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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

A Study on Employee Absenteeism on Sagar Sugars & Allied Products Ltd., Chittoor (A.P)
*S.Saritha Abstract:
Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work. Its a major problem faced by almost all employees of today. Employee are absent from work and thus the work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads to back logs, piling of work and thus work delay. Employees presence at work place during the scheduled time is highly essential for the smooth running of the production process in particular and the organization in general. Despite the significance of there presence, employees sometime fail to report at the work place during the scheduled time which is known as Absenteeism. Absenteeism can be termed as an illness which may affect the internal structure of the organization, thus causing harm to the production process. So there is a need to control the situation, by taking a thorough and in-detail analysis to identify the critical reasons of absenteeism which will help to create a proper Organizational Culture. Absence control can often be an important step in the process of reducing business costs. Because of competitive pressures, companies can no longer afford to carry unnecessary absence that they may have tolerated in the past. Therefore, many companies are focusing on the issue of eliminating, or at least reducing, unnecessary levels of absence. Absence affects more than just the person who is absent.

Keywords: Employee absenteeism-Work life balance- Motivation- Employee relationsJob satisfaction- Work Environment.

*Asst Professor, Dept of MBA, Sreenivasa Institute of Technology and Management Studies, Chittoor,517217. Ph: 09177035967, E-mail:sari.janakala@gmail.com.

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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

Introduction:
Any organization establishment depends on the workers regular and efficient services. If the efficiency of company goes high, it will result in better productivity and better quality leading to better profitability. The necessary requirement to achieve the maximization in all the above requirements is the habit if attending to work regularly. As we know the company plans well in advance to achieve the goals. Absenteeism means employee absent for the duty due to reason of sickness, social functions, death of relatives etc. is known as absenteeism. Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive occurrence for both employers and employees seemingly unpredictable in nature. A satisfactory level of attendance by employees at work is necessary to allow the achievement of objectives and targets by a department.

Definitions:
The non-attendance of employees for scheduled work, it distinguishes absenteeism from other forms of non-attendance that are arranged in advanced and specifically avoids judgments of legitimacy associated with absent events that are implied by as sick leave. Gibbons, 1966: Johns/1978: Jones, 1971. Absence occurs whenever a person chooses to allocate time to activities that compete with scheduled work either to satisfy the waxing and warning of underlying motivational rhythms. French Man, 1984. Lack of an individual physical presence at given location and time when there is a social expectation for him or her to be there. Martocchio & Harrison 1993.

Statement of the Problem:


Study of absenteeism among industrial worker is not only from the view point of company but also from the view point of moral of employees. Even though the effect of the good moral of employees may not be calculated in terms of costs but it should be said that it is important more than cost. There is a clear relationship between high absenteeism and employees morals because it can be easily traced that the departments having high rate of absenteeism have low morale. There is a clear relationship between employees attitude & absenteeism.

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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

Thus the above discussions show how the problem of absenteeism is very important to the organization. The present study deals with the following objectives.

Objectives of the Study:


1. To conduct a detailed study on absenteeism in Sagar Sugars and Allied Products, Ltd. 2. To identify various reasons that leads to absenteeism. 3. To check the level of motivation towards their work. 4. To know the causes and effects of employee absenteeism. 5. To give suggestions so as to reduce the rate of absenteeism in company.

Scope of the Study:


Absenteeism has wide implications to both the company & employees. The company suffers with the problem of scheduling its production activities & meeting the target. The turnover of employees is also likely to increase which increases the cost of making alternative arrangements. The employees will also suffer from absenteeism. Their commitment towards the organization & to their jobs decreases. Their morale will go down their contribution to the organizational goods increases. This will create a distance between the employees & the management.

Review of Literature:
According to Kerr clark, absenteeism is to due to lack of commitment on the part of the workforce kerr clark & his associated of the opinion that since the degree of commitment varies with the degree of the countrys industrial growth or maturity.__ Kerr clark.

He has argued the problem of absenteeism is not the direct outcome of industrialization. But, it is a product of large no of variables like the social, economic and cultural background of the workforce.___Bulmer.

He differentiates between the satisfied and unsatisfied employees on the basis of the following 4 factors. They are Turnover, Absence, Health, Productivity.___ Chadwick-Jones, Nicholson & Brown, 1982.

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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

He pointed out that the cost of absenteeism & the impact there off on productivity alone is enough to shock any human resources managers out of any state complacency they might have toward absenteeism.____ Hamilton-Atwell-2003.

Reviews of literature have consistently attributed to the casually weak, often contradictory, generally inconclusive findings of previous research to a lack of theory formulation & the proliferation of bivariate analysis that have largely focused on correlations between job satisfaction or other job related attitudes & absenteeism.___ Terence Mitchell.

Research methodology:
Sample size: A total of 150 respondents in Sagar Sugars and Allied Products, Ltd., Chittoor. was selected for the study. Sampling technique: Convenience sampling method has been followed for collecting the response from the respondents. Sources of data: The study is based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data has been collected by using a questionnaire. Secondary data has been collected from books, manuals and internet. Tools for collection of data: The questionnaire is the major tool administered for collecting primary data from the respondents. Tools for analysis: The statistical tools used for the purpose of analysis of this study are Simple percentage technique, Weighted average method, Chi-square test.

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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

Table-1: The respondents satisfaction towards the safety measures provided by the management. Opinions Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Neither agree nor disagree Total 63 40 25 15 7 150 Respondents Percentages 42 27 16 10 5 100

Inference: From the above table, it is inferred that 42% of the respondents are strongly agree, 27% of the respondents are agree, 16% of the respondents are disagree, 10% of the respondents are strongly disagree and 5% of the respondents are neither agree nor disagree with the safety measures provided by the management. Table-2: Relationship with superiors. Opinions Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Neither agree nor disagree Total Respondents 85 30 20 5 10 150 Percentages 57 20 13 3 7 100

Inference: From the above table, it is inferred that 57% of the respondents are strongly agree, 20% of the respondents are agree, 13% of the respondents are disagree, 3% of the respondents are strongly disagree and 7% of the respondents are neither agree nor disagree in maintaining good relation with superiors. Weighted Average Method: The general formula for Weighted Average Calculation Weighted Average= (x1w1 +x2w2+.xnwn) / (w1+w2+.wn) = i =1 to n (XiWi)/ i =1 Here Xi= Values of quantity whose weighted average is being calculated, while wi is the values of corresponding weights.

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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

So, for calculating weighting average, you must multiply values of the quantity with their Corresponding weights, all them up and divide them by the sum of the weights. By giving ranks to the no. of respondents we get the following table. From the above table weighted Average = (5*57) + (4*20) + (3*7) + (2*13) + (1*3) =285+80+21+26+3 =415/150 =2.76 In the above table, the rank 3 corresponds to the response Neutral Result: So, it is noticed that the respondents are Neutral in maintaining relation with their superiors. Table-3: Work environment of the employees and its effect on absenteeism Opinions Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Neither agree nor disagree Total Respondents 70 30 37 10 3 150 Percentages 47 20 24 7 2 100

Inference: From the above table, it is inferred that 47% of the respondents are stronigly agree, 20% of the respondents are agree, 24% of the respondents are disagree, 7% of the respondents are strongly disagree and 2% of the respondents are neither agree nor disagree in feeling work is heavy or not. Table-4: Effect of sickness on absenteeism in the organization. Opinions Strongly agree Agree 77 25 Respondents Percentage 51 17

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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

Disagree Strongly disagree Neither agree nor disagree Total

22 20 6 150

15 13 4 100

Inference: From the above table, it is inferred that 51% of the respondents are strongly agree, 17% of the respondents are agree, 15% of the respondents are disagree, 13% of the respondents are strongly disagree and 4% of the respondents are neither agree nor disagree to the reason of sickness which causes absenteeism. Table-5: Employees are absent because you are not recognized according to your working abilities. Opinions Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Neither agree nor disagree Total Respondents 55 34 45 16 0 150 Percentage 36 23 30 11 0 100

Inference: From the above table, it is inferred that 36% of the respondents are strongly agree, 23% of the respondents are agree, 30% of the respondents are disagree, 11% of the respondents are strongly disagree and 0% of the respondents are neither agree nor disagree in accepting absence is due to the respondents are not recognized depending on their working abilities. Table-6: Respondents shifts which are facing more problems to attend the duty. Opinions 1 st shift 2 nd shift 3 rd shift General shift Over time Total Respondents 70 38 24 14 4 150 Percentages 47 25 16 9 3 100

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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

Inference: From the above table, it is inferred that 47% of the respondents are strongly agree, 25% of the respondents are agree, 16% of the respondents are disagree, 9% of the respondents are strongly disagree and 3% of the respondents are neither agree nor disagree in doing work during different shifts are facing problem to attend the duty. Table-7: Satisfaction of employees towards workload in the organization. Opinions Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Neither agree nor disagree Total Inference: Respondents 70 30 37 10 3 150 Percentages 47 20 24 7 2 100

From the above table it is inferred that 47% of the respondents are strongly agree,

20% of the respondents are agree, 24% of the respondents are disagree, 7% of the respondents are strongly disagree and 2% of the respondents are neither agree nor disagree in feeling work is heavy or not. Chi-square test: Null hypothesis (Ho): The workload of employees is not heavy. Alternative hypothesis(H1): The workload of employees is heavy. Observed frequencies (Oi) 70 30 37 10 3 Expected frequency (Ei) 30 30 30 30 30 40 0 7 -20 -27 1600 0 49 400 729 Total Ei= no.of respondents/4=150/5=30 The calculated value of X2=92.59 The level of significance is 5% 53.33 0 1.63 13.33 24.3 92.59 (Oi-Ei) (Oi-Ei)2 X2=(Oi-Ei)2/Ei

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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

Degree of freedom=(n-1)=(5-1)=4 The value of X2 at 4 degrees of freedom and at 5% level of significance with 4 as degree of freedom is9.488. Since the calculated value of X2 is greater than the X2 tabulated value i.e ,92.59>9.488 . So, Ho is rejected and H1 should be accepted. Inference: From the above analysis it can be conclude that the workload of the employees is Very high.

Table-8: Reward for reducing absenteeism. OPINIONS Yes No Sometimes Total Inference: From the above table and chart, it is inferred that 65% of them responded as yes, 28% of the responded as no and 7% respondents are disagree, 7% of them responded as some times. Stating to the statement that reduced absenteeism is rewarded. RESPONDENTS 98 42 10 150 PERCENTAGE 65 28 7 100

Findings:
1. 42% of the respondents are strongly agree that they are satisfied with the safety measures provided by the management. 2. 57% of the respondents are strongly agree with the relationship with the superiors in the organization. 3. 47% of the respondents are strongly agree that they are satisfied with work environment existing in the organization. 4. 51% of the respondents are absent due to the effect of sickness in the organization 5. 36% of the respondents are satisfied with the work allocated to them. 6. 47% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the duty shifts provided in the organization. 7. 70% of the respondents are satisfied with the workload allotted to them.

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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

Suggestions:
Management should take some measures in order to increase the payment of employees to satisfy them. So that there is a chance to reduce absenteeism. The employees are maintaining good relation with their superiors and it should be continued. The management should provide better working conditions for employees in order to fulfill their requirement. The management should recognize the effort of the employees and should motivate them in order to bring satisfaction with their work. Proper allowances should be given to employees in order to meet their needs. Proper policies should be framed and implemented by the management which is effective.

Conclusion:
The term absenteeism refers to the failure to attend to work. It is one of the major problems faced by companies across the globe today Unscheduled absenteeism badly hurts the progress of an organization resulting in loss of productivity, increased costs in hiring additional staff and low morale among the workers. It is high time that employers address this problem on a priority basis. The study concluded that providing positive incentives to workers in the form of those motivational factors that normally influence workers to be absent is better than imposing penalties for discouraging absenteeism. The best reward for workers with low absenteeism is to grant additional time off for personal matters. Workers are influenced to a lesser extent by deterrents, loss of pay and benefits and loss of promotion opportunities and discharge, imposed for frequent absenteeism. Finally a combination of incentives (additional time off) and penalties (loss of benefits or job) with the primary emphasis on motivational incentives is the most effective approach to reducing absenteeism.

References:
Articles Referred: 1. David. A. Decenzo and Stephen. P. Robins, Personnel /HRM, Third edition. 2. Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, seventh edition. 3. Michael W. Moore, Absenteeism in the Workplace, Second edition, Oct 22, 2001. 4. Jim Matthew man, controlling absenteeism. Junction books publication, London. 5. Bajpai. S.R. Methods of Social Survey & Research, Kitab Ghev, Kanpur 1974.

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International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research

Vol 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN 2278-733X

6. Colette. A. Frayne, Reducing employee absenteeism through self-management training (1991). 7. Mc Clenney, Mary Ann, "A Study of the Relationship between Absenteeism and Job Satisfaction, Certain Personal Characteristics, and Situational Factors for Employees in a Public Agency" (1992). Applied Research Projects. 8. Johns, Gary (2007) "absenteeism" in George Ritzer (ed.) The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing, 2007. 9. Robert P. Steel, Joan R. Rentsch and William H. Hendrix, Cross-Level Replication and Extension of Steel and Rentsch's (1995) Longitudinal Absence Findings, Journal of Business and Psychology, 2001, Volume 16, Number 3, Pages 447-456. 10. William H. Hendrix, Barbara A. Spencer and Gail S. Gibson, Organizational and extra organizational factors affecting stress, employee well-being, and absenteeism for males and females, Journal of Business and Psychology, 1994, Volume 9, Number 2, Pages 103-128. Books Referred: 1. P.C.Thripati, Personnel Management and Industrial Relations, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi, 1935, 2007. 2. C.R.Kothari, Research Methodology Methods & Techniques, New age International Publishers, 2nd Revised Edition, 2004. 3. P. Subba Rao Personnel Human Resource Management, Himalaya Publications. 4. Keitu Davis Human Behaviour at Work 6 Edition Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishers ltd., NewDelhi. 5. Harold Koontz & Heinz Wcihrich Essentials of Management, Fourth Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishers ltd., NewDelhi. Web sites referred: www.citehr.com www.hrparadise.com www.scribd.com www.google.com Email: ssapl@mbdl.co.in

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