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International Labour Organisation

FIT-SEMA Small Enterprise


Media in Africa Project

Impact Assessment Report on Rural SPEED Radio Programs


Promoting “Savings Culture”

Submitted to ILO FIT-SEMA and Rural SPEED Project

October 2007

Prepared by:
Ian K. Nkata
Media and Market Research Consultant
P.O. Box 16003
Kampala
Uganda
Telephone: +256 772 400 717
Email: ian.nkata@gmail.com
Table of Contents
FIT-SEMA Small Enterprise Media in Africa Project 1
Chart 22: Accuracy of information in the radio programs 4
Chart 23: How satisfied with resource people 4
Chart 24: Preferred attributes of resource people 4

1 Introduction 7

2 Objectives of the impact assessment 7

3 Methodology 8
3.1 Pre-assessment activities 8
3.2 Sampling size and technique 8
3.3 Data collection and assessment tools 9
3.4 Data processing and analysis 10

4 Challenges faced 10

5 Findings 11
5.1 Background information 11
5.1.1 Gender of respondents 11
5.1.2 Age of respondents 12
5.1.3 Main source of income 12
5.1.4 Categories of respondents 13
5.2 Saving habits 14
5.2.1 Do you save? 14
5.2.2 Frequency of saving 14
5.2.3 Average amount of money saved in given period 15
5.2.4 Proportion saved 16
5.2.5 Mode of saving 17
5.2.6 Key reasons for saving 18
5.2.7 Decision making for savings 18
5.2.8 Problems faced when saving 18
5.2.9 Key reasons for inability to save 19
5.3 Awareness of Radio Programs promoting “Savings Culture” 20
5.3.1 Program awareness and listenership to radio programs on savings culture 20
5.3.2 Radio station on which programs were listened to 21
5.3.3 Frequency of listening to radio programs promoting “Savings Culture” 24
Chart 13: Frequency of listening to radio programs promoting “Savings Culture” 24
5.3.4 Sources of information on savings and micro finance before radio programs on Savings 26
One of the objectives of the assessment was to find out sources of information on savings and micro finance. Chart 14
below clearly demonstrates that word of mouth, 30%, and local village groups (local MFIs), 24%, were the main sources
of such information before commencement of radio programs promoting savings culture. 26
Chart 14: Sources of information on savings and micro finance before radio programs on Savings 26
5.3.5 Associating Radio Programs promoting savings culture with organizations/Programmes 27
5.4 Program Content and Delivery and Delivery 28
5.4.1 Relevance of topics or issues covered in radio programs on “Savings Culture” 28
5.4.2 Key reasons for topical relevance 28
5.4.3 Key reasons for irrelevance of topics covered 29
5.4.4 How adequately topics were covered 30
5.4.5 Topical issues that need to be reviewed or revisited in future programs 32
5.4.6 Satisfaction with presentation style of radio programs promoting “Savings Culture” 33
5.4.7 Accuracy of information in the radio programs 35
Chart 22: Accuracy of information in the radio programs 35
5.4.8 Preferred mode of presentation 36

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 2


5.4.9 Preferred attributes of resource people on the radio programs 36
About 47% of the respondents were satisfied with resource people’s work. 36
Chart 23: How satisfied with resource people 36
Chart 24: Preferred attributes of resource people 37
5.4.10 Suggestions on how the “Savings Culture” radio programs can be improved 37
5.5 Application of ideas from Radio Programs promoting “Savings Culture” 38
5.5.1 Effectiveness of the radio programs on “Savings Culture” 38
5.5.2 Level of Listeners savings before commencement of radio program and after 39
5.5.3 How ideas or knowledge from radio programs was applied to enhance savings habits 39
5.5.4 Beneficial aspects from the radio programs 40
Table 26: Beneficial aspects from the radio programs 40
5.5.5 Assessment of different aspects of the radio programs 41
5.5.6 Likelihood of improving savings habits as a result of listening to the radio programs 43
Chart 28: Likelihood of improving saving habits after radio programs 43
5.6 General Issues 44
5.6.1 Use of radio as a tool or medium for promoting/developing savings culture and micro finance industry activities
44
5.6.2 Reasons for using radio 44
5.6.3 Reasons for not recommending the use of radio for promoting savings culture 45
5.6.4 General comments radio programs promoting savings culture 45

6 Concluding statements and recommendations 49

Appendices

I. Detailed statistical data from the assessment (Disaggregated)


II. Survey locations
III. Research Teams
IV. Sample of Police Introductory letter

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Average amount savings
Table 2: Mode saving
Table 3: Reasons for saving
Table 4: Decision making on savings
Table 5: Key reasons for inability to save
Table 6: Akandala
Table7: Deru Para
Table 8: Manyangua
Table 9: Bikiira Nyentsya
Table 10: Bikiira Nyentsya
Table 11: Eyeterekera
Table 12: Kano Lim/Akiba Aihozi
Table 13: Yiko Oywelo (Biacara)
Table 14: Comparison between awareness and listenership
Table 15: Number of times program was listened to
Table 16: Number of times promotional adverts were heard
Table 17: Organizations to which radio programs are associated
Table 18: Adequately covered
Table 19: Topics not adequately covered
Table 20: Topics for review or revisiting
Table 21: Reasons given for accuracy of information
Table 22: Reasons given for accuracy of information
Table 23: Preferred mode of presentation
Table 24: Suggestions for improving radio programs
ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 3
Table 25: Actions taken to enhance saving habits
Table 26: Beneficial aspects from the radio programs

LIST OF CHARTS
Chart 1: Gender of Respondents
Chart 2: Age of respondents
Chart 3: Main Source of income
Chart 4: Categories of respondents
Chart 5: Do you save on a regular basis?
Chart 6: Frequency of saving
Chart 7: Proportion saved
Chart 8: Percentage of incomes saved
Chart 9: Main challenges faced when saving
Chart 10: Awareness of radio programs promoting savings culture
Chart 11: Listening to the program
Chart 12: Comparison between awareness and listenership
Chart 13: Frequency of listening to radio programs promoting “Savings Culture”
Chart 14: Sources of information on savings and micro finance before radio programs on Savings
Chart 15: Relevance of topics covered
Chart 16: Reasons for relevance of topics covered
Chart 17: Reasons for irrelevance of topics covered
Chart 18: How topics were adequately covered
Chart 20: Reasons for satisfaction with style of presentation
Chart 21: Reasons for dissatisfaction with style of presentation

Chart 22: Accuracy of information in the radio programs

Chart 23: How satisfied with resource people

Chart 24: Preferred attributes of resource people


Chart 25: Effectiveness of the radio programs on “Savings Culture”
Chart 26: Level of saving before and after listening to “Savings Culture” program
Chart 27: Agreement on statements about savings promotion programs
Chart 28: Likelihood of improving saving habits after radio programs
Chart 29: Recommending use of radio
Chart 30: Reasons for using of radio

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ILO FIT-SEMA in partnership with Rural SPEED, a USAID Funded Project have supported radio
programs on “Promoting a Savings Culture” in the last six months on selected radio stations i.e.
Radio West, Voice of Teso, Radio Paidha, CBS Radio, Rock Mambo, Mega FM, and Pacis
Radio under the theme “Enhancing your Financial Security through Savings”.

Seven Radio Programs “Promoting Savings Culture” were run on 7 radio stations i.e.
“Akandala” on Voice of Teso
“Deru Para” on Radio Paidha
“Manyangua” on Radio Pacis
“Bikiira Nyentsya” on Radio West
“Eyeterekera” on CBS FM
“Kano Lim/Akiba Aihozi” on Rock Mambo FM
“Yiko Oywelo” on Mega FM

An impact assessment of radio programs promoting savings culture targeting farmers in agro
business, small business owners and operators, and income earners (with disposable income)
was carried out and the main objectives of the assessment were:

– To assess awareness of the Radio Programs Promoting the Rural Savings Culture
– To find out the impact of the Radio Programs (promoting the savings culture) on
the lives of the rural MSE and farming communities.
– To assess the level of impact the Radio Programs have had in promoting savings
and business development
– To assess the method of delivery/presentation in the respective Radio programs
– To assess which organizations are associated with the Radio programs
– To solicit suggestions for improvement of the Radio programs that were aired

The assessment was undertaken in the districts of Soroti, Nebbi, Arua, Mbarara, Kabale,
Kampala/Central, Tororo and Gulu.

Key findings indicate that 57% of the respondents are aware of a radio program promoting
savings culture. The radio programs are more associated with Uganda Micro Finance Forum
and Rural SPEED than any other organization. Over 50 % of the respondents found the topics
discussed to be very relevant while topics like Income generating activities; why people should
save (benefits); community saving habits; what saving is all about; where people should save;
and dangers of not saving, were seen to have been more adequately covered than other areas.
The effectiveness of the radio programs was highly regarded as over 80% of the respondents
said that programs were effective in their personal or business lives. Some identified areas that
need to be covered include: More about interest rates; How to access loans; Banking
procedures and more clearly on requirements for opening an account; Who to approach about
savings; Why cash withdrawals are restricted and to help people differentiate between genuine
financial institutions and fake ones to minimize cheating of the public. Things that need to be
done to improve the radio programs include:

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 5


1) Strengthening of coverage of some topics like: Why people don’t save in financial
institutions; Safety & security of money ; Types of financial institutions and Why people
should save in financial institutions
2) Listeners would like to hear more from the following topics: Income generating activities;
Community saving habits; Why people should save (Benefits); Saving as a solution to
poverty alleviation; Ways of saving; and Saving vs. Borrowing
3) Using radio to more effectively to encourage people to save in financial institutions that
are well established and genuine.
4) Encouraging people to save for reasons of either starting a business or expanding one
as opposed to saving for only emergencies. Investing money that has been saved would
ensure some form of sustainability as constant returns will be expected with time.
5) Encouraging sustained savings by promoting budgeting
6) Increasing awareness of radio programs promoting savings culture. This can be done
through door to door sensitization or workshops at village level.
7) Inviting successful people especially business people to the radio programs. This would
act as a source of inspiration. This can be successful if persons invited can be identified
with the people.
8) Providing more air time for radio programs promoting savings culture. This can be done
either by adding more program time or have the programs run at least twice a week.

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 6


1 Introduction
ILO FIT-SEMA in partnership with Rural SPEED, a USAID Funded Project have supported radio
programs on “Promoting a Savings Culture” in the last six months on selected radio stations i.e.
Radio West, Voice of Teso, Radio Paidha, CBS Radio, Rock Mambo, Mega FM, and Pacis
Radio under the theme “Enhancing your Financial Security through Savings”.

FIT-SEMA and Rural Speed, in this partnership, sought to maximise the use of radio in
delivering information that will enable the growth of the savings culture and the partnership
aimed at developing a win-win working arrangement among the industry stakeholders on the
one hand and radios on the other, so that relevant information is delivered to the audience with
the desired effect, and the communication objectives of those participating in this sponsorship is
achieved.

ILO FIT-SEMA project works with radio stations to enable the flow of information targeting rural
micro and small enterprises. The project works with radio stations in establishing business
programs that act as a platform for providing information, debates and dialogue aimed at
enabling MSEs influence policies that affect their business environment while Rural SPEED has
been involved in deliberate efforts to promote the culture of savings through so that the practice
becomes part of people’s lives to manage incomes for the benefit of their households and the
economic activities in the medium to long term.

The key communication objectives for this campaign were:

a) To enhance understanding of the importance, value, and the required practices to make
savings a long term and valued practice among rural MSEs and farmers.
b) To enhance awareness among rural MSEs and farmers of the different roles
stakeholders (particularly service providers) can play in establishing a savings culture
over the medium to long term
c) To enhance dialogue among all stakeholders in the industry on issues regarding
savings using radio as an accessible and sustainable platform
d) To demonstrate campaign benefits for sponsors, advertisers and organisations that
participated on the programs

ILO FIT-SEMA and Rural SPEED decided to hire a consultant to assess the impact of the radio
programs in the respective broadcast areas and districts.1 Lessons from the assessment, it was
envisaged, would be used to improve future interventions/programs and to also encourage other
stakeholders to come on board to support these initiatives. This report therefore presents the
findings of the assessment and it also outlines recommendations for improving radio programs
promoting “savings culture”.

2 Objectives of the impact assessment


The overall goal was to assess the impact of the “Savings Culture” Radio Programs on the rural
farming and business communities. Below were the specific objectives of the assessment:

• To assess awareness of the Radio Programs Promoting the Rural Savings Culture
• To assess the relevance of program content

1
Districts covered were Soroti, Nebbi, Arua, Gulu, Tororo, Kabale, Mbarara and Kampala.
ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 7
• To find out the impact of the Radio Programs (promoting the savings culture) on the lives
of the rural MSE and farming communities.
• To assess the level of impact the Radio Programs have had in promoting savings and
business development
• To establish which issues are not currently addressed but are important
• To assess the method of delivery/presentation in the respective Radio programs
• To evaluate the accuracy of program content
• To assess which organizations are associated with the Radio programs
• To solicit suggestions for improvement of the Radio programs that were aired

3 Methodology
This chapter covers pre-assessment activities, the assessment methodology dealing with
sampling, survey tools, data collection and analysis techniques.

3.1 Pre-assessment activities


Before the assessment, a number of activities were carried out. These were:

a) Meeting with ILO FIT-SEMA and Rural SPEED officials to ensure that issues raised in the
proposal were in line with their needs.
b) Designing the questionnaire in consultation with ILO FIT-SEMA and Rural SPEED
officials.
c) Training interviewers and supervisors in preparing them for the assignment. During the
training, the draft questionnaire was reviewed so that interviewers would familiarize with it
before commencement of fieldwork. In the same meeting the main goal of the impact
assessment was communicated to them as part of the preparation process. Issues
addressed in the training were:

• Sample size, allocation per person


• Gender considerations and proportions
• Location of research, detail of work plan – field movement
• Duration of research
• General expectations

28 people took part in the training and briefing.

The supervisors, who the led the various teams, were given a special session to outline
what was expected of them. The team leaders were expected to guide the teams in the
various survey locations. A detailed guideline document was given to them to help in
directing field operations. The guideline document appears in appendix V.

3.2 Sampling size and technique

The assessment set out to interview 900 respondents who included farmers in agro-business;
medium and small enterprise owners and operators and members of the general public
especially those have a disposable income (earn a regular income) in one way or another. The
ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 8
respondents interviewed were found in districts within broadcast areas of the radio stations on
which the “Savings Culture” Radio Programs were run. These districts included: Soroti, Nebbi,
Arua, Gulu, Tororo, Kabale, Mbarara and Kampala. The assessment intended to have 15% of
the sample be farmers in agro-business; 50% medium and small enterprise owners and
operators and 35% general public especially those have a disposable income (earn a regular
income). The sample was randomly drawn from the eight districts using a combination of
techniques because of the complexity of the target respondents. Techniques applied included
systematic random sampling technique and judgmental technique.

The systematic random technique was applied as follows: every 4th subject was chosen for an
interview following the left hand rule. The researcher randomly choose the 1st subject for an
interview and after the interview the research then counted up to 4 and the next 4th subject was
interviewed and so on. This is what is called the skip interval. This was used mainly in the case
of households in a given area and in public places. This was done as long as the chosen subject
fitted into the target respondents. If subject was found not applicable, then the next was chosen
following the same pattern. Judgmental sampling technique was applied in a situation where the
researcher drew a representative sample based on personal judgment that is the subject is
characteristic of the population under study. These were entrepreneurs (i.e. MSE owners and/or
operators and farmers in agro-business). The researchers followed strict guidelines on how
many people were to be interviewed in each category as in target respondents as well as gender
considerations. The supervisors ensured compliance to set rules and guidelines. Survey
locations were followed as planned. A list of locations and survey routes appear in the
appendix).

3.3 Data collection and assessment tools

A detailed structured questionnaire was used to collect data through face to face interviews. The
questionnaire2 was divided into six major sections. These included:
• Background information
• Saving habits
• Radio Programs awareness
• Program content and delivery
• Application
• General issues

In order to take cater for language matters, research assistants engaged in the assignment were
speakers of local languages i.e. Luo, Lugbar, Alur, Jophadola, Ateso, Rukiga, Luganda and
Runyankore. This was done to minimize any shortcomings during the interviews in case the
interviewers were unable to express themselves in the respective local languages. The research
assistants were encouraged to translate questions, where necessary, without distorting their
meanings.

Given that the assessment covered three regions (8 districts), the data collection process was
managed as described below:

a) Eight teams of various sizes were formed. Some had 3 and others had 4 while one had
5 research assistants3 depending on where they are going. Each team was inclusive of

2
The final questionnaire draft was accepted by officials from FIT-SEMA and Rural SPEED. All salient issues were covered accordingly before
the assessment.
ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 9
supervisor who was team leader. The eight teams covered the following districts Soroti;
Nebbi; Arua; Gulu; Tororo; Kabale; Mbarara and Kampala.
b) Each team had a leader/supervisor that was in charge of the team and had their
responsibilities well stipulated in a supervisor’s guideline document. (See a detailed
copy in the appendix V). Their main areas of focus were guiding the team, quality
assurance, general supervision and progress reporting to the consultant.
c) The consultant was in constant touch with the supervisors to see to it that work was
proceeding as planned. The consultant visited some research sites to do spot checks
on some teams and took some photographs of field work being undertaken.

District Frequency Percent


Gulu 106 11.8
Arua 111 12.3
Nebbi 98 10.9
Tororo 105 11.7
Soroti 100 11.1
Mbarara 125 13.9
Kabale 106 11.8
Kampala 150 16.6
Total 901 100

3.4 Data processing and analysis

Data in the questionnaires were edited and checked to ensure completeness, clarity and
consistency of the responses. Most of the data collected was quantitative in nature. The
quantitative data was captured into SPSS for windows (Version 12.0) for initial processing. For
further analysis and manipulation, the processed data was exported into MS Excel. The findings
are summarized into frequency tables, graphs and cross tabulations which are presented in
Chapter 5.

The questionnaires were also characterized by some open-ended questions which required the
respondents to freely respond. These were analyzed by organizing the responses into coherent
categories which were counted for purposes of ranking, and some were coded for further
analysis. These are also discussed in Chapter 5.

4 Challenges faced
In the course of collecting data, the process was faced with some challenges. Much as these
challenges came up, measures to mitigate them were designed in order meet the set objectives
of the assessment. Below are some of the challenges that were faced:

• It took a lot of convincing potential respondents that information being collected was
concerned with radio programs promoting savings and that the teams were not
representing financial institutions from which they expect money within the framework of
“Prosperity for all” programme.
• Some listeners would recall the amount of money they save in a given period. In this case
the respondents were encouraged to give some indicative figures.

3
Gender considerations will be made in research team composition to ensure a balance.
ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 10
• Accessing some areas especially in Soroti District was difficult due to floods that had
occurred in the area. In this case activities were limited to places which were accessible.

5 Findings
This chapter presents the findings of the assessment in an aggregated form. Detailed findings by
radio footprint appear in appendix I in disaggregated form. 4

5.1 Background information


5.1.1 Gender of respondents
Of the 901 respondents, 54% were females while 46% were males.

Chart 1: Gender of Respondents

Ge nde r
Base:901

Male
46%

Female
54%

4
This is broken down as per either radio station/program or district under study.
ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 11
5.1.2 Age of respondents
Over 66% of the respondents interviewed were between the ages of 18 and 35 years of age.
Most of the people interviewed were between 25 and 35 years of age. They accounted for about
30% of the total.

Chart 2: Age of respondents

Age of Respondents
Base 897

35.0
29.7
30.0
25.0 21.5
20.0
15.2
15.0 12.6
9.4
10.0 6.1 5.6
5.0
0.0
18-24 25-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 Over 51
years

5.1.3 Main source of income


Respondents were required to indicate their main source of income. Majority of the respondents
are involved in some of some retail trade business i.e. 36%. These own small shops, groceries
or sell something to earn some income. Also significant are those involved in direct farming and
some kind of service business with scores of 20% and 16% respectively as indicated in Chart 3
below. Service business is characterized by such things as phone operator, saloon operator,
tailoring, car mechanics, bicycle repair, carpentry, barber, photocopying and hiring services. A
total of 25% of the respondents are either formally or informally employed.

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 12


Chart 3: Main Source of income

Main source of income


Base:901

No response
Farming
3% Business-Retail
20%
trade
36%

Employed formally
14%

Employed by Business - Service


others privately industry
11% 16%

5.1.4 Categories of respondents

The assessment was principally directed towards farmers in agro business, small business
owners/operators and income earners. The respondents were asked to identify the category in
which they mainly fall. The figure below shows the results:

Chart 4: Categories of respondents

Main categories of respondents


Base:895

Farmer in agro
business
19%

Small business
ow ner/operator
48%

Income earner
(w ith disposable
income)
33%

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 13


5.2 Saving habits
5.2.1 Do you save?

The respondents were asked to indicate if they save or not. Chart 5 below indicates that at least
78% of the respondents save some money on a regular basis while 22% said they did not.

Chart 5: Do you save on a regular basis?

Do you save on a regular basis?


Base:891

No
22%

Yes
78%

5.2.2 Frequency of saving


Over 40% of the respondents said that they save some money on a monthly basis while just
fewer than 29% do so on a weekly basis. Other specifications of saving frequency are
characterized by frequencies of 2 or 3 months or more to a year.

Chart 6: Frequency of saving


If yes, how often do you save?
Base :706

45.0 40.1
40.0
35.0
28.6
30.0
25.0
20.0 15.2
15.0
9.2
10.0 6.4
5.0
0.0
Everyday Weekly Every 2 w eeks Monthly Other (specify)

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 14


5.2.3 Average amount of money saved in given period

The respondents were requested to indicate the average amount of money they save in a given
period. Table 1 below shows the details. Majority save 5000/= or less (25%), while 18% save
between 5001/= and 10,000/=. Also significant is the 15% who save between 10,001 and
20,000/=. It can be concluded from this table that almost 60% of the respondents save anywhere
between 5000/= (or less) to 20,000/= in a given period.

Table 1: Average amount savings


Average amount of savings in period
stated
Frequency Percent
Less 5000/= 174 25.0
5,001-10,000/= 126 18.1
10,001-20,000/= 105 15.1
20,001-30,000/= 54 7.8
30,001-40,000/= 27 3.9
40,001-50,000/= 50 7.2
50,001-60,000/= 47 6.8
60,001-70,000/= 8 1.1
70,001-80,000/= 11 1.6
80,001-90,000/= 5 0.7
90,001-100,000/= 23 3.3
100,001-110,000/= 22 3.2
110,001-120,000/= 3 0.4
120,001-130,000/= 3 0.4
130,001-140,000/= 3 0.4
170,001-180,000/= 1 0.1
More than 180,000/= 23 3.3
Not applicable 11 1.6
Total 696 100

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 15


5.2.4 Proportion saved

An indication of proportion respondents was required to show what part of their incomes is
saved. Chart 7 below indicates that just over 61% save “some of it” while 13% said that they
save most of their income.

Chart 7: Proportion saved


What proportion of income is saved?
Base:901

70.0
61.5
60.0
50.0
40.0
30.0 22.6
20.0 13.8
10.0
1.3
0.0
All of it Most of it Some of it No response

In order to get an idea of how much the respondents saved, they were asked to show what
portion of their income they save in percentage terms. Chart 8 below shows that majority of the
respondents save between 1% and 10 % of their income. These account for about 33% of the
total.
Chart 8: Percentage of incomes saved

Regardless of income levels, what percentage of your earnings


do you save? Base: 688

No t applicable 2.6
Over 50% 10.5
Percentage of income saved

46-50% 11.5
41-45% 4.9
36-40% 3.9
31-35% 5.1
26-30% 7.6
21-25% 9.9
16-20% 5.1
11-15% 6.0
6-10% 17.0
1-5% 16.0

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 16


5.2.5 Mode of saving
Majority of the respondents save money in big banking institutions, keep at home in a secret
place and also through arrangements in village groups (local initiatives and voluntary savings).
Details appear in Table 2 below. However, with reference to the table below, there is a clear
indication that saving in big banks, overall, is still low compared to all other modes combined.

Table 2: Mode saving


How do you save? Frequency Percent
Big bank 218 31.5
Keep at home/secret place 174 25.1
Village groups (Local initiatives, voluntary
savings) 164 23.7
Village Savings & Loans Associations (VSLA) 53 7.6
Savings & Credits Cooperatives (SACCOS) 29 4.2
Invest in asset to be sold in emergency or
investment club 20 2.9
With friend, colleague or family 18 2.6
Micro Finance Institution (Compulsory
Savings on loans) 13 1.9
Revolving Savings & Credit Associations
(ROSCAS) 3 0.4
Total 693 100.0

Low scores on Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs) and Savings & Credits Cooperatives (SACCOS) are
explained by such comments as “We would rather save our money in village groups because we
are fed up with these new micro finance institutions. You cannot trust them.” (Male 25 -30,
farmer, Bwizibwera Mbarara).

“Some of these MFIs have been a major disappointment. A good number of people have
invested/saved in wrong places or financial institutions only ending up loosing all their money.
These institutions exploit ignorance of the people and cheat them. People need to know which
are genuine and those that are not.” (Female 41-45, small business operator, Rwebikona
Mbarara)

However on the other hand some people effect savings by purchasing an asset like one
respondent in Mbarara stated:
“I bought land at 800,000/= from my savings” (Male 41-45, income earner, Bwizibwera Mbarara)

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 17


5.2.6 Key reasons for saving
Reasons for saving are essentially for future consumption, future investment, for expanding a
business and insurance against emergencies as shown in table 3 below.

Table 3: Reasons for saving


Key reason for saving some money Frequency Valid Percent
Future consumption (School fees, health, rent etc) 218 32.6
Future investment 162 24.2
For expanding a business 71 10.6
Insurance against emergencies 66 9.9
Meet basic household needs 43 6.4
Social security (I don’t want to depend on others) 24 3.6
For starting a business 23 3.4
To control expenditure 17 2.5
Safe custody of wealth 16 2.4
Financial freedom 11 1.6
To pay back loan 9 1.3
Social reasons (Weddings, bride price etc) 6 0.9
Other reason (specify) 2 0.3
Other do so/Been advised to do so 1 0.1
Total 669 100

5.2.7 Decision making for savings


As far as decision making is concerned, decision making on savings is done individually i.e.
60%, while 29% decisions in consultation with a business partner or spouse.

Table 4: Decision making on savings


Best description for one’s involvement in decision making on savings in business or household
Frequency Percent
I make decisions alone 411 60.4
I make decisions in consultation with partner/spouse 197 29.0
Make decisions in consultation with my family household
members 69 10.1
Total 680 100

5.2.8 Problems faced when saving


Recurrent emergencies like sickness were indicated as the major obstacle to saving money.
This accounts for 47% of the problems. Security and safety of money was also indicated as a
major challenge (17%). See chart 9 below for details.

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 18


Chart 9: Main challenges faced when saving

M ain challenges faced when saving money

I nearly spend all I get,


Financial institution is
I lack information on 28, 3%
far from dwelling place
or business premise, savings/how to go
34, 4% about it, 33, 4%

Amount saved is not


encouraging/not Recurrent
worthwhile, 88, 10% Emergencies, 398, 47%

Lending to non-paying
back colleagues, 123,
15%
Security /Safety, 142,
17%

5.2.9 Key reasons for inability to save


Meager income and many financial commitments were indicated as the main reasons for
inability to save.

Table 5: Key reasons for inability to save


If one is unable to save regularly, what are the key reasons for this?
Reasons Frequency Valid Percent
Insufficient /meager income 130 56.8
Too many financial commitments 50 21.8
Lack of info/knowledge on savings 10 4.4
Other reason (specify) 10 4.4
High cost of living 9 3.9
I don’t have a regular income 7 3.1
No plan in place to do so 4 1.7
Can’t afford to have an account 4 1.7
Personal attribute – I am not the saving type of person 3 1.3
Financial institution is far from where I stay or operate 1 0.4
Inconvenient existing saving mechanisms 1 0.4
Total 229 100

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 19


5.3 Awareness of Radio Programs promoting “Savings Culture”
5.3.1 Program awareness and listenership to radio programs on savings culture

Overall about 57% of the 901 respondents were aware of radio programs promoting savings
culture while 43% were not aware.

Chart 10: Awareness of radio programs promoting savings culture


Awareness of radio programs promoting savings culture
Base:901

No
43%

Yes
57%

From assessing awareness levels of the radio programs, the survey went on to find out if
respondents had listened to one. Of the 511 respondents who said they were aware, 86% of
them had listened to a radio program on savings culture. See Chart 11.

Chart 11: Listening to the program

Have you listene d to a program on savings culture?


Base:511

No
14%

Yes
86%

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 20


5.3.2 Radio station on which programs were listened to
Tables 6 to 13 show the radio stations on which the respondents said they heard the programs
or listened to one. Each table shows the name of radio program, district and radio station.

Table 6: Akandala
On which radio station have you listened to the program Akandala?”
Soroti District
Frequency Percent
Non-response 30 30
Veritas 1 1
Voice of Teso 69 69
Total 100 100

Table7: Deru Para


On which radio station have you listened to the program “Deru Para”?
Nebbi District
Frequency Percent
Non-response 33 33.0
Radio Paidha 67 67.0
Total 100 100

Table 8: Manyangua
On which radio station have you listened to the program “Manyangua”?
Arua District
Frequency Percent
Non-response 70 63.6
Radio Pacis 40 36.4
Total 110 100

Table 9: Bikiira Nyentsya


On which radio station have you listened to the program on “Bikiira Nyentsya”?
Kabale District

Frequency Percent
Non-response 45 42.5
Radio West 22 20.8
Voice of Kigezi 39 36.8
Total 106 100

Table 10: Bikiira Nyentsya


On which radio station have you listened to the program “Bikiira Nyentsya”?
Mbarara District
Frequency Percent
Non-response 50 40.0
Kinkizi 1 0.8
Radio West 71 56.8
Vision 3 2.4
Total 125 100

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 21


Table 11: Eyeterekera
On which radio station have you listened to the program “Eyeterekera”?
Kampala District/Central Region
Frequency Percent
Non-response 112 74.7
CBS 34 22.7
Simba 2 1.3
Super 2 1.3
Total 150 100

Table 12: Kano Lim/Akiba Aihozi


On which radio station have you listened to the program “Kano Lim/Akiba
Aihozi”?
Tororo District
Frequency Percent
Non-response 52 49.5
Rock Mambo 53 50.5
Total 105 100

Table 13: Yiko Oywelo (Biacara)


On which radio station have you listened to the program on “Yiko Oywelo”?
Gulu District
Frequency Percent
Non-response 75 71.4
King FM 4 3.8
Mega FM 26 24.8
Total 105 100

A comparison between awareness and listenership of radio programs promoting


“Savings Culture”

In order to carry out a comparative analysis, the chart 12 and table 14 were developed to show
comparisons between sample taken, number of respondents aware of the programs, number of
respondents who listened to the programs and finally number of true listeners. For example in
Mbarara District, as highlighted in table 14, 125 people were interviewed. Of these, 96 were
aware of the programs. Furthermore of the 96 who were aware of the program 76 listened to
some. So of the 76, 72 actually heard it on Radio West.

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 22


Chart 12: Comparison between awareness and listenership
Comparison between awareness and actual listening of Savings Culture Radio Programs

160 150

140 125
120 110 106 105 105
100 100 96 No. of respondents
100
77 78 7672
80 7169 70 6867 No. of respondents aware of
6561
59 56 5453
60 program
42 4040 3938 42
3030 No. of respondents listened to
40
program
20 No. of true listeners to program
0

Bikiira Nyentsya
Nebbi District -

Mbarara District -

District/Central -

Tororo District -
Kano Lim/Akiba
Soroti District -

Kabale District -
Arua District -

Bikiira Nyentsya

Oywelo(Biacara)
Manyangua

Eyeterekera

Gulu District -
Deru Para
Akandala

Kampala

Aihozi

Yiko
Table 14: Comparison between awareness and listenership
No. of
respondents No. of true
No. of aware of No. of respondents listeners to
District/Program respondents program listened to program program
Soroti District - Akandala 100 77 71 69
Nebbi District - Deru Para 100 70 68 67
Arua District - Manyangua 110 42 40 40
Kabale District - Bikiira
Nyentsya 106 78 65 61
Mbarara District - Bikiira
Nyentsya 125 96 76 72
Kampala District/Central -
Eyeterekera 150 59 39 38
Tororo District - Kano
Lim/Akiba Aihozi 105 56 54 53
Gulu District - Yiko
Oywelo(Biacara) 105 42 30 30

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 23


5.3.3 Frequency of listening to radio programs promoting “Savings Culture”

In order to assess the frequency of listening to the radio programs on savings culture, the
respondents were asked to indicate how often they listened to the programs. Chart 13 below
shows how often programs were listened to.

Chart 13: Frequency of listening to radio programs promoting “Savings Culture”

How often did you listen to the program?


Base :422

Not sure
32%

Once every 3 Every w eek


w eeks 53%
6%
Once every 2
w eeks
9%

Of the 422 respondents to this question, about 53% said that they listened to the program every
week while 9% listened to the program once every two weeks. However 32% of the respondents
were not sure of how often they listened to the programs.

Table 15: Number of times program was listened to

How many times have you listened to the programs


promoting Savings Culture?
No. of times Frequency Percent
1 27 9.1
2 27 9.1
3 37 12.5
4 36 12.2
5 38 12.8
6 32 10.8
7 17 5.7
8 13 4.4
9 12 4.1
10 53 17.9
12 3 1.0
14 1 0.3
Total 296 100.0

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 24


How many times have you listened to the programs promoting Savings
Culture?
Total Range Minimum Maximum Mean
296 13 1 14 6

Table 15 above shows that majority of respondents listened to the program from 3 to 6 times
and these account for a combined 48%. The single highest score is 17.9% for the respondents
who listened to the programs at least 10 times. Deeper analysis reveals that the average
number of times radio programs were listened to was 6 given that an average of 14 programs
ran on each radio stations.

Table 16: Number of times promotional adverts were heard

How many times have you heard promotional adverts


promoting Savings Culture?
No. of times Frequency Percent
1 10 7.0
2 7 4.9
3 19 13.4
4 11 7.7
5 12 8.5
6 10 7.0
7 2 1.4
8 18 12.7
9 4 2.8
10 27 19.0
12 3 2.1
15 2 1.4
18 2 1.4
20 9 6.3
30 5 3.5
50 1 0.7
Total 142 100.0

How many times have you heard promotional adverts promoting


Savings Culture?
N Range Minimum Maximum Mean
142 49 1 50 8

Deeper analysis also reveals that the average number of times promotional adverts were heard
was 8. See table 16.

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 25


5.3.4 Sources of information on savings and micro finance before radio programs
on Savings

One of the objectives of the assessment was to find out sources of information on
savings and micro finance. Chart 14 below clearly demonstrates that word of mouth,
30%, and local village groups (local MFIs), 24%, were the main sources of such
information before commencement of radio programs promoting savings culture.

Chart 14: Sources of information on savings and micro finance before radio
programs on Savings

Source of info on sav ing mone y/micro finance be fore radio


programs

Branded give aw ays Posters/Fliers/Billboard


(Gifts), 46, 6% s, 44, 5%

Road show s, 47, 6%


Word of mouth, 246,
30%
NGOs, 65, 8%

LC Structure, 84, 10%

Local MFI, Local village


groups, 201, 24%
New spapers, 91, 11%

Low scores on road shows, billboards/posters and branded gifts as source of information on
savings and micro finance are explained by the fact that majority of the respondents were in
rural settings and did not have opportunities to be exposed to them. The sample was ratio of
65%:35%, rural to urban.

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 26


5.3.5 Associating Radio Programs promoting savings culture with
organizations/Programmes
Given that there are a number of stakeholders in the micro finance sector, there was need to
gauge which organizations are associated with the radio programs. Table 14 shows the
outcome. The programs were more associated with Uganda Micro Finance Forum and Rural
SPEED than any other organizations or programmes. Category “Other” was characterized by
such organizations as National Social Security Fund (NSSF), Ankole Private Sector Promotion
(Mbarara), West Nile Private Sector Promotion (Arua), Maracha Action Project (Arua), Bank of
Uganda, Pride Micro Finance and Prosperity for All programme.

Table 17: Organizations to which radio programs are associated


Organizations to which radio programs are associated
No. of
Organizations/Programme responses
Uganda Micro Finance Forum 134
USAID/Rural SPEED 107
Uganda Finance Trust (U-Trust) 65
AMFIU – Association of Micro Finance institutions of Uganda 63
Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development 62
Uganda Cooperative Alliance (UCA) 54
Other 46
District Trade Office 27
Business Culture Fund of the Government of Uganda 25
SUFFICE – Support for Feasible Financial Institutions and Capacity
Building Efforts 17
ILO FIT-SEMA (Small Enterprise Media in Africa) 13

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 27


5.4 Program Content and Delivery and Delivery
5.4.1 Relevance of topics or issues covered in radio programs on “Savings
Culture”
52% of the respondents were of the view that topics covered in the radio programs were very
relevant while 45% thought they were quite relevant. 2% did not think issues covered were
relevant to them. Reasons given for relevance are shown in chart 16 and for irrelevance see
chart 17

Chart 15: Relevance of topics covered

Overall, how relevant were topics/issues covered?


Base :438

60.0
52.3
50.0 45.0

40.0
Percent

30.0

20.0

10.0
2.3
0.0
Very relevant Quite relevant Not relevant

5.4.2 Key reasons for topical relevance


Chart 16: Reasons for relevance of topics covered
Reasons for relevance of topics tackled

Gave me ideas on how Other reason, 9, 1%


to manage savings, 210,
20% More enlightened about
of savings, 343, 32%

Gave me some solutions


and ideas on how to
save, 271, 25%

Things discussed are


appropriate to me, 236,
22%

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 28


5.4.3 Key reasons for irrelevance of topics covered

Chart 17: Reasons for irrelevance of topics covered

Reasons for topical irrelevance

16
14
14

12
No. of respondents

10 10
10 9

8
6
6

0
Was not Things discussed No relevat Nothing much Other reason
enlightened as w ere not solutions given to w as added to
such appropriate to my improve my w hat I already
situation situation know

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 29


5.4.4 How adequately topics were covered
Chart 18: How topics were adequately covered

How adequately topics were tackled

450

400

350

300
Total
No. of respondents

250 Adequately
Adequately s omewhat covered
200 Not adequately covered
Not applicable
150

100

50

0
Chart 18 above shows a summary of how adequately the different topical areas were covered.

Given Chart 18 above and table 18 below: Income generating activities; why people should save
(benefits); community saving habits; what saving is all about; where people should save; and
dangers of not saving, were more adequately covered than other areas.

Table 18: Adequately covered


Topical issues Total Adequately Covered
Income generating activities 424 287
Why people should save (Benefits) 397 259
Community saving habits 414 233
What saving is all about 364 207
Where people should save 386 206
Dangers of not saving 354 206
Saving as a solution to poverty alleviation 361 200
Ways of saving 380 195
Saving vs. Borrowing 376 186
How people should spend their money 365 182
Why people don’t save 389 176
Safety & security of money 361 158
Why people should save in financial institutions 365 147
Types of financial institutions 353 142
Why people don’t save in financial institutions 348 126

Table 19 below shows areas not well covered in the programs. The top ones include: Why
people don’t save in financial institutions; safety & security of money; types of financial
institutions; and why people should save in financial institutions

Table 19: Topics not adequately covered


Not adequately
Topical issues Total covered
Why people don’t save in financial institutions 348 85
Safety & security of money 361 77
Types of financial institutions 353 77
Why people should save in financial institutions 365 73
Ways of saving 380 64
Why people don’t save 389 59
Saving as a solution to poverty alleviation 361 58
Where people should save 386 49
Community saving habits 414 45
How people should spend their money 365 45
Saving vs. Borrowing 376 45
What saving is all about 364 39
Dangers of not saving 354 36
Income generating activities 424 28
Why people should save (Benefits) 397 11
5.4.5 Topical issues that need to be reviewed or revisited in future programs

Table 20: Topics for review or revisiting


Topics which should be reviewed/revisited in future
programs
Topical Issues Total
Income generating activities 227
Community saving habits 169
Why people should save (Benefits) 138
Saving as a solution to poverty alleviation 124
Ways of saving 121
Saving vs. Borrowing 117
How people should spend their money 108
Why people don’t save 107
Safety & security of money 106
Where people should save 103
Why people should save in financial institutions 99
Types of financial institutions 96
What saving is all about 90
Why people don’t save in financial institutions 89
Dangers of not saving 74

Some areas that need to be covered include:


a) More about interest rates
b) How to access loans
c) Banking procedures and more clearly on requirements for opening an account
d) Who to approach about savings
e) Why cash withdrawals are restricted – for those who have money in financial
institutions why can’t they get what they want when they want
f) To differentiate between genuine financial institutions and fake ones to minimize
cheating of the public.

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 32


5.4.6 Satisfaction with presentation style of radio programs promoting “Savings
Culture”
About 49% of the respondents were very satisfied with the style of presentation of the radio
programs. About 10% were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied. About 4% were not satisfied.

Chart 19: Satisfaction with presentation style

How satisfied were you with presentation style of the program?


Base :419

60.0

49.4
50.0

40.0 37.2
Percent

30.0

20.0

9.8
10.0
3.6

0.0
Very satisfied Quite satisfied Neutral Not satisfied

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 33


Chart 20 below shows a number of reasons for satisfaction with presentation style. None of them
clearly stands out as the main reason. The scores are close to each other. Reasons were that:
Programs were very interactive (22%); Information given was well researched (18%);
Guests/presenters were confident (19%); Programs flow well (18%); and Production and content
were good (21%).

Chart 20: Reasons for satisfaction with style of presentation


Reasons for satisfaction with presentation style

Good program Other, 29, 2%


production/content, Very interactive, 268,
257, 21% 22%

Info given w ell-


Program flow s w ell, researched, 230, 18%
230, 18%

Guests/presenters are
confident, 241, 19%

Chart 21: Reasons for dissatisfaction with style of presentation

Reasons given for disatisfaction with presentation style

Issues presented Discussion of


are not w ell irrelevant issues, 2,
Using technical researched, 4, 6% 3%
jargon, 4, 6%
Other, , 0%

Little time left for


Adverts in program callers, 23, 34%
seen as
interruptions, 5, 8%

Time for program is


not convenient, 6,
9% Time given to
program is not
Some issues w ere enough, 15, 23%
left out, 7, 11%

Given the small number of respondents who were not satisfied (about 25); there were some
indications of dissatisfaction. Chart 21 above shows some of the reasons. What can be
considered significant in this case is connected to limited time given to the programs. For

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 34


example 34% of that number said “Little time is left for callers” while 23% of that number said
“Time given to program is not enough”.

5.4.7 Accuracy of information in the radio programs

Chart 22: Accuracy of information in the radio programs

How accurate was info presented in the radio programs?


Base: 392

Not accurate
2%

Very accurate
49%
Quite accurate
49%

Table 21: Reasons given for accuracy of information


Reasons given for Accuracy of information
Reasons No. of respondents
Issues addressed are very practical/applicable 339
Issues addressed were directly affecting me 327
Issues were well-researched 226
Other 33

Table 22: Reasons given for accuracy of information


Reasons why information was deemed inaccurate
Reason No. of respondents
Issues discussed were not consistent 9
Missed the point in addressing the real issues 6
Issues were mixed up 6
Not well-researched 3
Other 2

The reasons pointed out for inaccuracy of information in table 22 were not of much statistical
significance, but can be considered in making sure that whatever information is presented,
efforts to avoid such situations should reinforced.

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 35


5.4.8 Preferred mode of presentation
As table 23 illustrates, majority (27.5%) prefer a combination of Pre-recorded field programs; In-
studio discussion with invited guests and Phone – in.
Table 23: Preferred mode of presentation
Preferred mode of presentation
Frequency Percent
Combination of the all 114 27.5
Pre-recorded field programs 87 21.0
Combination of pre-recorded field programs & in-studio discussion 71 17.1
Combination of pre-recorded & phone –in 54 13.0
In-studio discussion with invited guests 46 11.1
Combination of in-studio discussion & phone-in 34 8.2
Phone – in 8 1.9
Total 414 100

5.4.9 Preferred attributes of resource people on the radio programs

About 47% of the respondents were satisfied with resource people’s work.

Chart 23: How satisfied with resource people

How satisfie d are you with re source pe ople in the


programs?
Bas e:405

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
Very satisfied Quite satisfied Neutral Not satisfied

Series1 46.7 42.2 9.1 2.0

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 36


Chart 24 clearly demonstrates that preferred attributes entail the following: Successful people in
small businesses; Finance professionals who are very experienced and people with high level
micro finance expertise.

Chart 24: Preferred attributes of resource people

Preffered attributes of resource people

250 228 227

200 182 175


169
No.of respondents

150
101 96 95
100
61
50
15
0
Financial Experts from MFIs

Experienced finance

People with success stories

Officials from the Ministry of

NGOs dealing in money matters

Financial Extension Workers

District Commercial Officers

Loan Officers

Managers of SACCOs and other

Other
professionals

financial institutions
Finance

(FEWs)

5.4.10 Suggestions on how the “Savings Culture” radio programs can be


improved
Table 24: Suggestions for improving radio programs
Suggestions for improving radio programs
Suggestions No. of responses
More sensitization to increase awareness 330
Host more experienced experts 212
Use of Local language should of prime importance 198
More time should be allocated for program 192
Make programs more interactive 187
Use simpler language 174
Questions should be adequately tackled 162
Discuss more relevant issues 147
Other 43

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 37


5.5 Application of ideas from Radio Programs promoting “Savings Culture”

The main objective of the program was to disseminate information to people who earn an
income, operate a small business or involved in farming as a business. It was envisaged that
knowledge acquired would be applied to help in enhancing people’s saving habits. Below are
various areas concerning effectiveness and application.

5.5.1 Effectiveness of the radio programs on “Savings Culture”

Chart 25: Effectiveness of the radio programs on “Savings Culture”


How effective have programs been to your personal life or
business? Bas e : 427

50.0
44.5
45.0
39.3
40.0
35.0
30.0
Percent

25.0
20.0
15.0 12.6
10.0
3.5
5.0
0.0
Very effective Reasonably About average Not effective
effective

Below are some quotes on radio program effectiveness as a testimony:

“I have gained knowledge that has prepared me for saving; I have set aside a portion of my
income on which I can fall back on in case of a problem. I have put more money in my chicken
business which doing fairly well. I also managed to buy a bicycle sometime back.” (Male 25-35
farmer in Alerei village, Gweri sub-county, Soroti)

“I have seen improvement in family welfare. I bought bulls for ploughing and spare parts for my
bicycle repair business” (Male 51+, small business operator Obule village, Asuret sub-county,
Soroti)

“Business stability has been achieved because of ideas aired on radio” (Male 25-30 saloon
operator Soroti Town)

On the other extreme


“Well I have listened to the programs but they have not been of any importance to me…nothing
much has changed” (Female 36-40, farmer Amusia village, Gweri Soroti)

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 38


5.5.2 Level of Listeners savings before commencement of radio program and after

Chart 26: Level of saving before and after listening to “Savings Culture” program
Compared with period before you heard the program and currently, you
would say .... Base: 390

70.0 64.6

60.0

50.0
Percent

40.0

30.0

20.0 17.2
14.6

10.0 3.6
0.0
Saving more Saving less Saving more or less Have not started
the same saving

5.5.3 How ideas or knowledge from radio programs was applied to enhance
savings habits
Chart 26 above demonstrates that people are saving more after listening to the programs (65%)
while 17% maintained their habits regardless of the radio programs. About 15% have not yet
started saving. Table 25 shows actions taken to enhance saving habits. Top ones include:
saving more than before; developed more strict savings regime; knowing how to go about it and
sharing ideas with other people; and encouraging others to save.

Table 25: Actions taken to enhance saving habits


Actions taken to enhance saving habits No. of responses
Saving more than before 239
Developed more strict savings regime 218
Now know how to go about it 180
Have encouraged others to save 146
Shared ideas with colleagues to start saving schemes 92
Opened an account with a financial institution 69
Planning to start saving regularly 68
Have approached financial institution 53
No action yet 47
Other 8

Below are some testimonies:


“The information I obtained from the radio has motivated me to join a savings group with
colleagues in my village. I used to save some little money and kept it at home, but now I try to
save regularly in the group.” (Male 41-45, farmer in Gweri County, Soroti)

“I opened an account, I now feel more secure in case of a problem. I feel good that my money is
in safe custody.” (Female 18-24, income earner in Eneku village in Soroti)

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 39


5.5.4 Beneficial aspects from the radio programs

The most beneficial aspects of the radio programs were: Income generating activities; why
people should save; community saving habits; ways of saving; where people should save; and
saving as a solution to poverty alleviation.

Table 26: Beneficial aspects from the radio programs


What aspects of radio programs promoting savings culture were beneficial to you?
Aspects No. of responses
Income generating activities 285
Why people should save 258
Community saving habits 186
Ways of saving 117
Where people should save 116
Saving as a solution to poverty alleviation 108
How people should spend their money 97
Saving vs. borrowing 91
Dangers of not borrowing 91
What saving is all about 88
“Why people don’t save 83
Safety and security of money 69
Why people should save in financial institutions 68
Why people can’t save in financial institutions 55
Types of financial institutions 53

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 40


5.5.5 Assessment of different aspects of the radio programs
A number of issues were raised on savings promotion radio programs listeners had heard. Statements relating to the programs were
lined up for agreement or disagreement. The figure below gives a summary.

Chart 27: Agreement on statements on savings promotion programs

Agreement on Statements on Savings Programs

P ro grams po sitively pro mo ted and addressed financial security o f rural M SEs, farmers and public 50.1 37.0 12.9

B enefits fro m advice in prgrams is beliveable and realistic 62 28.0 10.1

Yo u wo uld co nsider applying mo st o f the kno wledge o btained 63.1 30.9 6.1

P ractice and value o f savings as put o n radio was widely understo od 49.3 34.7 16.0

A dvise given is easily applicable 60.5 28.4 10.6

Co ntent was info rmative and educative 85.4 12.5 2.1

Questio ns and issues provided so lutio ns to challenges o f yo ur perso nal/business savings needs 71.6 21.2 7.2

Questio ns and issues raised by callers were well handled and relevant 73.4 19.4 6.5

The pro gram co ntent was sensitive and useful to yo ur perso nal o r business needs 89.2 8.1 2.2

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Agree Neutral Disagree


Chart 27 demonstrates that there is a high level of agreement to the following statements “The program(s) content was sensitive and
useful to your personal or business needs” (89%); “Content was informative and educative” (85%); “Questions and issues raised by
callers were well handled and relevant” (74%); and “Questions and issues (discussed) provided solutions to challenges of your
personal/business savings needs” (72%) while on the other hand statements such as “Practice and value of savings as put on radio
was widely understood” (49%). Overall, all statements were agreed to positively to.

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 42


5.5.6 Likelihood of improving savings habits as a result of listening to the radio
programs

Chart 28: Likelihood of improving saving habits after radio programs

Likelihood of im provem ent of saving habits after lessons from radio


program s Base: 425

50.0 47.1
45.0
40.0 34.6
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0 9.6
7.8
10.0
5.0 0.9
0.0
Very certain High chance Low chance No chance Not sure

Below are some quotes to confirm likelihood to improve savings habits

“The information on savings culture has inspired me a lot, I am planning to start just after my boy
completes school.” (Female 36-40, income earner in Gweri, Soroti)

“I am planning to start saving soon. I am going to tell others to start saving too” (Female 18-24,
income earner in Gweri, Soroti)
5.6 General Issues
5.6.1 Use of radio as a tool or medium for promoting/developing savings culture
and micro finance industry activities

Chart 29: Recommending use of radio

Would you recommend use of radio in development of microfinance &


promotion of savings culture? Base:426

80.0 73.6
70.0

60.0
50.0
Percent

40.0
30.0
19.6
20.0
10.0 4.9
1.9
0.0
Strongly recommend Somew hat recommend Might or might not Will not recommend

5.6.2 Reasons for using radio


Chart 30: Reasons for using of radio
Reasons for using radio

Wide coverage/mass
Information is easily Other media advantage
passed on w ith radio 1% 25%
16%

Allow ance for easy


interaction
10%

Radios are affordable


Radio is easily 15%
accessible
More convenient ro use
16%
radio, cheaper to send
or receive information
17%

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 44


5.6.3 Reasons for not recommending the use of radio for promoting savings
culture

• Preference for training seminars/workshops


• Door to door sensitization using Financial Extension Workers
• Not all people have radios
• Batteries are expensive
• “I am too mobile to move around with my radio”
• “I have no time to listen to radio”

Some statements made by some respondents on using other approaches apart from radio:

“I think it is better to organize seminars at village levels, in this way we feel it is part of us and
would be more ready to take action..” (Male 31-35, small business operator, Burabira, Kabale)

“Door to door sensitization in communities in my view would impart knowledge more effectively
than radio. For example many women are so busy to listen to radio” (Female 41-45, small
business operator –tailor in Asuret Soroti)

5.6.4 General comments radio programs promoting savings culture

Quotes on how savings are made

“We would rather save our money in village groups because we are fed up with these
new micro finance institutions. You cannot trust them.” (Male 25 -30,farmer, Bwizibwera
Mbarara)
“Some of these MFIs have been a major disappointment. A good number of people have
invested/saved in wrong places or financial institutions only ending up loosing all their
money. These institutions exploit ignorance of the people and cheat them. People need to
know which are genuine and those that are not.” (Female 41-45, small business operator,
Rwebikona Mbarara)
“I bought land at 800,000/= from my savings” (Male 41-45, income earner, Bwizibwera
Mbarara

Quotes on effectiveness of programs

“I have gained knowledge that has prepared me for saving, I have set aside a portion of
my income on which I can fall back on in case of a problem. I have put more money in my
chicken business which doing fairly well. I also managed to buy a bicycle sometime back.”
(Male 25-35 farmer in Alerei village, Gweri sub-county, Soroti)
“I have seen improvement in family welfare. I bought bulls for ploughing and spare parts
for my bicycle repair business” (Male 51+, small business operator Obule village, Asuret
sub-county, Soroti)
“Business stability has been achieved because of ideas aired on radio” (Male 25-30
saloon operator Soroti Town)

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 45


The other extreme “Well I have listened to the programs but they have not been of any
importance to me…nothing much has changed” (Female 36-40, farmer Amusia village,
Gweri Soroti)

Quotes on improved savings habits

“The information I obtained from the radio has motivated me to join a savings group with
colleagues in my village. I used to save some little money and kept it at home, but now I
try to save regularly in the group.” (Male 41-45, farmer in Gweri County, Soroti)
“I opened an account, I now feel more secure in case of a problem. I feel good that my
money is in safe custody.” (Female 18-24, income earner in Eneku village in Soroti)
“I am saving more than I used to…”Female 18-24 salary earner, Nebbi)
“Am beginning to save more after the program” (Female 31-35 salary earner, Nebbi)
“I have approached Centenary Bank and opened an account after listening to the
program” (Female 41-45 farmer, Patek Nebbi)
“It has helped me to save other than spend carelessly” (Male 25-30, salary earner, Arua)

Quotes on Reasons given for using other means and not radio

“I think it is better to organize seminars at village levels, in this way we feel it is part of us
and would be more ready to take action..” (Male 31-35, small business operator, Burabira,
Kabale)
“Door to door sensitization in communities in my view would impart knowledge more
effectively than radio. For example many women are so busy to listen to radio” (Female
41-45, small business operator –tailor in Asuret Soroti)
“Little impact is realized through radio, door to door sensitization by field workers would
have more impact” (Male 36-40 salary earner, Peera Nebbi)

Quotes on likelihood to improve savings habits

“The information on savings culture has inspired me a lot, I am planning to start just after
my boy completes school.” (Female 36-40, income earner in Gweri, Soroti)
“I am planning to start saving soon. I am going to tell others to start saving too” (Female
18-24, income earner in Gweri, Soroti)
“The radio program has prompted me to plan for personal savings” (Male 25-30, salary
earner – teacher, Nyaravur)

Quotes on general impact (*Before/After)

• “I now enjoy seeing myself keeping (saving) money that is making my saving life easy
and I can plan for bigger things.” (Male 25-30, income earner, Arua Municipality)

• “I have saved quite a Lumpsum of money as compared to when I had not heard any
information …in the program” (Male over 51 years, income earner, Arua Municipality)

• “I have done a lot of things with the money I used to spend unnecessarily and reduced on
my drinking habits” (Male 31-35 small business operator, Maracha Arua) …this is
controlled expenditure
ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 46
• “It has been beneficial to me by the fact that it enabled me to save more money for future
use” (Male 36-40, income earner, Arua Municipality)

• “It has become easier for me to save because now I understand how important it is to
save” (Male 18-24, salary earner, Arua Municipality)

• “It has made me realize the importance of savings and that is why I am now saving
regularly” (Female 31-35 salary earner, Arua Municipality)

• “Because of improving savings habits as learnt from radio, my standard of living is


changing for the better and I am more financially stable to meet household needs like
school fees for my children….” (Male 41-45 Farmer, Arua Municipality)

• “It encouraged me to go to and bank my money…..”(Male 41-45, salary earner, Maracha


Arua)

• “I am now saving more money than I used to do” (Female 36-40 small business operator,
Maracha)

• “I am now planning to open an account with a big bank and start saving regularly” (Male
over 51 years farmer, Maracha)

• “Saving has helped me pay back a loan I got from the bank” (Female 31-35 salary earner,
Arua Municipality)

• “It has provided me with the best source of accurate information when stuck to
continuously I will make greater progress” (Male over 51 years farmer, Maracha)

• “I am now fully aware of the dangers of not saving” (Female 31-35 small business
operator, Nebbi)

• “I have plans to start saving with bigger financial institutions because of guaranteed
security” (Female 18-24 small business operator, Nebbi)

• “Better savings habits have enabled me to start a saloon business as well as a phone
services” (Male 25-30 small business operator, Pakwach)

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 47


• “I have bought land for construction of my house” (Female 36-40, small business
operator, Tororo)

• “I managed to buy a fridge from my savings” (Female 31-35 small business operator –
soft drinks seller, Mukuju Tororo)

Quotes for Improvement Suggestions

• “The frequency of the radio program should be increased so that more impact is created”
(Male 18-24 small business operator, Arua Municipality)

• “Radio programs promoting savings culture should continue because it will help those
who are not fully aware” (Female 25-30 small business operator, Agwok – Nebbi)

• “More issues about how to secure a loan should be discussed in the program” (Male 31-
35 farmer, Solia Nebbi)

• Improved livelihood/businesses

• “I have managed to build a residential house for myself” (Female 31-35, small business
operator, Lutengo Tororo)

• “My children are receiving a better education because I am able to pay school fees from
savings I make” (Female 31-35 farmer, Pogoya Tororo)

• “My business is now bigger than it was before……” (Female 18-24 small business
operator, Muhanga Kabale)

• “I have realized growth in my business…. Acquired more assets i.e. motorbikes…as a


result of better saving habits” (Male 36-40 business operator, Kabale)

• “Savings I made helped me when my properties were destroyed….” (Female 41-45


farmer, Bwizibwera Mbarara)

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 48


6 Concluding statements and recommendations
9) Efforts should directed towards strengthening of coverage of some topics like: Why
people don’t save in financial institutions; Safety & security of money ; Types of financial
institutions and Why people should save in financial institutions
10) Listeners would like to hear more from the following topics: Income generating activities;
Community saving habits; Why people should save (Benefits); Saving as a solution to
poverty alleviation; Ways of saving; and Saving vs. Borrowing
11) There is need to continually use radio to encourage people to save in financial institutions
that are well established and genuine.
12) There is need to encourage people to save for reasons of either starting a business or
expanding one as opposed to saving for only emergencies. Investing money that has
been saved would ensure some form of sustainability as constant returns will be expected
with time.
13) In order to encourage sustained savings, the radio programs should endeavor address
issues of budgeting in order to control expenditures.
14) There is also need to increase awareness of radio programs promoting savings culture.
This can be done through door to door sensitization or workshops at village level.
15) It is also important to invite successful people especially business people to the radio
programs. This would act as a source of inspiration. This can be successful if persons
invited can be identified with the people.
16) There is need to provide more air time for radio programs promoting savings culture. This
can be done either by adding more program time or have the programs run at least twice
a week.

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 49


Appendices
I. Detailed statistical data from the assessment (Disaggregated)

Arua District/Radio Pacis


Age

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 18-24 31 28.2 28.4 28.4
25-30 35 31.8 32.1 60.6
31-35 14 12.7 12.8 73.4
36-40 12 10.9 11.0 84.4
41-45 9 8.2 8.3 92.7
46-50 3 2.7 2.8 95.4
Over 51
5 4.5 4.6 100.0
years
Total 109 99.1 100.0
Missing System 1 .9
Total 110 100.0

Gender

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 57 51.8 51.8 51.8
Female 53 48.2 48.2 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Main Category

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Farmer in agro
19 17.3 17.3 17.3
business
Income earner
(with disposable 56 50.9 50.9 68.2
income)
Small business
owner/operator 35 31.8 31.8 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Have you heard of a radio program "Manyangua" promoting "Savings Culture"?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 42 38.2 38.2 38.2
No 68 61.8 61.8 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Have you listened to one such program on radio?

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 50


Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 40 36.4 95.2 95.2
No 2 1.8 4.8 100.0
Total 42 38.2 100.0
Missing System 68 61.8
Total 110 100.0

On which radio station have you listened to the program on?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 70 63.6 63.6 63.6
Radio
40 36.4 36.4 100.0
Pacis
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Gulu District/Mega FM

Gender

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 44 41.9 41.9 41.9
Female 61 58.1 58.1 100.0
Total 105 100.0 100.0

Age

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 18-24 31 29.5 29.5 29.5
25-30 27 25.7 25.7 55.2
31-35 18 17.1 17.1 72.4
36-40 8 7.6 7.6 80.0
41-45 9 8.6 8.6 88.6
46-50 7 6.7 6.7 95.2
Over 51
5 4.8 4.8 100.0
years
Total 105 100.0 100.0

Main Category

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Farmer in agro
4 3.8 3.8 3.8
business
Income earner
(with disposable 50 47.6 47.6 51.4
income)
Small business
owner/operator 51 48.6 48.6 100.0
Total 105 100.0 100.0

Have you heard of a radio program "Yiko Oywelo (Biacara)" promoting "Savings Culture"?

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 51


Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 42 40.0 40.0 40.0
No 63 60.0 60.0 100.0
Total 105 100.0 100.0

Have you listened to one such program on radio?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 29 27.6 70.7 70.7
No 12 11.4 29.3 100.0
Total 41 39.0 100.0
Missing System 64 61.0
Total 105 100.0

On which radio station have you listened to the program on?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 75 71.4 71.4 71.4
King FM 4 3.8 3.8 75.2
Mega
26 24.8 24.8 100.0
FM
Total 105 100.0 100.0

Kabale District/Radio West

Gender

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 50 47.2 47.2 47.2
Female 56 52.8 52.8 100.0
Total 106 100.0 100.0

Age

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 18-24 27 25.5 25.5 25.5
25-30 26 24.5 24.5 50.0
31-35 10 9.4 9.4 59.4
36-40 11 10.4 10.4 69.8
41-45 13 12.3 12.3 82.1
46-50 6 5.7 5.7 87.7
Over 51
13 12.3 12.3 100.0
years
Total 106 100.0 100.0

Main Category

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 52


Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Farmer in agro
29 27.4 27.4 27.4
business
Income earner
(with disposable 24 22.6 22.6 50.0
income)
Small business
owner/operator 53 50.0 50.0 100.0
Total 106 100.0 100.0

Have you heard of a radio program "Bikiira Nyentsya" promoting "Savings Culture"?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 78 73.6 73.6 73.6
No 28 26.4 26.4 100.0
Total 106 100.0 100.0

Have you listened to one such program on radio?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 65 61.3 83.3 83.3
No 13 12.3 16.7 100.0
Total 78 73.6 100.0
Missing System 28 26.4
Total 106 100.0

On which radio station have you listened to the program on?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 45 42.5 42.5 42.5
Radio
22 20.8 20.8 63.2
West
Voice of
39 36.8 36.8 100.0
Kigezi
Total 106 100.0 100.0

Kampala District/Central/CBS FM

Gender

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 71 47.3 47.3 47.3
Female 79 52.7 52.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

Age

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 53


Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 18-24 26 17.3 17.4 17.4
25-30 45 30.0 30.2 47.7
31-35 19 12.7 12.8 60.4
36-40 18 12.0 12.1 72.5
41-45 14 9.3 9.4 81.9
46-50 16 10.7 10.7 92.6
Over 51
11 7.3 7.4 100.0
years
Total 149 99.3 100.0
Missing System 1 .7
Total 150 100.0

Main Category

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Farmer in agro
25 16.7 16.8 16.8
business
Income earner
(with disposable 47 31.3 31.5 48.3
income)
Small business
owner/operator 77 51.3 51.7 100.0
Total 149 99.3 100.0
Missing System 1 .7
Total 150 100.0

Have you heard of a radio program "Eyeterekera: promoting "Savings Culture"?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 55 36.7 36.7 36.7
No 95 63.3 63.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

Have you listened to one such program on radio?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 39 26.0 72.2 72.2
No 15 10.0 27.8 100.0
Total 54 36.0 100.0
Missing System 96 64.0
Total 150 100.0

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 54


On which radio station have you listened the program on?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 112 74.7 74.7 74.7
CBS 34 22.7 22.7 97.3
Simba 2 1.3 1.3 98.7
Super 2 1.3 1.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

Mbarara District/Radio West

Gender

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 58 46.4 46.4 46.4
Female 67 53.6 53.6 100.0
Total 125 100.0 100.0

Age

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 18-24 20 16.0 16.1 16.1
25-30 40 32.0 32.3 48.4
31-35 21 16.8 16.9 65.3
36-40 17 13.6 13.7 79.0
41-45 9 7.2 7.3 86.3
46-50 11 8.8 8.9 95.2
Over 51
6 4.8 4.8 100.0
years
Total 124 99.2 100.0
Missing System 1 .8
Total 125 100.0

Main Category

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Farmer in agro
20 16.0 16.1 16.1
business
Income earner
(with disposable 39 31.2 31.5 47.6
income)
Small business
owner/operator 65 52.0 52.4 100.0
Total 124 99.2 100.0
Missing System 1 .8
Total 125 100.0

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 55


Have you heard of a radio program "Bikiira Nyentsya" promoting "Savings Culture"?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 92 73.6 73.6 73.6
No 33 26.4 26.4 100.0
Total 125 100.0 100.0

Have you listened to one such program on radio?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 76 60.8 81.7 81.7
No 17 13.6 18.3 100.0
Total 93 74.4 100.0
Missing System 32 25.6
Total 125 100.0

On which radio station have you listened to the program on?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 50 40.0 40.0 40.0
Kinkizi 1 .8 .8 40.8
Radio
71 56.8 56.8 97.6
West
Vision 3 2.4 2.4 100.0
Total 125 100.0 100.0

Nebbi District/Radio Paidha


Gender

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 44 44.0 44.0 44.0
Female 56 56.0 56.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Age
ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 56
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 18-24 20 20.0 20.2 20.2
25-30 28 28.0 28.3 48.5
31-35 21 21.0 21.2 69.7
36-40 17 17.0 17.2 86.9
41-45 7 7.0 7.1 93.9
46-50 5 5.0 5.1 99.0
Over 51
1 1.0 1.0 100.0
years
Total 99 99.0 100.0
Missing System 1 1.0
Total 100 100.0

Main Category

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Farmer in agro
25 25.0 26.0 26.0
business
Income earner
(with disposable 27 27.0 28.1 54.2
income)
Small business
owner/operator 44 44.0 45.8 100.0
Total 96 96.0 100.0
Missing System 4 4.0
Total 100 100.0

Have you heard of a radio program "Deru Para" promoting "Savings Culture"?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 70 70.0 70.0 70.0
No 30 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Have you listened to one such program on radio?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 68 68.0 97.1 97.1
No 2 2.0 2.9 100.0
Total 70 70.0 100.0
Missing System 30 30.0
Total 100 100.0

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 57


On which radio station have you listened to the program on?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 33 33.0 33.0 33.0
Radio
67 67.0 67.0 100.0
Paidha
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Soroti District / Voice of Teso

Gender

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 43 43.0 43.0 43.0
Female 57 57.0 57.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Age

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 18-24 15 15.0 15.0 15.0
25-30 31 31.0 31.0 46.0
31-35 16 16.0 16.0 62.0
36-40 17 17.0 17.0 79.0
41-45 11 11.0 11.0 90.0
46-50 4 4.0 4.0 94.0
Over 51
6 6.0 6.0 100.0
years
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Main Category

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Farmer in agro
26 26.0 26.0 26.0
business
Income earner
(with disposable 25 25.0 25.0 51.0
income)
Small business
owner/operator 49 49.0 49.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Have you heard of a radio program "Akandala" promoting "Savings Culture"?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 77 77.0 77.0 77.0
No 23 23.0 23.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 58


Have you listened to one such program on radio?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 71 71.0 92.2 92.2
No 6 6.0 7.8 100.0
Total 77 77.0 100.0
Missing System 23 23.0
Total 100 100.0

On which radio station have you listened to the program on?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 30 30.0 30.0 30.0
Veritas 1 1.0 1.0 31.0
Voice of
69 69.0 69.0 100.0
Teso
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Tororo District/Rock Mambo


Gender

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 46 43.8 43.8 43.8
Female 59 56.2 56.2 100.0
Total 105 100.0 100.0

Age

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 18-24 23 21.9 21.9 21.9
25-30 34 32.4 32.4 54.3
31-35 17 16.2 16.2 70.5
36-40 13 12.4 12.4 82.9
41-45 12 11.4 11.4 94.3
46-50 3 2.9 2.9 97.1
Over 51
3 2.9 2.9 100.0
years
Total 105 100.0 100.0

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 59


Main Category

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Farmer in agro
22 21.0 21.0 21.0
business
Income earner
(with disposable 27 25.7 25.7 46.7
income)
Small business
owner/operator 56 53.3 53.3 100.0
Total 105 100.0 100.0

Have you heard of a radio program "Kano Lim/Akiba Aihozi" promoting "Savings Culture"?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 56 53.3 53.3 53.3
No 49 46.7 46.7 100.0
Total 105 100.0 100.0

Have you listened to one such program on radio?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Yes 54 51.4 96.4 96.4
No 2 1.9 3.6 100.0
Total 56 53.3 100.0
Missing System 49 46.7
Total 105 100.0

On which radio station have you listened to the program on?

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 52 49.5 49.5 49.5
Rock
53 50.5 50.5 100.0
Mambo
Total 105 100.0 100.0

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 60


II. Survey locations

Arua District Gulu District Nebbi District Tororo District


Maracha Gulu Municipality Ariek Pambogo
Arua Municipality Lacor Jupanyondo Malaba
Okokoro Layibi Peera Tororo Municipality
Oyokole Laliya Jupanjawu Muvua
Abinyu Iteka lawinya Kalwang Bendo
Okokoro Laroo Akesi Magoro
Paidha Abongoti
Nyachara Pilado
Solia Awaya
Jukia Kasaya West
Paroketo – Pakwach Dida
Agwok Koy
Owinyo Piyelo Wiyola
Upana – Nebbi Lutago
Alengokuma Kisoko
Laji Akaneti
Oturgang Kamadere
Kango Anyiribu Maundo
Jalagi Akandi
Nyaravur Guluva
Pakwach TC Pogoya
Pajobi – Pakwach Mukaganga
Puyo – Pakwach Mukuja
Kampala Soroti District Kabale District Mbarara District
District/Central
Kajjansi Asuret Kabale Town Kaberebere
Mpererwe Moru Apesur Muhanga Bwizibwera
Namulanda Amusia – Gweri Bukinda Mbarara
Kasangati Obule – Asuret Nyakarambi Municipality
Bweyogerere Mukuda – Asuret Kyobugombe Rwarire
Kireka Madeda – Soroti Kaharo Ruti
Mawonve – Mpigi Otucopi – Soroti Wakyeba – Kyerero Isika – Kahanda
Mayembe – Mpigi Olelebun – Asuret Rwempango Ryentango –
Kalagala – Mpigi Aminit Nyamuhanga Masha
Makuku– Mpigi Mukura – Asuret Kimbugu Kyabutoto – Birere
Matuga Eneku – Madera Byabuhimbira Kakoba
Buloba Abelet – Moru Katuna Nyakayozo
Nsangi Apesur Nyangambe – Nyamutanga
Mukono Town Acet – Isoen Mwanjari
Wakiso Town- Wakiso Pamba Kabarisa –
Kyengera - Wakiso Odolen Cell Buranga
Lugoba – Wakiso Gweri Trading Ctr Kabarisa
Nabwere - Wakiso Akura – Gweri Kichumbi – Ndorwa
Angopet – Gweri Rwamacumu
Omugenya- Gweri Nyakiharo -
Alere – Gweri Mwanzara
Akuya – Amusia
Olelai – Gweri
Soroti Municipality

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 61


III. Research Teams

District Number Team


1 Gulu 3 Lydia Lalalaara , Jimmy Delyon , Abonyo Bathsheba
2 Arua 4 Joshua Asiimwe, Richard Osoa , Isaac Obong , Silvers Drani
3 Nebbi 3 Robert Ocencan , Cindy Edwogu , Charles Olwortho
4 Tororo 3 Innocent Nyasuna , Carol Khainza , Waisswa Wilson
5 Soroti 3 Raphael Obukan , Moses Okipi , Victor Odeke
6 Mbarara 4 Gilbert Twinomugisha , Penny Akankunda , Cissy Karungi , Kenneth
Mwesigwa
7 Kabale 3 Gilbert Twinomugisha , Penny Akankunda , Cissy Karungi , Kenneth
Mwesigwa
8 Kampala 5 Ben Massiga , Esther Nanteza, Freda Namagembe , Rogers Musungu , Julie
Apolot

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 62


IV. Sample of Police Introductory letter

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 63


V. Guideline Document for Team Leaders

Team leaders’ responsibilities will include:

i. Ensuring that survey locations are covered as stipulated.


ii. Will distribute questionnaires to research assistants at beginning of work day and will collect
the same at end of day. The supervisor will carry spare questionnaires in case of spoilt
questionnaires that will require replacements.
iii. Will check the questionnaires for ensure quality control plus back-checking.
iv. Will ensure that research assistants fulfill their daily quotas and ensure the right respondent
categorization and gender balances have been achieved.
v. Will arrange in-field transport and see to it that research are dropped off in appropriate
survey locations and are picked up.
vi. The supervisors will handle some field operation finances to ensure that work moves
smoothly, but will also carry out interviews as much as they are guiding the teams.
vii. Cover for any short falls in data collection quotas amongst research assistants.
viii. Handle queries raised by research assistants and provide appropriate solutions.
ix. Ensure team discipline and good conduct in the communities they are operating in.
x. Will ensure to report to main police stations with letter from FIT SEMA indicating that there is
a team of researchers in the area. This will done to ensure that there is protection and police
is aware of their presence in the area. This will minimize misgivings community people may
have.
xi. Handover the completed questionnaires to the consultant along with a short report on the
fieldwork experience.
xii. Ensure that you get receipts for in – field transport for accountability.
xiii. Effectively use airtime to coordinate field activities

ILO FIT-SEMA, Rural SPEED Radio Programs Impact Assessment Report 64