodulation,
reduction of common mode voltage,
minimal number of switching to decrease switching losses in the power
components.
The development of modulation methods may improve converter parameters. In the
carrier based PWM methods the Zero Sequence Signals (ZSS) [46] are added to extend
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
18
the linear operation range (see section 2.4.2). The carrier based modulation methods
with ZSS correspond to space vector modulation. It will be widely presented in section
2.4.4.
All PWM methods have specific features. However, there is not just one PWM
method which satisfies all requirements in the whole operating region. Therefore, in the
literature are proposed modulators, which contain from several modulation methods.
For example, adaptive space vector modulation [79], which provides the following
features:
full control range including overmodulation and sixstep mode, achieved by the
use of three different modulation algorithms,
reduction of switching losses thanks to an instantaneous tracking peak value of
the phase current.
The content of the higher harmonics voltage (current) and electromagnetic
interference generated in the inverter fed drive depends on the modulation technique.
Therefore, PWM methods are investigated from this point of view. To reduce these
disadvantages several methods have been proposed. One of these methods is random
modulation (RPWM). The classical carrier based method or space vector modulation
method are named deterministic (DEPWM), because these methods work with constant
switching frequency. In opposite to the deterministic methods, the random modulation
methods work with variable frequency, or with randomly changed switching sequence
(see section 2.4.6).
2.4.2. Carrier Based PWM
The most widely used method of pulse width modulation are carrier based. This
method is also known as the sinusoidal (SPWM), triangulation, subharmonic, or
suboscillation method [16, 52]. Sinusoidal modulation is based on triangular carrier
signal as shown in Fig. 2.8. In this method three reference signals U
Ac
, U
Bc
, U
Cc
are
compared with triangular carrier signal U
t
, which is common to all three phases. In this
way the logical signals S
A
, S
B
, S
C
are generated, which define the switching instants of
the power transistors as is shown in Fig. 2.9.
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
19
U
dc
A B C
N
Carrier
U
Ac
U
Bc
U
Cc
U
t
S
A
S
B
S
C
Fig. 2.8. Block scheme of carrier based sinusoidal PWM
U
t
U
Ac
U
Bc
U
Cc
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
S
B
S
C
0
dc
U 3 2
dc
U 3 1
dc
U 3 2
dc
U 3 1
0
dc
U
dc
U
0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
2
dc
U
S
A
A
U
AB
U
2
dc
U
Fig. 2.9. Basic waveforms of carrier based sinusoidal PWM
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
20
The modulation index m is defined as:
) (t m
m
U
U
m = (2.23)
where:
m
U  peak value of the modulating wave,
) (t m
U  peak value of the carrier wave.
The modulation index m can be varied between 0 and 1 to give a linear relation
between the reference and output wave. At m=1, the maximum value of fundamental
peak voltage is
2
dc
U
, which is 78.55% of the peak voltage of the square wave (2.21).
The maximum value in the linear range can be increased to 90.7% of that of the
square wave by inserting the appropriate value of a triple harmonics to the modulating
wave. It is shown in Fig. 2.10, which presents the whole range characteristic of the
modulation methods [67]. This characteristic include also the overmodulation (OM)
region, which is widely described in section 2.4.5.
1
0.785 0.907 1
1.155 3.24
M
m
  % 100
2
dc
A
U
U
78.5
90.7
100
SPWM
SVPWM
or SPWM with ZSS OM
Six step
operation
Fig. 2.10. Output voltage of VSI versus modulation index for different PWM techniques
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
21
If the neutral point N on the AC side of the inverter is not connected with the DC
side midpoint 0 (Fig. 2.3), phase currents depend only on the voltage difference
between phases. Therefore, it is possible to insert an additional Zero Sequence Signal
(ZSS) of the 3th harmonic frequency, which does not produce phase voltage distortion
and without affecting load currents. A block scheme of the modulator based on the
additional ZSS is shown in Fig. 2.11 [46].
N
U
dc
A B C
S
A
S
B
S
C
Carrier
U
t
Calculation
of ZSS
U
Ac
U
Bc
U
Cc
U
Ac
*
U
Bc
*
U
Cc
*
Fig. 2.11. Generalized PWM with additional Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS)
The type of the modulation method depends on the ZSS waveform. The most popular
PWM methods are shown in Fig. 2.12 where unity the triangular carrier waveform gain
is assumed and the signals are normalized to
2
dc
U
. Therefore,
2
dc
U
saturation limits
correspond to 1. In Fig. 2.12 only phase A modulation waveform is shown as the
modulation signals of phase B and C are identical waveforms with 120 phase shift.
The modulated methods illustrated in Fig. 2.12 can be separated into two groups:
continuous and discontinuous. In the continuous PWM (CPWM) methods, the
modulation waveform are always within the triangular peak boundaries and in every
carrier cycle triangle and modulation waveform intersections. Therefore, on and off
switchings occur. In the discontinuous PWM (DPWM) methods a modulation
waveform of a phase has a segment which is clamped to the positive or negative DC
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
22
bus. In this segments some power converter switches do not switch. Discontinuous
modulation methods give lower (average 33%) switching losses. The modulation
method with triangular shape of ZSS with 1/4 peak value corresponds to space vector
modulation (SVPWM) with symmetrical placement of the zero vectors in a sampling
period. It will be widely describe in section 2.4.4. In Fig. 2.12 is also shown sinusoidal
PWM (SPWM) and third harmonic PWM (THIPWM) with sinusoidal ZSS with 1/4
peak value corresponding to a minimum of output current harmonics [63].
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
SPWM THIPWM SVPWM
U
A
U
N0
U
A0
U
A
=U
A0
U
N0
U
N0
U
A
U
A0
a) b) c)
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
U
N0
U
N0
U
N0
U
A0
U
A0 U
A0
U
A
U
A
U
A
DPWM1 DPWM2 DPWM3
d) e) f)
Fig. 2.12. Waveforms for PWM with added Zero Sequence Signal a) SPWM, b)THIPWM, c) SVPWM,
d) DPWM1, e) DPWM2, f) DPWM3
2.4.3. Space Vector Modulation (SVM)
The space vector modulation techniques differ from the carrier based in that way,
there are no separate modulators used for each of the three phases. Instead of them, the
reference voltages are given by space voltage vector and the output voltages of the
inverter are considered as space vectors (2.22). There are eight possible output voltage
vectors, six active vectors U
1
 U
6
, and two zero vectors U
0
, U
7
(Fig. 2.13). The
reference voltage vector is realized by the sequential switching of active and zero
vectors.
In the Fig. 2.13 there are shown reference voltage vector U
c
and eight voltage
vectors, which corresponds to the possible states of inverter. The six active vectors
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
23
divide a plane for the six sectors I  VI. In the each sector the reference voltage vector
U
c
is obtained by switching on, for a proper time, two adjacent vectors. Presented in
Fig. 2.13 the reference vector U
c
can be implemented by the switching vectors of U
1
, U
2
and zero vectors U
0
, U
7
.
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
U
7
(111)
U
0
(000)
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
U
c
(t
1
/T
s
)U
1
(
t 2
/
T
s
)
U
2
Fig. 2.13. Principle of the space vector modulation
The reference voltage vector U
c
is sampled with the fixed clock frequency
s s
T f 1 = ,
and next a sampled value ( )
s
T
c
U is used for calculation of times t
1
, t
2
, t
0
and t
7
. The
signal flow in space vector modulator is shown in Fig. 2.14.
U
dc
Sector
selection
S
A
S
B
S
C
Calculation
t
1
t
2
t
0
t
7
f
s
U
c
A B C
N
U
c
(T
s
)
Fig. 2.14. Block scheme of the space vector modulator
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
24
The times t
1
and t
2
are obtained from simple trigonometrical relationships and can be
expressed in the following equations:
( )
= 3 sin
3 2
1 s
MT t (2.24a)
( )
sin
3 2
2 s
MT t = (2.24b)
Where M is a modulation index, which for the space vector modulation is defined as:
dc
c
step six
c
U
U
U
U
M
2
) ( 1
= =
(2.25)
where:
c
U  vector magnitude, or phase peak value,
) ( 1 step six
U
 fundamental peak value ( )
dc
U 2 of the squarephase voltage
wave.
The modulation index M varies from 0 to 1 at the squarewave output. The length of
the U
c
vector, which is possible to realize in the whole range of is equal to
dc
U
3
3
.
This is a radius of the circle inscribed of the hexagon in Fig. 2.13. At this condition the
modulation index is equal:
907 . 0
2
3
3
= =
dc
dc
U
U
M
(2.26)
This means that 90.7% of the fundamental at the square wave can be obtained. It
extends the linear range of modulation in relation to 78.55% in the sinusoidal
modulation techniques (Fig. 2.10).
After calculation of t
1
and t
2
from equations (2.24) the residual sampling time is
reserved for zero vectors U
0
and U
7
.
7 0 2 1 7 , 0
) ( t t t t T t
s
+ = + = (2.27)
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
25
The equations for t
1
and t
2
are identically for all space vector modulation methods.
The only difference between the other type of SVM is the placement of zero vectors at
the sampling time.
The basic SVM method is the modulation method with symmetrical spacing zero
vectors (SVPWM). In this method times t
0
and t
7
are equal:
( ) 2
2 1 7 0
t t T t t
s
= = (2.28)
For the first sector switching sequence can be written as follows:
U
0
U
1
U
2
U
7
U
2
U
1
U
0
(2.29)
This vector switching sequence in the SVPWM method is shown in Fig. 2.15a. In
this case zero vectors are placed in the beginning and in the end of period U
0
, and in the
center of the period U
7
. In one sampling period all three phases are switched. To realize
the reference vector can also be used an other switching sequence, for example:
U
0
U
1
U
2
U
1
U
0
(2.30)
or
U
1
U
2
U
7
U
2
U
1
(2.31)
These sequences are shown in Fig. 2.15b and 2.15c respectively. In these cases only
two phases switch in one sampling time, and only one zero vector is used U
0
(Fig.
2.15b) or U
7
(Fig. 2.15c). This type of modulation is called discontinuous pulse width
modulation (DPWM).
1
0 1
0 0 1
1
0 1
0 0 1
1 1 1
1 1
1
1 1 1
1 1
1
T
s
U
7
t
0
t
2
/2
S
A
S
B
S
C
U
1
U
2
U
2
U
1
t
1
/2 t
1
/2 t
2
/2
0
0 0
0
0 0
0 1 1
0 1
0
0 1
0
T
s
U
0
U
1
U
2
U
1
U
0
t
2
t
1
/2 t
0
/2 t
0
/2 t
1
/2
S
A
S
B
S
C
0
0 0
0 0 0
0
0 0
0 0 0
1 1 1
1 1
1
1 1 1
1 1
1
T
s
U
0
U
1
U
2
U
7
U
7
U
2
U
1
U
0
t
0
/4 t
1
/2 t
2
/2 t
0
/4 t
0
/4 t
1
/2 t
2
/2 t
0
/4
S
A
S
B
S
C
a) b) c)
Fig. 2.15. Space vectors in the sampling period a) SVPWM, b), c) DPWM
The idea of discontinuous modulation is based on the assumption that one phase is
clamped by 60 to lower or upper of the dc bus voltage. It gives only one zero state per
sampling period (Fig. 2.15b, c). The discontinuous modulation provides 33% reduction
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
26
of the effective switching frequency and switching losses. The discontinuous space
vector modulation techniques, like all the space vector methods, correspond to the
carrier based modulation method. It will be widely described in the next section.
DPWM4
U
7
(111)
U
0
(000) U
1
(100)
U
2
(110)
U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001)
U
6
(101)
t
7
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
0
= 0
DPWM1
U
7
(111)
U
0
(000)
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110)
U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001)
U
6
(101)
t
7
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
0
= 0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
U
N0
U
A0
U
A
DPWM2
U
7
(111)
U
0
(000) U
1
(100)
U
2
(110)
U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001)
U
6
(101)
t
7
= 0
t
7
= 0 t
7
= 0
t
0
= 0 t
0
= 0
t
0
= 0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
U
N0
U
A0
U
A
DPWM3
U
7
(111)
U
0
(000)
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110)
U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001)
U
6
(101)
t
7
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
0
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
7
= 0
t
0
= 0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
U
N0
U
A0
U
A
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
U
A
U
A0
U
N0
a)
b)
c)
d)
Fig. 2.16. The discontinuous space vector modulation
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
27
In the Fig. 2.16 there are shown several different kinds of space vector discontinues
modulation. It can be seen that the type of method depends on the moved do not switch
sectors. These sectors are adequately moved on 0, 30, 60, 90 and denoted as
DPWM1, DPWM2, DPWM3 and DPWM4. Fig. 2.16 also shows voltage waveforms for
each methods. For the carrier based methods with ZSS these waveforms are identical
(Fig. 2.12).
From the type of modulation it depends also harmonic content, what is presented in
Fig. 2.17 for the SVPWM and DPWM1 methods.
Fig. 2.17. The output line to line voltage harmonics content a) SVPWM, b) DPWM 1
In Fig. 2.17 harmonics of output line to line voltage are shown. The voltage
frequency domain representation is composed of the series discrete harmonics
components. These are clustered about multiplies of the switching frequency. In this
case the switching frequency was 5 kHz. Spectrum for every modulation methods is
different. In Fig. 2.17 the differences between SVPWM and DPWM1 modulation
method can be seen. However, characteristic feature for all methods, which work with
constant switching frequency is clustered higher harmonics round multiplies of the
switching frequency. These type of modulation methods are named deterministic PWM
(DEPWM). The modulation method influence also for current distortion, torque ripple
and acoustic noise emitted from the motor. Modulation techniques are still being
improved for reduction of these disadvantages. One of the proposed methods is a
random PWM (RPWM) (see section 2.4.6).
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
28
2.4.4. Relation Between Carrier Based and Space Vector Modulation
All the carrier based methods have equivalent to the space vector modulation
methods. The type of carrier based method depends on the added ZSS, as shown in
section 2.4.2, and type of the space vector modulation depending on the time of zero
vectors t
0
and t
7
.
A comparison of carrier based method with SVM is shown in Fig 2.18. There is
shown a carrier based modulation with triangular shape of ZSS with 1/4 peak value.
This method corresponds to the space vector modulation (SVPWM) with symmetrical
placement of zero vectors in sampling period. In Fig. 2.18b is presented discontinuous
method DPWM1 for carrier based and for SVM techniques.
In the carrier based methods three reference signals U
Ac
*
, U
Bc
*
, U
Cc
*
are compared
with triangular carrier signal U
t
, and in this way logical signals S
A
, S
B
, S
C
are generated.
In the space vector modulation duration time of active (t
1
, t
2
) and zero (t
0
, t
7
) vectors are
calculated, and from these times switching signals S
A
, S
B
, S
C
are obtained. The gate
pulses generated by both methods are identical.
The carrier based PWM methods are simple to implement in hardware. Through the
compare reference signals with triangular carrier signal it receives gate pulses.
However, a PWM inverter is generally controlled by a microprocessor/controller
nowadays. Thanks to the representation of command voltages as space vector, a
microprocessor using suitable equations can calculate duration time and realize
switching sequence easily.
It is possible to implement all carrier based modulation methods using the space
vector technique. The active vector times t
1
and t
2
equations are identically for all space
vector modulation methods. But every method demand suitable equation for the zero
vectors t
0
and t
7
.
The eight voltage vectors U
0
 U
7
correspond to the possible states of the inverter
(Fig. 2.13). Each of these states can be composed by a different equivalent electrical
circuit. In Fig 2.19 the circuit for the vector U
1
is presented.
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
29
0
0 0
0 0 0
0
0 0
0 0 0
0 1 1
0 1
0
0 1 1
0 1
0
T
s
U
0
U
1
U
2
U
1
U
0
t
2
t
1
/2 t
0
/2 t
0
/2 t
1
/2
S
A
S
B
S
C
U
Ac
*
U
Bc
*
U
Cc
*
S
A
S
B
S
C
b)
C
a
r
r
i
r
b
a
s
e
d
P
W
M
S
p
a
c
e
v
e
c
t
o
r
P
W
M
U
Ac
*
0
0 0
0 0 0
0
0 0
0 0 0
1 1 1
1 1
1
1 1 1
1 1
1
T
s
U
0
U
1
U
2
U
7
U
7
U
2
U
1
U
0
t
0
/4 t
1
/2 t
2
/2 t
0
/4 t
0
/4 t
1
/2 t
2
/2 t
0
/4
U
Bc
*
U
Cc
*
S
A
S
B
S
C
S
A
S
B
S
C
a)
C
a
r
r
i
r
b
a
s
e
d
P
W
M
S
p
a
c
e
v
e
c
t
o
r
P
W
M
Fig. 2.18. Comparison of carrier based PWM with space vector PWM a) SVPWM, b) DPWM1
U
A
U
B
U
C
U
N0
A
B C
N
0
2
dc
U
2
dc
U
U
B
0
=
U
C
0
UA
0
Fig. 2.19. Equivalent circuit of VSI for the U
1
vector
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
30
Taking into consideration the electrical circuit in Fig. 2.19 the voltage distribution
can be obtained. The voltages can be written as:
dc A
U U
3
2
= ;
dc B
U U
3
1
= ;
dc C
U U
3
1
= (2.32)
dc A0
U U
2
1
= ;
dc B0
U U
2
1
= ;
dc C0
U U
2
1
= (2.33)
dc AN A0 N0
U U U U
6
1
= = (2.34)
This analysis may be repeated for all vectors provided to obtain voltages presented in
Table 2.1.
Table 2.1. The voltages for the eight converter output vectors
A0
U
B0
U
A
U
B
U
C
U
C0
U
N0
U
0
U
1
U
2
U
3
U
4
U
5
U
6
U
7
U
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
2
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
6
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
2
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
6
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
2
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
6
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
2
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
6
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
2
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
6
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
3
2
dc
U
6
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
0 0
dc
U
2
1
0
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
0 0
dc
U
2
1
0
dc
U
2
1
The average value for sampling time of U
NO
voltage can be written as follows:

.

\

+ + =
7 2 1 0
dc
s
N0
t t t t
U
T
U
3
1
3
1
2
1
for the sectors I, III, V (2.35)
and

.

\

+ + =
7 1 2 0
dc
s
N0
t t t t
U
T
U
3
1
3
1
2
1
for the sectors II, IV, VI (2.36)
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
31
From the above equations and taking into consideration equations (2.24) and (2.27)
the zero vectors times for different kinds of modulation can be calculated.
Relations between carrier based and SVM methods are presented in Table 2.2. This
table presents also the zero vector (t
0
, t
7
) times equations for the most significant
modulation methods.
Table 2.2. Relation between carrier based and SVM methods

.

\

=
cos
4
1
2
M
T
t
s
0
( )

.

\

+ =
sin 3 cos
2
1
2
M
T
t
s
0
Calculation of t
0
and t
7
for sectors I, III, V
for sectors II, IV, VI
2 1 0 s 7
t t t T t =
Waveform of the
ZSS (Fig. 2.13)
( ) 0 =
N0
U
Modulation
method
SPWM
Sinusoidal with
1/4 amplitude
no signal
THIPWM


.

\


.

\

=
3 cos
4
1
cos
4
1
2
M
T
t
s
0


.

\


.

\

+ =
3 cos
2
1
sin 3 cos
2
1
2
M
T
t
s
0
for sectors II, IV, VI
2 1 0 s 7
t t t T t =
for sectors I, III, V
Triangular with
1/4 amplitude
Discontinuous
SVPWM
DPWM1
( ) 2
2 1 s 7 0
t t T t t = =
0 =
0
t
2 1 s 7
t t T t =
0 =
7
t
2 1 s 0
t t T t =
when ( ) 1 2
6 3
+ < n n
when ( ) ( ) 1
3
1 2
6
+ < + n n
5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 = n
Waveforms of the ZSS presented in Table 2.2 are shown in Fig. 2.12.
2.4.5. Overmodulation (OM)
At the end of the linear range (Fig. 2.10) the inverter output voltage is 90.7% of the
maximum output peak voltage in sixstep mode (see equation 2.21). The nonlinear
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
32
range between this point and sixstep mode is called overmodulation. This part of the
modulation techniques is not so important in vector controlled drives methods for the
sake of big distortion current and torque. For example, the overmodulation can be
applied in drives working in open loop control mode to increase the value of inverter
output voltage.
The overmodulation has been widely discussed in the literature [16, 33, 55, 75, 89].
Some of methods are proposed as extensions of the carrier based modulation and others
as extensions of space vector modulation. In the carrier based methods overmodulation
algorithm is realized by increasing reference voltage beyond the amplitude of the
triangular carrier signal. In this case some switching cycles are omitted and each phase
is clamped to one of the dc busses.
The overmodulation region for space vector modulation is shown in Fig. 2.20. The
maximum length of vector U
c
possible to realization in whole range of angle is equal
dc
U
3
3
. It is a radius of the circle inscribed of the hexagon. This value corresponds to
the modulation index equal to 0.907 (see equation 2.26). To realize higher values a
voltage overmodulation algorithm has to be applied. At the end of the overmodulation
region is a sixstep mode (at M = 1).
U
7
(111)
U
0
(000)
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
U
c
(t
1
/T
s
)U
1
(
t 2
/
T
s
)
U
2
Overmodulation range
0.907 < M < 1
Sixstep mode
M = 1
Linear range
M 0.907
Fig. 2.20. Definition of the overmodulation range
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
33
If the value of the reference voltage beyond maximal value in the linear range vector
U
c
can not be realized for whole range of angle. However, average voltage value can
be obtained for modification of the reference voltage vector. Because of the modified
reference voltage vector overmodulation algorithms are not widely used in vector
control methods of drive. To modify the reference voltage vector different algorithm
may be applied. Overmodulation range can be considered as one region [33], or it can
be divided into two regions [16, 55, 75, 89].
In the algorithm where overmodulation region is considered as two regions two
modes depending on the reference voltage value were defined. In mode I the algorithm
modifies only the voltage vector amplitude, in mode II both the amplitude and angle of
the voltage vector.
Overmodulation mode I is shown in Fig. 2.21.
U
0
(000)
U
7
(111)
U
c
U
c
*
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
Fig. 2.21. Overmodulation mode I
In this mode voltage vector U
c
crosses the hexagon boundary at two points in each
sector. There is a loss of fundamental voltage in the region where reference vector
exceeds the hexagon boundary. To compensate for this loss, the reference vector
amplitude is increased in the region where the reference vector is in hexagon boundary.
A modified reference voltage trajectory proceeds partly on the hexagon and partly on
the circle. This trajectory is shown in Fig. 2.21.
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
34
In the hexagon trajectory part only active vectors are used. The duration of these
vectors t
1
and t
2
are obtained from trigonometrical relationships and can be expressed in
the following equations:
sin cos 3
sin cos 3
+
=
s 1
T t (2.37a)
1 s 2
t T t = (2.37b)
0 = =
7 0
t t (2.37c)
The output voltage waveform is given approximately by linear segments for the
hexagon trajectory and sinusoidal segments for the circular trajectory. Boundary of the
segments is determined by a crossover angle which depends on the reference voltage
value. As known from Fig. 2.21 the upper limit in mode I is when = 0. Then the
voltage trajectory is fully on the hexagon. The fundamental peak value generated in this
way voltage is 95% of the peak voltage of the square wave [75]. It gives modulation
index M = 0.952.
For the modulation index higher then 0.952 the overmodulation mode II is applied.
The overmodulation mode II is shown in Fig. 2.22. In this mode not only the reference
vector amplitude is modified but also an angle. The reference angle from to
*
is
changed.
U
0
(000)
U
7
(111)
U
c
U
c
*
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
h
Fig. 2.22. Overmodulation mode II where both amplitude and angle is changed
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
35
The trajectory of U
c
*
is maintained on the hexagon which defines amplitude of the
reference voltage vector. The angle is calculated from the following equations:
< <
3 3 3
3 for
6 6
0 0
h
h h
h
h
h
(2.38)
where:
h
holdangle.
This angle uniquely controls the fundamental voltage. It is a nonlinear function of the
modulation index [16, 55].
In Fig. 2.22 is shown the reference vector trajectory generated for the first sector.
This trajectory is obtained in three steps. First part, if angle is less than the respective
value of
h
, the algorithm holds the vector U
c
*
at the vertex (U
1
). Next part is for from
h
to
h
3 . In this angle range the reference vector moves along the hexagon. In the
last range, from
h
3 to
h
, the vector U
c
*
is held until the next vertex (U
2
).
The overmodulation mode II works up to the sixstep mode for
h
equal zero. The
sixstep mode characterized by selection of the switching vector for onesixth of the
fundamental period. In this case the maximum possible inverter output voltage is
generated.
2.4.6. Random Modulation Techniques
The pulse width modulation technique is important for drive performance in respect
to voltage and current harmonics, torque ripple, acoustic noise emitted from an
induction motor and also electromagnetic interference (EMI). Different approaches
were used in PWM techniques for reduction of these disadvantages. One of the
proposed methods is random pulse width modulation (RPWM) [5, 7, 11, 14, 61, 68,
104].
Previously presented modulation methods were named deterministic pulse width
modulation (DEPWM), because of constant sampling and switching frequency and all
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
36
cycles the switching sequence is deterministic. In RPWM methods the switching
frequency or the switching sequence change randomly.
One of the proposed random modulation techniques is a method with randomly
varied lengths of coincident switching and sampling time of the modulator. This method
was named RPWM 1. The sampling and switching cycles in DEPWM with RPWM 1 is
comparable shown in Fig. 2.23. The reference voltage vectors U
c
, which are calculated
in one sampling time T
s
and realized in the next switching time T
sw
are shown. In drive
systems the controller mostly operates in synchronism with modulator and in RPWM 1
arises problems in the control system, when it works with variable sampling frequency.
An additional control algorithm with variable sampling frequency is difficult tin a
digital implementation.
1 2 3 ... n1 n ... sampling cycles
switching cycles 1 2 3 ... n1 n ...
) 1 (
c
U
) 2 (
c
U
) 3 (
c
U
) (K
c
U
) 1 ( n
c
U
) 1 ( + n
c
U
) (n
c
U
sampling cycles
switching cycles ... 1 2 ... n1 n
... 1 2 ... n1 n
3
3
) 1 (
c
U
) 2 (
c
U
) 3 (
c
U
) (K
c
U
) 1 ( n
c
U
) 1 ( + n
c
U
) (n
c
U
a)
b)
sw s
T T =
sw s
T T =
Fig. 2.23. Sampling and switching cycles a) DEPWM, b) RPWM 1
For elimination of these disadvantages random modulation techniques were
proposed, which operate with a fixed switching and sampling frequency. These methods
randomly change switching sequence in the interval. Three of these methods are shown
in Fig. 2.24 [6].
First of them (Fig. 2.24a) is random leadlag modulation (RLL). In this method pulse
position is either commencing at the beginning of the switching interval (leadingedge
2.4. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
37
modulation) or its tailing edge is aligned with the end of the interval (laggingedge
modulation). A random number generator controls the choice between leading and
legging edge modulation.
In Fig. 2.24b is shown a random center pulse displacement (RCD) method. In this
technique pulses are generated identically as in the SVPWM method (Fig. 2.15), but
common pulse center is displaced by the amount
s
T from the middle of the period.
The parameter is varied randomly within a band limited by the maximum duty cycle.
The last presented method (Fig. 2.24c) is random distribution of the zero voltage
vector (RZD). Additionally distribution of the zero vectors can by different, until only
one zero vector in switching cycle in the discontinuous methods (Fig. 2.15b, c). This
fact is utilized in the random distribution of the zero voltage vector, where the
proportion between the time duration for the two zero vectors U
0
(000) and U
7
(111) is
randomized in the switching cycles.
S
A
S
B
S
C
T
s
T
s
T
s
T
s
s
T
s
T
s
T
s
T
S
A
S
B
S
C
T
s
T
s
T
s
T
s
Lead Lag Lag Lead
S
A
S
B
S
C
T
s
T
s
T
s
T
s
a)
b)
c)
Fig. 2.24. Different fixed switching random modulation schemes a) Random leadleg modulation (RLL),
b) Random center displacement (RCD), c) Random zero vector distribution (RZD)
2. Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
38
The main disadvantage of the RPWM 1 method (Fig. 2.23b) is variable switching
frequency. For elimination of this disadvantage RPWM 2 [119] was proposed, which
operates with fixed sampling frequency and variable switching frequency. The principle
of this method is shown in Fig. 2.25.
1 2 3 ... n1 n ...
... 1 2 3 ... n1 n
sampling cycles
switching cycles
) 1 (
c
U
) 2 (
c
U
) 3 (
c
U
) (K
c
U
) 1 ( n
c
U
) 1 ( + n
c
U
) (n
c
U
sw
T
s
T
t
Fig. 2.25. Sampling and switching cycles in RPWM 2 technique
In this method the start of each switching cycles is delayed with respect to that of the
coincident sampling cycle by a random varied time interval t . It is given as:
s
rT t = (2.39)
where r denotes a random number between 0 and 1. Time interval t is limited for
the sake of minimum switching time of inverter.
Fig. 2.26. The output line to line voltage harmonics content a) RPWM 1, b) RPWM 2
Corresponding spectra for the RPWM 1 and RPWM 2 techniques are shown in Fig.
2.26a and 2.26b respectively. It can be seen that the harmonic clusters typical for the
determination modulation (compared to Fig. 2.17) are practically eliminated by the
2.5. Summary
39
random modulation techniques. Simulation result presented in both figures (Fig. 2.17
and Fig. 2.26) was done at the same conditions: sampling frequency 5 kHz, output
frequency 50 Hz.
2.5. Summary
In this chapter mathematical description of IM based on complex space vectors was
presented. The complete equations set is the basis of further consideration of control
and estimation methods.
The structure of two levels voltage source inverter was presented. The main features
and voltage forming methods were described. For the sake of deadtime and voltage
drop on the semiconductor devices the inverter has nonlinear characteristic. Therefore,
in control scheme compensation algorithms are needed.
The inverter is controlled by pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The
modulation methods are divided into two groups: triangular carrier based and space
vector modulation. Between those two groups there are simple relations. All the carrier
based methods have equivalent to the space vector modulation methods. The type of
carrier based method depends on the added ZSS and type of the space vector
modulation depends on the placement of zero vectors in the sampling period. Presented
modulation methods will be used in the final drive.
This chapter contains compete review of the modulation techniques, including some
random modulation methods. Those methods have very interesting advantages and can
be implemented in special application of IM drives. Currently they have not been
implemented in a presented serially produced drive. However, it will be offered as an
option in a near future. Some experimental results for the implemented modulation
methods are shown in Chapter 7.
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
3.1. Introduction
In this chapter review of the most significant IM vector control method is presented.
According to the classification presented in Chapter 1. The theoretical basis and short
characteristic for all methods are given. The direct torque control (DTC) method creates
a base for further analyze of DTCSVM algorithms. Therefore, DTC is more detailed
discussed (see section 3.4).
3.2. Field Oriented Control (FOC)
The principle of the field oriented control (FOC) is based on an analogy to the
separately excited dc motor. In this motor flux and torque can be controlled
independently. The control algorithm can be implemented using simple regulators, e.g.
PIregulators.
In induction motor independent control of flux and torque is possible in the case of
coordinate system is connected with rotor flux vector. A coordinate system q d is
rotating with the angular speed equal to rotor flux vector angular speed
sr K
= ,
which is defined as follows:
dt
d
sr
sr
= (3.1)
The rotating coordinate system q d is shown in Fig. 3.1.
The voltage, current and flux complex space vector can be resolved into components
d and q.
sq sd K
U U j + =
s
U (3.2a)
sq sd K
I I j + =
s
I ,
rq rd K
I I j + =
r
I (3.2b)
sq sd K
j + =
s
,
r rd K
= =
r
(3.2c)
3.2. Field Oriented Control (FOC)
41
d
q
s
I
s
I
s
I
sd
I
sq
I
sr
sr
Fig. 3.1. Vector diagram of induction motor in stationary and rotating q d coordinates
In q d coordinate system the induction motor model equations (2.102.12) can be
written as follows:
sq sr
sd
sd s sd
dt
d
I R U + = (3.3a)
sd sr
sq
sq s sq
dt
d
I R U + + = (3.3b)
dt
d
I R
r
rd r
+ = 0 (3.3c)
( )
m b sr r rq r
p I R + = 0 (3.3d)
rd M sd s sd
I L I L + = (3.4a)
rq M sq s sq
I L I L + = (3.4b)
sd M rd r r
I L I L + = (3.4c)
sq M rq r
I L I L + = 0 (3.4d)
(
=
L sq r
r
M s
b
m
M I
L
L m
p
J dt
d
2
1
(3.5)
The equations 3.3c and 3.4c can be easy transformed to:
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
42
r
r
r
sd
r
r M r
L
R
I
L
R L
dt
d
= (3.6)
The motor torque can by expressed by rotor flux magnitude
r
and stator current
component
sq
I as follows:
sq r
r
M s
b e
I
L
L m
p M
2
= (3.7)
Equations (3.6) and (3.7) are used to construct a block diagram of the induction
motor in q d coordinate system, which is presented in Fig. 3.2.
r
2
s
b
m
p
e
M
L
M
J
1
r
r M
L
R L
r
r
L
R
r
M
L
L
sd
I
sq
I
e
M
Fig. 3.2. Block diagram of induction motor in q d coordinate system
The main feature of the field oriented control (FOC) method is the coordinate
transformation. The current vector is measured in stationary coordinate .
Therefore, current components
s
I ,
s
I must be transformed to the rotating system
q d . Similarly, the reference stator voltage vector components
c s
U
,
c s
U
, must be
transformed from the system q d to . These transformations requires a rotor
flux angle
sr
. Depending on calculations of this angle two different kind of field
oriented control methods maybe considered. Those are Direct Field Oriented Control
(DFOC) and Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC) methods.
3.2. Field Oriented Control (FOC)
43
For DFOC an estimator or observer calculates the rotor flux angle
sr
. Inputs to the
estimator or observer are stator voltages and currents. An example of the DFOC system
is presented in Fig. 3.3.
PI
SVM
S
A
S
B
S
C sqc
I
Flux
Estimator
U
dc
s
U
s
U
s
I
c s
U
c s
U
s
I
s
I
sr
rc
ec
M
sd
I
sq
I
sdc
I
PI
q d
q d
3
2
Motor
rc M
r
s b
L
L
m p
1 2
M
L
1
Voltage
Calculation
Fig. 3.3. Block diagram of the Direct Field Oriented Control (DFOC)
For the IFOC rotor flux angle
sr
is obtained from reference
sdc
I ,
sqc
I currents. The
angular speed of the rotor flux vector speed can be calculated as follows:
m b sl rs
p + = (3.8)
where
sl
is a slip angular speed. It can be calculated from (3.3d) and (3.4d).
sqc
r
r
sdc
sl
I
L
R
I
1
= (3.9)
In Fig. 3.4 a block diagram of the IFOC is shown.
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
44
PI
SVM
S
A
S
B
S
C sqc
I
U
dc
s
I
c s
U
c s
U
s
I
s
I
sr
rc
ec
M
sd
I
sq
I
sdc
I
PI
q d
q d
Motor
rc M
r
s b
L
L
m p
1 2
M
L
1
3
2
m
sr
sl
sdc r
r
I L
R 1
b
p
Fig. 3.4. Block diagram of the Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC)
In both presented examples reference currents in rotating coordinate system
sdc
I ,
sqc
I
are calculated from the reference flux and torque values. Taking into consideration the
equations describing IM in field oriented coordinate system (3.6) and (3.7) at steady
state the formulas for the reference currents can be written as follows:
r
M
sdc
L
I
1
= (3.10)
ec
rc M
r
s b
sqc
M
L
L
m p
I
1 2
= (3.11)
The property of the FOC methods can be summarized as follows:
the method is based on the analogy to control of a DC motor,
FOC method does not guarantee an exact decoupling of the torque and flux
control in dynamic and steady state operation,
relationship between regulated value and control variables is linear only for
constant rotor flux amplitude,
3.3. Feedback Linearization Control (FLC)
45
full information about motor state variable and load torque is required (the
method is very sensitive to rotor time constant),
current controllers are required,
coordinate transformations are required,
a PWM algorithm is required (it guarantees constant switching frequency),
in the DFOC rotor flux estimator is required,
in the IFOC mechanical speed is required,
the stator currents are sinusoidal except of high frequency switching harmonics.
3.3. Feedback Linearization Control (FLC)
The transformation of the induction motor equations in the field coordinates has a
good physical basis because it corresponds to the decoupled torque production in a
separately excited DC motor. However, from the theoretical point of view, other types
of coordinates can be selected to achieve decoupling and linearization of the induction
motor equations.
In [28] it is shown that a nonlinear dynamic model of IM can be considered as
equivalent to two thirdorder decoupled linear systems. In [70] a controller based on a
multiscalar motor model has been proposed. The new state variables have been chosen.
In result the motor speed is fully decoupled from the rotor flux. In [82] the authors
proposed a nonlinear transformation of the motor states variables, so that in the new
coordinates, the speed and rotor flux amplitude are decoupled by feedback. Others
proposed also modified methods based on Feedback Linearization Control like in [93,
94].
In the example given new quantities for control of rotor flux magnitude and
mechanical speed were chosen [93]. For this purpose the induction motor equations
(2.102.12) can be written in the following form:
g g ) x ( x
s s
U U f + + = & (3.12)
where:
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
46
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
+
+
+
+
=
J
M
I I
I p
I p
I L p
I L p
f
L
s r s r
s r r m b
s r m b r
s M r r m b
s M r m b r
) (
) (
x
(3.13)
T
g
(
= 0 0
1
0 0 , , , ,
s
L
(3.14)
T
g
(
= 0
1
0 0 0 , , , ,
s
L
(3.15)
 
T
x
m s s r r
I I , , , ,
=
(3.16)
and
r
r
L
R
= (3.17)
r s
M
L L
L
= (3.18)
2
2 2
r s
M r r s
L L
L R L R
+
= (3.19)
J
L m
p
M s
b
2
= (3.20)
Because
r r m
, , are not dependent on
s s
U U , it is possible to chose variable
dependent on x:
2 2 2
1
) x (
r r r
= + =
(3.21)
m
= ) x (
2
(3.22)
If it is assumed that ) x (
1
, ) x (
2
are output variables, the full definition of new
coordinates can be given by:
) x (
1 1
= z (3.23a)
) x (
1 2
f
L z = (3.23b)
3.3. Feedback Linearization Control (FLC)
47
) x (
2 3
= z (3.23c)
) x (
2 4
f
L z = (3.23d)


.

\

=
r
r
z arctan
5
(3.23e)
It should be mentioned that the goal of the control is to obtain constant flux
amplitude and to follow the reference angular speed.
The fifth variable cannot be fully linearized. Additionally, it is not controllable (the
fifth variable correspond to slip in the motor). Therefore, the last equation is not
considered. Then the dynamics of the system are given by:
(
+
(
(
=
(
s
s
f
f
U
U
L
L
z
z
D
2
2
1
2
3
1
& &
& &
(3.24)
where
(
(
=
2 2
1 1
f g f g
f g f g
L L L L
L L L L
D (3.25)
If 0
1
(the amplitude of flux is not zero) then 0 D) det( and it is possible to
define the linearization feedback as:
+
(
(
=
(
2
1
2
2
1
2
v
v
L
L
U
U
f
f
s
s
1 
D (3.26)
Then the resulting system is described by the equations:
2 1
z z = & (3.27a)
1 2
v z = & (3.27b)
4 3
z z = & (3.27c)
2 4
v z = & (3.27d)
and the final block diagram of the induction motor with the new defined control
signals can be shown as in Fig. 3.5.
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
48
m
L
M
e
M
2
4
z
J
r
1
2
z
2
r
Fig. 3.5. Block diagram of the induction motor with new
1
v and
2
v control signals
The control signals
1
v ,
2
v are calculated by using linear feedback as follows:
( )
2 12 1 1 11 1
z k z z k v
ref
= (3.28)
( )
4 22 3 3 21 2
z k z z k v
ref
= (3.29)
where coefficients
11
k ,
12
k ,
21
k ,
22
k are chosen to receive reference close loop
system dynamics.
An example of a FLC system for PWM inverterfed induction motor is presented in
Fig. 3.6.
The property of the FLC can be summarized as follows:
it guarantees exactly decoupling of the motor speed and rotor flux control in both
dynamic and steady state,
the method is implemented in a state variable control fashion and needs complex
signal processing,
full information about motor state variables and load torque is required,
there are no current controllers,
a PWM vector modulator is required, what further guarantee constant switching
frequency,
3.4. Direct Flux and Torque Control (DTC)
49
the stator currents are sinusoidal except of high frequency switching harmonics.
Speed
Controller
Flux
Controller
Vector
Modulator
Control
Signals
Transfor
mation
Feedback
Signals
Transfor
mation
1
s
I
s
I
r
Flux
Estimator
m
2
rc
5
z
S
A
S
B
S
C
Voltage
Calculation
mc
1
z
2
z
3
z
4
z
c s
U
Motor
s
U
s
I
c s
U
dc
U
Fig. 3.6. Block scheme of the feedback linearization control method
3.4. Direct Flux and Torque Control (DTC)
3.4.1. Basics of Direct Flux and Torque Control
As it was mentioned in section 3.2 in the classical vector control strategy (FOC) the
torque is controlled by the stator current component
sq
I in accordance with equation
(3.7). This equation can also be written as:
sin
2
s r
r
M s
b e
I
L
L m
p M = (3.30)
where:
 angle between rotor flux vector and stator current vector.
The formula (3.30) can be transformed into the equation:
r s
M s r
M s
b e
L L L
L m
p M sin
2
2
= (3.31)
where:
are also shown in Fig. 3.7. The angle is important in FOC algorithms,
whereas
in DTC techniques.
s
I
s
ss
sr
Fig. 3.7. Vector diagram of induction motor
From the motor voltage equation (2.10a), for the omitted voltage drop on the stator
resistance, the stator flux can by expressed as:
s
s
U
=
dt
d
(3.32)
Taking into consideration the output voltage of the inverter in the above equation it
can be written as:
=
t
v
dt
0
U
s
(3.33)
where:
=
=
=
7 , 0 0
6 ... 1
3
2
3 ) 1 (
v
v e U
v j
dc
v
U (3.34)
Equation (3.33) describe eight voltage vectors which correspond to possible inverter
states. These vectors are shown in Fig. 3.8. There are six active vectors U
1
U
6
and two
zero vectors U
0
, U
7
.
3.4. Direct Flux and Torque Control (DTC)
51
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
Im
Re U
7
(111)
U
0
(000)
Fig. 3.8. Inverter output voltage represented as space vectors
It can be seen from (3.33), that the stator flux directly depends on the inverter voltage
(3.34).
By using one of the active voltage vectors the stator flux vector moves to the
direction and sense of the voltage vector. It can be observed by simulation of sixstep
mode (Fig. 3.9) and PWM operation (Fig. 3.10). In Fig. 3.9 is well shown how stator
flux changes direction for the cycle sequence of the active voltage vectors. Obviously,
the same effect is for the PWM operation (Fig. 3.10). However, in this case the control
algorithm choose correct voltage vectors, thanks to that waveform is close to be
sinusoidal. In this simulation a low sampling frequency is used (0.5kHz) for better
presenting the effect. A zoom part of the flux vector trajectory is shown in Fig. 3.11.
In induction motor the rotor flux is slowly moving but the stator flux can be changed
immediately. In direct torque control methods the angle between stator and rotor flux
can be used as a variable of torque control (3.31). Moreover stator flux can be
adjusted by stator voltage in simple way. Therefore, angle
voltage U
3
applied
voltage U
2
applied
voltage U
3
applied
voltage U
3
applied
voltage U
4
applied
voltage U
4
applied
voltage U
3
applied
voltage U
4
applied
Fig. 3.11. Forming of the stator flux trajectory by appropriate voltage vectors selection
3.4.2. Classical Direct Torque Control (DTC) Circular Flux Path
The block diagram of classical DTC proposed by I. Takahashi and T. Nogouchi [97]
is presented in Fig. 3.12.
s
S
A
S
B
S
C
U
dc
Motor
Torque
Controller
Flux
Controller
sc
d
M
d
Voltage
Calculation
Vector
Selection
Table
(N)
ss
Sector
Detection
Flux and
Torque
Estimator
M
ec
U
s
I
s
e
M
M
e
e
Fig. 3.12. Block scheme of the direct torque control method
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
54
The stator flux amplitude
sc
and the electromagnetic torque
c
M are the reference
signals which are compared with the estimated
s
and
e
M
e and torque
M
e errors are delivered to the hysteresis controllers. The digitized
output variables
d ,
M
d and the stator flux position sector ( ) N
ss
selects the
appropriate voltage vector from the switching table. Thus, the selection table generates
pulses S
A
, S
B
, S
C
to control the power switches in the inverter.
For the flux is defined twolevel hysteresis controller, for the torque threelevel, as it
is shown in Fig. 3.13.
a)
H
b)
M
d
M
e
M
H
Fig. 3.13. The hysteresis controllers a) twolevel, b) threelevel
The output signals
d ,
M
d are defined as:
1 =
d for
H e > (3.35a)
0 =
d for
H e < (3.35b)
1 =
M
d for
M M
H e > (3.36a)
0 =
M
d for 0 =
M
e (3.36b)
1 =
M
d for
M M
H e < (3.36c)
In the classical DTC method the plane is divided for the six sectors (Fig. 3.14),
which are defined as:
Sector 1:

.

\

+
6
,
6
ss
(3.37a)
Sector 2:

.

\

+
2
,
6
ss
(3.37b)
Sector 3:

.

\

+ +
6
5
,
2
ss
(3.37c)
3.4. Direct Flux and Torque Control (DTC)
55
Sector 4:

.

\

+
6
5
,
6
5
ss
(3.37d)
Sector 5:

.

\

2
,
6
5
ss
(3.37e)
Sector 6:

.

\

6
,
2
ss
(3.37f)
U
7
(111)
U
0
(000)
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110)
U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001)
U
6
(101)
Sector 1
Sector 2 Sector 3
Sector 4
Sector 5 Sector 6
Fig. 3.14. Sectors in the classical DTC method
For the stator flux vector laying in sector 1 (Fig. 3.15) in order to increase its
magnitude the voltage vectors U
1
, U
2
, U
6
can be selected. Conversely, a decrease can be
obtained by selecting U
3
, U
4
, U
5
. By applying one of the zero vectors U
0
or U
7
the
integration in equation (3.33) is stopped. The stator flux vector is not changed.
For the torque control, angle between stator and rotor flux
is used (equation
3.31). Therefore, to increase motor torque the voltage vectors U
2
, U
3
, U
4
can be selected
and to decrease U
1
, U
5
, U
6
.
The above considerations allow construction of the selection table as presented in
Table 3.1.
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
56
Sector 1
U
2
U
3
U
1
U
4
U
5
U
6
Fig. 3.15. Selection of the optimum voltage vectors for the stator flux vector in sector 1
Table 3.1. Optimum switching table
d
M
d Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Sector 4 Sector 5 Sector 6
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
U
4
U
3
U
2
U
1
U
6
U
5
U
7
U
0
U
7
U
0
U
7
U
0
U
6
U
1
U
2
U
3
U
4
U
5
U
4
U
3
U
2
U
1
U
6
U
5
U
7
U
0
U
7
U
0
U
7
U
0
U
4
U
3
U
2
U
1
U
6
U
5
The signal waveforms for steady state operation of classical DTC method are shown
in Fig. 3.16.
The DTC was proposed as an analog control method. The implementation of the
hysteresis controller in the analog setup is easy and the control system works properly.
When the hysteresis controller is implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP), its
operation is quite different from that of the analog scheme [19]. The digital
implementation of the hysteresis controller is also called sampled hysteresis.
3.4. Direct Flux and Torque Control (DTC)
57
a)
b)
Fig. 3.16. Steady state operation for the classical DTC method ( ) kHz f
s
40 =
a) signals in time domain, b) stator flux trajectory
In Fig. 3.17 are presented typical switching sequences of the torque hysteresis
controller for the analog (Fig. 3.17a) and for the digital (Fig. 3.17b) implementation.
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
58
c
M
m c
H M +
m c
H M
t
1
t
2
t
3
T
s
T
s
T
s
S/H
a) b)
Fig. 3.17. Operating of the torque hysteresis controller a) analog, b) digital
In the analog implementation the torque ripple are kept exactly within the hysteresis
band and the switching instants are not equally spaced. The digital system operates at
fixed sampling time
s
T and works like analog only for high sampling frequencies
s
s
T
f
1
= .
For the lower sapling frequency the switching instants are not when the estimated
torque crosses the hysteresis band but on the sampling time. This situation is presented
in Fig. 3.17b. The simulation results illustrated control system behavior at lower
sampling frequency kHz f
s
15 = are given in Fig. 3.18. It can be seen that current and
torque ripples are bigger compare to this one operate with sampling frequency
kHz f
s
40 = (see Fig. 3.16).
The influence of the torque hysteresis band for the torque error and switching
frequency at different sampling frequencies is shown in Fig. 3.19 and Fig. 3.20. At low
sampling frequency f
s
= 20kHz (Fig. 3.19) the switching frequency and torque error are
not sensitive for hysteresis band. However, at the high sampling frequency f
s
= 80kHz
(Fig. 3.20) when the hysteresis band is increased the switching frequency decreases and
the torque error increases. Simulated results show that the hysteresis controllers need a
high sampling frequency to obtain a proper operation.
The torque and flux errors are calculated according to equations:
% 100
sN
sc s
(3.38a)
3.4. Direct Flux and Torque Control (DTC)
59
% 100
eN
ec e
M
M
M M
= (3.38b)
where:
sN
 nominal stator flux,
eN
M  nominal torque
Fig. 3.18. Steady state operation for the classical DTC method operating with lower
sampling frequency ( ) kHz f
s
15 =
The average value of the flux and torque errors are calculated in a period of the
fundamental frequency.
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
60
5400
4792
4567 4333
3508
2750 2208 2367 2333
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 H
m
[Nm]
f
sw
[Hz]
9,65
11,06
11,97
11,00
10,17
9,43
9,93
10,68
12,03
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 H
m
[Nm]
_avr
[%]
a)
b)
Fig. 3.19. Simulated results for classical DTC a) switching frequency and b) torque error as a function of
the torque hysteresis band at sampling frequency f
s
= 20kHz
5666 5450 5492
6142
6666
7400
8233
13317
19750
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 H
m
[Nm]
f
sw
[Hz]
10,27
8,94
7,77
6,56
5,36
4,21
3,06
2,43
2,64
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 H
m
[Nm]
_avr
[%]
a)
b)
Fig. 3.20. Simulated results for classical DTC a) switching frequency and b) torque error as a function of
the torque hysteresis band at sampling frequency f
s
= 80kHz
3.4. Direct Flux and Torque Control (DTC)
61
The classical DTC method can be characterized as follows:
Advantages:
simple structure:
o no coordinate transformation,
o no separate voltage modulation block,
o no current control loops,
very good flux and torque dynamic performance,
Disadvantages:
variable switching frequency,
problems during starting and low speed operation,
high torque ripples,
flux and current distortion caused by stator flux vector sector position change
high sampling frequency is required for digital implementation.
3.4.3. Direct Self Control (DSC) Hexagon Flux Path
The block diagram of the direct self control method proposed by M. Depenbrock [31,
32] is presented in Fig. 3.21. This method was mainly applied in high power
applications, which required fast torque dynamic and low switching frequency [96].
Based on the command stator flux
sc
and the actual phase components
sA
,
sB
,
sC
, the flux comparators generate digital variables
A
d ,
B
d ,
C
d , which corresponds to
active voltage vectors (U
1
U
6
). The hysteresis torque controller generates the signal
m
d , which determines zero states. For the constant flux region, the control algorithm is
as follows:
C A
d S = ,
A B
d S = ,
B C
d S = for 1 =
m
d (3.39a)
0 =
A
S , 0 =
B
S , 0 =
C
S for 0 =
m
d (3.39b)
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
62
s
I
U
dc
Motor
Torque
Controller
ec
M
Flux
Comparators
s
U
Voltage
Calculation
sc
Flux and
Torque
Estimator
sB
sA
A
d
C
d
B
d
m
d
S
A
S
B
S
C
sC
e
M
ABC
Fig. 3.21. Block diagram of Direct Self Control method
The signal waveforms for steady state operation of DSC method are shown in Fig.
3.22. It can be seen that the flux trajectory is identical with that for the sixstep mode
(Fig. 3.9). This follows from the fact that the zero voltage vectors stop the flux vector,
but do not affect its trajectory. The dynamic performances of torque control for the DSC
are similar as for the classical DTC.
The property of the DSC can be summarized as follows:
hexagonal trajectory of the stator flux vector for PWM operation,
block type of PWM (not sinusoidal),
nonsinusoidal current waveforms,
switching selection table is not required,
low (minimum) inverter switching frequency (depended on hysteresis torque
band),
very good torque and flux control dynamics.
3.4. Direct Flux and Torque Control (DTC)
63
a)
b)
Fig. 3.22. Steady state operation for the DSC method
a) signals in time domain, b) stator flux trajectory
Several solutions have been proposed to improve the conventional DSC. For
instance, reduction of the current distortion has been achieved by introducing 12 stator
flux sectors [110] or by processing not only the stator flux value , but also the stator flux
3. Vector Control Methods of Induction Motor
64
angle [109]. Also solutions based on fuzzy logic and neural networks solutions were
proposed [85, 90].
3.5. Summary
In this chapter review of significant vector control methods of IM has been
presented. The characteristic features for all control schemes were described.
The FLC structure guarantees exact decoupling of the motor speed and rotor flux
control in both dynamic and steady states. However, it is complicated and difficult to
implement in practice. This method requires complex computation and additionally it is
sensitive to changes of motor parameters. Because of these features this method was not
chosen for implementation.
Table 3.2 Comparison of control methods
FOC DTC DTCSVM
Advantages Modulator
Constant switching
frequency
Unipolar inverter
output voltage
Low switching
losses
Low sampling
frequency
Current control
loops
9 Structure
independent on
rotor parameters,
universal for IM
and PMSM
9 Simple
implementation of
sensorless
operation
9 No coordinate
transformation
9 No current control
loops
Disadvantages Coordinate
transformation
A lot of control
loops
Control structure
depended on rotor
parameters
No modulator
Bipolar inverter
output voltage
Variable switching
frequency
High switching
losses
High sampling
frequency
9 Structure
independent on
rotor parameters,
universal for IM
and PMSM
9 Simple
implementation of
sensorless
operation
9 No coordinate
transformation
9 No current control
loops
Modulator
Constant switching
frequency
Unipolar inverter
output voltage
Low switching
losses
Low sampling
frequency
Due to above mentioned facts the FOC and DTC methods were considered next.
Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of FOC and DTC methods resulted in a
search for method which will eliminate disadvantages and keep advantages of those
3.5. Summary
65
methods. Table 3.2 summarizes features of analyzed control methods. It can be seen a
combination of DTC and FOC leads to the direct torque control with space vector
modulation (DTCSVM) method which is an effect of this search. In Table 3.2 also
characteristic performance of DTCSVM was given.
The disadvantages of classical DTC are caused by hysteresis controllers and
switching table used in a structure. Therefore, new DTCSVM method replaces
switching table by space vector modulator and linear PI controllers are used like in the
FOC scheme. However, the current control loops are eliminated. The DTCSVM
methods are widely discussed in the Chapter 4 where a detailed description of those
features can be found.
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector
Modulation (DTCSVM)
4.1. Introduction
Direct flux and torque control with space vector modulation (DTCSVM) schemes
are proposed in order to improve the classical DTC. The DTCSVM strategies operate
at a constant switching frequency. In the control structures, space vector modulation
(SVM) algorithm is used. The type of DTCSVM strategy depends on the applied flux
and torque control algorithm. Basically, the controllers calculate the required stator
voltage vector and then it is realized by space vector modulation technique.
In the DTCSVM methods several classes have evolved:
schemes with PI controllers [111],
schemes with predictive/deadbeat [74],
schemes based on fuzzy logic and/or neural networks [40],
variablestructure control (VSC) [72, 73, 112].
Different structures of DTCSVM methods are presented in the next section. For
each of the control structures, different controller design methods are proposed.
The classical DTC algorithm is based on the instantaneous values and directly
calculated the digital control signals for the inverter. The control algorithm in DTC
SVM methods are based on averaged values whereas the switching signals for the
inverter are calculated by space vector modulator. This is main difference between
classical DTC and DTCSVM control methods.
4.2. Structures of DTCSVM Review
4.2.1. DTCSVM Scheme with Closed Loop Flux Control
In the control structure of Fig. 4.1 the rotor flux is assumed as a reference [24]. The
reference stator flux components defined in the rotor flux coordinates
sdc
,
sqc
can be
calculated from the following equations:
4.2. Structures of DTCSVM Review
67


.

\

+ =
dt
d
R
L
L
L
rc
r
r
rc
M
s
sdc
(4.1a)
rc
ec
s
M
r
s b
sqc
M
L
L
L
m p
2
= (4.1b)
Formulas (4.1) can be derived from the equations (3.3), (3.4) and (3.7). The
equations (3.3), (3.4) and (3.7) describe the motor model in the rotor flux coordinate
system q d .
The amplitude of the reference stator flux, using equations (4.1) can by expressed as:
( )
2
2
2 2
2


.

\



.

\

+


.

\

=
rc
ec
M
r
s
s b
rc
M
s
sc
M
L
L
L
m p
L
L
(4.2)
The commanded value of stator flux
sdc
,
sqc
after transformation to stationary
coordinate system are compared with the estimated values
s
,
s
.
rc
ec
M
Egs (4.1)
sdc
sqc
sc
Rotor
Flux
Estimator
Stator
Flux
Estimator
s
sr
SVM
S
A
S
B
S
C
Voltage
Calculation
s
T
1 s
q d
s
R
sc
U
s
U
s
I
dc
U
ABC
A
I
B
I
Fig. 4.1. DTCSVM scheme with closed flux control
The reference voltage vector depends on the increment stator flux
s
and voltage
drop on the stator winding resistance
s
R :
s
s
sc
I
U
s
s
R
T
+ = (4.3)
In this DTCSVM structure the rotor flux magnitude is regulated. Thanks of them
increase the torque overload capability is possible [19, 24]. However, the drawback of
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
68
this algorithm is that it requires all the motor parameters and moreover it is very
sensitive to their variation.
4.2.2. DTCSVM Scheme with Closed Loop Torque Control
The method with closeloop torque control was originally proposed for the
permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) [35, 36, 37]. However, the DTC basics
for both IM and PMSM are identical and therefore the method can also be used for the
IM [126]. The block scheme of the control structure DTCSVM with closeloop torque
control is presented in Fig. 4.2.
sc
ec
M
Eg. (4.4)
sc
PI
Flux and
Torque
Estimator
s
ss
SVM
S
A
S
B
S
C
Voltage
Calculation
s
T
1 s
s
R
sc
U
s
U
s
I
dc
U
ABC
A
I
B
I
Torque
Controller
e
M
Fig. 4.2. DTCSVM scheme with closedloop torque control
For the torque regulation a PI controller is applied. Output of this PI controller is an
increment of torque angle
sc
(4.4)
Next, reference stator flux vector is compared with the estimated value. The error of
the flux
s
is used, for calculation of the reference voltage vector, according to the
equation (4.3).
4.2. Structures of DTCSVM Review
69
ss
sr
sc
Fig. 4.3. Vector diagram
The presented method has simple structure and only one PI torque controller. It
makes the tuning procedure easier. The flux is adjusted in openloop fashion.
4.2.3. DTCSVM Scheme with Close Loop Torque and Flux Control
Operating in Polar Coordinates
When both torque and flux magnitudes are controlled in a closedloop way, the
strategies provide further improvement. The method operating in polar coordinates is
shown in Fig. 4.4 [49].
sc
ec
M
Eg. (4.7)
PI
Flux and
Torque
Estimator
k
ss
SVM
S
A
S
B
S
C
Voltage
Calculation
s
T
1 s
s
R
sc
U
s
U
s
I
dc
U
ABC
A
I
B
I
Torque
Controller
e
M
P
Flux
Controller
sd
ss
Fig. 4.4. DTCSVM scheme operated in stator flux polar coordinates
The error of the stator flux vector
s
is calculated from the outputs
k and
s
of the flux and torque controllers as follows:
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
70
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 = k k k
s s s
( )  
( )
( ) ( ) 1 1 1 + = k e k k
k j
s
s
(4.5)
With the approximation
( )
( ) k j e
s
k j
s
+ 1 (4.6)
The equation (4.5) can be written in the form
( ) ( ) ( )   ( ) 1 + = k k j k k k
s s s
(4.7)
The commanded stator voltage vector is calculated according to equation (4.3). To
improve the dynamic performance of the torque control, the angle increment
s
is
composed of two parts: the dynamic part
sd
delivered by the torque controller and
the stationary part
ss
generated by a feedforward loop.
4.2.4. DTCSVM Scheme with Close Loop Torque and Flux Control
in Stator Flux Coordinates
A block diagram of the method with closeloop torque and flux control in stator flux
coordinate system [111] is presented in Fig. 4.5. The output of the PI flux and torque
controllers can be interpreted as the reference stator voltage components
sxc
U ,
syc
U in
the stator flux oriented coordinates ( y x ).
sc
ec
M
PI
Flux and
Torque
Estimator
sxc
U
ss
Torque
Controller
PI
Flux
Controller
syc
U
y x
e
M
SVM
S
A
S
B
S
C
sc
U
s
I
ABC
A
I
B
I
Voltage
Calculation
s
U
dc
U
Fig. 4.5. DTCSVM scheme operated in stator flux cartesian coordinates
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method
71
These dc voltage commands are then transformed into stationary frame ( ), the
commanded values
c s
U
,
c s
U
are delivered to SVM.
4.2.5. Conclusions from Review of the DTCSVM Structures
In the three first presented structures (Fig. 4.1, Fig. 4.2 and Fig. 4.4) the calculation
of reference voltage vector is based on demanded
s
according to equation (4.3).
This differentiation algorithm is very sensitive to disturbances. In case of errors in the
feedback signals the differentiation algorithm may not be stable. This is very serious
drawback of these methods.
The methods presented in Fig. 4.1 and Fig. 4.2 do not have closeloop flux control.
In these methods stator flux magnitude is only adjusted.
The last presented method (Fig. 4.5) eliminates problems with differentiation
algorithm. Moreover, this method controls torque and flux in closeloop fashion.
Therefore, this scheme will be selected for experimental realization. In the next sub
section controller design for flux and torque closed loops will be discussed.
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method with Close Loop
Torque and Flux Control in Stator Flux Coordinates
The compete set of motor model equations can be written in stator flux coordinate
system y x . This system of coordinates y x rotates with the stator flux angular
speed
ss K
= . This angular speed is defined as follows:
dt
d
ss
ss
= (4.8)
where:
ss
is a stator flux vector angle.
The complex space vector can be resolved into components x and y .
sy sx K
U U j + =
s
U (4.9a)
sy sx K
I I j I + =
s
,
ry rx K
I I j + =
r
I (4.9b)
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
72
s sx K
= =
s
,
ry rx K
j + =
r
(4.9c)
The motor model equations (2.102.12) in y x coordinate system can be written as:
dt
d
I R U
s
sx s sx
+ = (4.10a)
s ss sy s sy
I R U + = (4.10b)
( )
ss m b ry
rx
rx r
p
dt
d
I R + + = 0 (4.11a)
( )
m b ss rx
ry
ry r
p
dt
d
I R + + = 0 (4.11b)
rx M sx s s
I L I L + = (4.12a)
ry M sy s
I L I L + = 0 (4.12b)
sx M rx r rx
I L I L + = (4.12c)
sy M ry r ry
I L I L + = (4.12d)
(
=
L sy s
s
b
m
M I
m
p
J dt
d
2
1
(4.13)
The electromagnetic torque can be expressed by the following formula:
sy s
s
b e
I
m
p M
2
= (4.14)
Based on the equations (4.104.14) the block diagram of induction motor can be
constructed (Fig. 4.6).
The block scheme presented in Fig. 4.6 is a full model of an induction motor. As can
be seen, this model is quite complicated and therefore difficult to analyze. However,
taking into consideration the stator voltage equations (4.10) and torque equation (4.14),
the motor can be described as follows:
sx s sx
s
I R U
dt
d
= (4.15)
( )
s ss sy s
s
b
s
e
U
m
p
R
M =
2
1
(4.16)
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method
73
ss
sx
I
s
sx
U
s
R
s
R
sy
U
sy
I
2
1
m r s
L L L
b
p
rx
I
r
L
1
r
R
rx
r
R
r
L
1 ry
I
ry
s
M
L
L
M
L
r
L
2
m r s
M
L L L
L
2
s
b
m
p
e
M
L
M
J
1
s
Fig. 4.6. Complete block diagram of an induction motor in the stator flux oriented coordinates y x
The block diagram of induction motor based on equations (4.15) and (4.16) is shown
in Fig. 4.7.
ss
sx
U
sx s
I R
sy
U
e
M
s
s
b
R
m
p
1
2
Fig. 4.7. Simplified (rotor equation omitted) induction motor block diagram in the stator flux oriented
coordinates y x
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
74
Different control structures based on the above induction motor model are proposed
in literature [73, 111, 112]. One of them is a method with two PI controllers [111],
which is presented in Fig. 4.5.
Considering a simple model of IM (Fig. 4.7), Fig. 4.8 shows the flux and torque
control loops for the method shown in Fig. 4.5. In Fig. 4.8 the dashed line represents the
IM model.
ss
sx
U
sx s
I R
sy
U
ec
M
PI
e
M
PI
sc
s
s
b
R
m
p
1
2
Fig. 4.8. Control loops with two PI controllers and simplified IM model of Fig. 4.7
In the next parts two approaches to a controller design will be presented and
compared. Both of them are based o the assumption that control loop can be considered
as quasicontinuous (fast sampling). The first method is based on simple symmetric
criterion [66], the second one uses root locus technique [34, 86].
PI Controllers
The transfer function of PI controllers is given as follows:
( )
( )
( )
i
i
p
i
p R
sT
sT
K
sT
K
s E
s U
s G
+
=


.

\

+ = =
1 1
1 (4.17)
where:
p
K  controller gain,
i
T  controller integrating time.
The PI controller scheme is presented in Fig. 4.9.
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method
75
( ) s U ( ) s E
s T
i
1
1
p
K
Fig. 4.9. Block diagram of PI controller
Presented above model of the controller was used in DTCSVM control method with
two PI controllers.
4.3.1. Torque and Flux Controllers Design Symmetry Criterion Method
Flux Controller Design
The block diagram of the flux control loop is shown in Fig. 4.10. This control loops
is based on the model presented in Fig. 4.8. The voltage drop on the stator resistance is
neglected. In the stator flux control loop the inverter delay is taken into consideration.
s
1
s
sx
U
PI
sc
1
1
1
sT +
Fig. 4.10. Stator flux magnitude control loops
For the flux controller parameter design the symmetry criterion can by applied [66].
In accordance with the symmetry criterion the plant transfer function can be written as:
( )
( )
1 2
1
0
sT sT
e K
s G
s
c
+
=
(4.18)
where: 1 =
c
K is the inverter gain,
0
is dead time of the inverter ( 0
0
= ideal
converter), 1
2
= T , and
s
T T =
1
is a sum of small time constants, which includes
statistical delay of the PWM generation and signal processing delay. The optimal
controller parameters can be calculated as:
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
76
( )
s c
p
T T K
T
K
2
1
2
0 1
2
=
+
=
(4.19)
( )
s i
T T T 4 4
0 1
= + = (4.20)
In Table 4.1 are shown flux controller parameters calculated according to equations
(4.19) and (4.20). The considered range of the sampling frequency was form 2.5kHz to
10kHz. In Table 4.1 are also shown parameters of the step flux response obtained in
simulation,
n
t  time when the actual flux is first time equal reference value and
p 
overshoot. The results of simulation are presented in Fig. 4.11.
Table 4.1. Flux controller parameters calculated according to symmetric optimum criterion
f
s
K
p
T
i
t
n
p
damping
damping
settling
time
Fig. 4.14. Allowable area of existence for the closeloop roots in splane
To plot and analyze the locus of the root in splane SISO Design Tool Control
System Toolbox v 5.0 the MathWorks, Inc. was used [84].
The SISO Design Tool is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows to analyze
and tune the Single Input Single Output (SISO) feedback control systems. Using the
SISO Design Tool, it is possible to graphically tune the gains and dynamics of the
compensator (C) and prefilter (F), using a mix of root locus and loop shaping
techniques. The example window of the SISO Design Tool is shown in Fig. 4.15. In the
upper right area of the window, the currently tested control structure is displayed. More
on the left the values of the compensator parameters are visible, and below them the
resulting rootlocus of the system is shown. In the root locus diagram, two lines
corresponding to the inserted values of settling time and the overshoot are also visible.
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
80
Fig. 4.15. SISO Design Tool
Configuration of the system structure is possible by importing transfer functions of
each block from the workspace. This is shown in Fig. 4.16.
Fig. 4.16. Import system data
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method
81
The plant (G) is a transfer function of the motor torque or flux and the compensator
(C) is a transfer function of the PI controller.
In the cases of flux and torque control, the openloop consists of a PI controller and
plant transfer function, according to scheme (Fig. 4.8). The plant transfer function for
the flux and the torque are calculated separately based on the motor model equation in
the stator flux reference frame (4.10  4.12).
Flux Controller Design
Based on the motor model equations (4.10  4.12), the following equation can be
obtained:
( )
s r s r s s r r s sx r s s r
dt
d
L L L R L R
dt
d
R R U
dt
d
L L L R
(
(

.

\

+ + + =

.

\

+
2
( )
m b ss r s sy s
p L L I R + (4.21)
where:
r s
M
L L
L
2
1 =
Under the assumption that the last term in the equation (4.21) is very small:
( ) 0
m b ss r s sy s
p L L I R (4.22)
the equation (4.21) becomes:
( )
s r s r s s r r s sx r s s r
dt
d
L L L R L R
dt
d
R R U
dt
d
L L L R
(
(

.

\

+ + + =

.

\

+
2
(4.23)
Based on the equations (4.23) the openloop flux transfer function can be obtained as
follows:
( )
sx
s
C s B s
s A
U
s G
+ +
+
= =
2
(4.24)
where:
r
r
L
R
A
= ;
r s
r s s r
L L
L R L R
B
+
= ;
r s
r s
L L
R R
C
=
The flux control loop is shown in Fig. 4.17, where ( ) s G
R
is a transfer function of
the PI controller given by equation (4.17).
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
82
sx
U
sc
( ) s G
( ) s G
R
s
Fig. 4.17. Flux control loop
The input data to the SISO Design Tool are obtained based on equations (4.17) and
(4.24). The parameter values are calculated for a 3 kW motor. The motor data are given
in appendix A.3. Required control parameters are set as follows: settling time < 0.003,
overshoot < 4.33%. For these parameters a root loci of the closeloop is obtained, see
Fig. 4.18.
4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0
1500
1000
500
0
500
1000
1500
2e+003 1e+003
0.992
0.97
0.46
0.64 0.24
3e+003
0.78
0.93 0.46
0.97
0.992
0.93
4e+003
0.24 0.64
0.87
0.87
0.78
Root Locus Editor (C)
Real Axis
Im
a
g
A
x
is
Fig. 4.18. Root loci of the closeloop stator flux control system
From the position of the poles, the parameters of the PI flux controller are obtained:
2531 =
p
K , 00074 . 0 =
i
T .
The behaviour of the flux control loop with parameters like above was tested using
SABER simulation package. The model created in SABER takes into account the full
control system, including the models of inverter and induction motor (see appendix
A.2). The flux step response is presented in Fig. 4.19. The simulation result confirms a
good dynamics of the flux and proper operation in the steady state.
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method
83
Fig. 4.19. Simulated (SABER) flux response for controller parameters designed
according to root locus method
Torque Controller Design
Based on motor model equations (4.10  4.12), the following equation can be
obtained:
( ) ( )
m b ss r s sx m b s r sy r sy r s s r r s
p L L I p L U L I
dt
d
L L L R L R + =
(
+ +
(4.25)
where:
r s
M
L L
L
2
1 =
Under the assumption that the last term in equation (4.25) is very small:
( ) 0
m b ss r s sx
p L L I (4.26)
the equation (4.25) becomes:
( )
m b s r sy r sy r s s r r s
p L U L I
dt
d
L L L R L R =
(
+ + (4.27)
The additional assumption is that the motor is not loaded 0 =
L
M .
Under those assumptions the rotor speed can be expressed:
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
84
sy s
s
b
m
I
m
p
J dt
d
2
1
= (4.28)
From equation (4.14) current
sy
I can be expressed as follows:
s s b
e sy
m p
M I
2
= (4.29)
If both sides of equation (4.27) are differentiated, this equation becomes:
( )
dt
d
p L
dt
dU
L I
dt
d
L L
dt
d
L R L R
m
b s r
sy
r sy r s s r r s
=
(
(

.

\

+ +
2
(4.30)
Based on the equations (4.30), (4.28) and (4.29) the openloop torque transfer
function can be obtained as follows:
( )
M M
M
sy
e
M
C s B s
s A
U
M
s G
+ +
= =
2
(4.31)
where:
s
s s b
M
L
m p
A
2
= ;
r s
s r r s
M
L L
L R L R
B
+
= ;
J L
m p
C
s
s s b
M
2
2 2
=
The torque control loop is shown in Fig. 4.20, where ( ) s G
RM
is a transfer function of
the PI controller given by equation (4.17).
sy
U
e
M
( ) s G
M
( ) s G
RM
ec
M
Fig. 4.20. Torque control loop
The input data to the SISO Design Tool are obtained in the same way like for the
flux. The transfer functions are calculated for the 3 kW motor from the equation (4.17)
and (4.31). The required control parameters are set as follows: settling time < 0.0015,
overshoot < 2%. For these parameters a root loci of the closeloop is obtained, see Fig.
4.21. From the position of the poles (Fig. 4.21), the parameters of the PI torque
controller are obtained: 21 . 33 =
pM
K , 00045 . 0 =
iM
T .
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method
85
7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
6e+003
0.66
0.78
0.992
0.24
0.48 0.93
5e+003
0.78
4e+003
0.48
3e+003 2e+003 7e+003 1e+003
0.66
0.992
0.87
0.97
0.97
0.93 0.87
0.24
Root Locus Editor (C)
Real Axis
Im
a
g
A
x
is
Fig. 4.21. Root loci of the closeloop torque control system
The transfer function of the close loop torque control shown in Fig. 4.20 is given as:
( )
( )
( )
iM
pM M
M M pM M
iM
iM
pM M
ec
e
Mc
T
K A
C s B K A s
s T
T
K A
M
M
s G
+ + + +
+
= =
2
1
(4.32)
The SISO Design Tool enables to observe the step response of the investigated
control system. In the Fig. 4.22 is shown the step response of the torque control system
from Fig. 4.20 described by equation (4.32), with the PI controller parameters setting as:
21 . 33 =
pM
K , 00045 . 0 =
iM
T .
Step Response
Time (sec)
A
m
p
lit
u
d
e
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
x 10
3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
From: r
T
o
:
y
Fig. 4.22. Simulated (Matlab) step response of the system from Fig. 4.20 described by transfer
function given by equation (4.32)
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
86
It should be note that moment of inertia J can change during drive operation (for
example in still industry systems). However, the value of coefficient
M
C , in equation
(4.32) normally is several order lower in comparison with ( )
iM pM M
T K A . Therefore,
its influence on torque close loop dynamic can be neglected.
Because of the forcing element in transfer function (4.32) the step response presented
in Fig. 4.22 characterized much higher overshoot then the assumed 2%.
To compensate the forcing element in the numerator (4.32) a prefilter is inserted into
the reference channel of the torque controller. The transfer function of the prefilter is
given as:
( )
1
1
+
=
s T
s G
F
FM
(4.33)
The time constant of the prefilter is equal time constant of the torque controller
iM F
T T = .
The full control loop of torque with prefilter is shown in Fig. 4.23. The step response
of this control loop is presented in Fig. 4.24.
sy
U
ec
M
e
M
( ) s G
M
( ) s G
RM
( ) s G
FM
Fig. 4.23. Torque control loop with prefilter
Step Response
Time (sec)
A
m
p
lit
u
d
e
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
x 10
3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
From: r
T
o
:
y
Fig. 4.24. Simulated (Matlab) step response of the system from Fig. 4.23
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method
87
Figure 4.24 shows that the torque control loop with a prefilter incorporated into the
reference channel reduces considerably the overshoot.
The behaviour of the torque control loop with the same settings of the parameters
was also tested in SABER simulation model. The torque step response is presented in
Fig. 4.25. The result of simulation confirms a good dynamics of the torque and proper
operation in the steady state.
Fig. 4.25. Simulated (SABER) torque response
Torque Controller Design for High Power Motor
The same method of tuning the controllers was used for a 90 kW motor. The
parameters of this motor can be found in appendix A.3. The required control parameters
are set as follows: for the flux settling time < 0.003, overshoot < 4.33% and for the
torque settling time < 0.0015, overshoot < 2%. The parameters of the controllers are
obtained as follows: flux controller 2592 =
p
K , 00076 . 0 =
i
T and torque controller
8492 . 1 =
pM
K , 00046 . 0 =
iM
T .
The simulation model of drive with a 90 kW motor was also build in the SABER
package.
The flux step response is presented in Fig. 4.26. The control loop of the flux is
identical for both motors (Fig. 4.8) and does not depend on the motor parameters.
Therefore, the parameters of the flux controller and the result of simulation (Fig. 4.26)
is very similar to the result for the 3 kW motor (Fig. 4.19).
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
88
The torque response for the 90 kW motor is presented in Fig. 4.27. The results of the
simulations (Fig. 4.26, 4.27), similarly like in the case of the small power ratting motor,
confirm a good dynamics of the torque and a proper operation in the steady state.
Fig. 4.26. Simulated (SABER) flux response for 90 kW motor
Fig. 4.27. Simulated (SABER) torque response for 90 kW motor
4.3.3. Summary of Flux and Torque Controllers Design
In the Fig. 4.28 a full control structure of the DTCSVM scheme is shown. This
scheme is completed on the prefilter, compared to the basic scheme form Fig. 4.5.
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method
89
The presented above controller tuning algorithm is based on the openloop transfer
function for the flux (equation 4.24) and for the torque (equation 4.31). These transfer
functions are obtained under the assumptions (4.22) and (4.26) respectively. Because of
the assumed simplifications, the results of full model simulations are slightly differ form
the initially expected values.
sc
ec
M
PI
Flux and
Torque
Estimator
sxc
U
ss
Torque
Controller
PI
Flux
Controller
syc
U
y x
e
M
SVM
S
A
S
B
S
C
sc
U
s
I
ABC
A
I
B
I
Voltage
Calculation
s
U
dc
U
F
Prefilter
Fig. 4.28. Full scheme of the DTCSVM control method
Additional assumption for the torque controller analysis is that the stator flux
magnitude is constant. Therefore, decoupling between flux and torque control loops is
important. In Fig. 4.29 the torque step response (Fig. 4.29a) and magnitude stator flux
step response (Fig. 4.29b) are shown. From Fig. 4.29 can be seen that both controllers
are very fast and decoupling between flux and torque is correct.
The full control structure (Fig. 4.28) is different from the basic scheme, which can be
seen in Fig. 4.8. In the torque reference channel a prefilter is incorporated. The basic
structure assumed four controllers parameters:
p
K ,
i
T ,
pM
K and
iM
T . The addition
of the prefilter does not introduce any additional parameters, because the time constant
of the prefilter is equal to the torque controller integrating time
iM
T (see equation 4.33).
Thus the control methods needs only four parameters.
Additionally, if a very fast torque response is not required, the prefilter time constant
can be increased independently from the torque controller parameters in order to
improve the stability of the system.
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
90
a)
b)
Fig. 4.29. Dynamic tests a) torque step change, b) flux step change. From the top: reference and estimated
torque, reference and estimated stator flux
In section 4.3 two methods of flux and torque controller design for DTCSVM are
presented. The comparison of the result obtained in two methods is summarized in
Table 4.3. The summary is done for the 3kW motor and sampling frequency
kHz f
s
10 = . The first method uses simplified IM model and is based on symmetric
optimum criterion. However, this approach gives good results only for flux control loop.
The second approach uses dynamic model of IM including rotor parameters and is
based on root locus method. The results obtained in simulation are good for both flux
and torque controllers. However, it is much more complicated than first method.
The dynamic of the flux control loop is very similar in both cases. Therefore, to tune
flux controller symmetry criterion should be used because it is simpler.
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method
91
S
y
m
m
e
t
r
y
C
r
i
t
e
r
i
o
n
M
e
t
h
o
d
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
l
e
r
p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s
T
o
r
q
u
e
M
o
d
e
l
p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s
F
l
u
x
T
o
r
q
u
e
F
l
u
x
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s
T
o
r
q
u
e
F
l
u
x
T
a
b
l
e
4
.
3
.
S
u
m
m
a
r
y
o
f
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
l
e
r
d
e
s
i
g
n
1
=
T
s
T
p
u
r
e
i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
o
r
R
o
o
t
L
o
c
u
s
M
e
t
h
o
d
r
r
L
R
A
=
r
s
r
s
s
r
L
L
L
R
L
R
B
+
=
r
s
r
s
L
L
R
R
C
=
r
s
s
s
b
r
M
L
L
m
p
L
A
2
=
r
s
s
r
r
s
M
L
L
L
R
L
R
B
+
=
J
L
L
L
m
p
C
r
s
r
s
s
b
M
2
2
2
=
2
1
.
3
3
=
p
M
K
0
0
0
4
5
.
0
=
i
M
T
2
5
3
1
=
p
K
0
0
0
7
4
.
0
=
i
T
s
s
s
b
R
m
p
,
,
,
s
T
%
4
9
.
1
=
p
s
t
n
0
0
1
9
.
0
=
%
0
4
.
1
=
M
p
s
t
n
M
0
0
0
9
.
0
=
%
6
.
1
=
p
s
t
n
0
0
1
5
.
0
=
%
3
9
.
8
=
M
p
s
t
n
M
0
0
0
7
.
0
=
0
0
.
2
4
=
p
M
K
0
0
0
8
0
.
0
=
i
M
T
5
0
0
0
=
p
K
0
0
0
4
0
.
0
=
i
T
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
92
All simulation results for root locus method presented in section 4.3.2 were done at
sampling frequency kHz f
s
10 = . However, presented controller design method
provides to obtain controller parameters for different sampling frequency. This aspect
will be presented for the torque controller. When the sampling frequency is changed the
input parameters: settling time and overshoot must be modified. For lower sampling
frequency the dynamic of control loop is decreasing [34]. Thus, for the continuous
analysis, which is used in root locus method, the settling time should be increased and
overshoot reduced.
Table 4.4 shows torque controller parameters calculated for three sampling frequency
values: kHz f
s
10 = , kHz f
s
5 = and kHz f
s
5 . 2 = .
Table 4.4. Torque controller parameters for different sampling frequency
f
s
settling time overshoot K
p
T
i
10.0 kHz 0.0015 2% 33.21 0.00045
5.0 kHz 0.0030 1% 15.88 0.00098
2.5 kHz 0.0060 1% 7.12 0.00180
Simulated results obtained for parameters presented in Table 4.4 are shown in Fig.
4.30. The result of simulation confirms a good behavior of the system for all three
sampling frequencies.
The root locus method gives proper results for different motor type. It confirms
results obtained for the 90 kW motor.
The very important features of the DTCSVM in comparison with classical DTC are
performance in steady state. In the Fig. 4.31 the steady state operation of the DTCSVM
control system is shown. It can be seen that the line current is sinusoidal and voltage has
an unipolar waveform. Presented in Fig. 4.31 can be compared with simulation results
for classical DTC from Fig. 3.16, where controller just select voltage vectors to reduce
instantaneous flux and torque errors, and does not implement the true PWM. Therefore,
inverter output voltage is not unipolar. This increase switching losses of the
semiconductor power devices.
4.3. Analysis and Controller Design for DTCSVM Method
93
b)
c)
a)
Fig. 4.30. 3 kW motor torque response for controller parameters calculated according to root locus
method at different sampling frequency a) kHz f
s
10 = , b) kHz f
s
5 = , c) kHz f
s
5 . 2 =
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
94
Fig. 4.31. Steady state operation. From the top: line to line voltage, line current
The features of the DTCSVM method can be summarized as follows:
good dynamic control of flux and torque,
constant switching frequency,
unipolar voltage thanks to use of PWM block (SVM),
low flux and torque ripple,
sinusoidal stator currents.
4.4. Speed Controller Design
If the stator flux is assumed constant, . const
s
= , that based on the equations (4.13)
and (4.14) dynamic of IM can be described as:
 
L e
m
M M
J dt
d
=
1
(4.34)
A block diagram of the speed control loop is shown in Fig. 4.32, where ( ) s G
RS
is a
transfer function of PI controller (see equation 4.17) and ( ) s G
M
'
is a transfer function of
full torque control loop. In the speed controller design process the filter for the
measured value should be taken into consideration.
f
T is a time constant of the filter.
The low pass filter is necessary in hardware setup.
4.4. Speed Controller Design
95
ec
M
e
M
mc
L
M
J
1
( ) s G
RS
( ) s G
M
'
s
1 m
1
1
+ s T
f
Fig. 4.32. Block diagram of the speed control loop
The transfer function of the full torque control loop (Fig. 4.23) can be calculated as:
( ) ( ) ( ) s G s G
M
M
s G
Mc FM
ec
e
M
= =
'
(4.35)
where: ( ) s G
Mc
 torque control loop transfer function given by equation (4.32),
( ) s G
FM
 prefilter transfer function given by equation (4.33).
The transfer function ( ) s G
M
'
can by expressed as:
( )
1
' 2 '
'
'
+ +
=
s C s B
A
s G
M M
M
M
(4.36)
where:
pM M iM M
pM M
M
K A T C
K A
A
+
=
'
;
pM M iM M
iM
M
K A T C
T
B
+
=
'
;
( )
pM M iM M
M pM M iM
M
K A T C
B K A T
C
+
+
=
'
The torque control loop can be approximate by first order integrating part, because
of:
0
'
M
B (4.37)
The simplified transfer function can be written as:
( )
1
'
'
'
+
=
s C
A
s G
M
M
M
(4.38)
For the torque controller parameters 87 . 15 =
pM
K , 00087 . 0 =
iM
T obtained in section
4.3.3 at the sampling frequency kHz f
s
5 = the transfer function parameters have values:
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
96
9944 . 0
'
=
M
A , 007 563 . 3
'
= e B
M
, 0009329 . 0
'
=
M
C . Those parameters confirm that
assumption (4.37) is correct.
The step response of the full and simplified transfer function are shown in Fig. 4.33.
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
Time
full transfer
function
simplified
transfer function
Fig. 4.33. Torque response for full and simplified transfer function
For the speed controller parameter design the symmetry criterion can by applied [66].
In accordance with the symmetry criterion the plant transfer function can be written as:
( )
( )
1 2
1
0
sT sT
e K
s G
s
c
+
=
(4.39)
where: '
M c
A K = is gain of the plan,
0
is dead time of the inverter (
0
0 = ideal
converter), J T =
2
, and
f
T C T + =
1
is a sum of small time constants. The optimal
controller parameters can be calculated as:
( ) ( )
f c
ps
T C
J
T K
T
K
+
=
+
=
2 2
0 1
2
(4.40)
( ) ( )
f is
T C T T + = + = 4 4
0 1
(4.41)
For the filter frequency Hz f
f
25 = where:
f
f
f
T
2
1
= (4.42)
4.4. Speed Controller Design
97
the speed controller parameters are obtained as follows: 33 . 1 =
ps
K ; 0292 . 0 =
is
T .
Fig. 4.34, 4.35 and 4.36 show simulation and experimental results for the system
operated with speed controller parameters obtained above. The speed reversals are
presented in Fig. 4.34 and 4.35 for high and small reference speed differences
respectively. The step change of the load torque at constant speed is presented in Fig.
4.36. All presented in Fig. 4.34, 4.35 and 4.36 results confirm proper operation of the
speed control loop.
a) b)
Fig. 4.34. Speed reversal s rad
m
/ 100 = a) simulated (SABER), b) experimental 1) reference speed
(75 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (75 (rad/s)/div), 3) reference torque (20 Nm/div)
a) b)
Fig. 4.35. Speed reversal  small signal s rad
m
/ 5 = a) simulated (SABER), b) experimental 1)
reference speed (7.5 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (7.5 (rad/s)/div), 3) reference torque (20 Nm/div)
4. Direct Flux and Torque Control with Space Vector Modulation (DTCSVM)
98
a) b)
Fig. 4.36. Load torque step change at s rad
m
/ 100 = a) simulated (SABER), b) experimental
1) reference speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 3) estimated torque (20 Nm/div)
4.5. Summary
This chapter gives review of DTCSVM control methods. To analysis and
implementation was chosen DTCSVM method with closeloop torque and flux control
in stator flux coordinates. Full mathematical analysis of IM drive working with this
control method is presented. Two different flux and torque controllers design algorithm
are analyzed and discussed. Furthermore, speed controller tuning methods is shown.
The flux and torque controller design methods for sampling frequency changes and
different motor power are discussed. The analysis presented in this chapter give
complex knowledge about control structure and controller design methods. Obtained
parameters provide good dynamic and steady state operation of a drive. It is confirmed
by simulation and experimental results presented in this chapter and in Chapter 7.
5. Estimation in Induction Motor Drives
5.1. Introduction
The vector control methods of induction motor require feedback signals. This is an
information about flux, torque and mechanical speed in drives operated without
mechanical sensor (sensorless operation mode).
There are many different method to obtain these state variables of induction motor.
Basic methods can be divided into three main group [87]:
physical methods based on nonlinear construction of IM [60, 77, 113],
mathematical models used mathematical description of IM and control theory,
neural network methods based on the artificial intelligence techniques [9, 91,
95].
The general classification of the state variables calculation methods is presented in
Fig. 5.1 [87].
Induction motor state variables
calculation methods
Physical
methods
Neural network
methods
Estimators of
state variables
Observer of
state variables
Kalman Filter
Mathematical
models
Fig. 5.1. Classification of induction state variables calculation methods
The mathematical models is based on the space vector equations, which describe
induction motors. Fig. 5.1 shows division of these methods into three groups:
estimators of state variables,
observer of state variables,
5. Estimation in Induction Motor Drives
100
Kalman filter.
The DTCSVM method is based on the information about stator flux vector (see
section 4.3). Therefore, it is the most important variable of the motor. Measurement of
flux in motor is difficult and demands special sensor. This solution is very expensive
and complicated. Because of that a method of calculation motor flux was developed.
In vector control methods this part of algorithm is especially important. Estimation
algorithm uses as input signals values, which are simple to measure. There are current
and voltage signals. Obviously new methods aim at reducing number of sensors for
more reliable operation and lower price of a drive.
The motor flux is the main component to calculate torque and speed. Therefore,
accuracy of the estimation flux is very important. Flux estimation is a significant task in
implementing of highperformance motor drives.
The advanced state variables calculation algorithm is characterized by:
accuracy in steady and dynamic states,
robustness for motor parameters variation,
minimal number of sensor,
operation in whole speed range,
low calculation demanded.
All estimation algorithms based on the motor parameters. These parameters change
in time work of the drive. For instance, with change the temperature. Therefore,
estimation algorithm have to be less sensitive to the parameters variations.
All presented flux estimation algorithms are shown as stator flux estimators, because
of these algorithms work with DTCSVM structure. In some algorithm rotor flux
estimation is required, but in this case it is convert on stator flux.
5.2. Estimation of Inverter Output Voltage
Input signals for the estimators are measurements of stator currents and voltages
which are recreated from the switching signals. Switch signals for the each inverter
phase are obtained by control algorithm. The reference voltage vector is realized by
5.2. Estimation of Inverter Output Voltage
101
modulator (see section 2.4). However, duty times are modified by deadtime, which is
requisite for correct inverter operation (see section 2.3). Because of this modification
delivered to the motor voltage is different from reference. To eliminate deadtime effect
there is a special part for compensation of deadtime in control algorithms. Obtained by
vector modulator duty cycles, represented by switching signals S
A
, S
B
, S
C
are modified
to S
A
'
, S
B
'
, S
C
'
(Fig. 5.2). This modification depends on the phase current direction and is
realized for each phase. Many different deadtime compensation methods are presented
in literature [2, 3, 8, 29, 64, 76]. Thanks to this modification after change signals by
deadtime, a correct voltage vector obtained by controller is delivered to the motor.
Because of that signals S
A
, S
B
, S
C
are used to recreate voltage values. The voltage is
calculated form the equations:
( ) ( )
C B A dc s
D D D U U + = 5 . 0
3
2
(5.1a)
( )
C B dc s
D D U U =
3
3
(5.1b)
where D
A
, D
B
, D
C
are duty cycles corresponding to the switching signals S
A
, S
B
, S
C
and
dc
U is the voltage of inverter dclink.
Vector
Modulator
Voltage
Calculation
Motor
Dead
Time
&
Voltage
Drop
Compen
sation
S
A
S
B
S
C
S
A
'
S
B
'
S
C
'
Dead
Time
S
A
+
S
A

S
B
+
S
B

S
C
+
S
C

c s
U
c s
U
s
I
s
U
dc
U
dc
U
s
I
s
U
Fig. 5.2. Input signals for the estimators
5. Estimation in Induction Motor Drives
102
In Fig. 5.2 voltage calculation block diagram is shown. Simultaneously with dead
time compensation a voltage drop compensation algorithm is realized. It is especially
important for low speed operation range, when voltage is very low.
The main assumption in voltage calculation method is that identical voltage vector,
which is calculated by a controller is delivered to the motor. It means, proper
information about voltage depends on correct implementation deadtime and voltage
drop compensation algorithms.
Dead Time Compensation
In order to prevent shortcircuiting an inverter leg, there should be a deadtime (T
D
)
between the turnoff one switch (IGBT) and the turnon of the next one (from the same
leg). T
D
should be larger than the maximum storage time of the switching device. The
effect of the deadtime is a voltage distortion delivered to the motor. The voltage
distortion U is depending on current sign, as can be seen in Fig. 5.3.
D
1
D
2
C
2
dc
U
2
dc
U
C
0
S
A
+
S
A

T
1
T
2
A
0 >
A
I
D
1
D
2
C
2
dc
U
2
dc
U
C
0
S
A
+
S
A

T
1
T
2
A
0 <
A
I
b) a)
t
t
S
A

S
A
+
S
A
T
D
T
D
0
U
A0
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
t
t
t
t
S
A

S
A
+
S
A
T
D
T
D
0
U
A0
dc
U
2
1
dc
U
2
1
t
t
0 >
A
I 0 <
A
I
Fig. 5.3. Deadtime effect for different current sing a) 0 >
A
I , b) 0 <
A
I
5.2. Estimation of Inverter Output Voltage
103
So the real voltage vector across the motor can be expressed as:
U U U
sc mot
= (5.2)
The voltage distortion U can be written as:
( )
s
I U sign U f T
dc s D
= (5.3)
where:
s
f  sampling frequency,
( ) sign  signum function.
The deadtime compensation can be implemented by adjusting the phase duty cycles
as following:
( )
k s D k k
I sign f T D D + =
'
(5.4)
where: C B A k , , = .
This means that the ontime of the upper bridge arm switch is shortened by T
D
and
for positive current it is increased by the same amount for negative current.
Because of the current has ripple around zerocrossing the algorithm should be
modified. One of the possible solutions is method with current level. In this method the
current level ( )
level
I is defined, which describes zone around the zero current as:
level k level
I I I > > (5.5)
If the condition (5.6) is performed the duty cycles are modified as follows:
( )
k s D
level
k
k k
I sign f T
I
I
D D + =
'
(5.6)
In the other cases the duty cycles are modified according to the equation (5.4).
The value of the current level ( )
level
I depends on the motor power and can be
deducted experimentally. For 3kW drive the optimal value of current level was
A I
level
1 . 0 = .
The simulated results for the deadtime compensation algorithms are presented in
Fig. 5.4. In this test drive operates with scalar control (U/f=const.) algorithm at
fundamental frequency Hz f 2 = .
5. Estimation in Induction Motor Drives
104
a)
b)
Fig. 5.4. Simulated U/f=const. control method at frequency Hz f 2 = a) without deadtime compensation,
b) with deadtime compensation
From Fig. 5.4a it can be seen that without deadtime compensation the output
currents are considerably distorted and has reduced value. Fig. 5.4b shown simulated
result with deadtime compensation algorithm. Thanks of the compensation proper
voltage is delivered to the motor. Therefore, currents have correct value and currents
waveforms are sinusoidal.
Presented deadtime compensation algorithm was implemented in final control
system.
5.3. Stator Flux Vector Estimators
The flux vector estimator algorithms can be divided into two groups in terms of the
input signal. The currents and voltages are the input signals to the voltage models (VM),
while the currents and speed or position information are input signals to the current
models (CM). Obviously, for sensorless control structures general voltage models with
many different modifications and improvements are used.
The stator flux can be directly obtained from the motor model equation (2.10a) as
follows:
( )
= dt R
s s s s
I U
(5.7)
5.3. Stator Flux Vector Estimators
105
This is a classical voltage model of stator flux vector estimation, which obtain flux
by integrating the motor back electromagnetic force (EMF). The block diagram of this
estimator is shown in the Fig. 5.5.
s
U
s
I
s
s
R
Fig. 5.5. Voltage model based estimator with pure integrators
This method is sensitive for only one motor parameter, stator resistance. However,
the implementation of pure integrator is difficult because of dc drift and initial value
problems. Moreover, when estimator based on pure integrator in control structure are
additional disadvantages. Using a pure integrator to estimate the stator flux it is not
possible to magnetize the machine if a zero torque command is applied [25]. Moreover,
the dynamic performance is lower and torque oscillations are bigger than in another
stator flux estimation method. Because of that many different stator flux estimation
algorithms based on the voltage model were proposed, which does not approach to the
pure integrator [15, 53, 54, 57, 58].
Voltage Model with Low Pass Filter (VMLPF)
The simplest method, which eliminates problems with initial conditions and dc drift,
which appear in pure integrator, is a method with lowpass filter. In this case the
equation (5.7) can be transformed as follows:
( )
s s s
s
I U
F
s
T
R
dt
d
= (5.8)
The block diagram of the method with lowpass filter is presented in Fig. 5.6.
s
1
s
U
s
I
s
s
R
F
T
1
Fig. 5.6. Flux estimator based on voltage model with lowpass filter
5. Estimation in Induction Motor Drives
106
The estimator stabilization time depends on the lowpass filter time constant T
F
.
Obviously, the lowpass filter produces some errors in phase angle and a magnitude of
stator flux, especially when the motor frequency is lower than the cutoff frequency of
the filter. Therefore, flux estimator with lowpass filter can be used successfully only in
a limited speed range.
Voltage Model with Compensated Low Pass Filter (VMCLPF)
One way to overcome the errors introduced by lowpass filter is compensated
algorithm [48]. The block diagram of flux estimator based on a voltage model with
compensated lowpass filter is presented in Fig. 5.7.
s
U
ss
s +
1
s
ss
( sign j
ss
1
s
s
ss
ss
Fig. 5.7. Flux estimator based on voltage model with compensated lowpass filter
In presented method the compensation is carried out before lowpass filtering. The
stator flux is given by equation:
ss
ss
s
sign j
( 1
=
s
s
E
(5.9)
where: is a positive constant.
The complexvalued gain, instead of calculating the phase error and the gain error, is
used to compensation. Moreover, due to shifting the poles of pure integration from the
origin to
ss
, the drift problems are avoided. The factor can be selected in range
from 0.1 to 0.5. For lower the transient performance is better, but a higher value of
allows bigger system inexactness.
5.3. Stator Flux Vector Estimators
107
Voltage Model with Reference Flux (VMRF)
The block diagram of the estimator based on voltage model with reference flux is
presented in Fig. 5.8 [25].
s
U
s
I
s
sr
rc
s + 1
s + 1
1
M
r
L
L
sr
j
e
r
M
L
L
s
I
s
L
s
L
s
R
Fig. 5.8. Flux estimator based on voltage model with rotor flux assumed as reference
This estimator calculates rotor and stator flux vector on the basis of stator voltages
and currents, and simultaneously the difference between reference and estimated rotor
flux magnitude is utilizing to correction estimated values.
In this estimator first a rotor flux vector is calculated based on the equation:
)
sr
j
rc
e K
dt
d
+ =
r r
r
E
(5.10)
where K is the gain factor and
r
E is the rotor back EMF defined as:
) (
dt
d
L R
L
L
s s
m
r s
s s r
I
I U E = (5.11)
Then assuming
1
= K the equation (5.10) can be rewritten yielding:
sr
j
rc
e
s s
1
1
1
+
+
+
=
r r
E (5.12)
where:
dt
d
s =
(5.13)
5. Estimation in Induction Motor Drives
108
From the equation describing the IM in coordinate system (2.15) formulas for
calculation stator flux vector
s
are obtained.
s r s
I
s
r
m
L
L
L
+ =
(5.14)
This estimator works correctly for a wide speed range, ensures good dynamic
performance, eliminates influence of non correct initial values of the flux level.
Moreover, in this algorithm rotor flux is calculated, which is necessary for rotor speed
calculation (see section 5.5). It is important advantage of this estimator.
The flux estimator based on voltage model with reference flux was selected for the
implementation DTCSVM control structure in sensorless operation mode (see section
6.2). Presented algorithm is compromise between precision of rotor and stator flux
estimation and computing demand.
Current Model in Rotor Coordinated (CMRC)
The measured currents and mechanical speed are the input signals for the flux
estimator based on the current model in rotor coordinate.
Coordinate system q d rotates with the angular speed of the motor shaft
m
,
which can be defined as follows:
dt
d
m
m
= (5.15)
Taking into consideration number of pole pairs
b
p angular speed of the coordinate
system q d is equal
m b K
p = .
The voltage, currents and fluxes complex space vector can be resolved into
components d and q .
q s d s K
U U
+ = j
s
U (5.16a)
q s d s K
I I
+ = j
s
I ,
q r d r K
I I
+ = j
r
I (5.16b)
q s d s K
+ = j
s
,
q r d r K
+ = j
r
(5.16c)
5.3. Stator Flux Vector Estimators
109
The complete set of equations for IM (2.102.12) can be transformed to the q d
coordinate system. In this coordinate system the motor model equation can be written as
follows:
q s m b
d s
d s s d s
p
dt
d
I R U
+ = (5.17a)
d s m b
q s
q s s q s
p
dt
d
I R U
+ + = (5.17b)
dt
d
I R
d r
d r r
+ = 0 (5.17c)
dt
d
I R
q r
q r r
+ = 0 (5.17d)
d r M d s s d s
I L I L
+ = (5.18a)
q r M q s s q s
I L I L
+ = (5.18b)
d s M d r r d r
I L I L
+ = (5.18c)
q s M q r r q r
I L I L
+ = (5.18d)
( )
=
L d s q s q s d s
s
b
m
M I I
m
p
J dt
d
2
1
(5.19)
From the equations (5.175.17) formulas for the estimated rotor flux can be obtained
[66].
( )
d r d s M
r
d r
I L
T dt
d
(5.20a)
( )
q r q s M
r
q r
I L
T dt
d
(5.20b)
where:
r
r
r
R
L
T =
The current vector is measured in stationary coordinate . Therefore, current
components
s
I ,
s
I must be transformed to the system q d . Similarly, the
estimated rotor flux vector
r
, must be transformed from the system q d to .
5. Estimation in Induction Motor Drives
110
Stator flux vector
s
is calculated from the equation (5.14).
Block diagram of the whole stator flux estimator is shown in Fig. 5.9.
s
I
s
I
d s
I
q s
I
M
L
M
L
r
T
1
d r
q r
r
T
1
q d
q d
m
s
I
r
s
I
r
M
L
L
s
L
r
M
L
L
s
L
s
Fig. 5.9. Block diagram of the current model flux estimator in rotor coordinates
This flux estimator model ensures good accuracy over the entire frequency range. It
has a very good behavior in steady and dynamic state. Also it has resistant to wrong
initial conditions. Its disadvantage is sensitive on change motor parameters.
This estimator was selected for the implementation DTCSVM control structure in
sensor operation mode (see section 6.2).
5.4. Torque Estimation
The induction motor output torque is calculated based on the equation (2.9), which
for stationary coordinate system can be written as follows:
( ) ( )
s s s s
s
b
s
b e
I I
m
p
m
p M
2
Im
2
*
= =
s s
I (5.21)
It can be seen that the calculated torque is depended on the current measurement
accuracy and stator flux estimation method.
5.5. Rotor Speed Estimation
If a flux estimator works properly and rotor flux is accurately calculated mechanical
speed can be obtained from simple motor model equation [87]. If in control structure the
5.5. Rotor Speed Estimation
111
stator flux estimator is applied rotor flux can be calculated based on the equations
(5.14).
In the IM mechanical speed is defined as difference between synchronous speed and
sleep frequency:
( )
sl sr
b
m
p
=
1
(5.22)
where:
sr
 rotor synchronous speed,
sl
 slip frequency,
b
p  number of pole pairs.
The rotor synchronous speed is equal angular speed of the rotor flux vector and can
be calculated as:
dt
d
sr
sr
= (5.23)
The slip frequency of induction motor is defined as follows [66]:
m b sr sl
p = (5.24)
Based on the equations (3.3d) and (3.4d) in rotor flux coordinate system the slip
frequency can be expressed:
sq
r r
M
r sl
I
L
L
R
1
= (5.25)
Taking into consideration the torque equations (3.7) and (5.25) the estimated sleep
frequency can be calculated as follows:
( )
s s s s
r
r
sl
I I
2
= (5.26)
Finally mechanical motor speed is calculated from the equation (5.22).
5. Estimation in Induction Motor Drives
112
5.6. Summary
In this chapter estimation algorithms of flux, torque and rotor speed are presented.
The estimators provide feedback signals for DTCSVM control scheme. Algorithms
selected to the implementation in final structure are described and discussed.
The speed estimator is based on the estimated stator and rotor fluxes. The mechanical
speed can be calculated in a simple way if motor flux is properly estimated. Therefore,
flux estimation algorithm is the most important part of sensorless control scheme.
Selected flux estimator for the sensorless mode is based on the voltage model. Thus
algorithm is sensitive on accuracy of inverter output voltage calculation. The voltages
are reconstructed from switching signals. In this method deadtime compensation
algorithm is significant. The deadtime effect and compensation algorithm was
presented.
The presented estimation methods are implemented in final DTCSVM control
structure. The experimental results, presented in Chapter 7 confirm proper operation of
selected estimation methods.
6. Configuration of the Developed IM Drive Based on
DTCSVM
6.1. Introduction
In this chapter a whole implemented control system will be presented. In the first
part, the configuration of the system and operation modes are described. In the next
parts, two hardware setups, which were used to verify DTCSVM control structure are
presented. To development work was used laboratory setup based on dSPACE company
control board DS1103 PPC. This board has powerful microprocessor and special input
output interface. The laboratory setup and control board DS1103 will be widely
described in section 6.3. The control algorithm was also implemented in a setup based
on a microcontroller TMS320LF2406 from Texas Instruments company. The
TMS320LF2406 is a 16bits, fixed point microcontroller devoted for drive application
(see section 6.4).
6.2. Block Scheme of Implemented Control System
The IM drive based on DTCSVM control structure can operate in three modes:
scalar control,
sensor vector control,
sensorless vector control.
The inverter operate in a mode which is required by application. The system
configuration depends on the switches position, see Fig. 6.1. The most advanced is the
sensorless vector control mode.
In the scalar control mode algorithm obtains command voltage vector based on the
reference frequency. The command voltage vector is realized by space vector modulator
(SVM).
The reference speed in the command signal in the vector control modes. Depending
on mode the reference speed is compared with measured (sensor vector control mode)
or estimated (sensorless vector control mode) speed signal.
6. Configuration of the Developed IM Drive Based on DTCSVM
114
SVM
Scalar
Control
Torque
and Flux
Controller
Switch 1
Reference
Frequency
Reference
Speed
References
Value
Estimations
Value
Torque
and Flux
Estimator
Speed
Estimator
Speed
Controller
Inverter
Measurements
Signals
Switch 2
Estimation
Speed
Measurment
Speed
Motor Speed
Sensor
Fig. 6.1. Block scheme of implemented control algorithm
Based on the speed error speed controller calculates reference torque value. The
commanded flux is obtained from the reference speed and selected characteristic, which
depends on the application. The reference values of torque and flux are compared with
estimated values. Based on the errors flux and torque controllers calculate command
voltage vector. The command voltage vector is realized by the same space vector
modulator (SVM) algorithm, which is used in scalar control mode. Therefore, depended
on application requirements change between scalar and vector mode is simple.
The measured current and reconstructed voltage are input signals for the estimation
algorithms (see Chapter 5).
An inverter control structure presented in Fig. 6.1 was implemented for IM.
However, this structure can be also used for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
(PMSM) [129].
All presented in Fig. 6.1 blocks are described in previous chapter of the thesis. The
torque, flux and speed controllers are discussed in Chapter 4. The estimation algorithms
are shown in Chapter 5 and different modulation techniques are presented in Chapter 2.
The experimental results for all three operating modes are presented in Chapter 7.
6.3. Laboratory Setup Based on DS1103
115
6.3. Laboratory Setup Based on DS1103
The basic structure of the laboratory setup is depicted in Fig. 6.1. The motor setup
consist of induction motor and DC motor, which is used for the loading. The induction
motor is fed by the frequency inverter controlled directly by the DS1103 board. The
dSPACE DS1103 PPC is plugged in the host PC. The DC motor is supplied by a torque
controlled rectifier. The encoder is used for the measure mechanical speed. The DSP
Interface a set of eurocards mounted in a 19 rack with the main purpose to provide
galvanic isolation to all signals connected to the DS1103 PPC controller.
Measurement
DSP
Interface
measured
DC line voltage
PC
3 3
2
grid
Rectifier Inverter
S
A
measured
phase
current
S
C
S
B
encoder
AC motor DC motor
DS1103 dSPACE
Master : PowerPC 604e
Slave: DSP TMS320F240
Rectifier
Fig. 6.2. Structure of the laboratory setup
Fig. 6.3. Laboratory setup
6. Configuration of the Developed IM Drive Based on DTCSVM
116
In Fig. 6.3 view of the laboratory setup is shown. All parts of the laboratory setup
can be seen in this picture.
dSPACE DS1103 PPC Board
The dSPACE DS1103 PPC is a mixed RISC/DSP digital controller providing a very
powerful processor for floating point calculations as well as comprehensive I/O
capabilities. Here are the most relevant features of the controller:
Motorola PowerPC 604e running at 333 MHz,
Slave DSP TI's TMS320F240 Subsystem,
16 channels (4 x 4ch) ADC, 16 bit , 4 s, 10 V,
4 channels ADC, 12 bit , 800 ns, 10V,
8 channels (2 x 4ch) DAC, 14 bit , 10 V,6 s,
Incremental Encoder Interface 7 channels
32 digital I/O lines, programmable in 8bit groups,
Software development tools (Matlab/Simulink, RTI, RTW, TDE, Control Desk)
The DS1103 PPC card is pluged in one of the ISA slot of the motherboard of a host
computer of the type PIII/900MHz, 512 MBRAM, 40GB HDD, Windows 2000. All the
connections are made through six flat cables (50 wires each) available at the backside of
the desktop computer.
The DS1103 PPC is a very flexible and powerful system featuring both high
computational capability and comprenhensive I/O periphery. The board can be
programmed in C language. Additionally, it features a software SIMULINK interface
that allows all applications to be developed in the Matlab/Simulink user friendly
environment. All compiling and downloading processes are carried out automatically in
the background. An experimenting software called Control Desk, allow realtime
management of the running process by providing a virtual control panel with
instruments and scopes.
The detailed parameters of the dSPACE DS1103 PPC board are given in Appendix
A5.
6.3. Laboratory Setup Based on DS1103
117
Experimenting Software Control Desk
Control Desk experiment software provides all the functions for controlling,
monitoring, and automation of realtime experiments and makes the development of
controllers more effective. A Control Desk experiment layout for controlling an
induction motor with DTCSVM control methods is shown in Fig. 6.5.
Fig. 6.4. Control Desk experiment layout
Control Desk package consists of the following modules:
The Experiment Management  assures a consistent data management controlling
all the data relevant for an experiment. The experiment can be loaded as a
complete set of data with a single operation. The content of the experiment can
be defined by the user.
The Hardware Management  allows you to configure the dSPACE hardware and
to handle realtime applications with a graphical user interface.
The Instrumentation Kits  offer a variety of virtual instruments to build and
configure virtual instrument panels according to your special needs.
6. Configuration of the Developed IM Drive Based on DTCSVM
118
Using data acquisition instruments you can capture data from the model running on
the realtime hardware. Changing parameter values is performed by operating input
instruments. The integrated Parameter Editor allows you to read the current parameter
values from the hardware and to change a parameter set in one step.
6.4. Drive Based on TMS320LF2406
DTCSVM control algorithm was implemented in the drive based on microcontroller
TMS320LF2406. Setup consists of 18 kVA IGBT inverter and 15 kW induction motor.
The view of inverter is shown in Fig. 6.5. In this picture main control board of the
inverter with microprocessor module can be seen.
Fig. 6.5. 18 kVA inverter controlled by TMS320FL2406 processor
6.4. Drive Based on TMS320LF2406
119
The motor set (Fig. 6.6), which was used in tests consists of 15 kW induction motor
and 22 kW DC motor. The induction motor data are given in appendix A.3. The DC
motor works as a load and it is supply from the controlled rectifier.
Fig. 6.6. Motor set. From the left 22 kW DC motor and 15 kW IM motor.
Fig. 6.7. TMS320LF2406 microprocessor board
6. Configuration of the Developed IM Drive Based on DTCSVM
120
The microprocessor board shown in the Fig. 6.7 was used to control the inverter. The
sizes of the processor module are 53x56mm. This board contains microcontroller
TMS320LF2406 and required equipment. The communication with main inverter board
by three connectors (2x20pins and 1x26pins) is provided.
The TMS320Lx240xA series of devices are members of the TMS320 family of
digital signal processors (DSPs) designed to meet a wide range of digital motor control
(DMC) and other embedded control applications [99, 100]. This series is based on the
C2xLP 16bit, fixedpoint, lowpower DSP CPU, and is complemented with a wide
range of onchip peripherals and onchip ROM or flash program memory, plus onchip
dualaccess RAM (DARAM).
The TMS320 family consists of fixedpoint, floatingpoint, multiprocessor digital
signal processors (DSPs), and fixedpoint DSP controllers. TMS320 DSPs have an
architecture designed specifically for realtime signal processing. The 240xA series of
DSP controllers combine this realtime processing capability with controller peripherals
to create an ideal solution for control system applications. There are short characteristics
of the TMS320 family:
flexible instruction set,
operational flexibility,
highspeed performance
Innovative parallel architecture,
cost effectiveness.
Devices within a generation of a TMS320 platform have the same CPU structure but
different onchip memory and peripheral configurations. Spinoff devices use new
combinations of onchip memory and peripherals to satisfy a wide range of needs in the
worldwide electronics market. By integrating memory and peripherals onto a single
chip, TMS320 devices reduce system costs and save circuit board space.
The detailed parameters of the TMS320FL2406 microprocessor are given in
Appendix A6.
The important feature of the TMS320FL246 microprocessor is the bootloader.
Thanks to that it is possible to program the device using Serial Communications
6.4. Drive Based on TMS320LF2406
121
Interface (SCI) or Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). Therefore, program can be loaded
from the PC via standard serial port (RS232).
This way of programming was used during the implementation of DTCSVM control
algorithm. Thus it was possible to work with the processor without using the expensive
tools like JTAG.
7. Experimental Results
7.1. Introduction
In this chapter selected experimental results obtained in the system described in
Chapter 6 are shown. All tests was done for 3 kW induction motor, which parameters
are given in Appendix A3.
7.2. Pulse Width Modulation
In Fig. 7.1 7.5 different modulation method are presented. All test was measured at
frequency Hz f 40 = .
In Fig. 7.1 space vector modulation method with symmetrical zero vectors placement
SVPWM is shown (see section 2.4.3).
Fig. 7.1. Space vector modulation (SVPWM) at frequency Hz f 40 = 1) switching signal S
A
,
2) pole voltage U
A0
(150 V/div), 3) phase voltage U
A
(150 V/div), 4) output current I
A
(5 A/div)
In Fig. 7.2 discontinuous pulse width modulation DPWM2 is shown (see section
2.4.3). It can be observe differences in pole voltage waveforms and switching signal in
Fig. 7.1 and 7.2. DPWM2 modulation method has 60 no switch sectors. However,
phase voltage and output current have sinusoidal waveforms.
7.2. Pulse Width Modulation
123
Fig. 7.2. Discontinuous modulation (DPWM2) at frequency Hz f 40 = 1) switching signal S
A
,
2) pole voltage U
A0
(150 V/div), 3) phase voltage U
A
(150 V/div), 4) output current I
A
(5 A/div)
In Fig. 7.3 and 7.4 overmodulation (OM) algorithm is shown (see section 2.4.5).
Fig. 7.3. Overmodulation mode I at frequency Hz f 40 = 1) switching signal S
A
, 2) pole voltage
U
A0
(150 V/div), 3) phase voltage U
A
(150 V/div), 4) output current I
A
(5 A/div)
7. Experimental Results
124
Fig. 7.4. Overmodulation mode II at frequency Hz f 40 = 1) switching signal S
A
, 2) pole voltage
U
A0
(150 V/div), 3) phase voltage U
A
(150 V/div), 4) output current I
A
(5 A/div)
The results for sixstep mode are presented in Fig. 7.5.
Fig. 7.5. Sixstep mode at frequency Hz f 40 = 1) switching signal S
A
, 2) pole voltage U
A0
(150 V/div),
3) phase voltage U
A
(150 V/div), 4) output current I
A
(10 A/div)
Results presented in Fig. 7.3 7.5 ware obtained at decreased dclink voltage.
Therefore, overmodulation and sixstep operation modes can be shown with frequency
7.3. Flux and Torque Controllers
125
Hz f 40 = like the other results. Thanks to it, current and voltage waveforms can be
better compared.
Experimental results presented in Fig. 7.1 7.5 confirm proper operation all type
modulation algorithms.
7.3. Flux and Torque Controllers
Dynamic tests for the flux and torque controller were done for different sampling
frequencies values and the same condition like for simulation presented in section 4.3
(motor speed 0 =
m
). The flux controller parameters were calculated according to
symmetric optimum criterion (see section 4.3.1) and torque controller parameters were
calculated according to root locus method (see section 4.3.2).
In Fig. 7.6 7.8 are presented stator flux step response at sampling frequency
kHz f
s
10 = , kHz f
s
5 = , kHz f
s
5 . 2 = respectively. Those results can be compared
with simulation results presented in Fig. 4.11.
Fig. 7.6. Stator flux response at sampling frequency kHz f
s
10 = 1) reference flux (0.15 Wb/div),
2) estimated flux (0.15 Wb/div)
7. Experimental Results
126
Fig. 7.7. Stator flux response at sampling frequency kHz f
s
5 = 1) reference flux (0.15 Wb/div),
2) estimated flux (0.15 Wb/div)
Fig. 7.8. Stator flux response at sampling frequency kHz f
s
5 . 2 = 1) reference flux (0.15 Wb/div),
2) estimated flux (0.15 Wb/div)
Presented in Fig. 7.6 7.8 experimental results confirm proper operation of the flux
control loop at different sampling frequency.
7.3. Flux and Torque Controllers
127
The experimental results of torque controller dynamic test are shown in Fig. 7.9
7.11. Presented results were obtain at sampling frequency kHz f
s
10 = (Fig. 7.9),
kHz f
s
5 = (Fig. 7.10), kHz f
s
5 . 2 = (Fig. 7.11).
Fig. 7.9. Torque response at sampling frequency kHz f
s
10 = 1) reference torque (4.5 Nm/div),
3) estimated torque (4.5 Nm/div)
Fig. 7.10. Torque response at sampling frequency kHz f
s
5 = 1) reference torque (4.5 Nm/div),
3) estimated torque (4.5 Nm/div)
7. Experimental Results
128
Fig. 7.11. Torque response at sampling frequency kHz f
s
5 . 2 = 1) reference torque (4.5 Nm/div),
3) estimated torque (4.5 Nm/div)
The result from Fig. 7.9 7.11 can be compared with simulation results presented in
Fig. 4.30. Experimental results presented in Fig. 7.9 7.11 confirm proper operation of
the torque control loop at different sampling frequency.
The decoupling between flux and torque control loops is presented in Fig. 7.12. The
torque step response (Fig. 7.12a) and magnitude stator flux step response (Fig. 7.12b)
are shown.
a)
7.4. DTCSVM Control System
129
b)
Fig. 7.12. Dynamic tests a) torque step change, b) flux step change
1) reference torque (9 Nm/div), 2) estimated torque (9 Nm/div),
3) reference flux (0.3 Wb/div), 4) estimated flux (0.3 Wb/div)
The results from Fig. 7.12 can be compared with simulation results presented in Fig.
4.29. From Fig. 7.12 can be seen that decoupling between flux and torque is correct.
7.4. DTCSVM Control System
In this section the experimental result for three possible drive operation modes,
which are described in Chapter 6 are shown. Therefore, comparison of a system
behavior in different modes is possible.
In Fig. 7.13 7.16 results for scalar control mode are presented. Fig. 7.13 gives
result for system startup to frequency Hz f 40 = (motor speed s rad
m
/ 125 = ).
7. Experimental Results
130
Fig. 7.13. Scalar control mode  Startup from 0 to Hz f 40 = 1) reference frequency (25 Hz/div),
2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div, 4) phase current (10 A/div)
The load torque step change at frequency Hz f 25 = is shown in Fig. 7.14.
Fig. 7.14. Scalar control mode  Load torque step change from 0 to
N L
M M = at frequency Hz f 25 =
1) reference frequency (25 Hz/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 3) torque (20 Nm/div),
4) phase current (10 A/div)
In Fig. 7.15 and 7.16 result of speed reverses are shown ( Hz f 25 = ). The reverse
time is 0.5s (Fig. 7.15) and 5s (Fig. 7.16).
7.4. DTCSVM Control System
131
Fig. 7.15. Scalar control mode  Speed reversal Hz f 25 = (reverse time 0.5s) 1) reference frequency
(25 Hz/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 4) phase current (10 A/div)
Fig. 7.16. Scalar control mode  Speed reversal Hz f 25 = (reverse time 5s) 1) reference frequency
(25 Hz/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 4) phase current (10 A/div)
In Fig. 7.17 7.20 results for sensor vector control mode are presented. Fig. 7.17
gives result for system startup to speed s rad
m
/ 120 = .
7. Experimental Results
132
Fig. 7.17. Vector control mode with speed sensor  Startup from 0 to s rad
m
/ 120 = 1) reference speed
(30 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div, 4) phase current (10 A/div)
The load torque step change at speed s rad
m
/ 75 = is shown in Fig. 7.18.
Fig. 7.18. Vector control mode with speed sensor  Load torque step change from 0 to
N L
M M = at
speed s rad
m
/ 75 = 1) reference speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div),
3) torque (20 Nm/div), 4) phase current (10 A/div)
In Fig. 7.19 and 7.20 result of speed reverses are shown ( s rad
m
/ 75 = ). The
reverse time is 0.5s (Fig. 7.19) and 5s (Fig. 7.20).
7.4. DTCSVM Control System
133
Fig. 7.19. Vector control mode with speed sensor  Speed reversal s rad
m
/ 75 = (reverse time 0.5s)
1) reference speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 4) phase current (10 A/div)
Fig. 7.20. Vector control mode with speed sensor  Speed reversal s rad
m
/ 75 = (reverse time 5s)
1) reference speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 4) phase current (10 A/div)
In sensorless vector control mode the accuracy of the speed estimation algorithm
is important. Therefore, static and dynamic error of estimated speed were
investigated. The error of estimated speed can be written as:
7. Experimental Results
134
% 100
m
m m
= (7.1)
where:
m
 actual speed,
m
 estimated speed.
In Fig. 7.21 speed estimation error as the function of mechanical speed in steady
state is presented.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
omega_m [rad/s]
e
r
r
o
r
_
o
m
e
g
a
[
%
]
[%]
m
[rad/s]
m
Fig. 7.21. Estimated speed error as the function of mechanical speed in steady state.
The results of speed estimator dynamic test are presented in Fig. 22. In this test speed
controller operates with the sensor and speed estimator work in open loop fashion.
7.4. DTCSVM Control System
135
Fig. 7.22. Dynamic test of the speed estimation  Speed reversal s rad
m
/ 50 = 1) reference speed
(30 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 3) estimated speed (30 (rad/s)/div),
4) error of estimated speed (25 %/div)
In Fig. 7.23 7.26 results for sensorless vector control mode are presented. Fig. 7.23
gives result for system startup to speed s rad
m
/ 120 = .
Fig. 7.23. Sensorless vector control mode  Startup from 0 to s rad
m
/ 120 = 1) reference speed
(30 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div, 4) phase current (10 A/div)
The load torque step change at speed s rad
m
/ 75 = is shown in Fig. 7.24.
7. Experimental Results
136
Fig. 7.24. Sensorless vector control mode  Load torque step change from 0 to
N L
M M = at speed
s rad
m
/ 75 = 1) reference speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div),
3) torque (20 Nm/div), 4) phase current (10 A/div)
In Fig. 7.25 and 7.26 result of speed reverses are shown ( s rad
m
/ 75 = ). The
reverse time is 0.5s (Fig. 7.25) and 5s (Fig. 7.26).
Fig. 7.25. Sensorless vector control mode  Speed reverse s rad
m
/ 75 = (reverse time 0.5s)
1) reference speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 4) phase current (10 A/div)
7.4. DTCSVM Control System
137
Fig. 7.26. Sensorless vector control mode  Speed reverse s rad
m
/ 75 = (reverse time 5s)
1) reference speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 2) actual speed (30 (rad/s)/div), 4) phase current (10 A/div)
8. Summary and Conclusions
In this thesis the most convenient industrial control scheme for voltage source
inverterfed induction motor drives was searched for, based on the existing control
methods. This method should provide: operation in wide power range, guarantee good
and repeatable parameters of drive. It is required by a serial production of a drive. To
achieve a low costs the control system should be implemented in simple
microprocessor. The analysis of existing methods were done in order to chose the
industrial oriented universal scheme.
The most important control techniques of IM were presented in Chapter 3: Field
Oriented Control (FOC), Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and Direct Torque
Control (DTC). The FLC structure guarantees exact decoupling of the motor speed and
rotor flux control in both dynamic and steady states. However, it is complicated and
difficult to implement in practice. This method requires complex computation and
additionally it is sensitive to changes of motor parameters. Because of these features
this method was not chosen for implementation. In next step FOC and DTC methods
were analyzed. Characteristics of those methods were done on the basis of the literature,
simulation and experimental investigation. The conclusions of those consideration were
shown in section 3.5.
Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of FOC and DTC methods resulted in a
search for method which will eliminate disadvantages and keep advantages of those
methods. The direct torque control with space vector modulation (DTCSVM) is an
effect of this search. The main features of this method can be summarized as:
Space vector modulator,
Constant switching frequency,
Unipolar voltage thanks to use of PWM block (SVM),
Sinusoidal waveform of stator currents,
Algorithm operates with torque and flux value implementation in
manufacturing process is easier,
Good dynamic control of flux and torque. The step responses are slower than in
classical DTC, because PI controllers are slower than hysteresis controllers,
8. Summary and Conclusions
139
which are used in classical DTC. However, obtained dynamic (response time for
the torque 1.52ms) is sufficient for general purpose drives.
High sampling frequency is not required. The DTCSVM algorithm works
properly at sampling frequency kHz f
s
5 = whereas DTC requires sampling
frequency at least kHz 40 25 .
Low flux and torque ripple than in classical DTC. The torque ripples in DTCSVM
at sampling frequency kHz f
s
5 = are ten times lower than presented in section
3.4.2 torque ripples for classical DTC at sampling frequency kHz f
s
40 = .
The DTCSVM scheme is based only on the analysis of stator equations like classical
DTC, therefore control algorithm is not sensitive to rotor parameters changes. This
method can be applied also for surface mounted permanent magnet (PM) synchronous
motors [129]. The PM synchronous motors of this type are more frequently used in
standard speed drives as interior PM. Hence, DTCSVM method allows universal drive
building for both types of AC motors.
The very important part of DTCSVM scheme is a space vector modulator. The
different modulation techniques can be applied in the system. Therefore, a drive has
additional advantages. The most important is full range of voltage control and reduction
of switching losses. For instance, reduction of switching losses can be obtained by
implementation of discontinuous PWM methods. These modulation techniques were
described and characterized in section 2.4. The experimental results for the
implemented modulation methods were shown in Chapter 7.
The short review of DTCSVM methods proposed in literature were given in section
4.2. For further consideration the DTCSVM method with closeloop torque and flux
control in stator flux Cartesian coordinates have been chosen. In author opinion this
method is best suited for commercial manufactured drives. For chosen scheme two
controller design procedures were proposed. Those analysis were presented in Chapter 4.
Also correction of controllers parameters for sampling frequency changes was discussed.
In adjustable speed drive superior speed controller is used. The analysis of speed
control loop and controller tuning were presented in section 4.4. Correctness of used
method was confirmed by simulation and experimental results.
8. Summary and Conclusions
140
The quality of regulation process depends on an accuracy of feedback signals. In the
vector control of induction motor those signals are provided by flux and torque
estimators and, in sensorless operation mode, by a speed estimator. The precision of
estimated signals depends on:
exact knowledge of motor parameters,
good deadtime and voltage drop compensation algorithms,
well realized measurements,
implementation of online adaptation of motor parameters.
Those features are common for all vector control methods. Therefore, if feedback
signals are estimated accurately, the control scheme should be as simple as possible.
The DTCSVM has a simple structure and it can be analyzed and implemented in a
simple way. It is very important feature of DTCSVM.
Estimation problems in a drive with induction motor were discussed in Chapter 5.
Following estimation algorithms, selected for implementation, were presented: voltage
estimator with deadtime compensation algorithm, stator flux estimator, torque
estimator and mechanical speed estimator.
All parts of control scheme were verified in simulation and experiment. The whole
scheme consists of: flux and torque controllers, speed controller, estimation of flux,
torque and speed and compensation algorithms. Those complete structure was presented
in Chapter 6. Proposed solution was implemented in 3 kW experimental and 15 kW
industrial drives. The laboratory setups were also presented in Chapter 6.
Presented in Chapter 7 experimental results confirm proper operation of developed
control system.
Thus, thesis shows the process to select and develop the most convenient control
scheme for voltage source inverterfed induction motor drives. Whole problems of
direct flux and torque control with space vector modulation (DTCSVM) were analyzed
and investigated in simulation and experiment.
Finally, it should be stressed that the developed system was brought into serial
production. Presented algorithm has been used in new family of inverter drives
produced by Polish company Power Electronic Manufacture TWERD, Toru.
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List of Symbols
2
3
j
2
1
e
3 2 j
+ = = a
B  viscous constant
f  frequency
s
f  sampling frequency
sw
f  switching frequency
I  current, absolute value
A
I ,
B
I ,
C
I  instantaneous values of stator phase currents
r
I  rotor current space vector
s
I  stator current space vector
s s
I I ,  stator voltage vector components in stationary coordinate
system
r r
I I ,  rotor voltage vector components in stationary coordinate system
k  space vector, generally
p
K  controller gain
pM
K  torque controller gain
p
K  flux controller gain
L  inductance, absolute value
M
L  main, magnetizing inductance
s
L  stator winding selfinductance
r
L  rotor winding selfinductance
M  mutual inductance, absolute value
List of symbols
152
M  torque, absolute value
e
M  electromagnetic torque
L
M  load torque
M , m  modulation index
s
m  number of phase windings
b
p  number of pole pairs
S
A
, S
B
, S
C
 switching states for the voltage source inverter
R  resistance, absolute value
r
R  rotor phase windings resistance
s
R  stator phase windings resistance
i
T  controller integrating time
iM
T  torque controller integrating time
i
T  flux controller integrating time
D
T  dead time of inverter
r
r
r
R
L
T =  rotor time constant
s
T  sampling time
sw
T  switching time
U  voltage, absolute value
A
U ,
B
U ,
C
U  instantaneous values of the stator phase voltages
s
U  stator voltage space vector
r
U  rotor voltage space vector
m
m
=
sr
 angular speed of the rotor flux vector
dt
d
sr
sr
=
ss
 angular speed of the stator flux vector
dt
d
ss
ss
=
sl
 slip frequency
r s
M
L L
L
2
1 =  total leakage factor
Superscript
^  estimated value
Subscripts
..c  reference value
Rectangular coordinate systems
 stator oriented, stationary coordinate system
' '
q d  rotor oriented, rotated coordinate system
y x  stator flux oriented, rotated coordinate system
q d  rotor flux oriented, rotated coordinate system
Abbreviations
IM Induction Motor
MMF Magnetomotive Force
PWM Pulse Width Modulation
List of symbols
155
ZSS Zero Sequence Signals
SPWM Sinusoidal (triangulation) Pulse Width Modulation
SVPWM Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation
THIPWM Third Harmonic Pulse Width Modulation
DPWM Discontinues Pulse Width Modulation
SVM Space Vector Modulation
OM Overmodulation
RPWM Random Pulse Width Modulation
RLL Random LeadLag Modulation
RCD Random Center Pulse Displacement
RZD Random Distribution of the Zero Voltage Vector
Appendices
A.1. Derivation of Fourier Series Formula for Phase Voltage
If function f is a periodic, piecewise continuous and an odd, then its trigonometric
Fourier series is given by [56]:
( ) ( )
=
=
1
sin
n
n
t n b t f (A.1.1)
where, for n = 1, 2, 3,
( ) ( ) ( )
0
sin
2
t d t n t f b
n
(A.1.2)
Function which describes phase inverter voltage is shown in the Fig. A.1.1
dc
U
3
2
dc
U
3
2
0
U
A
t
dc
U
3
1
dc
U
3
1
3
2
3
4
3
5 2
Fig. A.1.1. Phase voltage of the inverter
Taking into consideration this function coefficient b
n
can be written as follows:
( ) ( ) ( )
0
sin
2
t d t n t U b
A n
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
+ + =
3
2
3
2
3
3
0
sin
3
1
sin
3
2
sin
3
1 2
t d t n U t d t n U t d t n U
dc dc dc
( ) ( ) ( )
3
2
3
2
3
3
0
cos cos 2 cos
1
3
2
t n t n t n U
n
dc
( )
+ =
3
2
cos
3
cos cos 1
1
3
2
n n n U
n
dc
(A.1.3)
Appendices
157
for even n:
( )
3
2
cos
3
cos cos 1 n n n
0
3
cos
3
cos 1 1 =
+ =
n n n
(A.1.4)
and for uneven n:
( ) ( )
+ + =
+
3
1 cos
3
cos 1 1
3
2
cos
3
cos cos 1
n n n n n n
+ =
3
cos 1 2
n
(A.1.5)
From above formulas the Fourier series for U
A
is given by:
( )
+ =
1
sin
3
cos 1
1
3
4
n
dc A
t n n
n
U U
( )
=
=
1
sin
1 2
n
dc
t n
n
U
(A.1.6)
where:
n=1+6k, k=0, 1, 2,
Appendices
158
A.2. SABER Simulation Model
The control structures of IM were implemented in SABER v.2.4 Synopsys Inc.
package. SABER provides analysis behavior of the complete analog and mixedsignal
systems including electrical subsystem. SABER model scheme is presented in Fig.
A.2.1.
Fig. A.2.1. SABER model
The SABER package include the electrical and mechanical elements library. The
scheme of inverter (Fig. A.2.2) is based on the transistors and diodes models from
library.
The user of SABER package can create own model using mathematical equation. In
this way is build model of induction motor. The equations (2.142.16) described
induction motor in coordinates system are written in properly form in
motor.sin SABER file. The content of this file is shown in Fig. A.2.3
Appendices
159
Fig. A.2.2. Model of inverter
The control algorithm of induction motor has been written in MAST SABER
programming language. The code in MAST language is connected to Control Block,
which is shown in Fig. A.2.1. The MAST programming language is very similar to C
language. Therefore, implementation in laboratory setup of simulated structure is easier.
Appendices
160
#motor.sin
template motor t1 t2 t3 t0 = rs,rr,ls,lr,lm,ml,,j
electrical t1, t2, t3, t0
{
<consts.sin
values {
vt1=v(t1)v(t0)
vt2=v(t2)v(t0)
vt3=v(t3)v(t0)
va=(1/3)*(2*vt1vt2vt3)
vb=(vt2vt3)/sqrt(3)
fsa = ls*isa + lm*ira
fsb = ls*isb + lm*irb
fra = lr*ira + lm*isa
frb = lr*irb + lm*isb
}
equations {
isb: vb  rs*isb = d_by_dt(fsb)
isa: va  rs*isa = d_by_dt(fsa)
irb:  rr*irb + p*omega_m*fra = d_by_dt(frb)
ira:  rr*ira  p*omega_m*frb = d_by_dt(fra)
omega_m: (1/j ) * ( te  ml )= d_by_dt(omega_m)
i(t1>t0)+=it1
it1: it1=isa
i(t2>t0)+=it2
it2: it2=0.5*(isa + sqrt(3)*isb)
i(t3>t0)+=it3
it3: it3=0.5*(isa  sqrt(3)*isb)
}
}
Fig. A.2.3. SABER file motor.sin
Appendices
161
A.3. Data and Parameters of Induction Motors
Table A.3.1. Data of 3 kW induction motor
Power
Number of pole pairs
Moment of inertia
Voltage
Current
Nominal torque
Base speed
Frequency
Nominal stator flux
M
N
= 20 Nm
P
N
= 3 kW
U
N
= 380 V
I
N
= 6.9 A
f
N
= 50 Hz
= 1415 rpm
p
b
= 2
= 0.98 Wb
N
sN
Power
Number of pole pairs
Moment of inertia
Voltage
Current
Nominal torque
Base speed
Frequency
Nominal stator flux
J = 0.007 kgm
2
M
N
= 20 Nm
P
N
= 3 kW
U
N
= 380 V
I
N
= 6.9 A
f
N
= 50 Hz
= 1415 rpm
p
b
= 2
= 0.98 Wb
N
sN
Table A.3.2. Parameters of 3 kW induction motor
Rotor winding resistance
Stator inductance
Mutual inductance
Rotor inductance
R
s
= 1.85 Stator winding resistance
R
r
= 1.84
L
s
= 170 mH
L
r
= 170 mH
L
M
= 160 mH
Table A.3.3. Data of 15 kW induction motor
Power
Number of pole pairs
Moment of inertia
Voltage
Current
Nominal torque
Base speed
Frequency
Nominal stator flux
J = 0.875 kgm
2
M
N
= 98 Nm
P
N
= 15 kW
U
N
= 380 V
I
N
= 28.9 A
f
N
= 50 Hz
= 1460 rpm
p
b
= 2
= 0.98 Wb
N
sN
Appendices
162
Table A.3.4. Parameters of 15 kW induction motor
Rotor winding resistance
Stator inductance
Mutual inductance
Rotor inductance
R
s
= 0.28 Stator winding resistance
R
r
= 0.26
L
s
= 63.5 mH
L
r
= 63.5 mH
L
M
= 58.1 mH
Table A.3.5. Data of 90 kW induction motor
Power
Number of pole pairs
Moment of inertia
Voltage
Current
Nominal torque
Base speed
Frequency
Nominal stator flux
J = 1.50 kgm
2
M
N
= 580 Nm
P
N
= 90 kW
U
N
= 380 V
I
N
= 158 A
f
N
= 50 Hz
= 1483 rpm
p
b
= 2
= 0.98 Wb
N
sN
Table A.3.6. Parameters of 90 kW induction motor
Rotor winding resistance
Stator inductance
Mutual inductance
Rotor inductance
R
s
= 0.020 Stator winding resistance
R
r
= 0.016
L
s
= 16.36 mH
L
r
= 16.74 mH
L
M
= 16 mH
Appendices
163
A.4. Equipment
Table A.4.1. List of equipment
SABER 2002.4 Synopsys, Inc.
Matlab 6.1 MathWorks, Inc.
Digital oscilloscope
Analyzer
Voltage differential probe
Instrument Type
Tektronix TDS3034 300MHz
NORMA D6000 Lem
Tektronix P5200
Current probe Tektronix TCP A300
Simulation program
Simulation program
Appendices
164
A.5. dSPACE DS1103 PPC Board
Physically, DS1103 is built as a PC card that can be mounted into an ISA slot of a
regular PC. The I/O capability is rather impressive providing 300 signals. In order to
simplify the interface, 60 signals out of 300 are selected for further processing and then
connected to the SCU for signal conditioning. The selection is carried out in the
DEMUX card, which was fitted in a shielded box for EMC consideration.
The DS1103 is a single board system based on the Motorola PowerPC 604e/333MHz
processor (PPC), which forms the main processing unit.
I/O Units
A set of onboard peripherals frequently used in digital control systems has been
added to the PPC. They include: analogdigital and digitalanalog converters, digital I/O
ports (Bit I/O), and a serial interface. The PPC can also control up to six incremental
encoders, which allow the development of advanced controllers for robots.
DSP Subsystem
The DSP subsystem, based on the Texas Instruments TMS320F240 DSP fixedpoint
processor, is especially designed for the control of electric drives. Among other I/O
capabilities, the DSP provides 3phase PWM generation making the subsystem useful
for drive applications.
CAN Subsystem
A further subsystem, based on Siemens 80C164 microcontroller (MC), is used for
connection to a CAN bus.
Master PPC Slave DSP Slave MC
The PPC has access to both the DSP and the CAN subsystems. Spoken in terms of
interprocessor communication, the PPC is the master, whereas the DSP and the CAN
MC are slaves.
Fig. A.5.14 gives an overview of the functional units of the DS1103 PPC.
Appendices
165
Fig. A.5.1. Block diagram of the dSPACE DS1103 board
The DS1103 PPC Controller Board provides the following features summarized in
alphabetical order:
A/D Conversion
4 parallel A/Dconverters, multiplexed to 4 channels each, 16bit resolution, 4 s
sampling time, 10V input voltage range,
4 parallel A/Dconverters with 1 channel each, 12bit resolution, 800 ns sampling
time 10V input voltage range,
Slave DSP ADC Unit providing.
2 parallel A/D converters, multiplexed to 8 channels each, 10bit resolution, 6 s
sampling time 10V input voltage range,
Digital I/O
Appendices
166
32bit input/output, configuration bytewise,
Slave DSP Bit I/OUnit providing,
19bit input/output, configuration bitwise,
CAN Support
Slave MC fulfilling CAN Specifications 2.0 A and 2.0 B, and ISO/DIS 11898.
D/A Conversion
2 D/A converters with 4 channels each, 14bit resolution 10 V voltage range
Incremental Encoder Interface
1 analog channel with 22/38bit counter range,
1 digital channel with 16/24/32bit counter range,
5 digital channels with 24bit counter range.
Interrupt Control  Interrupt Handling.
Serial I/O
standard UART interface, alternatively RS232 or RS422 mode.
Timer Services
32bit downcounter with interrupt function (Timer A),
32bit upcounter with prescaler and interrupt function,
32bit downcounter with interrupt function (PPC builtin Decrementer),
32/64bit timebase register (PPC builtin Timebase Counter).
Timing I/O
4 PWM outputs accessible for standard Slave DSP PWM Generation,
3 x 2 PWM outputs accessible for Slave DSP PWM3 Generation and Slave DSP
PWMSV Generation,
4 parallel channels accessible for Slave DSP Frequency Generation,
4 parallel channels accessible for Slave DSP Frequency Measurement (F2D) and
Slave DSP PWM Analysis (PWM2D).
Appendices
167
A.6. Processor TMS320FL2406
Fig. A.6.1 gives overview of the TMS320FL2406 structure.
C2xx
DSP
Core
DARAM (B0)
256 Words
DARAM (B1)
256 Words
DARAM (B2)
32 Words
SARAM (2K Words)
Flash
(32K Words)
Event Manager A
 Capture Inputs
 Compare/PWM Outputs
 GP Timers/ PWM
Event Manager B
 Capture Inputs
 Compare/PWM Outputs
 GP Timers/ PWM
JTAG Port
Digital I/O
Watchdog
CAN
SPI
SCI
PLL Clock
10 bit ADC
Fig. A.6.1. TMS320F2406 device overview
The features of the TMS320FL2406 processor [101] can be summarized as:
HighPerformance Static CMOS Technology:
25ns Instruction Cycle Time (40 MHz),
40MIPS Performance,
LowPower 3.3V Design.
Based on TMS320C2xx DSP CPU Core:
CodeCompatible With F243/F241/C242,
Instruction Set and Module Compatible With F240/C240.
OnChip Memory:
32K Words x 16 Bits of Flash EEPROM (4 Sectors),
Programmable "CodeSecurity" Feature for the OnChip Flash,
2.5K Words x 16 Bits of Data/Program RAM,
Appendices
168
544 Words of DualAccess RAM,
2K Words of SingleAccess RAM.
Boot ROM:
SCI/SPI Bootloader,
Two EventManager (EV) Modules (EVA and EVB), Each Includes:
Two 16Bit GeneralPurpose Timers,
Eight 16Bit PulseWidth Modulation (PWM) Channels Which Enable:
ThreePhase Inverter Control,
Center or EdgeAlignment of PWM Channels,
Emergency PWM Channel Shutdown With External PDPINTx\
Pin,
Programmable Deadband (Deadtime) Prevents ShootThrough Faults,
Three Capture Units for TimeStamping of External Events,
Input Qualifier for Select Pins,
OnChip Position Encoder Interface Circuitry,
Synchronized AtoD Conversion.
Watchdog (WD) Timer Module,
10Bit AnalogtoDigital Converter (ADC):
16 Multiplexed Input Channels,
375 ns or 500 ns MIN Conversion Time,
Selectable Twin 8State Sequencers Triggered by Two Event Managers,
Controller Area Network (CAN) 2.0B Module,
Serial Communications Interface (SCI),
16Bit Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI),
PhaseLockedLoop (PLL)Based Clock Generation,
Appendices
169
40 Individually Programmable, Multiplexed GeneralPurpose Input/Output
(GPIO) Pins,
Five External Interrupts (Power Drive Protection, Reset, Two Maskable
Interrupts),
Power Management:
Three PowerDown Modes,
Ability to Power Down Each Peripheral Independently,
RealTime JTAGCompliant ScanBased Emulation, IEEE Standard 1149.1
(JTAG),
Development Tools Include:
Texas Instruments (TI) ANSI C Compiler, Assembler/Linker, and Code
Composer Studio (CCS) Debugger,
Evaluation Modules,
ScanBased SelfEmulation (XDS510),
Broad ThirdParty Digital Motor Control Support,
Package 100Pin LQFP PZ.