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Chapter 1 Gestalt: the term for recognition that is based on an overall quality that transcends the individual elements

dual elements Object permanence: the knowledge that an object exists, even when it is out of sight Information-processing approach: 1. Mental process can be compared with the operations of a computer; 2. Information progresses through the system in a series of stages, one step at a time Atkinson-Shiffrin model: memory can be understood as a sequence of discrete steps, in which information is transferred from one cognitive storage area to another Sensory memory: a large-capacity storage system that records and briefly stores info from each of the senses with reasonable accuracy Short-term memory: contains only the small amount of info that a person is actively using Working memory: the brief, immediate memory for material that is currently being processed; a portion also coordinates ongoing mental activities Long-term memory: the large-capacity memory that contains ones memory for experiences and info that have accumulated over a lifetime Ecological validity: a principle stating that the conditions in which research is conducted should be similar to the natural setting to which the results will be applied Cognitive neuroscience: the field that examines how cognitive processes can be explained by the structure and function of the brain Social cognitive neuroscience: field that uses neuroscience to examine how cognitive processes are used in ones interactions with other people Brain lesions: the destruction of brain tissue caused by strokes, tumors, or accidents Positron emission tomography (PET scan): procedure in which researchers measure blood flow by injecting the participant with a radioactive chemical just before the participant performs a cognitive task Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): a participant reclines with his head surrounded by a large magnet. This magnetic field that is created produces changes in oxygen atoms while the participant performs a cognitive task Event-related potential (ERP) technique: records the small, brief fluctuations in the brains electrical activity, in response to a stimulus Single-cell recording technique: researchers study the characteristics of an animals brain and nervous system by inserting an electrode next to a single neuron Neuron: the basic cell in the nervous system Artificial intelligence (AI): computer science that explores human cognitive processes by creating computer models that accomplish the same tasks that humans do Computer metaphor: the perspective that cognitive processes work like a computerin other words, like a complex, multipurpose machine that processes info quickly and accurately Pure AI: computer science that seeks to design a program that will accomplish a task as efficiently as possible

Computer simulation (modeling): a computer system that resembles human performance on a specific cognitive task Parallel distributed processing: the model proposing that cognitive processes can be understood in terms of networks that link together neuron-like units; the model states that many operations proceed simultaneously, rather than one at a time Connectionism: see PDP approach Neural networks: see PDP approach Cerebral cortex: the outer layer of the brain that is primarily responsible for cognitive processes Serial processing: a type of cognitive processing in which only one item is handled at a given time, and one step must be completed before proceeding to the next step Parallel processing: a type of cognitive processing in which a person can handle many signals at the same time Cognitive science: examines questions of the mind Consciousness: an awareness of the external world, as well as thoughts and emotions about ones internal world Memory: the process of maintaining information over time Metacognition: knowledge and thoughts about ones own cognitive processes, as well as control of those cognitive processes Imagery: mental representations of stimuli that are not physically present Semantic memory: a persons factual, organized knowledge about the world, including knowledge about word meanings Schemas: generalized knowledge or expectation, which is distilled from past experiences with an event, an object, or a person; they guide memory recall Discourse: long passages of spoken and written language; language units that are larger than a sentence Theme 1: cognitive processes are active, rather than passive Theme 2: cognitive processes are remarkably efficient and accurate Theme 3: cognitive processes handle positive info better than negative info Theme 4: cognitive processes are interrelated with one another; they do not operate in isolation Theme 5: many cognitive processes rely on both bottom-up and top-down processing Bottom-up processing: the kind of cognitive processing that emphasizes the importance of information from the stimuli registered on sensory receptors Top-down processing: the kind of cognitive processing that emphasizes the influence of concepts, expectations, and memory

Chapter 2 Perception: the use of previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli registered by the senses Object recognition: the process of identifying a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli Pattern recognition: the process of identifying a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli

Distal stimulus: in perception, the actual object that is out there in the environment Proximal stimulus: in perception, the information registered on ones sensory receptors Retina: in vision, the inside back portion of the eye, containing millions of different kinds of neurons that register and transmit visual information from the outside world Sensory memory: a large-capacity storage system that records and briefly stores info from each of the senses with reasonable accuracy Iconic memory: the kind of brief memory that allows an image of a visual stimulus to persist for about 200 to 400 milliseconds after the stimulus has disappeared; also known as visual sensory memory Primary visual cortex: the portion of the cerebral cortex that is concerned with basic processing of visual stimuli; located in the occipital lobe of the brain Gestalt psychology: the theoretical approach that emphasizes that humans have basic tendencies to organize what they see, and that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Figure: in gestalt psychology, when two areas share a common boundary, the figure has a distinct shape with clearly defined edges Ground: the region that is behind the figure, forming the background Ambiguous figure-ground relationship: in gestalt psych, the situation in which the figure and the ground reverse from time to time, so that the figure becomes the ground and then becomes the figure again Illusory contours: a visual illusion, in which people see the edges even though they are not physically present in the stimulus Subjective contours: see illusory contours Template-matching theory: in pattern recognition, the theory stating that a stimulus is compared with a set of templates, or specific patterns stored in memory. After comparison, the person notes the template that matches most closely Templates: a specific perceptual pattern stored in memory Feature-analysis theories: in perception, the object-recognition theories proposing that a visual stimulus is composed of a small number of characteristics, each of which is called a distinctive feature Distinctive feature: a characteristic, or component, of a visual stimulus Recognition-by-components theory: in perception, the proposal that a specific view of an object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3-D shapes called geons Structural theory: see recognition-by-components theory Geons: in vision, geometrical ions Viewer-centered approach: in perception, the model proposing that a small number of views of 3-D objects are stored in memory, rather than just one view Bottom-up processing: the kind of cognitive processing that emphasizes the importance of information from the stimuli registered on sensory receptors Top-down processing: the kind of cognitive processing that emphasizes the influence of concepts, expectations, and memory

Word superiority effect: in perception, a phenomenon in which a single letter can be identified more accurately and more rapidly when it appears in a meaningful word than when it appears by itself or in a meaningless string of unrelated letters Change blindness: the inability to detect change in an object or scene Inattentional blindness: the inability to notice a new object that appears suddenly and unexpectedly when a person is paying attention to other events in a scene Ecological validity: a principle stating that the conditions in which research is conducted should be similar to the natural setting to which the results will be applied Holistic (recognition): a term describing recognition based on overall shape and structure, rather than on individual elements Gestalt: the term for recognition that is based on an overall quality that transcends the individual elements Brain lesions: the destruction of brain tissue caused by strokes, tumors, or accidents Prosopagnosia: a condition in which people cannot recognize human faces visually, though they perceive other objects relatively normally fMRI: a participant reclines with his head surrounded by a large magnet. This magnetic field that is created produces changes in oxygen atoms while the participant performs a cognitive task schizophrenia: a psychological disorder characterized by severely disordered thoughts. People with this do not show intense emotion, and they may have hallucinations speech perception: in hearing, the translation of sound vibrations into a sequence of sounds that the listener perceives to be speech phoneme: the basic unit of spoken language coarticulation: the variability in phenome pronunciation that occurs because the shape of the mouth is influenced by the previous phoneme and the following phoneme phonemic restoration: in auditory perception, the phenomenon in which people fill in sounds that are missing by using context as a cue McGurk effect: a phenomenon in which visual info influences speech perception, when individuals integrate both visual and auditory information Special mechanism approach: in psycholinguistics, an approach stating that humans are born with a specialized cognitive deivce for decoding speech stimuli. As a result, people process speech sounds more quickly and accurately than other auditory stimuli Speech-is-special approach: see special mechanism approach Phonetic module: a hypothetical special-purpose neural mechanism in humans that specifically facilitates speech perception, rather than other kinds of auditory perception Speech module: see phonetic module Categorical perception: a phenomenon in which people report hearing a clear-cut phoneme even though they actually heard a sound halfway between two speech sounds General mechanism approaches: in psycholinguistics, the proposal that humans use the same neural mechanisms to process both speech sounds and nonspeech sounds, and that speech perception is a learned ability

Chapter 3 Attention: a concentration of mental activity Divided-attention task: task in which people must attend to two or more simultaneous messages, responding to each appropriately Selective-attention task: a task in which people must respond selectively to certain kinds of information while ignoring other information Dichotic listening: the experience of listening simultaneously to two different stimuli, one in each ear Shadow: in attention research, the process of repeating a message heard in one ear during a dichotic listening task Cocktail party effect: the situation in which, when paying close attention to one conversation, a person can often notice if his or her name is mentioned in a nearby conversation Working memory: the brief, immediate memory for material that is currently being processed; a portion also coordinates ongoing mental activities Stroop effect: the observation that people take much longer to name the color of a stimulus when it is used in printing an incongruent word than when it appears as a solid patch of color Emotional Stroop task: in clinical psychology, a technique in which people are instructed to look at a list of words (related to a possible psychological disorder) and name the color of ink for each word Phobic disorder: an excessive fear of a specific object Saccadic eye movement: in reading, the kind of eye movement that brings the center of the retina into position over the words to be read Fovea: in vision, the center of the retina, which as better acuity than other retinal regions Fixation: the period between saccadic movements (about 50 milliseconds) in which the visual system acquires the information that is useful for reading Perceptual span: in reading, the number of letters and spaces that can be perceived during a visual fixation Regressions: in reading, the eye movements in which the eye returns to earlier material in the sentence Alerting attention network: in the cerebral cortex, the system responsible for sensitivity and alertness to new stimuli; it also keeps a person alert and vigilant for long periods of time Orienting attention network: in the cerebral cortex, the system responsible for the kind of attention required for visual search, in which a person must shift attention around to various spatial locations Brain lesion: the destruction of brain tissue caused by strokes, tumors, or accidents Unilateral neglect: in perception, a spatial deficit for one half of the visual field Positron emission tomography (PET scan): procedure in which researchers measure blood flow by injecting the participant with a radioactive chemical just before the participant performs a cognitive task

Executive attention network: in the cerebral cortex, the system handling the kind of attention used when a task features conflict Bottleneck theories: the theories of attention that propose that a narrow passageway in human information processing can limit the quantity of info to which people can pay attention. When one message is flowing through the bottleneck, other messages must be left behind Feature-integration theory: a theory of attention proposing that people sometimes look at a scene using distributed attention, with all parts of the scene processed simultaneously; on other occasions, they use focused attention, with each item in the scene processed one at a time Distributed attention: the kind of perceptual processing that allows people to register features automatically, using parallel processing and registering all features simultaneously. Roughly equivalent to automatic processing, this processing is relatively effortless Focused attention: in feature-integration theory, the kind of perceptual processing that requires serial processing, in which more complex objects are identified one at a time Illusory conjunction: an inappropriate combination of features Binding problem: a problem in human vision that stems from the fact that important features of an object (such as shape and color) are not represented as a unified whole by the visual system Consciousness: an awareness of the external world as well as thoughts and emotions about ones internal world Ironic effects of mental control: the way peoples efforts backfire when they attempt to control their consciousness or try to eliminate a particular thought Obsession: a persistent thought or image that is intrusive or inappropriate, causing extreme anxiety Compulsion: repetitive behaviors that are designed to reduce the anxiety produced by obsessive thoughts or images Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a psychological disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are recognized as excessive, uncontrollable, and timeconsuming Blindsight: the condition in which an individual with a damaged visual cortex claims not to be able to see an object, yet can accurately report some characteristics of that object

Chapter 4 Working memory: the brief, immediate memory for material that is currently being processed; a portion also coordinates ongoing mental activities Short-term memory: contains only the small amount of info that a person is actively using Working memory: the brief, immediate memory for material that is currently being processed; a portion also coordinates ongoing mental activities Long-term memory: the large-capacity memory that contains ones memory for experiences and info that have accumulated over a lifetime Chunk: the basic unit of short-term memory, consisting of several components that are strongly associated with one another Rehearsal: in memory, the repetition of information to be learned

Serial position effect: the U-shaped relationship between a words position in a list and its probability of recall Recency effect: in a serial-position curve, the enhanced accuracy for the final items in a series of stimuli, which presumably occurs because the items are still in working memory Primary effect: in a serial-position curve, the enhanced recall for items at the beginning of a list, which presumably occurs because people rehearse early items more than other items Control processes: in the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, intentional strategiessuch as rehearsal that people use to improve their memory

Chapter 5 Working memory: the brief, immediate memory for material that is currently being processed; a portion also coordinates ongoing mental activities Long-term memory: the large-capacity memory that contains ones memory for experiences and info that have accumulated over a lifetime Episodic memory: peoples memory for events that happened to them; the memories describe episodes in life Semantic memory: a persons factual, organized knowledge about the world, including knowledge about word meanings Procedural memory: s persons memory about how to do something Encoding: the initial acquisition of information. During encoding, information is embedded in memory Retrieval: in memory, the process of locating information and accessing that information Autobiographical memory: memory for events and topics related to ones own everyday life Levels-of-processing approach: see depth-of-processing approach Depth-of-processing approach: the proposal that deep, meaningful kinds of information processing lead to more permanent retention than shallow, sensory kinds of processing Distinctiveness: in connection with recall from memory, a situation in which one memory trace is different from all other memory traces Elaboration: a processing style in memory acquisition that requires rich processing in terms of meaning and interconnected concepts Self-reference effect: the enhancement of long-term memory by relating the material to ones personal experiences Meta-analysis technique: a statistical method for synthesizing numerous studies on a single topic into one statistical index that shows whether a variable has a statistically significant effect Encoding specificity principle: the principle stating that recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context. In contrast, forgetting often occurs when the two contexts do not match Recall: in memory, the reproduction of items that had been learned at an earlier time Recognition: in memory, the identification of items that had been presented at an earlier time Emotion: in psychological terms, a reaction to a specific stimulus

Mood: a general, long-lasting emotional experience Pollyanna Principle: in memory and other cognitive processes, the principle that pleasant items are usually processed more efficiently and more accurately than less pleasant items Positivity effect: a phenomenon demonstrating that people tend to rate past events more positively with the passage of time Mood congruence: a phenomenon demonstrating that memory is better when the material to be remembered is congruent with a persons current mood Social goals: style of interacting with other people, in terms of friendships and other interpersonal relationships Approach social goals: style of interacting with other people that emphasizes close relationships Avoidance social goals: a style of interacting with other people by avoiding close relationships Explicit memory task: a memory task in which participants are specifically instructed to retrieve information that they have previously learned Implicit memory task: a memory task in which participants see the material; later, during the testing phase, participants complete a cognitive task that does not directly ask for recall or recognition. However, previous experience with the material facilitates performance on this task Repetition priming task: a memory task in which recent exposure to a word increases the likelihood that this word will later come to mind, when one is given a cue that could evoke many words Dissociation: a pattern that occurs (a) when a variable has large effects on Test A performance, but little or no effect on Test B performance, or (b) when a variable has one kind of effect on Test A performance, and the opposite effect on Test B performance. Similar to concept of statistical interaction Proactive interference: a concept stating that people have trouble learning new material because previously learned material keeps interfering with new learning Amnesia: severe deficits in episodic memory Retrograde amnesia: a loss of memory for events that occurred prior to brain damage Anterograde amnesia: a loss of memory for events that occurred after brain damage Hippocampus: brain structure underneath the cortex that is important in many learning and memory tasks Expertise: consistently exceptional performance in representative tasks in a particular area, typically achieved by deliberate practice for at least 10 years Own-race bias: the phenomenon in which people are generally more accurate in identifying members of their own ethnic group than members of another ethnic group Ecological validity: a principle stating that the conditions in which research is conducted should be similar to the natural setting to which the results will be applied Schema: generalized knowledge or expectation, which is distilled from past experiences with an event, an object, or a person. Schemas frequently guide memory recall. Consistency bias: during recall, the tendency to exaggerate the consistency between past and present feelings and beliefs. As a result, memory of the past may be distorted

Source monitoring: the process of trying to identify the origin of memories and beliefs in order to decide which memories or beliefs are real and which ones are simply imagined Flashbulb memory: memory of a situation in which a person first learned of a very surprising and emotionally arousing event Post-event misinformation effect: a phenomenon in which people first view an event, and then they receive misleading information about the event; later, they mistakenly recall the misleading information, rather than the event they actually saw Retroactive interference: in memory, the process in which people have trouble recalling old material because recently learned, new material keeps interfering with old memories Constructivist approach: in memory, the perspective that people construct knowledge by integrating what they know, so that their understanding of an event or topic is coherent and makes sense Recovered-memory perspective: the approach whose supporters argue that memories of childhood sexual abuse can be forgotten for many years and then recovered at a later time, often prompted by a specific event or by encouragement from a therapist False-memory perspective: the approach whose supporters argue that many recovered memories are actually incorrect memories; that is, they are constructed stories about events that never occurred Betrayal trauma: a childs adaptive response when a trusted parent or caretaker betrays him by sexual abuse. The child depends on the adult and must actively forget about the abuse in order to maintain an attachment to the adult