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# Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Linear Motion

[ 5 Hours ]

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Linear Motion 2.2 Uniformly accelerated motion 2.3 Free Falling Body 2.4 Projectile motion

Kinematics
Description of the motion of objects without consideration of what causes the motion.

## 2.1 Linear Motion

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Define and distinguish between i) distance and displacement, ii) speed and velocity, iii) instantaneous velocity, average velocity and uniform velocity iv) instantaneous acceleration, average acceleration and uniform acceleration Sketch graphs of displacementdisplacement-time, velocity velocity-time and accelerationacceleration -time. Determine the distance travelled, displacement, velocity and acceleration from appropriate graphs.

Linear motion motion of an object along a straight line path. Distance, d -- the total length of travel in moving from one location to another. -- scalar quantity. -- always positive. Displacement, s -- straight line distance from the initial position to the final position of an object. -- Vector quantity -- can be positive, negative or zero.
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Initial Position

final Position
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## Distance travelled = 200m Displacement = 120 m, in the direction of Northeast

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Example An air plane flies 600 km north and then 400 km to the east.
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Test your understanding 1. You walk from your house to friends house then to the grocery shop. Calculate: (i) the distance traveled. (ii) the displacement.

400 km

E Final

600 km
N

Begin

Total distance traveled d = 600 + 400 = 1000 km Displacement, s = 600 2 + 400 2 = 721.11 km
(magnitude)
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2. An athlete runs four laps of a 400 m track. What is the athletes total displacement?

v=

## d distance traveled = time to travel that distance t

Velocity, v -- tells us how fast object is moving & in which direction it is moving.

-- S.I. unit : m s1 ; scalar quantity. Average Speed, ( v ) -- total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed in traveling that distance. -- is the rate of change in displacement.

Average speed , v =

d t
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velocity, v =

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## Average velocity, vav

-- equal to the gradient at any point on the curve of a displacement time (s t) graph.
Slope BE = average velocity Slope at C = Instantaneous velocity

v av =

## change in displacement time taken for the change

v av =

s s 2 s1 = t t 2 t1

Instantaneous velocity, v -- velocity at a specified position or instant of time along the path of motion. -- commonly referred as `velocity at point A ` or ` velocity at time t `.

v=

lim

t 0

ds s = t dt
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s
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Example 1 An insect crawls along the edge of a rectangular swimming pool of length 27m & width 21m. If it crawls from corner A to corner B in 30 min. (a) What is its average speed ? (b) What is the magnitude of its average velocity ?

## Total distance traveled, d = 27 + 21 = 48 m Displacement, s = (a)

27 2 + 212 = 34.21 m

Average speed , v =

d t

48 30(60)
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= 0.0267 m s 1
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(b)

## 34.21 s = Average velocity, v av = t 30(60)

= 0.019 m s 1

-- Velocity is vector quantity, a change in velocity may thus involve either or both magnitude & direction. -- An acceleration may due to: 1) change in speed (magnitude), 2) change in direction or 3) change in both speed and direction. Quick Test

## Acceleration, a -- time rate of change of velocity.

A car is traveling at 30 km h1 to the north. Then it turns to the west without changing its speed. Is the car accelerating? Answer : YES ! Reason : there is a change in direction
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acceleration =

## change in velocity time taken

-- Deceleration : object is slowing down (direction of acceleration is opposite to the direction of the motion or velocity).

Car in figure (a) & (d) Car in figure (b) & (c)
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accelerating decelerating
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Average acceleration -- change in velocity divided by the time taken to make the change.

a=

## -- vector quantity. -- SI unit : m s2 Instantaneous acceleration -- acceleration at a particular instant of time.

a =
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lim

t 0

v dv d 2s = = t dt dt 2
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For linear motion, + and signs is used to indicate direction of motion, velocity & acceleration. With horizontal direction we may take : to the right as + to the left as With vertical direction we may take : upward as + ; downward as

Example 2 A car travels in a straight line along a road. Its distance, s is given as a function of time, t by the equation :

s (t ) = 2.4t 2 0.12t 3
(a) Calculate the average velocity of the car for the time interval, t = 0 s and t = 10 s. (b) Calculate the instantaneous velocity of the car at t = 5 s. (c) Calculate the instantaneous acceleration of the car at t = 5 s.

The sign convention you choose is entirely up to you. It doesnt matter as long as you keep the same sign convention for the entire calculation.
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v = 4.8t 0.36t 2
At t = 5s,

## (a) At t1= 0 s, s1 = 0 m At t2=10 s, s2 = 2.4(10)2 0.12 (10)3 = 120 m

v = 4.8(5) 0.36(5) 2 v = 15 m s 1

## s 2 s1 120 0 Average velocity, v av = = t 2 t1 10 0 v av = 12 m s 1

(b) Instantaneous velocity, v =

a=

## dv d = (4.8t 0.36t 2 ) dt dt a = 4.8 0.72t

ds dt d = (2.4t 2 0.12t 3 ) dt
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At t = 5s,

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## acceleration, a = Instantaneous velocity

dv dt

= gradient of (v - t) graph

v=

ds dt

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## Example 3 ( PSPM Session 2008/09 )

Figure 5 shows a graph of displacement x against time t of an object moving along x-axis. Calculate (a) Average velocity for the time interval, 1 s to 4 s. (b) Average speed for the time interval, 1 s to 4 s. (c) Instantaneous velocity at t = 2.5 s. (d) Instantaneous acceleration at t = 5.5 s. Solution (a)

v average =

s (3) 2 = 1.67 m s 1 = t 4 1
x 2 + 4 + 3 = 3 m s 1 = t 4 1
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(b)
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vaverage =

(c)

v | t =2.5 s =

= 7 m s 1

## The displacement increases by equal amounts in equal times.

(d)

a=

dv = 0 m s 2 dt
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Test your concept 1. Can you accelerate a body without speeding up or slowing down? Is it possible? 2. A car is traveling at 30 km h1 to the north. Then it turns to the west without changing its speed. Is the car accelerating? 3. How would you draw a displacement time graph for a stationary object? 4. What would the gradient of a distance time graph represent? 5. What does the area a speed - time graph represent?
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6. The distance time graph in figure below represents the motion of an ant in 7 seconds. Describe its motion.

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2.2 Uniformly Linear Motion accelerated motion 7. A body moves along the x-axis. Assume that a positive sign represents a direction to the right. The velocity, v of the body is related to time, t through the equation

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Derive and apply equations of motion with uniform acceleration:

v = 2 3t 2
where v and t are measured in respectively. t = 0 when x = 0. Determine (a) the displacement (b) the acceleration at the instant of time t = 1 s

m s -1 and s

v = u + at 1 s = ut + at 2 2 2 2 v = u + 2as
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Uniform acceleration means the acceleration does not depend on time or always constant.

a=

dv = constant dt
Gradient of the slope = a Area under the slope = s

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## Acceleration, a = constant value

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Kinematics Equation for uniform acceleration Assume a car has uniform acceleration & consider the motion between X and Y :

## velocity time graph for the car

u = initial velocity ( velocity on passing X ) v = final velocity ( velocity on passing Y ) a = acceleration s = displacement ( in moving from X to Y ) t = time taken ( to move from X to Y )

## Acceleration, a = gradient of graph v t

a=
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vu t

at = v u
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rearranged to give:

## From (1) : v = u + at , get an expression for t :

v = u+at

(1)

t=
Substitute into (2) :

## Distance traveled, s = area under the graph = area of trapezium

vu a

s=

1 (u + v) t 2

(2)

s=
=

1 v u (v + u )( ) 2 a
(v + u )(v u ) 2a

## Substitute (1) into (2) :

s=

1 (u + u + a t ) t 2

2as = v 2 u 2
v 2 = u 2 + 2as
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s =ut+

1 2 at 2

(3)

(4)
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Example 4 The driver of a pickup truck going 100 km h1 applies the brakes, giving the truck a uniform deceleration of 6.50 m s2 while it travels 20.0m. (a) What is the speed of the truck in kilometers per hour at the end of this distance ? (b) How much time has elapsed ? Solution Given : a = 6.50 m s2 ( deceleration ) s = 20.0 m u = 100 km hour 1

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

Convert to km h1

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## (b) Assume : time elapsed, t

Example 5 A park ranger driving on a back country road suddenly sees a deer frozen in his headlights. The ranger, who is driving at 11.4 m s1 immediately applies the brakes and slows with an acceleration of 3.8 m s2. a) If the deer is 20.0 m from the rangers vehicle when the brakes are applied, how close does the ranger come to hitting the deer? b) How much time is needed for the rangers vehicle to stop?
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v = u + at

Solution From:

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

## The distance between the stopped vehicle & deer:

s (b) Time needed to stop = ? Given: u = 11.4 m s1 ; a = 3.80 m s2 1st find the distance traveled before stopped
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From:

v = u + at

Example 6 A toy car moves with an acceleration of 2 m s2 from rest for 2.0 s. It then moves with constant velocity for another 3.0 s. It finally comes to rest after another 1.0 s. (a) Sketch a velocity-time graph to shown the motion of the toy car. (b) What is the velocity of the toy car after first 2 seconds ? (c) Calculate the deceleration of the car. (d) What is the total displacement of the car for the whole journey. (e) Sketch the acceleration-time graph for the motion of toy car.
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t (s)

0 (b) Using :

v = u + at

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(c) Using :

v = u + at

## (d) Displacement, s = area under the graph

2 t (s) 0 2 5 6

4
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Follow up exercise 1 The speed limit in a school zone is 40 km h1. A driver traveling at this speed sees a child run onto the road 13 m ahead of his car. He applies the brakes and the car decelerates at a uniform rate of 8.0 m s2. If the drivers reaction time is 0.25 s, will the car stop before hitting the child ? 2 (a) Is it possible for an object moving at non zero velocity has a zero acceleration? Explain. (b) A car is capable of accelerating at 0.60 m s2. Calculate the time needed for this car to go from a speed of 5.5 m s1 to a speed of 8.0 m s1.
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## 3 Figure 2 shows a displacement time graph of a car moving

along a straight road. Copy and complete Table 1 by stating any change ( increase / decrease / constant / zero / no change ) in the distance, speed and acceleration of the car for each zone.

Zone A B C

Distance

Speed

Acceleration

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Show that

v = u + at
1 2 at 2

## Show that s = ut + Show that

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to : Describe free falling body. Solve problems on free falling body.

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

An object moves along the x-axis. When it is at the centre of coordinate, its velocity is 6 m s -1 and its acceleration is . 8.0 m s -2 Determine (a) its position at t = 2.0 s (b) Its velocity at t = 3.0 s An object moves along a straight line with constant -1 acceleration. Its initial velocity is 20 m s . After 5.0 s, the -1 velocity becomes 40 m s . Determine the distance travelled during the third second.
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g (vector quantity) is given a minus () sign indicating that it is always directed downward. Free fall motion is linear vertical motion under the sole influence of gravity. The only force acting on the object is the pull of gravity. Assumption : free falling objects do not encounter air resistance All free falling objects ( on Earth ) always accelerate downwards with an acceleration a = g Value of g = 9.81 m s2.
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Replace a with g into kinematics equation : Free Fall motion Equation v=ugt v2 = u 2 2 g s s = u t g t2 s=[u+v]t where s : vertical displacement u : initial velocity v : final velocity t : time interval g = 9.81 m s2 Value of s, u, v may be (+) or () depending on the direction of motion.

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Graphs of free fall objects position, velocity & acceleration as functions of time. Motion graphs for an object thrown vertically upwards and then falling back to the ground.

## (Reference level/origin) Below release point: Displacement : velocity : Acceleration : g

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Example 7 A student drops a ball from the top of a tall building, it takes 2.8 s for the ball to reach the ground. (a) What was the balls speed just before hitting the ground ? (b) What is the height of the building ? Solution Given : u = 0 m s1 (dropped) ; t = 2.8 s ; free fall motion, g = 9.81 m s2

(a)

v = u gt
v = 0 (9.81)(2.8)

v = 27.47 m s 1

(b)

1 2 gt 2 1 s = 0 (9.81)(2.8) 2 2 s = ut
s = 38.46 m - ve : displacement is downward

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Example 8 A boy throws a stone straight upward with an initial speed of 15 m s1. What maximum height will the stone reach before falling back down ? Solution At maximum height, objects velocity is zero for an instant (v = 0 m s1)

Example 9 A stone is thrown vertically downward at an initial speed of 14 m s1 from a height of 65 m above the ground. (a) How far does the stone travel in 2 s ? (b) What is its velocity just before it hits the ground ? Solution : Given : u = 14 m s1 ; g = 9.81 m s2 ; t = 2 s (a) Using free fall equation :

v 2 = u 2 2 gs
( 0 ) 2 = (15 ) 2 2 (9 .81) s
s= 225 = 11.47 m 19 .62
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s = ut

1 2 gt 2

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Example 10 A small pebble is thrown upward from a cliff with an initial velocity 20 m s-1. Calculate (a) Maximum height reached. (b) Time taken to reach a point 25 m below the initial point. Solution

v 2 = u 2 2 gs

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## (a) At max height, v = 0 m s1 From:

4.905 t 2 20 t 25 = 0
From :

v 2 = u 2 2 gs

t=

b b 2 4ac 2a

=
(b) Given : s = 25 m ( below initial point ) From:

s = ut

1 2 gt 2

20 29.84 9.81

## t = 5.1 s (+ ve value only)

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Follow up exercise 1 An object is thrown vertically upwards from a point on the ground with speed u. Neglect air resistance. Determine (a) the maximum height reached by the object (b) the time taken to return to the starting point in terms of u and g 2 A ball is thrown vertically upwards from the top of a building at a speed of 15 m s1 . If the height of the building is 200 m, determine (a) the time taken by the ball to reach the ground (b) the velocity when the ball reaches the ground
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## 2.4 Projectile Motion

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Describe projectile motion. Solve problems on projectile motion.

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Projectile motion refers to the motion of an object projected into the air at an angle.

-- 2 dimensional motion. -- consists of horizontal and vertical motion. These 2 components of motion MUST be discussed separately. -- Assumptions of projectile motion: 1) free fall acceleration, g is constant and is always directed downward. 2) Neglect air resistance.
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A motion where object travels at uniform velocity in horizontal direction; at the same time undergoing acceleration in downward direction under the influence of gravity.

## Consider an object thrown with a velocity u at an angle relative to the horizontal.

sx ( Horizontal displacement )

sy ( vertical displacement )

ax = 0 m s 2 ay = g
-- the object move upward or downward it also moving horizontally.

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## -- the path of motion : parabolic arc

vy = uy g t
Horizontal & vertical motions are independent and discussed separately in calculation. -- The initial velocity, u is resolved into horizontal and vertical components :

and

vy 2 = uy 2 2 g sy

## The vertical displacement, sy is given by:

sy = uy t

1 2 gt 2

as height

sy also known

ux = u cos uy = u sin
-- In vertical ( y axis ), gravity acts downwards (ay = g) object does free fall motion. -- y-component of the velocity changes with time.
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Gravitational force does not act horizontally -- no acceleration in horizontal direction ( ax = 0 ), object travels in horizontal direction with uniform velocity. Horizontal component of the velocity, vx is constant. 0 From:

vx = ux + axt vx = ux
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## With ax = 0, the horizontal displacement, sx is given by:

1 sx = ux t + axt 2 2

For projectile returns to the same vertical level at which it was launched

vy = 0

vx

sx = ux t
The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity v at any point is given by :

v = vx 2 + vy 2
Direction of the velocity :

Maximum Height, H

tan =

vy vx

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Range, R

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## At the maximum height (H), vy = 0. Using : vy2 = uy2 2g sy 0 = ( u sin )2 2gH

Let T = time of flight When the body lands on the ground, sy = 0 Using :

u 2 sin 2 H= 2g

[ Maximum Height ]

sy = uyt

1 2 gt 2
1 gT 2 2

If tH = Time taken by the object to reach the maximum height, H Using : vy = uy g t 0 = ( u sin ) g tH

0 = (u sin )T
T = 2u sin g

T = 2(

## tH = u sin [ time to reach maximum height ] g

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u sin ) g

T = 2tH

* As the path is symmetrical, time in going up is equal to the time in coming down.
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Range, R is the maximum horizontal displacement traveled. Horizontal displacement, sx = R when t = T Using : sx = uxt R = u cos (T)

## Maximum range, Rmax at a particular speed is obtained when :

R = u cos (

2 u sin ) g

sin 2 = 1 2 = 90 = 45

u 2 ( 2 sin cos ) = g

R=

u 2 sin 2 g
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## Object projected horizontally

Quick Test
Can you differentiate between free fall and projectile motion ?

uy = 0

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## Equations in Projectile Motion

Horizontal (x motion)
Horizontal displacement sx

Vertical (y motion)

ux = u cos
ax = 0

uy = u sin ay = g

Vertical displacement, sy

vx = ux

vy = uy g t

sx = ux t

vy 2 = uy 2 2 g sy
sy = uy t 1 2 gt 2
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Example 11

Procedure for Solving Projectile Motion Problems 1. Separate the motion into the x (horizontal) part and y (vertical) part. 2. Consider each part separately using the appropriate equations for x and y motion.

A cannonball is fired with an initial velocity of 30.0 m s1 at an angle of 35 to the horizontal. (a) What is the maximum height reached by the ball ? (b) What is its range ? Solution Given : u = 30.0 m s1 ; = 35 ; ay = g = 9.81 m s2

u= 30 m s1

=35
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From u = 30 m s1 & = 35 , resolved u into x & y comp. ux = u cos 35 = 30 cos 35= 24.6 m s1 uy = u sin 35 = 30 sin 35 = 17.2 m s1 (a) Maximum height ( comp y ) ; At maximum height, vy = 0 Using : vy2 = uy2 2gsy (0)2 = ( 17.2 )2 2 ( 9.81 )(sy)

(b) Range = ? Max. horizontal displacement (comp x) R = sx = ux t ; to find R, must know value of time of flight, T . Time of flight, T = 2 tup At max. height , vy = 0 From : vy = uy gt (0) = (17.2) 9.81( tup )

sy =

2 2

tup =

## 17.2 = 1.753 s 9.81

Or use equation

Total flight time, T = 2 tup = 2(1.753) = 3.506 s Range, R = Sx(max) = ux ( T ) = 24.6 (3.506) = 86.25 m
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H=

## u sin (30) (sin 35) = = 15.1m 2(9.81) 2g

Example 12 A ball is projected from a height of 25.0 m above the ground. It is thrown with an initial horizontal velocity of 8.25 m s1. (a) How long is the ball in flight before striking the ground ? (b) How far from the building does the ball strike the ground ? (c) What is the velocity of the ball just before it strikes the ground ? Solution

## Consider x and y separately :

x-motion sx = ? ux = 8.25 m/s ax = 0 y-motion sy = 25.0 m uy = 0 ay = 9.81 m/s 2

t=
t=? v=? sx = ?
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## 2(25) = 2.26 s 9.81

(b)

sx = ux (t )
= (8.25)(2.26) = 18.6 m
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(c) In horizontal, -- constant velocity motion. x- component of the velocity is unchanged vx = ux = 8.25 m s1 In vertical, g acts on the object, so velocity changed with time. From : vy = uy g t = (0) 9.81( 2.26 ) = 22.17 m s1 Velocity, v =

Example 13

vx

vy

A hockey player hits a slap shot in practice ( with no goalie present ) when he is 15.0 m directly in front of the net. The net is 1.20 m high and the puck is initially hit at an angle of 5 above the ice with a speed of 35.0 m s1. (a) Make a sketch of the situation using x - y coordinates, assuming that the puck is at the origin at the time it is hit. Be sure to locate the net in the sketch and show its height. (b) Determine if the puck makes it into the net.

vx + vy

Direction of v :

tan =

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## Resolved u into x & y component: ux = u cos 5 = 34.9 m s1 uy = u sin 5 = 3.05 m s1

In order to find sy, we must calculate t using sx ;

sy

From : sx = ux t

t=
sx= 15 m
(b) Logical Thinking : For the puck goes into the net, sy 1.20 m initially : = 5 ; u = 35.0 m s1 ; sx = 15 m
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## sx 15.0 = = 0.43 s ux 34.9

2 2

From : sy = uy (t) g t

= (3.05)(0.43) (9.81)(0.43) = 1.31 0.906 = 0.40 m sy 1.2 m puck goes into the net.

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## Exercise (Past Year Question Session 2004/05 Q1)

Solution

VB = 1.96 m/s

Motion can be divided into 2 : 1. Linear motion on horizontal table A B 2. Projectile motion from B & fall on ground Given : sAB = 1.6 m, a = 1.2 ms-2 time for projectile motion, t = 0.5 s

Figure shows a stationary object on a smooth table at height h above the floor. The object moves horizontally a distance of 1.6 m from A to B with uniform acceleration 1.2 m s2. Then the object is projected from B and fall onto the floor in 0.5 s. Calculate (a) The velocity of the object at B (b) The value of h [ 4 marks ] Ans : (a) 1.96 ; (b) 1.23
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## (a) Using Linear Kinematics Equation

v 2 = u 2 + 2as
v = (0) + 2(1.2)(1.6)
v 2 = 3.84
v = 1.96 ms 1
2 2

R1

GJU1
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* Remember : often motion of an object is divided into segments, each with a different acceleration. When solving problems, it is important to realize that the final velocity for one segment is the initial velocity for the next segment.

Mid Term Examination Session 2005/06 A stone is thrown upward from the roof of a building with velocity 15 m s1 at an angle of 30 to the horizontal. The height of the building is 40.0 m. Calculate (a) The maximum height of the stone from the ground. (b) The magnitude of the velocity of the stone just before it strikes the ground. Answer (a) 42.87 m (b) 31.78 m s1

## (b) h, relate with comp y. At point B, uy = 0 Using Projectile motion equation:

sy = uy t

1 2 gt 2

R1

h = (0) (0.5)
h = 1.23 m

1 (9.81) (0.5) 2 2
GJU1
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Test your understanding (1) (a) State ONE similarity between free fall and projectile motion. (b) An airplane moving horizontally with a constant velocity of 115 m s1 at an altitude of 1050 m. The plane released on aid parcel that falls to the ground. (i) What are the horizontal and vertical components of the parcels initial velocity? (ii) How long does the parcel take to hit the ground? (iii) Calculate the velocity of the parcel just before it hits the ground.
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(2) Suppose a rescue airplane drops a relief package while it is moving with a constant horizontal speed at an elevated height.

Assuming that air resistance is negligible, where will the relief package land relative to the plane? A. below the plane and behind it. B. directly below the plane. C. below the plane and ahead of it.
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(3) A gun with its barrel horizontal fires a shell from the top of a cliff. Neglecting the effect of air resistance, which of the three paths A, B, C most closely resembles the path of the shell?

(4) The diagram shows a trajectory of a golf ball. Which set of the arrows show the direction of the acceleration of the ball at point P and Q respectively?

C
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D
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(5) A transport plane travelling horizontally at a constant velocity of 50 m s1 at an altitude of 300 m releases a parcel when directly above a point X on level ground. Calculate a. the flight time of the parcel, b. the velocity of impact of the parcel, c. the distance from X to the point of impact. (Given g = 9.81 m s-2)

(6) A basketball player who is 2.00 m tall is standing on the floor 10.0 m from the basket, as in Figure 2.13. If he shoots the ball at a 40.0 angle above the horizontal, at what initial speed must he throw so that it goes through the hoop without striking the backboard? The basket height is 3.05 m. (Given g = 9.81 m s-2)

u = 50 m s 1

300 m

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Figure 2.13

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End of Chapter 2
Matriculation Physics SF016
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