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# ANALOG AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS ONE MARK QUESTIONS UNIT -1 1. What is operational Amplifier?

Ans: An Operational amplifier is a direct coupled high gain negative feedback amplifier. It can amplify the signals having the frequency range of 0Hz to 1MHz. Operational amplifier direct coupling gain- negative feedback amplifier . 0 Hz 1MHz signal- . 2. Draw the symbol of operational Amplifier. Ans:

3. What is the differential Voltage of Ideal Op-Amp? Ans: Differential voltage of ideal Op-Amp is Zero 4. What is the input offset voltage. Ans: This is the input voltage which must be applied between input terminals to obtain zero output voltage. Output voltage- zero- Input terminal- input voltage input offset voltage . 5. What is the input offset current. Ans: It is the difference between the two input currents entering the two input terminals of a balanced operational amplifier. Balance Op-Amp- Input terminal current- Input offset current . 6. What are the inputs of Op Amp? Ans: 1. Inverting 2. Non-Inverting
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7. Define input Bias current. Ans: Input bias current is the average of the currents that flow into the input terminals of a balanced operational amplifier. Balance Op-Amp- Input terminal- current- Input bias current . 8. What is open loop voltage gain? Ans: When the Op-Amp is used without any feedback, the differential voltage gain is known as open loop voltage gain. Op-Amp- feedback differential voltage gain . 9. What is virtual ground of an Op-Amp? Ans: When Non-Inverting input of Op-Amp is connected to ground the inverting input is approximately at ground potential. The inverting terminal is not connected to ground but it acts like a ground terminal. This is called as virtual ground. Op-Amp- Non inverting terminal Inverting terminal- voltage- ground- . I nverting terminal- ground voltage zero virtual . 10. What is summing Amplifier? Ans: The output of a summing amplifier is the amplification of sum of input signal voltages. Summing amplifier , input- input signal- voltage- () amplify . 11. Write the voltage gain of inverting Amplifier. Ans: Voltage gain AV=

=-

12. Define Non- Inverting Amplifier. Ans: If the output of an amplifier is the amplified signal of the input without any phase change is called as Non-Inverting amplifier.
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Amplifier- output input signal- phase change- Non-Inverting amplifier . 13. What is voltage Follower? Ans: Unity gain amplifier is called as Voltage follower. 14. Define Comparator. Ans: A circuit which is used to compare two analog signals is called comparator. 15. Write the output of an Integrator. Ans: Vo =

+ Vk(0)

Where Vk(0) = Initial output voltage Vo = Output voltage Vi = Input Voltage C = Capacitance in the integrator circuit R = Resistance in the integrator circuit 16. What are the uses of IC 555? Ans: 1) It is used as astable multivibrator. 2) It is used as monostable multivibrator. 3) It can be used as Schmitt trigger.

17. What is the Astable multivibrator? Ans: Astable multivibrator is a relaxation oscillator used for producing square wave or rectangular wave signals. It has no stable state; both the states are quasi stable state. Astable multivibrator relaxation oscillator . Astable

multivibrator stable state . state quasi stable state. 18. What is MonoStable Multivibrator? Ans: Multivibrator with only one stable state is called as monostable multivibrator. stable state- multivibrator- monostable multivibrator . 19. How many stable states are there in Astable Multivibrator? Ans: Astable multivibrator is a relaxation oscillator. It has no stable state; both the states are quasi stable state.
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Astable multivibrator relaxation oscillator . Astable multivibrator stable state . state quasi stable state. 20. What is a Schmitt trigger? Ans: Schmitt trigger is a type of multivibrator. It converts slowly varying input signal into a square or rectangular signal. Schmitt trigger monostable multivibrator- . ( Frequency ) input signal- signal- . 21. What is Sequence timer? Ans: When more than one monostable multivibrator is connected in cascade sequence then it is called as sequence timer. monostable multivibrator sequence timer . 22. What are the three types of IC voltage regulators? Ans: 1. Three terminal Fixed Voltage regulator 2. Variable output voltage regulator 3. Precision Voltage regulator square rectangular

23. How the positive and negative voltage IC regulators are are specified. Ans: Positive voltage regulator = 78XX Negative Voltage regulator = 79XX 24. What type of multivibrator is used in sequence timer? Ans: Monostable multivibrator is used in sequence timer

25. What is LM317? Ans: LM317 is series adjustable three terminal positive voltage regulator. 26. What is the output voltage range of LM317? Ans: Output voltage range = 1.2V to 37V
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27. Define Supply voltage rejection ratio (SVRR) Ans: SVRR is defined as the ratio of the change in input offset voltage to the corresponding change in one power supply voltage, with all remaining power voltages held constant. Input offset- power supply- ( power supply- voltage- ) SVRR . 28. Define CMRR. Ans: CMRR is defined as the ratio of differential voltage gain (Ad) to the common mode voltage gain (Acm) . Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) = Differential voltage gain (Ad)- commom mode voltage gain- CMRR . 29. Define Slew Rate. Ans: It is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage per unit of time. It is expressed in volts per microseconds. Slew Rate (SR) =

v/s

output voltage slew rate . Volts/microsecond unit- . 30. Write down the formula to calculate the frequency of an astable multivibrator. Ans: T=1.1*RC sec 31. Write any two application of comparator. Ans: 1. To convert sine wave into Square wave signal. 2. As Zero Crossing detector. 32. Draw the pin diagram of IC 555.

UNIT -2 33. What are the different number systems used. Ans: The different number systems in use are Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal, and BCD (Binary Coded Decimal). 34. What are the weights of Hexadecimal and Decimal numbers? Ans: Hexadecimal = 16 Decimal = 10

35. What are the weights of Octal and Binary numbers? Ans: Binary = 2 Ocrtal = 8 36. What is the value of A+A and A.A.? Ans: A+A=1 A.A =0 37. State Demorgans Theorem. Ans: First Law : The complement of sum of the variables is equal to the product of their sum. A+B=A.B Second Law: The complement of the product of the variables is equal to the sum of their complements. A.B=A+B 38. Which gate is called universal logic gate. Ans: NAND and NOR gate is called as universal logic gate.

39. Why the NAND/NOR gate is called universal logic gate? Ans: NAND and NOR gate are called universal logic gates, because we can construct any other gates by using either only NAND gates or only NOR gates. Sum of products boolean visual display Karnaugh map . 40. What is Karnaugh map?
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Ans: A Karnaugh map is a visual display of the fundamental products needed for a sum of products solution. By using K-Map we can simplify the Boolean expressions in sum of product form. Sum of products boolean visual display Karnaugh map . 41. How many variables are reduced using pair loops? Ans: Pair loops reduces or eliminates one variable and its complement. 42. Draw the symbol and truth table of AND gate.

## 46. Draw the symbol and truth table of Ex-NOR gate.

47. State the logic equation for the following gates a) AND b) Ex-NOR c)Ex-OR and d) OR. Ans: OR = A+B AND = A.B Ex-OR = A Ex-NOR= A B B

48. State the distributive law of Boolean algebra. Ans: 1) A.(B+C)=(A.B)+(A.C) 2) (A+B).(C+D)=(A.C)+(B.C)+(A.D)+(B.D) 49. State the Associative law of Boolean algebra. Ans: 1) A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C 2) A.(B.C)=(A.B).C

UNIT 3 50. What is half adder? Ans: A logic circuit which is used for adding two single bit binary numbers is called Half adder. Here A and B two inputs and S (SUM) and C (CARRY) are the outputs. binary bit add logic circuit Half adder . A,B , sum ,carry output . 51. What is full Adder? Ans: A logic circuit which is used for adding three single bit binary numbers is called Full adder. Here A, B and Cin are three inputs and S (SUM) and C (CARRY) are the outputs.
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binary bit add logic circuit Full adder . A,B,C , sum ,carry output . 52. What is half subtractor? Ans: A logic circuit which is used for subtracting one single bit binary number from another single bit binary number is called Half Subtractor. Here A and B two inputs and D (Difference) and Br (Borrow) are the outputs. binary bit subtract logic circuit Half subtractor . A,B input, Difference, borrow output . 53. What is full Subtractor? Ans: It is a three bit binary subtractor, used for performing three bit binary subtraction. Here B is subtracted from A and C is again subtracted from (A-B). binary bit subtract logic circuit Full subtarctor . A,B,C , Difference ,borrow output 54. Mention five different digital technologies. Ans: Different digital technologies are TTL, CMOS, ECL, I2L, DTL, HTL, etc

55. What is parity Bit? Ans: An additional bit added to the data before transmission for error checking is called Parity bit. Binary digital error- 0 1 . bit- Parity . 56. Define even parity. Ans: If the total number of one in the data group including the parity bit is even, then it is called even parity. Even parity 1- 1 . 57. Define odd parity.
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Ans: If the total number of one in the data group including the parity bit is odd then it is called even parity. Odd parity 1- 1 . 58. What is digital Comparator? Ans: A logic circuit is used for comparing(less than, greater than or equal) two bits is called a Digital comparator. binary logic circuit- didital comparator . 59. Define decoder. Ans: It is combinational logic circuit which as N inputs and 2N outputs. 60. What is encoder? Ans: It is combinational logic circuit which as 2N inputs and N outputs. 61. Define multiplexer. Ans: Multiplexer means many into one. It has 2N inputs and N control inputs (Address lines) and only one output. 62. What is demultiplexer? Ans: DeMultiplexer means one into many. It has one inputs and N control inputs (Address lines) and 2N output. 63. Define fan in. Ans: The number inputs connected to the gate without the degradation in the voltage levels is called as fan in. gate- input- fan in . 64. Define fan out. Ans: The maximum number of similar logic gates that a gate can drive without any degradation in voltage levels is called as Fan out. gate- output , voltage logic gate- , fan out .
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65. Define propagation delay. Ans: It is defined as the time taken for the output to change after the inputs have changed. Logic gate- input output propogation delay . 66. Define Noise Immunity. Ans: The noise immunity of a logic circuit refers to the circuit ability to tolerate noise without causing changes in the output voltage. Noise immunity . circuit- circuit- output noise immunity . 67. What is the basic gate of TTL logic? Ans: The basic gate of TTL logic is NAND. 68. What is the basic gate of CMOS logic? Ans: The basic gate of CMOS logic is NAND. 69. What is parity generator? Ans: The logic circuit used to generate parity bit for given set of data bits is called parity generator. Binary parity bit - circuit parity generator . 70. What is the difference between half adder and full adder? Sl.NO HALF ADDER 1 2 Performs addition of two bit. FULL ADDER Performs addition of three bits.

OR gate is not present in the logic OR gate is present in the logic diagram. diagram

UNIT -4 71. What is a sequential logic circuit? Ans: A sequential logic circuit is a circuit in which the output depends on the present input and the previous output (memory).
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Sequential logic circuit- output input- , output- . 72. What is flip flop? Ans: Flip flop is a sequential logic circuit which can store one bit of binary as 0 or 1. 73. What are the output conditions that exist in flip flops? Ans: The output conditions that exist in Flip Flops are 1. No Change 2. Set 3. Reset 4. Toggle. 74. Write three types of flip flop. Ans: 1. SR Flip Flop 2. JK Flip Flop 3. CSR Flip Flop 4. D Flip Flop. 75. Define the term toggling. Ans: The condition in which the previous output gets complemented is called as toggling. output- complement toggle . 76. What is race around? Ans: When J=K=1 in JK flip flop the output will toggle continuously because the new outputs are feedback to the input gates immediately. Toggling more than once is called racing or race-around. J=K=1 clock pulse=1 output toggle . clock pulse- toggling . 77. How the race around condition is is avoided in flip flops. Ans: The problem of racing is avoided in flip flops by using edge type clock pulses. Edge type clock pulses- racing problem- . 78. Which flip flop can be acted as divide by 2 counters? Ans: T Flip Flop. 79. What is a counter? Ans: A counter is a register capable of counting the number of clock pulses arriving at its input. Count represents the number of clock pulses arrived.
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80. What are the flip flops used in ripple counter. Ans: JK flip flop and T flip flop can be used in ripple counter. 81. What is mod n counter? Ans: A counter which resets at the Nth clock pulse is called Mod N counter or Divide by Nth counter. counter- output n clock pulse reset divide by n counter mod N counter . 82. How many flip flops are needed for constructing mod 6 counter. Ans: Three Flip flops 83. How many flip flops are needed for constructing Decade counter. Ans: Four Flip Flops

84. Define state diagram. Ans: The diagram which is used to represent the sequence of inputs, present state, Next state and output is called as state diagram. State table state diagram sequential logic circuit- input, next state-, output- . 85. What is serial in parallel out shift register? Ans: In Serial in Parallel out Shift register the write operation is in serial form and read operation is in parallel form. write serial read parallel .

## 86. What is D, T, JK and RS flip flop. Give its truth table.

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87. Define Edge triggering. Ans: The process of making flip flop to produce output either at rising edge or falling edge of the clock pulse is called edge triggering. 88. What is a shift register? Ans: A register is used to store digital information. Shift register Shifts the content of register towards left or right in serial or parallel form. 89. What are the differences between Synchronous and Assynchronous counter.

Sl.NO.

Assynchronous Counters The output of first flip flop drives the clock for the next flip-flop. All the flip flops are not clocked simultaneously. Logic circuit is simple Speed is low due to propogation delay

Synchronous Counters There is no connection between the output of first flip flop and input of the next flip flop. All the flip flops are clocked simultaneously. Logic circuit is complex No problem due to propogation delay. So

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## speeder than Assynchronous counters.

90. What are the different modes of shift register? Ans: Different modes of shift register are 1. Serial in Serial Out (SISO) 2. Serial in Parallel Out (SIPO) 3. Parallel in Serial Out (PISO) 4. Parallel in Parallel Out (PIPO)

UNIT 5 91. What is digital to analog conversion? Ans: The process of converting digital signal into analog signal is called digital to analog (D/A) conversion. digital signal- ( ) analog signal . 92. State the output of binary weighted resistor DAC. Ans: Vo= -

[ 2N-1bN-1+2N-1bN-1+..22b2+21b1+20b0]

93. State the output of R-2R ladder type DAC. Ans: Vo=[

2N-1bN-1+2N-1bN-1+..22b2+21b1+20b0]

94. What is the resolution in DAC? Ans: It is defined as the smallest possible change in output voltage range as a fraction or percentage of the full scale output range.

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Resolution D/A converter- full scale output range . 95. Define accuracy in DAC. Ans: It is the measure of the difference between the actual output voltage and the expected output voltage. Accuracy output- analog voltage- output- analog voltage- . 96. What is settling time in DAC? Ans: It is the time required for the analog output voltage to settle within (1/2) LSB of the final value after a change in the digital input. DAC circuit- input- digital signal analog output signal settling time

97. What is analog to digital conversion? Ans: The process of converting analog signal into an equivalent digital signal is known as analog to digital (A/D) conversion. analog signal- ( ) digital signal . 98. What is quantization? Ans: It is the process of mapping (dividing) an analog signal into several equivalent discrete levels (Ranges or Steps). analog-, signal quantization . 99. Define voltage to frequency conversion? Ans: It converts DC input voltage into a string of pulses, whose repetition rate (frequency) is proportional to the magnitude of the input voltage. Voltage to frequency converter input- DC voltage- pulse- output- .
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100. What is accuracy in ADC? Ans: It is the measure of the difference between the actual output voltage and the expected output voltage is called accuracy. circuit- input voltage output- digital signal, output- digital sgnal accuracy 101. Define conversion time in ADC. Ans: The time interval between the end of the start signal and the end of conversion is called conversion time. circuit- input- output conversion time 102. State the specification of ADC. Ans: The specifications of ADC are 1. Range of input voltage 2. Input impedance 3. Accuracy 4. Conversion time 5. Differential linearity 6. Resolution 7. Drift 103. What are the components used for fabricating memory cell. Ans: 1. Bipolar Metal Oxide Semiconductors(MOS) 2. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS) 104. What is RAM? Ans: RAM stands for Random Access Memory. It is possible to read and write in any memory location at the same speed. 105. What is ROM? Ans: ROM stands for Read Only Memory. Data stored in it can be read only. It cannot be modified. 106. What is PROM? Ans: PROM stands for Programmable Read Only Memory. 107. What is EPROM? Ans: EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. 108. What is EEPROM?
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Ans: EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. 109. What is volatile memory? Ans: In this type of memory the information stored will be lost if the if the power is removed. Eg. RAM 110. How many 8K memory is needed for creating 16K memory? Ans: Two 111. Define static memory. Ans: Static memory uses flip flops for memory cells. Static memory requires clock signals in addition to extra power supplies.

112. Define dynamic memory. Ans: Dynamic memory stores data as charges on the capacitors. 113. Define static RAM. Ans: Static RAM uses MOS flip flops for memory cells. Static RAM is also known as SRAM. 114. Define dynamic RAM. Ans: Dynamic RAM stores data as charges on the capacitors. Dynamic RAM is also known as DRAM.

115. What is SDRAM? Ans:SD RAM means Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory.

116. What is DDR RAM? Ans: DDRRAM stands for Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory.

## THREE MARKS UNIT 1 1. Mention the characteristics of an ideal Op-Amp.

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Ans: a) High input impedance, Ri= (Infinity) b) Low output impedance, Ro=0 c) High voltage gain, Av= (Infinity) d) High bandwidth e) Perfect balance; Vo=0 when V1=V2 f) Characteristics do not drift with temperature

2. Write short notes on virtual ground. Ans: In an inverting amplifier the non inverting input is grounded and input signal is applied to the inverting input terminal through a resistor Ri.

The differential input voltage is ideally zero. Therefore inverting terminal voltage V1 is approximately at ground potential when there is no input. The inverting terminal is not directly connected to ground. But it acts like a ground terminal. Therefore the inverting terminal is said to be at virtual ground.

3. When a non inverting amplifier is used as a voltage follower? Ans: In non-inverting amplifier, the output voltage is given by Vo= When Rf=0 and Ri=, the output voltage becomes Vo=(1+0)Vi= Vi

The output voltage follows the input voltage. The modified circuit is shown in the figure given above is called voltage follower.
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4. What are the features of IC regulator using LM 317? i) Adjustable output down to 1.2V ii) Guaranteed 1.5A output current iii) Line regulation typically 0.01% / V iv) Load regulation typically 0.1% v) Current limit constant with temperature. vi) Standard 3 lead transistor package vii) 80db ripple rejection ratio viii) Output is short circuit protected 5. Draw the circuit diagram of inverting amplifier using op-amp.

6. Draw summing amplifier using op-amp and note its output voltage.

## 7. Draw the block diagram Op-Amp.

8. Draw the pin diagram of IC 741 op-amp and mention its pins.
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## 10. Draw the circuit diagram of a differentiator.

11. Draw the pin diagram of IC555 and mention each pin.

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## 16. Draw the circuit diagram of voltage regulator using LM317.

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UNIT 2 17. State Demorgans Theorem. Ans: First Law : The complement of sum of the variables is equal to the product of their sum. A+B=A.B Second Law: The complement of the product of the variables is equal to the sum of their complements. A.B=A+B 18. What is positive logic and negative logic? Ans: Positive logic means that 1 stands for the most positive of the two levels. In this logic, 1= high=True and 0=Low=False. Negative logic means that 1 stands for the most negative of the two levels. In this logic, 0= high=True and 1=Low=False. Majority of the digital system uses positive logic. In positive logic system +5V dc represents logic 1 and logic 0V dc represents logic 0.

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## 23. Construct a AND gate by using only NAND gates.

UNIT 3 24. What are the methods of used for representing signed binary numbers? Ans: The signed binary numbers are represented in three types they are, 1. Sign and Magnitude 2. Sign and 1s complement 3. Sign and 2s complement

## 25. Mention the handling precautions of CMOS ICs.

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Ans: Precautions in handling CMOS IC 1. Always use the IC with socket 2. Do not store the IC in plastic trays or insert them in thermocouple rubber. 3. Store the IC in conductive form 4. Remove signal sources and test equipments before switching OFF the power supply to IC, because the input signal voltage should not exceed the supply voltage of the IC. 5. Unused CMOS IC should be connected to either supply voltage or ground 6. Never insert or remove the IC with power ON 7. Always use perfect square pulses as the input signal 8. Never apply excessive reverse voltage.

26. Compare TTL and CMOS gates. Parameters Basic gate Fan Out Power dissipation in mW/gate Noise Immunity Propagation delay in ns/gate Speed power product (PJ) Clock Rate (MHz) for FFs Available function TTL standard NAND 10 12 Very Good 9 90 45 Very High TTL LS series NAND 20 2 Very Good 9.5 19 50 Very High CMOSL NAND-NOR 20 0.0025 Very Good 18 10.8 60 High

27. What are the advantages of CMOS gates? Ans: Advantages 1. High fan out capacity 2. Good noise immunity 3. High operating speed 4. Operates at wide variable power supply voltage 5. Low power dissipation
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28. What are the disadvantages of CMOS gate? Ans: Disadvantages 1. Large chip size 2. More expensive 3. High output impedance 29. What are the characteristics of CMOS gates? Ans: Characteristics 1. The switching characteristic is very fast 2. It does not vary with temperature 3. Power dissipation is directly proportional to the operating frequency 4. High noise immunity

30. What are the advantages of TTL gates? Ans: Advantages 1. Compatible with other logic circuits 2. Low output impedance 3. High speed operation 4. Good noise Immunity 5. Low power dissipation 6. High fan out 7. Low Cost 31. What are the disadvantages of TTL gates? Ans: Disadvantages 1. TTL ICs generate switching transistors 2. Used special techniques for circuit preparation 3. Wired output capability is not possible 32. What are the characteristics of TTL gates? Ans: Characteristics 1. Operate reliably over the range from 4.75V to 5.25V 2. Operates in ambient temperature range from 0 to 70oC 3. One NAND gate requires an average power of 10mW 4. Propagation delay range from 7ns to 11 ns
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5. Fan out : It can drive standard TTL inputs UNIT 4 33. What are the difference between sequential logic and combinational logic circuit? Sl.NO. Combinational Circuit The output always depends on the combinational inputs Sequential Circuit The outputs depend both the present input variables and past outputs of these variables Memory unit is required to store the past output Slower than combinational logic circuits Comparatively harder to design

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## Memory unit is not required They are faster Easy to design

34. Write short notes on race around condition. Ans: When J=K=1 in JK flip flop the output will toggle continuously because the new outputs are feedback to the input gates immediately. This process repeats continuously, till the clock input goes to low level. Toggling more than once during a clock cycle is called racing. At the end of the clock pulse the output is uncertain. This situation is referred to as race around condition. It is avoided when tp<t<T, by using edge triggered flip flops.

J=K=1 clock pulse=1 output toggle . clock pulse- high level . clock pulse- toggling .

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## Clock pulse- output

race around condition . clock pulse- edge- trigger flip flop . 35. What is the difference between synchronous counter and asynchronous counter? Sl.NO. Assynchronous Counters The output of first flip flop drives the clock for the next flip-flop. All the flip flops are not clocked simultaneously. Logic circuit is simple Speed is low due to propogation delay Synchronous Counters There is no connection between the output of first flip flop and input of the next flip flop. All the flip flops are clocked simultaneously. Logic circuit is complex No problem due to propogation delay. So speeder than Assynchronous counters.

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36. What are the different types of shift registers? Define them. Ans: Different modes of shift register are 1. Serial in Serial Out (SISO) :- The write operation and read operation are in serial form. write read serial . 2. Serial in Parallel Out (SIPO) :- In this configuration the write operation is in serial form and read operation is in parallel form. write serial read parallel 3. Parallel in Serial Out (PISO):- In this configuration the write operation is in parallel form and read operation is in serail form. write parallel read serial
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4. Parallel in Parallel Out (PIPO) :- The write operation and read operation are in parallel form. write read parallel .

37. Write short notes on ring counter. Ans: Ring counter is the simplest form of shift register counter. It is basically a circulating shift register. The logic diagram of a four bit ring counter using D flip flop is shown in fig below. The output of the first flip flop (QA) is connected to the input of second flip flop (QB) is connected to the input of third flip flop, and the output of third flip flop (QC) is connected to the input of fourth flip flop. The output of fourth flip flop (Last) (QD) is connected to the first flip flop, which provides feedback connection.

## Ring counter shift register counter- .

output () shift register . flip flop- output (QA) flip flop- input , flip flop- output (QB) flip flop- flip flop- input , flip flop- output (QC) flip flop- input .

feedback

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UNIT 5

38. Explain the terms linearity and settling time in DAC? Ans: Linearity: In a D/A converter, equal increments in the numerical significance of the digital input should result in the equal increments in the analog output voltage. In an actual circuit the input-output relationship is not linear. This is due to the errors in resistor values and voltage across the switches.

D/A converter

linearity voltage

input- output-

digital analog

input-

.
Settling Time: It is the time required for the analog output voltage to settle within (1/2) LSB of the final value after a change in the digital input. DAC circuit- input- digital signal analog output signal settling time

39. Explain the term accuracy and monotonocity in DAC? Ans: Accuracy: It is the measure of the difference between the actual output voltage and the expected output voltage. Accuracy output- analog voltage- output- analog voltage- . Montonocity: A D/A converter is said to be monotonic if its output voltage increases regularly as its binary digital signal is increased from one value to the next value.

Input-

digital

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## output analog signalmonotonocity

40. Explain the term quantization? Ans: It is the process of mapping (dividing) an analog signal into several equivalent discrete levels (Ranges or Steps). That means, it is the process of converting a continous input values to a discrete output values.

The transfer function of a quantizer is shown below.While the analog input may have any value from 0 to high, the output can exist only as one of the 8 discrete values from 0(000) to 7 (111). Hence the transfer function looks like a staircase. analog-, signal quantization . input signal- signal output- .

41. What are the advantages of semiconductor memory? They are low cost Semiconductor memories are small in size. They operate at high speed They are highly reliable
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