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128 Aerodynamics 1. An aircraft is travelling at a speed of 720 nautical miles per hour.

To calculate speed in MPH you divide by 0.83multipy by 0.83multiply by 1.15 2. A 'slug' is a unit of massdensityvolume 3. Lift on a delta wing aircraft increases with an increased angle of incidence (angle of attack)decreases with an increase in angle of incidence (angle of attack)does not change with a change in angle of incidence (angle of attack) 4. An undercarriage leg in flight produces 3 lbs of drag at 100kts. If speed is increased to 200kts the dragwould be 9 lbs6 lbs12 lbs 5. To get high lift at low speed, an aerofoil must have a high degree of camberbe at a high angle of incidencehave a high aspect ratio 6. At a constant altitude, the angle of attack as density decreases decreasesincreasesis not affected 7. Ideally, when an aircraft stalls, it will pitch nose down, wings remain level and be preceded by buffetingstay neutral pitch and the stall commences from the wing rootpitch nose up, wings remain level and be preceded by buffeting 8. The purpose of 'streamlining' is to reduce

138skin friction dragprofile draginduced drag 9. What type of ice is most difficult for the ground crew to detect Rime iceGlaze icePack ice 10. An aircraft pitches around the normal axislateral axislongitudinal axis 11. What determines the coefficient of lift? The aircraft designerThe amount of camberAerofoil shape and angle of attack 12. The term angle of attack in a two dimensional flow is defined as the angle between the aeroplane climb path and the horizonthe angle between the wing chord line and the direction of the relative wind/airflowthe angle formed by the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane and the chord line of the wing 13. The fineness ratio of an aerofoil is mean chord / thickness ratiothickness / chord ratiothickness / span ratio 14. The dynamic pressure increases proportionally with density and the square of the velocityvelocity and densityvelocity and the square of the density 15. How is the thickness of an aerofoil section measured? As the percentage of chordRelated to camberAs the ratio of wing angle 148 16. Differential ailerons will increase profile drag on down going wingincrease induced drag on up going aileronequalise the total drag of both ailerons 17. Which statement is correct about the Cl and angle of attack? For an asymmetric aerofoil, if angle of attack = 0, Cl =0For a symmetric aerofoil, if angle of attack = 0, Cl =0For a symmetric aerofoil, if angle of attack = 0, Cl is not equal to 0 18. The C of P is the point where all the forces on an aircraft actthe three axis of rotation meetthe lift can be said to act 19. An aircraft stall speed decreases with an increase in all up weightincreases with an increase in all up weightremains constant with an increase in all up weight 20. What is the SI unit that results from multiplying kg and m/s2? JoulePSINewton 21. Fineness ratio of a wing can be changed by changing its lengthby changing its thicknessby increasing its span 22. Compared to a cambered aerofoil, the zero lift angle of attack of a symmetrical airfoil is higherthe samelower 23. An aircraft in a bank sideslips, the rudder and fin correct the rollthe keel surface moves the aircraft nose in the direction of the sideslip

158the wing dihedral counteracts the yaw 24. The correct drag formula is: D = CD 1/2 V S D = CD 1/2 V 2

S D = CD 2 V 2 S 25. The steepness of the line on a lift graph of a delta wing aircraft decreases as incidence increasesincreases as incidence increasesremains constant for most of the effective incidences 26. Mean chord is equal to wing span divided by wing areawing area divided by wing span(tip chord + root chord) / 2 27. At low speed, an aircraft will stall the fin if extreme rudder is usedincreased downwash will increase vertical fin effectivenessincreased wing downwash will increase tailplane effectiveness 28. The load factor 'n' is smaller, equal to or larger than 1, depending on the manoeuvrealways smaller than 1always larger than 1 29. At low speed and high angle of attack, the downwash increases tailplane effectivenessincreases alieron effectivenessincreases elevator effectiveness 30. A wing has a span of 50 feet and an area of 200 square feet. Its mean chord would be 7.5 feet4 feet10 feet 31. When an aircraft experiences induced drag air flows under the wing spanwise towards the root and on top of the wing spanwise towards the tip 168air flows under the wing spanwise towards the tip and on top of the wing spanwise towards the rootNeither a) or b) since induced drag does not caused by spanwise flow 32. Bernoullis equation states that dynamic pressure equals stagnation pressurestatic pressure equals stagnation pressurethe sum of static pressure and dynamic pressure is equal to stagnation pressure 33. At stall, the wingtip stagnation point moves toward the lower surface of the wingdoes not movemoves toward the upper surface of the wing 34. During a turn the up going wing stalls firstthe down going wing stalls firststalling does not affect a turn 35. For take-off, you trim the aircraft to its C of G aft limit. During the flight the aircraft needs no adjustment because it was within limits at take off the C of G corrects itself through fuel and oil usageyou have to re-trim the aircraft for landing 36. Which of the following statements, about a venturi in a sub-sonic airflow are correct?1. the dynamic pressure in the undisturbed flow and in the throat are equal.2. the total pressure in the undisturbed flow and in the throat are equal. 1 is incorrect and 2 is correct1 and 2 are correct1 is correct and 2 is incorrect 37. The rigging angle of incidence of an elevator is the angle between the bottom surface of the elevator and the longitudinal datumthe angle between the mean chord line and the horizontal in the rigging positionthe angle between the bottom surface of the elevator and the horizontal in the rigging position 38. Lift is a function of velocity, wing area, CL and densityvelocity, density, wing shape and lift coefficient 178velocity, wing shape, wing area and CL 39. Considering a positive cambered aerofoil, the pitch moment when Cl=0 is negative (pitch-down)positive (pitch-up)equal to zero 40. Which of the following expressions could represent the relationship between force (F), mass (m) andacceleration (a)? F = m x am = F x aa = m / F 41. Where does the lift act on the wing? Always forward of the CGCentre of PressureCentre of Gravity 42. If the IAS is increased by a factor of 4, by what factor would the drag increase? 1684 43. The (subsonic) static pressure is the total pressure plus the dynamic pressuredecreases in a flow in a tube when the diameter decreasesincreases in a flow in a tube when the diameter decreases 44. The wing area divided by the span of a wing is called mean chordaspect ratiofineness ratio 45. Which of the following is true? Lift acts at right angles to the wing chord line and weight acts vertically downLift acts at right angles to the relative airflow and weight acts vertically downLift acts at right angles to the relative air flow and weight acts at right angles to the aircraft centre line 46. Which of the following wing planform gives the highest local lift coefficient at the wing root? Elliptical 188RectangularTapered 47. Pitch angle is defined as the angle between the chord line and the relative airflowthe angle between the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and the local horizonthe angle between the lower wing surface and the relative airflow 48. Lift is the component of the total aerodynamic force which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircraftperpendicular to the free stream airflowparallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft 49. Which one of the following statements about the lift-to-drag ratio in straight and level flight is correct? The highest value of the lift/drag ratio is reached when the lift is zeroAt the highest value of the lift/drag ratio the total drag is lowestThe lift/drag ratio always increases as the lift decreases

50. The Principle of Continuity states that in a Stream tube of decreasing cross-sectional area, the speed of asubsonic and incompressible airflow will increasedecreaseremain the same 51. The vertical fin of a single engined aircraft is parallel with the vertical axis but not the longitudinal axisparallel with the longitudinal axis but not the vertical axisparallel with both the longitudinal axis and vertical axis 52. In accordance with Bernoullis Theorem, wherePT = Total Pressure,PS = Static pressure, andq = Dynamic pressure PT - PS = qPT = PS - qPT + PS = q 53. Aspect ratio is defined as span squared / wing area 198mean chord / wing areamean chord / wing span 54. Bernoullis theorem states that in a perfect and constant airstream the dynamic pressure is equal to the static pressurethe dynamic pressure is always greater than the static pressurethe sum of static and dynamic pressure is constant 55. As a smooth flow of subsonic air at a velocity less than M0.4 flows through a divergent duct static pressure increases and velocity decreasesstatic pressure decreases and velocity decreasesstatic pressure increases and velocity increases 56. What happens to air flowing at the speed of sound when it enters a converging duct? Velocity, pressure and density increase Velocity decreases, pressure and density increase Velocity increases, pressure and density decreases 57. A line connecting the leading and trailing edge midway between the upper and lower surface of a aerofoil.This definition is applicable for the camber linethe chord linethe mean aerodynamic chord line 58. As the angle of attack of an airfoil increases the centre of pressure moves forwardmoves aftremains stationary 59. What is the C L and C D ratio at normal angles of attack? C L much higherC L higherC D higher 60. At a given CAS an aircraft flying below sea level will have a higher TAS than at sea levela lower TAS than at sea levelthe same TAS as at sea level 61. Vapour trails from the wingtips of an aircraft in flight are caused by

208high pressure above the wing and low pressure below the wing causing vorticeslow pressure above the wing and high pressure below the wing causing a temperature riselow pressure above the wing and high pressure below the wing causing vortices 62. The resistance, or skin friction, due to the viscosity of the air as it passes along the surface of the wing ispart of the profile draginduced dragform drag 63. The chord line of a wing is a line that runs from the centre of the leading edge of the wing to the trailing edgehalf way between the upper and lower surface of the wingone wing tip to the other wing tip 64. The angle of incidence of a wing is an angle formed by lines parallel to the chord line and the lateral axisparallel to the chord line and longitudinal axisparallel to the chord line and the vertical axis 65. What phenomena causes induced drag? Wing tip vorticesThe increased pressure at the leading edgeThe span wise flow, inward below the wing and outward above 66. The centre of pressure of an aerofoil is located 50% of the chord line back from the leading edge30 - 40% of the chord line back from the leading edge30 - 40% of the chord line forward of the leading edge 67. The Cl - alpha curve of a positive cambered aerofoil intersects with the vertical axis of the Cl - alpha graph below the originin the originabove the origin 68. Compressibility effect is the increase in total drag of an aerofoil in transonic flight due to the formation of shock wavesdrag associated with the form of an aircraftdrag associated with the friction of the air over the surface of the aircraft 218 69. The direction of drag is parallel to longitudinal axis of the aircraftparallel to the free stream airflowperpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft 70. Load factor is the actual lift supported by the wings at any given time divided by the surface area of the wingdivided by the total weight of the aircraftsubtracted from the aircrafts total weight

71. A high aspect ratio wing will give low profile and low induced draghigh profile and low induced draglow profile and high induced drag 72. If an aircraft is pitching up the incidence angle decreasesthe incidence angle remains fixedthe incidence angle increases 73. Aerofoil efficiency is defined by drag over liftlift over weightlift over drag 74. The formula for lift is L = 2V 2 CL L = 1/2V 2 SCLL = W 75. The relationship between induced drag and airspeed is, induced drag is inversely proportional to the square of the speeddirectly proportional to speeddirectly proportional to the square of the speed 76. A high aspect ratio wing has a short span and long chordhas a long span and short chord 228has a long span and long chord 77. What is the definition of Angle of Incidence? The angle the underside of the mainplane or tailplane makes with the longitudinal datum lineThe angle the underside of the mainplane or tailplane makes with the horizontalThe angle the chord of the mainplane or tailplane makes with the horizontal 78. The Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) for a given wing of any platform is the average chord of the actual aeroplanethe chord of a rectangular wing with same moment and liftthe wing area divided by the wing span 79. What is Boundary Layer? Sluggish low energy air that sticks to the wing surface and gradually gets faster until it joins the freestream flow of airTurbulent air moving from the leading edge to trailing edgeSeparated layer of air forming a boundary at the leading edge 80. Which of the following is the correct description of the method for measuring the dihedral angle? The angle between the wing plane and the horizontalThe angle between a line which passes through the 25% wing chord and the horizontal axisThe angle between the 25% chord line and the horizontal axis 81. Longitudinal dihedral is when the wing has anhedral and the tail dihedralthe difference between the wing and tail angle of incidencethe difference between the wing and tail angle of sweep 82. What is the collective term for the fin and rudder and other surfaces aft of the centre of gravity that helpsdirectional stability? Effective keel surfaceFuselage surfacesEmpennage 83. Consider a uniform flow of air at velocity V in a Stream tube. If the temperature of the air in the tube israised the mass flow remains co nstant and velocity V decreases the mass flow remains constant and the velocity V will increase the mass flow will decrease and velocity V will remain constant

84. A decrease in incidence toward the wing tip may be provided to prevent adverse yaw in a turnprevent spanwise flow in maneuversretain lateral control effectiveness at high angles of attack 85. For a given aerofoil production lift, whereP = pressure and V = velocity: P1 is greater than P2, and V1 is less than V2 P1 is greater tha n P2, and V1 is greater than V2 P1 is less than P2 and V1 is greater than V2 86. Sweepback of the wing is the angle between the 0.25 chord line of the wing and the lateral axisthe angle between the leading edge of the wing and the lateral axisthe angle between the 0.25 chord line of the wing and the vertical axis 87. Low wing loading increases stalling speed, landing speed and landing rundecreases stalling speed, landing speed and landing runincreases lift, stalling speed and maneuverability 88. Which of the following quantities determines the mass flow in a nozzle? Density and the square of the flow velocity Ve locity of flow and section area Velocity, density and area 89. The total pressure is static pressure plus the dynamic pressureis static pressure minus the dynamic pressurecan be measured in a small hole in a surface, parallel to the local stream 90. Vectors

have a direction onlyhave a magnitude and a direction

248have a magnitude only 91. As a general rule, if the aerodynamic angle of incidence (angle of attack) of an aerofoil is slightlyincreased, the centre of pressure will move towards the tipmove forward towards the leading edgenever move 92. The 'wing setting angle' is commonly known as angle of dihedralangle of attackangle of incidence 93. The chord line is a straight line from the leading edge of the wing to the trailing edge of the winga line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircrafta line equidistant between intrados and extrados 94. The static pressure is acting only perpendicular to the direction of the flowin all directionsonly in the direction of the total pressure 95. When does the angle of incidence change? It never changesWhen the aircraft is ascending or descendingWhen the aircraft attitude changes 96. When looking at the airflow over the wing, from the wing surface and up, the air is decelerated to the transition pointaccelerated to the transition pointaccelerated to the separation point 97. As the angle of attack decreases, what happens to the centre of pressure? It moves forwardIt moves rearwardsCentre of pressure is not affected by angle of attack decrease 98. What happens to total drag when accelerating from CL MAX to maximum speed? Decreases then increases 258IncreasesIncreases then decreases 99. A decrease in pressure over the upper surface of a wing or aerofoil is responsible for approximately 1/2 (one half) of the lift obtainedapproximately 1/3 (one third) of the lift obtainedapproximately 2/3 (two thirds) of the lift obtained 100. If the continuity equation is applicable, what will happen to the air density () if the cross sectional area of a tube changes? (low speed, subsonic and incompressible flow) 1 = 2 1 < 2 1 > 2 101. Aspect ratio of a wing is defined as the ratio of the square of the chord to the wingspanwingspan to the wing rootsquare of the wing span to the wing area 102. Which of the following types of drag increases as the aircraft gains altitude? Parasite dragInterference dragInduced drag 103. In a symmetrical aerofoil the mean camber line is a line joining points of maximum camber along the winga straight line co-incident with the chord linea line joining points of mean camber along the wing 104. The layer of air over the surface of an aerofoil which is slower moving, in relation to the rest of theairflow, is known as boundary layernone of the abovecamber layer 105. What is a controlling factor of turbulence and skin friction? Fineness ratioAspect ratioCountersunk rivets used on skin exterior

106. A laminar boundary layer is a layer, in which the temperature varies constantlythe velocity is constantno velocity components exist normal to the surface 107. In a stream tube, if density is halved, drag will be reduced by a factor of 248 108. If the C of G is aft of the Centre of Pressure changes in lift produce a pitching moment which acts to increase the change in liftwhen the aircraft yaws the aerodynamic forces acting forward of the Centre of Pressurewhen the aircraft sideslips, the C of G causes the nose to turn into the sideslip thus applying a restoringmoment 109. The service ceiling of an aircraft is the highest altitude permitted for flight because of manoeuvre capabilitythe altitude where rate of climb is zerothe altitude where a low specific rate of climb is achieved 110. When the undercarriage is lowered in flight form drag will increase and the aircraft's nose down pitching moment will be unchangedinduced drag will increase and the aircraft's nose down pitching moment will increaseform drag will increase and the aircraft's nose down pitching moment will increase 111. What does profile drag vary with?

Square of the speedSpeedSurface area 112. Wing loading is the ratio of lift to wing weightthe ratio of aircraft weight to wing areathe ratio of wing area to wing weight 113. Wing span is defined as the distance from wing tip to fuselage centre linefrom leading edge to trailing edge 278from wing tip to wing tip 114. The upper part of the wing in comparison to the lower develops less liftdevelops the same liftdevelops more lift 115. Drag is in the direction of - and lift is perpendicular to the chord linerelative wind/airflowhorizon 116. What effect would a forward CG have on an aircraft on landing? Reduce stalling speedIncrease stalling speedNo effect on landing 117. What effect does aspect ratio have on induced drag? Changing aspect ratio has no effectIncreased aspect ratio reduces induced dragIncreased aspect ratio increases induced drag 118. QNH refers to setting the altimeter to zeroquite near horizonsetting the mean sea level atmospheric pressure so an altimeter reads the aerodrome altitude abovemean sea level 119. QNE refers to setting the mean sea level atmospheric pressure in accordance with ICAO standard atmosphere i.e.1013 millibarsSetting an altimeter to read aerodrome altitude above sea levelquite new equipment 120. An aspect ratio of 8:1 would mean mean chord 64, span 8span 64, mean chord 8span squared 64, chord 8 121. QFE is 288difference between sea level and airfield pressuresea level pressureairfield pressure 122. Which of the following is the greatest factor causing lift? Suction above the wingIncreased airflow velocity below the wingIncreased pressure below wing 123. Lift is created over a wing because airflow speed increases over the wing surface causing an increase in dynamic pressureairflow accelerates over the top surface of the aerofoil creating a reduction in static pressureairflow slows down on the extrados causing a reduction in static pressure 124. Increasing the angle of attack in flight will cause the stagnation point to move down and aftseparation point to move aftboundary layer to become thinner 125. If the angle of attack is maintained constant, what happens to the coefficient of lift when flaps aredeployed? DecreasedIncreasedRemains constant because angle of attack remains the same 126. When the angle of attack increases in straight and level flight, we will observe forward movement of the centre of gravitylateral movement of the centre of gravityforward movement of the centre of pressure 127. For any given speed and altitude, a decrease in aircraft weight, the induced drag will remain the sameincreasedecrease 128. The amount of lift generated by a wing is greatest at the rootconstant along the spangreatest at the tip

129. Induced Drag is greatest towards the tip and downwash decreases from tip to rootgreatest towards the wing root and downwash is greatest at the tipgreatest towards the wing tip and downwash is greatest towards the root 130. When the angle of attack is increased, the stagnation point moves ... and the separation point moves... Forward; BackwardsBackwards; ForwardForward; Forward 131. Induced Drag is never equal to profile drag equal to profile drag at Vmd equal to profile drag at stalling angle 132. Which statement is true for a symmetrical wing section? The centre of pressure is in the front of the aerodynamic centre of the wingThe centre of pressure is at the aerodynamic centre of the wingThe centre of pressure is behind the aerodynamic centre of the wing 133. With an increase in aircraft weight Vmd will be at a higher speed Vmd will be at the same speed Vmd will be at a lower speed 134. In a two-dimensional flow pattern, where the streamlines converge the static pressure will increasedecreasenot change 135. For a given IAS an increase in altitude will result in an increase in induced dragno change in the value of induced dragan increase in profile drag 136. Subsonic flow over a cambered aerofoil at 4 angle of attack will cause an increase in speed and drop in pressure over the upper surface and an increase in speed and a drop inpressure over the lower surface

308a decrease in speed and drop in pressure over the upper surface and a decrease in speed and a drop inpressure over the lower surfacean increase in speed and drop in pressure over the upper surface and a decrease in speed and a rise inpressure over the lower surface 137. As the angle of attack of a wing is increased in level flight the Cof P moves forward and the stagnation point aft over the upper surfacethe Cof P and transition point move forwardthe Cof G moves aft and the Cof P forward 138. Stall inducers may be fitted to a wing at the root to cause the root to stall firstat the tip to cause the root to stall firstat the root to cause the tip to stall first 139. On an asymmetrical, single curve aerofoil, in subsonic airflow, at low angle of attack, when the angle of attack is increased, the centre of pressure will (assume a conventional transport aeroplane) move aftmove forwardremain unaffected 140. The lift force, acting on an aerofoil is maximum at an angle of attack of 2 degreesis mainly caused by suction on the upper side of the aerofoilincreases, proportional to the angle of attack until 40 degrees 141. In flight, the C of P, by increasing angle of attack, will reach its most forward point on an aerofoil at the optimum angle of attackat the stalling angle just below the stalling angle 142. Consider an aerofoil with a certain camber and a positive angle of attack. At which location will thehighest flow velocities occur? Lower sideUpper sideIn front of the stagnation point 143. The optimum angle of attack of an aerofoil is the angle at which the aerofoil produces zero liftthe highest lift/drag ratio is produced 318the aerofoil produces maximum lift 144. A high aspect ratio wing has a decreased induced dragdecreased skin friction dragincreased induced drag 145. Cambered wing sections give______ ___maximum CL at a relatively______________angles of attack high; lowlow; highhigh; high 146. Minimum total drag of an aircraft occurs when induced drag is leastwhen profile drag equals induced dragat the stalling speed 147. The airflow over the upper surface of the wing of an aircraft in level flight compared to the free streamair will experience a reduction in velocity producing increased pressurehave greater velocity, resulting in increased pressureexperience an increase in velocity and a reduction in pressure 148. If the weight of an aircraft is increased, the induced drag at a given speed will remain the samewill increasewill decrease 149. The transition point on a wing is the point where the boundary layer flow changes from laminar to turbulentthe flow separates from the wing surfacethe flow divides to pass above and below the wing 150. If the camber of an aerofoil is increased the coefficient of lift will increase for a given angle of attackthe stalling angle will decrease, and the stalling speed will decreasethe coefficient of lift will increase for a given angle of attack, and the stalling angle will decrease, andthe stalling speed will increase 151. The boundary layer of a body in a moving airstream is

a layer of separated flow where the air is turbulenta layer of air over the surface where the airspeed is changing from free stream speed to zero speeda thin layer of air over the surface where the air is stationary 152. A laminar boundary layer will produce more skin friction drag than a turbulent onethe same skin friction drag as a turbulent oneless skin friction drag than a turbulent one 153. A body is placed in a certain airstream. The density of the airstream decreases to half of the originalvalue. The aerodynamic drag will decrease with a factor of 284 154. Wing tip vortices have the highest intensity during cruisetake off high speed 155. The terms q and S in the lift formula are static pressure and wing surface areadynamic pressure and the area of the wingsquare root of surface and wing loading 156. Aerodynamic forces and moments exerted on a body moving through a fluid stem from two sources pressure distribution and airstream velocitypressure distribution and shear stress distributionbending force and torsion moment 157. The boundary layer is thickest at the leading edgethickest at the trailing edgeconstant thickness from leading to trailing edges 158. An increase in the speed at which an aerofoil passes through the air increases lift because the impact pressure of the air on the lower surface of the aerofoil creates less positive pressurethe increased speed of air passing over the aerofoils upper surface decreases the pressure, thus creatinga greater pressure differential between upper and lower surface 338the increased speed of the airflow creates a lesser pressure differential between the upper and loweraerofoil surfaces 159. The amount of thrust produced by a jet engine or a propeller can be calculated using Newton's 1st lawNewton's 3rd lawNewton's 2nd law 160. The aerofoil polar is a graph of the relation between the lift coefficient and the drag coefficienta graph of the relation between the lift coefficient and the angle of attackthe relation between the horizontal and the vertical speed 161. An engine which produces an efflux of high speed will be less efficientspeed of efflux has no affect on the engine efficiencymore efficient 162. The drag coefficient of a sphere is approximately 20.00150.25

163. The frontal area of a body, placed in a certain airstream is increased by a factor 3. The shape will notalter. The aerodynamic drag will increase with a factor 31.59 164. Increasing dynamic (kinetic) pressure will have the following effect on the drag of an aeroplane (all otherfactors of importance remaining constant): this has no effectthe drag increasesthe drag decreases 165. Wing loading is calculated by weight multiplied by gross wing areadivided by gross wing areadivided by lift 348 166. Induced drag is nothing to do with speedproportional to speedinversely proportional to the square of speed 167. Induced drag on a wing in level flight is uniform across its spanis greatest at the wing rootis greatest at the tip 168. Induced drag is also known as vortex draginterference dragskin friction drag 169. As the angle of attack increases the stagnation point moves towards the lower surfacedoes not movemoves towards the upper surface 170. The term pitch-up is due to longitudinal instabilityground effectcompressibility effect 171. In a steady climb at a steady IAS, the TAS is the sameless than IASmore than IAS 172. An untapered straight wing will stall at the root firsthave no yaw effect in bankinghave no change in induced drag in the bank 173. With the ailerons away from the neutral, induced drag is unchanged but profile drag is higherhigher on the lower wing plus profile drag increases

358higher on the upper wing plus profile drag increases 174. Geometric washout means that there is an airflow along the wing that keeps it cleanthe tip of the wing has less angle of attack than the rootthe tip of the wing has more angle of attack than the root 175. Induced drag may be reduced by a decrease of the aspect ratioan increase in aspect ratioan increase in the taper ratio of the wing 176. A cambered aerofoil with zero angle of attack, will in flight produce some lift and some dragno lift but some dragno lift and no drag 177. All the lift can be said to act through the centre of gravitynormal axiscentre of pressure 178. How do vortex generators work? Reduce the adverse pressure gradientTake energy from free stream and introduce it into the boundary layerRe-direct slantwise flow 179. That portion of the aircraft's total drag created by the production of lift is called? Profile drag, and is not affected by changes in airspeedInduced drag, and is greatly affected by changes in airspeedInduced drag, and is not affected by changes in airspeed 180. The concept of thrust is explained by Newton's 1st lawBernoulli's theoremNewton's 3rd law 181. Which statement about induced drag and tip vortices is correct? Tip vortices can be diminished by vortex generators 368The flow direction at the upper side of the wing has a component in wing root direction, the flow at theunderside of the wing in wing tip directionThe wing tip vortices and the induced drag decrease at increasing angle of attack 182. The camber of an aerofoil section is the angle of incidence towards the tip of a wingthe angle which the aerofoil makes with the relative airflowthe curvature of the median line of the aerofoil 183. The induced drag coefficient, CDi is proportional with CLmaxCL2CL 184. Induced drag is caused by skin frictionresults from disturbed airflow in the region of mainplane attachmentsis associated with the lift generated by an aerofoil 185. The induced drag has no relation to the lift coefficientincreases as the aspect ratio increasesincreases as the lift coefficient increases 186. Induced drag is created by the span wise flow pattern resulting in the tip vorticesinterference of the air stream between wing and fuselageseparation of the boundary layer over the wing 187. How will frost on the wings of an aeroplane affect takeoff performance? Frost will change the camber of the wing, increasing its lifting capabilityFrost will disrupt the smooth flow of air over the wing, adversely affecting its lifting capabilityFrost has no influence on aeroplane performance 188. Induced drag is proportional to the square of the speedincreases when increasing the wing aspect ratioincreases when reducing the wing aspect ratio 189. As air flows over the upper cambered surface of an aerofoil, what happens to velocity and pressure?

378 Velocity d ecreases, pressure decreases Velocit y increases, pressure increases Velocity increases, pressure decreases 190. At zero angle of attack, a symmetrical wing section (viscous flow) will produce zero lift and some profile dragzero lift and zero dragzero lift and some induced drag 191. What is the force that tends to pull an aircraft down towards the earth? DragWeightThrust 192. For a given angle of attack, a swept wing will have a lower lift coefficient than an equivalent straight onehave the same lift coefficient as an equivalent straight onehave a higher lift coefficient than an equivalent straight one 193. The angle at which the chord line of the aerofoil is presented to the airflow is known as angle of attackresultantangle of incidence 194. Which location on the aeroplane has the largest effect on the induced drag? Wing root junctionLanding gearWing tip 195. The imaginary straight line which passes through an aerofoil section from leading edge to trailing edge iscalled the chord linecentre of pressurethe direction of relative airflow 196. What is the angle between the chord line of the wing, and the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, known as? Angle of dihedralAngle of attackAngle of incidence 388 197. Excluding constants, the coefficient of induced drag (CDi) is the ratio of: CL and b (wing span)CL and CDCL2 and AR (aspect ratio) 198. When taking off or landing at an airport where heavy aircraft are operating, pilots should be particularlyalert to the hazards of wingtip vortices because this wake turbulence tends to sink into the flight path of aircraft operating below the aircraft generating the turbulenceremain in the vicinity of the airport for hoursincrease its strength during the first minutes after creation 199. A function of vortex generators in the transonic regime is to prevent the rearward shift of CP on swept wing stallsreduce boundary layer separation drag when shockwaves formreduce wing root compression effects 200. The greatest vortex strength occurs when the generating aircraft is light, dirty, and fastheavy, dirty, and fastheavy, clean, and slow 201. Increasing air pressure will have the following effect on the drag of an aeroplane (angle of attack, OATand TAS are constant): Has no effect on dragThe drag decreasesThe drag increases 202. Wing tip vortices create a type of drag known as induced dragform dragprofile drag 203. Minimum total drag of an aircraft occurs when profile drag equals induced dragat the stalling speedwhen induced drag is minimum 204. Which of the following describes the 'Empennage'? Tail section of the aircraft, including fin, rudder, tail plane and elevators 398The wings, including the aileronsNose section of an aircraft, including the cockpit 205. As the angle of attack is increased (up to the stall point), which of the following is correct? Both the pressure difference between top and bottom of the wing increases, and the lift increasesPressure difference between top and bottom of the wing increasesLift increases 206. What type of drag, depends on the smoothness of the body, and surface area over which the air flows? Parasite dragForm dragSkin friction drag 207. When airflow velocity over an upper cambered surface of an aerofoil decreases, what takes place? Pressure increases, lift increasesPressure decreases, lift increasesPressure increases, lift decreases 208. Total Drag at high Mach numbers is a combination of induced drag, wave drag, form drag, skin friction drag and interference dragwave drag, interference drag, form drag, and induced dragprofile drag, form drag, induced drag and wave drag 209. When an aircraft stalls lift and drag increaselift increases and drag decreaseslift decreases and drag increases 210. Interference drag can be reduced using wing fencesfairingswinglets 211. Wing loading is the ratio of the all up weight of the aircraft to its basic weightthe maximum all up weight multiplied by the total wing areathe maximum all up weight divided by the total wing area 212. For a given Indicated airspeed (IAS), a swept wing compared to a straight wing of the same wing areaand same angle of attack produces 408less lift, improved lateral stability and less total dragthe same lift, increased lateral stability, with the same total dragless lift, reduced lateral stability and less total drag 213. An aircraft wing with an aspect ratio of 6:1 is proportional so that the wing span is six times the mean chordthe wing area is six times the spanthe mean chord is six times the thickness 214. Upward and outward inclination of a mainplane is termed dihedralstaggersweep

215. An aircraft flying straight and level; if density halves, aerodynamic drag will decrease by a factor of twoincrease by a factor of twodecrease by a factor of four 216. The value of the profile drag in straight and level flight at constant weight varies linearly with the speedsquare of the speedangle of attack 217. Which of the following will reduce induced drag? Low aspect ratioFlying at high angles of attackElliptical lift distribution 218. Which of the following forces act on an aircraft in level flight? Lift, drag, thrustLift, thrust, and weightLift, thrust, weight, and drag 219. What is ground effect? The result of an alteration in airflow, increasing induced drag on the wings of an aeroplaneThe effect of hitting the groundThe result of interference of the surface of the Earth with the airflow around the wing and tailplan

220. With reference to altimeters, QFE is quite fine equipmentthe manufacturers registered namesetting aerodrome atmospheric pressure so that an altimeter reads zero on landing and take off 221. Ground Effect is only effective up to 1 wingspan from the groundacts like a decrease in aspect ratiooccurs during the approach to landing 222. Under the ICAO 'Q' code there are which three settings? QEF, QNH, QENQE, QN, QQEQFE, QNH, QNE 223. Wing loading is WING AREA x WING CHORDthe ultimate tensile strength of the wingGROSS WEIGHT divided by GROSS WING AREA 224. On the approach to land, ground effect will begin to be felt at when the angle of attack is increasedtwice the wingspan above the groundhalf the wingspan above the ground 225. Ground effect is most likely to result in which problem? Becoming airborne before reaching recommended takeoff speedHard landingsInability to get airborne even though airspeed is sufficient for normal takeoff needs 226. Weight is equal to mass x accelerationmass x gravityvolume x gravity 227. Induced drag reduces with an increase in angle of attackincreases with increase in aircraft weight 428increases with an increase in speed 228. Due to adverse pressure gradient, airflow over the upper surface of the wing generally flows towards the tipflows straight from leading edge to trailing edgeflows towards the root 229. With an increase in aspect ratio for a given IAS, induced drag will reduceremain constantincrease 230. If the density of the air is increased, the lift will increaseremain the samedecrease 231. All the factors that affect the lift produced by an aerofoil are angle of attack, air temperature, velocity, wing areaangle of attack, velocity, wing area, aerofoil shape, air densityangle of attack, air density, velocity, wing area 232. A wing section suitable for high speed would be thin with little or no camberthin with high camberthick with high camber 233. The induced drag of an aircraft decreases with increasing aircraft weightincreases with increasing speeddecreases with increasing speed 234. As the speed of an aircraft increases, the profile drag increasesdecreases at first then increasedecreases 235. The stagnation point on an aerofoil is the point where the airflow is brought completely to rest 438the suction pressure reaches a maximumthe boundary layer changes from laminar to turbulent 236. The stalling of an aerofoil is affected by the airspeedtransition speedangle of attack 237. The most fuel efficient of the following types of engine is the rocketturbo-jet engineturbo-fan engine 238. The quietest of the following types of engine is the turbo-fan enginerocketturbo-jet engine 239. Forward motion of a glider is provided by the weightthe dragthe engine 240. Profile drag consists of what drag types? Form, skin friction and interferenceForm, induced and skin frictionForm, induced and interference 241. An aircraft in straight and level flight is subject to a load factor of zero load factora load factor of 1 242. Aspect ratio is given by the formula Mean Chord / SpanSpan2 / Mean ChordSpan2 / Area 243. An aspect ratio of 8 means

the mean chord is 8 times the spanthe area is 8 times the spanthe span is 8 times the mean chord

244. A high aspect ratio wing has a higher stall angle than a low aspect ratio winghas less induced drag than a low aspect ratio wingis stiffer than a low aspect ratio wing 245. Induced downwash has no effect on the angle of attack of the wingincreases the effective angle of attack of the wingreduces the effective angle of attack of the wing 246. On a swept wing aeroplane at low airspeed, the pitch-up phenomenon never occurs, since a swept wing is a remedy to pitch upis caused by extension of trailing edge lift augmentation devicesis caused by wingtip stall 247. A straight rectangular wing, without any twist, will have greater angle of attack at the tiphave the same angle of attack at all points along the spanhave less angle of attack at the tip 248. Given 2 wings, the first with a span of 12m and a chord of 2 m. The second has a span of 6m and a chordof 1m. How do their Aspect Ratios compare? The second is higherThe first is higherThey are the same 249. The C of G moves in flight. The most likely cause of this is movement of passengersmovement of cargoconsumption of fuel and oils 250. A straight rectangular wing, without any twist, will stall first at the rootstall equally along the span of the wingstall first at the tip 458 251. If angle of attack is increased beyond the critical angle of attack, the lift coefficient ... and the stagnationpoint moves... increases; rearwarddecreases; forwarddecreases; rearward 252. As the angle of attack of a wing is increased, the centre of pressure will reach its most forward positionon the wing when the aircraft is stalling just before the wing stallsafter stall recovery 253. Which kind of boundary layer has the strongest change in velocity close to the surface? Laminar boundary layerTurbulent boundary layerNo difference 254. When an aircraft experiences induced drag air flows under the wing spanwise towards the tip and on top of the wing spanwise towards the rootair flows under the wing spanwise towards the root and on top of the wing spanwise towards the tipNeither a) or b) since induced drag does not cause spanwise flow 255. The boundary layer of a wing is caused by suction at the upper wing sidea turbulent stream pattern around the winga layer on the wing in which the stream velocity is lower than the free stream velocity, due to friction 256. The most important problem of ice accretion on an aeroplane during flight is increase in weightincrease in dragreduction in CLmax 257. An aeroplane wing is designed to produce lift resulting from relatively negative air pressure below the wing's surface and positive air pressure above the wing's surfacepositive air pressure below and above the wing's surfacepositive air pressure below the wing's surface and negative air pressure above the wing's surface 258. When an aircraft with a typical aerofoil is in level flight at low speed and high angle of attack, the normalaxis is 468verticalnearly verticalhorizontal from side to side 259. Aspect ratio of a wing is defined as the ratio of the square of the chord to the wingspanwingspan to the wing rootwingspan to the mean chord 260. The angle of attack of an aerofoil section is the angle between the underside of the wing surface and the mean airflowchord line and the centre line of the fuselagechord line and the relative airflow 261. A swept wing tends to stall first at the centre sectionroottip 262. The trailing vortex on a pointed wing (taper ratio = 0) is equally all along the wing spanat the rootat the tip 263. The lift curve for a delta wing is less steep than that of a high aspect ratio wingmore steep than that of a high aspect ratio wingthe same as that of a high aspect ratio wing 264. An increase in the speed at which an aerofoil passes through the air increases lift because the increased velocity of the relative wind increases the angle of attackthe increased speed of the airflow creates a lesser pressure differential between the upper and lowersurfaces.the increased speed of the airflow creates a greater pressure differential between the upper and lowersurfaces. 265. V so is defined as the stalling speed or minimum takeoff safety speedstalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration

stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in a specified configuration 266. A delta wing has the same stall angle than a straight winga higher stall angle than a straight winga lower stall angle than a straight wing 267. The airflow over the upper surface of a cambered wing increases in velocity and pressurereduces in velocity and increases in pressureincreases in velocity and reduces in pressure 268. The following takes place at the transition point on a wing: The airflow separates completely from the wing surfaceThe boundary layer makes the transition from laminar flow to the turbulent boundary layerThe total dynamic and static pressure comes to a standstill 269. The speed of air over a swept wing which contributes to the lift is more than the aircraft speedless than the aircraft speedthe same as the aircraft speed 270. For a given angle of attack, induced drag is greater on a high aspect ratio winggreater on a low aspect ratio winggreater towards the wing root 271. In straight and level flight, the angle of attack of a swept wing is

the same as the aircraft angle to the horizontalmore than the aircraft angle to the horizontalless than the aircraft angle to the horizontal 272. Induced drag is equal to the profile drag at the stalling speedis never equal to the profile drag is equal to the profile drag at Vmd 273. A delta wing aircraft flying at the same speed (subsonic) and angle of attack as a swept wing aircraft of similar wing area will produce less lift 488more liftthe same lift 274. The stagnation point is static pressure plus dynamic pressurestatic pressure minus dynamic pressuredynamic pressure only 275. Which of the following statements about boundary layers is correct? The turbulent boundary layer gives a lower skin friction than the laminar boundary layerThe turbulent boundary layer is thinner than the laminar boundary layerThe turbulent boundary layer has more kinetic energy than the laminar boundary layer 276. On a swept wing aircraft, due to the adverse pressure gradient, the boundary layer on the upper surfaceof the wing tends to flow towards the rootdirectly from leading edge to trailing edgetowards the tip 277. With increased speed in level flight induced drag increasesprofile drag increasesprofile drag remains constant 278. If a swept wing stalls at the tips first, the aircraft will pitch nose uppitch nose downroll 279. The thickness/chord ratio of the wing is also known as aspect ratiomean chord ratiofineness ratio 280. Flexure of a rearward swept wing will increase the lift and hence increase the flexuredecrease the lift and hence decrease the flexureincrease the lift and hence decrease the flexure 281. A High Aspect Ratio wing is a wing with 498long span, short chordlong span, long chordshort span, long chord 282. Stall commencing at the root is preferred because it provides the pilot with a warning of complete loss of liftthe ailerons become ineffectiveit will cause the aircraft to pitch nose up 283. An aircraft flying in 'ground effect' will produce the same lift as a similar aircraft outside of ground effectless lift than a similar aircraft outside of ground effectmore lift than a similar aircraft outside of ground effect 284. If the angle of attack of a wing is increased in flight, the C of P will move forwardC of P will move aftC of G will move aft 285. The Rams Horn Vortex on a forward swept wing will be less than a rearward swept wingthe same as a rearward swept wingmore than a rearward swept wing 286. After the transition point between the laminar and turbulent boundary layer the boundary layer gets thicker and the speed decreasesthe mean speed and friction drag increasesthe mean speed increases and the friction drag decreases287. For a cambered wing section the zero lift angle of attack will benegativezero4 degrees 288. Airflow at subsonic speed is taken to be compressibleeither compressible or incompressible, depending on altitudeincompressible

289. If fluid flow through a venturi is said to be incompressible, the speed of the flow increases at the throatto allow for a reduction in static pressuremaintain a constant volume flow rateallow for an increase in static pressure 290. Which statement is correct about the laminar and turbulent boundary layer? Friction drag is lower in the turbulent layerFriction drag is lower in the laminar layerSeparation point will occur earlier in the turbulent layer 291. A wing develops 10,000 N of lift at 100 knots. Assuming the wing remains at the same angle of attackand remains at the same altitude, how much lift will it develop at 300knots? 30,000 N90,000 N900,000 N 292. The angle of attack is not related to the angle of incidencerelated to the angle of incidence 293. The difference between the mean camber line and the chord line of an aerofoil is neither are straightthey both may be curvedone is always straight and the other may be straight 294. If the C of G is calculated after loading as within limits for take off no further calculation is requireda further calculation is required prior to landing to allow for flap deploymenta further calculation is required prior to landing to allow for fuel and oil consumption 295. Vortex generators change the turbulent boundary layer into a laminar boundary layertransfer energy from the free airflow into the boundary layerreduce the span wise flow on swept wing 296. Helicopter rotor blades create lift by pushing the air downworking like a screw 518creating low pressure above the blades 297. When vortex generators are fitted they will normally be found near the wing leading edge in front of control surfacestowards the wing trailing edgetowards the wing root to act as a stall inducer 298. The spanwise component of the airflow is less at higher speedsgreater at higher speedsunaffected by speed 299. The effect of Winglets is elliptical pressure distribution increasesreduction in induced dragdecrease in stall speed

300. A wing fence acts as a lift dumping devicereduces spanwise flow on a swept wing thus reducing induced dragincreases lateral control 301. With all conditions remaining the same, if the aircraft speed is halved, by what factor is the lift reduced? Remains the sameHalf By a factor of 4 302. The boundary layer over an aerofoil is a layer of turbulent air close to the aerofoil which is moving at a velocity less than free stream aira layer of air close to the aerofoil which is moving at a velocity less than free stream aira layer of air close to the aerofoil that is stationary 303. On a swept wing aircraft, the fineness ratio of an aerofoil is equal throughout the spanhighest at the roothighest at the tip 304. Where on the surface of a typical aerofoil will flow separation normally start at high angles of attack? Upper side leading edge 528Upper side trailing edgeLower side leading edge 305. Streamlining will reduce induced dragform dragskin friction drag 306. If an aircraft has a gross weight of 3000 kg and is then subjected to a total weight of 6000 kg the loadfactor will be 3G9G2G 307. Ice formed on the leading edge will cause the aircraft to stall at a higher speedstall at a lower speedstall at the same stall speed and AoA 308. Under what conditions will an aircraft create best lift? Cold dry day at 200 ftCold wet day at 1200 ftHot damp day at 1200 ft 309. As Mach number increases, what is the effect on boundary layer? Becomes more turbulentBecomes less turbulentDecreases in thickness 310. During a glide the following forces act on an aircraft: lift, weight, thrustlift, drag, weightlift and weight only 311. Vortex generators mounted on the upper wing surface will decrease the stalling speed by increase of the tangential velocity of the swept wingdecrease the shock wave induced separationincrease the interference drag of the trailing edge flaps 312. If an aileron is moved downward

the stalling angle of that wing is decreasedthe stalling angle of that wing is increasedthe stalling angle is not affected but the stalling speed is decreased 313. If the wing loading of an aircraft were reduced the stalling speed would decreaseincreasenot be affected 314. It is possible to reduce the span wise airflow over swept wings, due to adverse pressure gradients, by wing fencestrailing edge vortex generatorsincreased anhedral 315. The lift on a wing is increased with an increase in humidityan increase in temperaturean increase in pressure 316. The lift coefficient CL of a wing at a given angle of attack is dependent on the surface area of the wingis increased by the use of high lift devicesis constant and not affected by high lift devices 317. The optimum angle of attack for a typical aerofoil is about_______________and the actual angle of attack will be close to this optimum angle during____________ 4, a stall16, a stall4, cruise 318. The airflow behind a normal shockwave will always be supersonic and in the same direction as the original airflowalways be subsonic and deflected from the direction of the original airflowalways be subsonic and in the same direction as the original airflow 319. Why are vortex generators often fitted on aircraft with straight wings? To delay boundary layer separationTo reduce span wise airflow towards the wing root on the intradosTo reduce span wise airflow towards the wing tips on the extrados 548 320. The boundary layer of a body in a moving airstream is a thin layer of air over the surface where the air is stationarya layer of air which is moving at free stream speeda layer of air over the surface where the airspeed is changing from free stream velocity to zero velocity 321. The transition point located on the wing is the point where the boundary layer changes from laminar flow to turbulent flowairflow starts separating from the wingthe airflow changes from subsonic to supersonic flow 322. The boundary layer is considered to be turbulent between the transition and separation points just aft of the separation point just in front of the transition point 323. The advantage of a turbulent boundary layer over a laminar boundary layer is thinnerdecreases energyless tendency to separate 324. A laminar boundary layer is____________and has_____________ drag than a turbulent layer. thinner; lessthicker; lessthicker; more 325. Induced drag can be reduced by the use of high aspect ratio wingsfairings at junctions between fuselage and wingsstreamlining 326. Interference drag can be reduced by the use of streamlininghigh aspect ratio wingsfairings at junctions between fuselage and wings 327. Gliding angle is the angle between ground and the glide pathaircraft and airflow

558aircraft and flight path 328. Lift is generated by a wing mostly on the top surfacemostly on the bottom surfaceequally on the top and bottom surfaces 329. Lift is dependent on the frontal area of the wing, the density of the fluid medium and the velocitythe net area of the wing, the density of the fluid medium and the velocitythe area of the wing, the density of the fluid medium and the square of the velocity 330. To produce lift, an aerofoil must be either asymmetrical or symmetricalsymmetricalasymmetrical 331. The total drag of an aircraft changes with speedincreases with speedincreases with the square of speed 332. _______ angle of attack is known as optimum angle of attack 10 to 12 degrees3 to 4 degrees5 to 7 degrees 333. Induced drag is ________ at root greatestlowestneutral 334. Profile drag is _______ to speed inversely proportionalproportionalneutral 335. A shock stall occurs at large angles of attack

equally both large and small angles of attacksmall angles of attack 336. What happens to the wingtip stagnation point as the AoA increases? It moves up and over the leading edgeIt remains unchangedIt moves down and under the leading edge 337. What does the term 'wing washout' mean? The airflow moves toward the end of the wingThe design of the wing that gives the wing tip a much greater angle of incidenceThe design of the wing that gives the wing tip a lower angle of incidence 338. The point at which airflow ceases to be laminar and becomes turbulent is the transition pointboundary pointseparation point 339. Which of the following is true about Profile drag? Profile drag = Skin Drag + Form DragProfile drag = induced drag + Form dragProfile drag = skin drag + induced drag 340. Which statement is true? Profile drag increases with the square of the airspeedInduced drag increases with the square of the airspeedBoth Induced drag and profile drag increase with the square of the airspeed 341. Which statement is true? Both tapered and rectangular wings will stall at the tip firstTapered wings stall at the root firstRectangular wings stall at the root first 342. During inverted level flight an aircraft accelerometer shows -1g0g-2g 343. During straight and level flight an aircraft accelerometer shows 5781g4g2g 344. Which of the following is incorrect about induced drag? It will increase inversely to the square of the airspeedIt will increase when the angle of attack is reducedIt will decrease in proportion to the square of the airspeed 345. What produces the most lift at low speeds? High camberLow aspect ratioHigh aspect ratio 346. If the angle of attack is zero, but lift is produced, the wing has positive angle of incidencewing is camberedwing is symmetrical 347. When is the angle of incidence the same as the angle of attack? In descentWhen relative airflow is parallel to longitudinal axisNever