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ENERGY use 180 6.

1 INTRODUCTION

Energy Use
The average household’s energy use Greenhouse gas emissions from home Home energy use
is responsible for over seven tonnes energy use (Baseline Energy Estimates, 2008) (Baseline Energy Estimates, 2008)
of greenhouse gas emissions. These
emissions can be significantly reduced
through use of renewable energy,
more efficient appliances and energy
conservation measures. The Energy Use
group of fact sheets shows you how.

Choosing the most appropriate energy source


can significantly reduce your energy bills and
improve the environmental performance of
your home. A choice of energy sources is
available to new home buyers, existing owners
and tenants. Cooking 5% Heating and cooling 20% Standby 3% Other appliances 16%

Standby 5% Other appliances 24% Cooking 4% Water heating 25%


Conventional electricity from the supply grid
Lighting 11% Water heating 23% Lighting 7% Heating and cooling 38%
currently produces the largest amount of
CO2 of any energy source per unit of energy Refrigeration 12% Refrigeration 7%

used, except in Tasmania where hydro electric


power is the predominant source of electricity. The percentage of greenhouse gas emissions from home energy use depends on the carbon intensity of the energy
source. For example, the carbon intensity of electricity is much higher than that of natural gas or wood per unit of
Hydropower is used to a lesser extent in delivered energy. Therefore, although heating and cooling is the highest energy use in the home, as natural gas is
some other states, with fossil fuel power typically used for heating, it is not the highest greenhouse gas emitter.
stations providing most of the electricity on
the Australian mainland.
The NABERS Home Rating tool can be a Hydro electricity generated in Tasmania directly
Renewable energy sources produce no
valuable tool to track energy and water use. produces almost no greenhouse gas. However,
greenhouse gases in operation and reduce
[See: 1.5 rating Tools] the construction of new large-scale hydro-
or eliminate the need for additional coal fired
electric dams can be sources of large amounts
power stations and large hydro-electric dams.
of greenhouse gas and may have other adverse
Natural gas produces only about one third Energy sources environmental effects.
the greenhouse gas emissions compared to
The main sources of household energy are
conventional electricity.
electricity, natural gas and wood. A small number
Electricity
Minimising demand for energy through of homes use LPG, coal, coke or heating oil.
conservation and efficiency is the most Electricity is the most widely available energy
Energy can come from either renewable or non-
cost effective means of reducing operational source and the only one able to run the full
renewable sources. Renewable sources such
and environmental costs for all home owners range of household appliances. But it is the
as solar, wind and hydro-power are naturally
and tenants. most greenhouse intensive. It is also usually the
replenished and produce very few greenhouse
most expensive per unit of energy used.
Space heating and cooling and water heating gas emissions when operating. Non-renewable
account for nearly 63 per cent of household energy comes from diminishing stocks of
energy use. fossil fuels and can produce large amounts of
Consumers of grid electricity
greenhouse gases.
Heating and cooling, appliances (such as can help offset environmental
refrigerators, televisions and computers) and Most electricity comes from coal fired power impact by purchasing
water heating use the most energy in the stations that release high levels of CO2 and ‘GreenPower’.
home and generate the most greenhouse other pollutants into the environment. Losses in
gas emissions. the transmission system from the power station
to your home also create inefficiency. GreenPower is often the easiest and least
Look for ways to reduce consumption
expensive way to purchase electricity from
through efficient use. Using natural gas results in only about one third
renewable sources.
of the greenhouse gas emissions compared to
Monitor your energy bills and check for
grid electricity.
unexpected increases and how they can be
reduced through more efficient energy use.
6.1 INTRODUCTION 181 ENERGY use

Natural gas is not available everywhere but Efficient energy use


liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) can be used
Using energy efficiently is the best way
instead. It produces similar greenhouse
to reduce energy bills and environmental
gas emissions to natural gas but must be
impacts while maintaining or even improving
transported by tanker or in cylinders, which
comfort levels.

Arthur Mostead Photography


adds to its financial and environmental cost.
LPG costs more than twice as much to use Some solutions cost nothing at all. Most
as natural gas. investments in energy efficiency will pay for
themselves through lower energy bills.
Adequate room ventilation is required when
using unflued gas appliances. [See: 3.3 The
Healthy Home]
Hot water
Most electricity retailers have an accredited Choose the most efficient hot water service
GreenPower option for a slightly higher unit Wood and the best energy source to meet your
charge. By choosing GreenPower, needs. Solar, gas and electric heat pump
Wood can be a renewable energy source if
you are supporting the expansion of renewable systems produce far fewer greenhouse gas
it comes from sustainably managed forests.
systems. Contact your electricity supplier or emissions than conventional electric storage
Its use should make no net contribution to
visit www.greenpower.gov.au. systems. Gas boosted solar is the most
greenhouse gases if trees are planted to
Households can generate their own electricity greenhouse efficient form of water heating.
replace those used, but fossil fuels are usually
from renewable sources. These can be either used in collection and transportation. Locate water heaters close to those areas
grid interactive or self sufficient, stand alone where hot water is used.
In many non-urban areas, wood is widely used
systems. [See: 6.6 Renewable Energy]
for heating, cooking and heating water. Wood Showers usually use the most hot water in a
Renewable electricity systems are initially is generally not a desirable energy source for home. Install WELS 3 Star rated water efficient
expensive to install but have low operating urban areas due to local air pollution problems. showerheads. The WELS scheme ensures they
costs and minimum environmental impact. Some efficient, low pollution stoves are will provide a satisfying shower.
Government rebates are available to offset the available but are more expensive.
Set the thermostat between 60 to 65°C on
initial costs.
storage hot water systems and 50°C on
Electricity consumption can be reduced through Other renewable sources instantaneous systems.
energy efficiency and fuel switching. As energy
Solar water heaters and passive solar building Insulate hot water pipes.
costs rise and awareness of environmental
issues increases, the value of houses with techniques reduce the need to use non- Turn off the hot water system when on holidays.
energy efficient features and renewable energy renewable energy sources. [See: 4.1 Passive
supply is expected to rise in the market. Design Introduction; 6.5 Solar Hot Water]

Hot water accounts for


Gas Other energy sources about 25 per cent of
household energy use.
Natural gas is less expensive to use than Other fuels such as coal, coke, briquettes
electricity and produces fewer greenhouse and heating oil are available but should only be
gas emissions. However, gas is also a non- used in small quantities. Air quality is an issue Put a timer or manual boost switch on the
renewable fuel. It is largely used for water in urban areas for all solid fuels. electric booster of solar water heaters and on
heating, room heating and cooking. It can, The following, in order of priority, will minimise peak electric storage systems to avoid heating
however, also be used for clothes drying, as a environmental impacts: water when not needed. [See: 6.5 Hot Water
vehicle fuel and even for refrigeration. Service]
1. Renewable sources – such as GreenPower,
use of on-site renewable electricity
generation and solar hot water systems.

2. Hydro-electricity – available in Tasmania.

3. Natural gas – or LPG when not available.

4. Wood from sustainable sources – in


urban areas be aware of transport and air
pollution impacts.

5. Grid electricity – available on the mainland.


ACTEW AGL
ENERGY use 182 6.1 INTRODUCTION

Heating and cooling your home Kilograms of greenhouse gas generated Cook outside on hot days if possible to avoid
by cooking vegetables heating the house.
Use high efficiency gas, electric heat pump
or wood heaters (where appropriate) for room
heating rather than electric convection and Appliances
radiant heaters. Radiant heaters are suitable for
Electrical appliances account for about
bathrooms when used for short periods of time.
30 per cent of household energy use.

When purchasing white goods (refrigerators,


Use passive design principles Microwave Benchtop Electric Gas freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers and
oven electric cooktop cooktop
to increase comfort and steamer
dishwashers) look for the Energy Rating label.
minimise the need for heating This label gives a star rating and annual energy
consumption for the appliance. The more stars,
and cooling. When using gas, kitchen ventilation must be the more efficient the appliance.
adequate. Use a range hood vented outdoors
to get rid of combustion gases and steam. Choose an appliance with the highest number
Gas heaters and room air conditioners have
of stars. Sometimes an efficient appliance may
energy rating labels. Choose the right sized Fan forced ovens are about 30 per cent more cost a little more to buy, but it will soon pay for
heater or air conditioner for your needs with the efficient than conventional units, which can itself in reduced energy bills.
most stars on the label. waste up to 90 per cent of the energy used.
Buy appliances that are the right size for you.
Avoid centralised systems unless your home is Some electric ovens can be divided into A larger model will use more energy than a
well insulated. Ensure centralised systems have compartments for cooking small items. smaller one with the same star rating. Always
zone controls and thermostats.
Look for ovens with high levels of insulation and check the energy label for the number of kWh
Use ceiling fans instead of air coolers. If cooling triple glazed, low-e coated windows. (units of electricity) used per year.
is required, use evaporative systems in low
Avoid opening the oven door unnecessarily Choose appliances with a WELS star rating
humidity areas.
when cooking. Make sure the door seal is clean for water efficiency. [See: 7.2 Reducing Water
If air conditioning is needed choose high and in good condition. Demand]
efficiency models.
Use a microwave when possible rather than an
oven, as they use less than half the energy.
Choose appliances with energy
Cooking efficiently Try not to over fill the kettle. Boil only the or water saving features, such
There are currently no energy rating labels amount of water needed. as clothes washers with cold
for cookers to help choose the most efficient Use a kettle or gas cooktop to boil water rather wash cycles, economy or ‘eco’
models. than a microwave oven or electric cooktop. cycles and load size selection.
Efficient cooking methods such as using pots
with fitted lids, simmering instead of boiling and
In general, choose gas Avoid using appliances unnecessarily. Dry
using a pressure cooker will save energy.
cooktops rather than electric. clothes on a line rather than in the clothes dryer.
They are often cheaper to use, Match the size of pots to the size of the
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for
and have more responsive element or flame.
defrosting fridges and freezers.
controls and produce less
greenhouse gas emissions.

A gas cooktop will produce less than half the


greenhouse gases of a standard electric unit.

A gas oven will also usually produce less


greenhouse gas than an equivalent quality
electric model.

However some very efficient electric cooktops


and ovens are available. Ask your retailer or the
manufacturer for information.
6.1 INTRODUCTION 183 ENERGY use

Use appropriate load sizes for clothes washers Reducing stand-by Home office and
and clothes dryers. energy consumption entertainment equipment
Use cold wash cycles and other energy saving Standby energy is drawn when some electrical Ensure equipment is ENERGY STAR®
features. equipment is not actually being used, such compliant and make sure that energy efficiency
as when the TV is turned off with the remote features are enabled.
Maintain your appliances according to the
manufacturer’s instructions. An appliance in control rather than with the switch on the set Large screen TVs use more energy than those
poor condition usually uses more energy than or at the wall. It is sometimes used to power with smaller screens.
one in good condition. [See: 6.4 Appliances] digital displays or maintain memory settings,
If buying a computer consider buying a laptop
but often it is just wasted energy.
– they require less materials to make and less
Be aware of the standby energy use of energy to run.
Other equipment
electrical equipment such as TVs, videos,
An LCD screen for desktop computers will use
There are many small items around the clocks, computers, faxes, microwaves, security
less energy and take up less space.
house that can use a lot of energy over systems, battery chargers and power packs.
a year, such as pool filter pumps, electric Switch off computers and printers if you won’t
towel rails and computer games. Ensure be using them for half an hour or more.
they are not left on unnecessarily.
Standby energy use can Look for printers and faxes that can use
account for 10 per cent or recycled paper. Use recycled ink and toner
Lighting more of household electricity cartridges. Re-use blank sides of used paper.
use. Switch off equipment at the wall instead of
Use fluorescent or compact fluorescent lamps
leaving in standby mode, especially when you
– they are energy efficient and long lasting.
go on holiday.
Some appliances, such as videos and
Avoid using low voltage downlights for general
microwaves with digital displays, can use much
lighting as they are not energy efficient.
more energy over a year in standby than in
Compact flourescent replacements for down actual operation. Additional REading
lights are becoming available. Contact your State / Territory government or local
Standby energy consumption can be reduced
council for further information on energy efficiency,
Turn off lights when not needed. by using appliances endorsed with the including what rebates are available.
ENERGY STAR® logo. www.gov.au
Use timers or sensors on outdoor security
lights. ENERGY STAR® is an A ustralian Energy Star, Australian Government
international standard for www.energystar.gov.au
Use separate switches for each light fitting.
energy-efficient electrical A ustralian Greenhouse Office (2005), National
Consider using solar lighting for outdoor areas. equipment developed by Greenhouse Gas Inventory 2005.
the US Environment www.greenhouse.gov.au/inventory/2005/pubs/
Use the minimum wattage lamp to provide inventory2005.pdf
Protection Authority.
sufficient light.
The standard only applies to stand-by  epartment of the Environment, Water, Heritage and
D
the Arts. 2008. Australian Residential Sector Baseline
energy use and does not cover energy Energy Estimates 1990 – 2020.
used during operation, although ENERGY
Fluorescent bulbs use
STAR® equipment is often more efficient in E nergy Rating
about one quarter of the operation too. www.energyrating.gov.au
energy of normal bulbs.
The program applies to home entertainment  lobal Warming Cool It, Australian Government
G
www.greenhouse.gov.au/gwci
equipment such as computers, monitors,
Use task lighting to supplement general printers, TVs, DVD players, audio equipment
lighting if needed. and faxes. Principal author:
Geoff Milne
Use well designed windows and skylights The ENERGY STAR® function is not always
Contributing author:
to provide natural light while keeping winter enabled on new appliances. Ask your retailer
Chris Riedy
warmth in and summer heat out. [See: 4.10 to enable it or follow the directions in the
Glazing; 4.11 Skylights; 6.3 Lighting] instruction manual. Switch equipment off at
the power outlet when possible because even
ENERGY STAR® equipment still uses some
standby power.

More information is available on the ENERGY


STAR® website at www.energystar.gov.au