You are on page 1of 3

Hybrid Electrical Generation Stand-Alone Systems Application in Offshore Satellite

Oil Platforms in Mexico


Raul Gonzalez Galarza Humberto R. Jimenez Grajales Jorge M. Huacuz Villamar
Non Conventional Energy Unit, Electrical Research Institute, St. Reforma 113, Cuernavaca, Morelos,
62490, Mexico. Tel/Fax: +52 (777) 362-38-11 Ext. 7253
rgg@iie.org.mx, hjimenez@iie.org.mx, jhuacuz@iie.org.mx
Abstract
One of the principal challenges that face the
electrical generation stand-alone systems (EGSAS) in
unsupervised installations classified as hazardous
locations (Class I, Division 2) is to guarantee the
permanent supply of the demanded electrical energy
with a high degree of reliability. In the case of offshore
satellite oil platforms (uninhabited), there exist critical
electrical loads like measurement, control,
communication, and process supervision devices. In this
kind of application, especially when the strong power
required onboard is less than 1 KW, hybrid EGSAS
which use photovoltaic (PV) modules as main
generation source and a gas generator set as secondary
source, is an adequate and mature technological choice
to assume the above mentioned challenge. In this work
it is described some of the advantages and
disadvantages inherent to the application of the hybrid
EGSAS in satellite offshore oil platforms (uninhabited),
as a result of the evaluation carried out to a group of
systems installed at the Zone of Campeche in the Gulf
of Mexico (GoM). As well, a brief description of the main
components which are parts of the balance of system is
done; underlying the importance of an adequate system
sizing in order to maximize the operative availability of
the EGSAS, as such as, increase its reliability as
electrical supply with minimal maintenance.
INTRODUCTION
Physically, the hybrid EGSAS is integrated in a
hermetic metallic shelter which is divided in two
independent compartments and is provided with the
appropriate equipment to ventilate and generate a
positive pressure inside (continuously keeping a
maximum room temperature of 40C). All this with the
aim of provide in the shelter the necessary operative
and security conditions in order that the EGSAS satisfies
the corresponding norms to operate in hazardous
locations classified as Class I, Division 2 (NRF-036-
PEMEX-2003 and NFPA-497-1997). Figure 1 shows the
physical appearance of the EGSAS in an satellite oil
platform (uninhabited).
DEVELOPMENT
The daily annual average of the global solar irradiance
on the horizontal plane of the GoM region is 5.53
kWh/m2.day (2,019 kWh/m
2
.year). The annual
distribution of this irradiance is shown in figure 2.
978-1-4244-1641-7/08/$25.00 2008 IEEE
Figure 1. Hybrid EGSAS on an offshore satellite oil
platform (uninhabited).
7.0,-----------------------,
6.5
f
:c 6.0
!
8
AVERAGE
Ii 5.5
E
1
50
~
4.5
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUl AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Month
Figure 2. Solar irradiance on the horizontal.
The irradiance over a surface inclined 19 (the
mean latitude of the application) and with azimuth 0
(south) is 5.3% higher than that of the horizontal plane:
5.82 kWh/m
2
-day (2,125 kWhlm
2
.year). Figure 3 shows
the behavior of the irradiance over such inclined surface
during the summer (april-september) and the winter
(october-march). This behavior pattern is the same that
describes the PV electricity generation in the hybrid
EGSAS.

BOO
700
N'BOO
E



:;;

200
100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Hour
I mean, VVinter mean, Summer I
Figure 3. Average daily irradiance on the plane of PV
array.
Power requirements. In this case, the power of the
working load at the platform is 760 Watts and
corresponds to: 1.- Radio: 80 Watts; 2.- SCD: 520
Watts; 3.- Valves Valtek: 75 Watts; 4.- Testing and
remote separator instrumentation: 85 Watts.
This loads in the platform, considered as critical,
demand a maximum reliability and availability of the
supply source, therefore, both the configuration of the
hybrid EGSAS and its constitutive elements should
provide this higher level of reliability and availability.
For the estimation of the demanded electrical
energy, this working load is considered as continuously
constant with value: 18.24 kWh/day.
Technical restrictions. According to Mexican Standard
NOM-001, any electrical equipment within general or
industrial purpose enclosure can operate at hazardous
(classified) location as Class I, Division 2, only if this is
provided of a adequate ventilation (since a non
classified location) that ensures a positive pressure. In
this case, the environmental where the electrical
equipment operates is changed to non-hazardous
(classified) location. Therefore, the hybrid EGSAS must
meet with this standard covering every component
within a shelter, which must be available with the
necessary equipment for proving a continuous
ventilation that keeps a positive pressure and an interior
temperature less than 40C.
System configuration. Figure 4 shows, with descriptive
purposes, the EGSAS topology. This configuration of the
constitutive elements of the EGSAS makes it highly
reliable and available for supplying the electrical energy
demanded by the loads. These properties of the EGSAS
are basically due to the used technology in the main
generation source, the redundancy provided by the
secondary generation unit, and the incorporation of the
978-1-4244-1641-7/08/$25.00 2008 IEEE
battery bank in the system as an additional element for
backup.
System features. In general terms, the hybrid EGSAS
is integrated by:
An electricity generation subsystem made up by a
photovoltaic array of 9.9 kW which is the main electricity
generation source; in combination with two natural gas
generator sets of 6 kW which constitute the secondary
generation source (a redundant backup). Both
generation sources are always available in the system
and are controlled by the control subsystem.
An energy storage subsystem composed by a bank
of electrochemical nickel-cadmium batteries (4,280 Ah
@ 24 VCD), sized for two days and a half of autonomy.
A control and power conditioning subsystem
composed by a set of elements which as well as to
administrate the generated energy towards the battery
bank, it also monitors the system operation and link it
with the SCADA system in the platform. This subsystem
drives all the fitting points and the load calibration of the
PV array and the gas generator sets, just as the room
pressurization-ventilation; as well as to regulate the
feeding voltage to the loads (24 VCD regulated).
An additional set of electrical equipments for the
EGSAS own services, basically made up by lamps, fans
and blinds; whose purpose is to provide the
environmental and security conditions in the locations
which allow an adequate operation of the EGSAS and
its easy maintenance.
PV -GAS ENERGY CONTROL AND
GENERATION STORAGE POWER CONDmoNINO

PVoUIlUIVI
,
0=
.,280AHOUVCD
Transmission
Io s:
i------l
8.2%
I
'''''''M_OI.
I
1---1
I
-
I I

I
: ' kWp ,-
I
[J
RD(O.76)
I
_n
I I I
L ______ J L ___

Pot: 760 W


I
I
COIIlIIO&.Ul.AY Demand
I
elilCOCOMVUlPIS
18.MkWhiday
.ATn!IlIUMULfNIOUo'RIII
Ef(0.72)
.kW
1---1
,- -,
I I

I I COII"r1lWllON I
I I I I .fOIIA.
I I L ___
L ___
eDIC" __
240Whfday
SkW
u_
MUTII:_
Ef(0.875)
II_VlllfIUIlIOII
.. M
INlUIOIIU __
204Wh/day
Figure 4. PV-Gas Hybrid EGSAS Topology.
Operative Philosophy. The PV array is the main
source of electricity generation in the hybrid EGSAS and
must be appropriately sized to supply the total energy
demanded by the working load at the platform (18.24
kWh/day). For this purpose it is considered the site
irradiance level and the performance relation of the
photovoltaic modules, like: the losses associated to the
energy storage in the battery bank, the efficiency of the
control and power conditioning subsystem, the system
own services consumption, and the losses due to the
energy transportation from the generation source to the
working loads.
The battery bank which provides some autonomy to the
hybrid system under a fault or failure of both electricity
generation sources is also the element which under
normal operation of the main source generation,
storage, during the day, part of the energy daily
generated by the PV array. This energy is available to
be supplied to the load during the periods of low or null
insolation.
The gas generator sets are the secondary generation
sources in the system (redundant backup), and even
though they have the capacity to feed the load by
themselves, the operative logic of the EGSAS is that
these must operate only during a short time period; like
fortuitous circumstances where the PV array generates
less electricity than the designed or estimated value
(v.g. variability of the irradiance during the year, cloudy
days, etc.), in order to assure an absolute energetic
availability and reliability of the hybrid EGSAS.
Power consumption and losses. The daily electricity
consumption by the EGSAS for supplying its power
consumption is of 8.16 kWh/day; the losses by storing
the energy in the batteries during daily duty cycle is of
2.28 kWh/day; and the losses by transmitting electricity
from the generation point to the loads distribution board
is of 1.13 kWh/day.
The hybrid EGSAS has to produce also this energy
(11.57 kWh/day), additionally to the magnitude of daily
work load demand (18.24 kWh/day).
Energy balance. Taking into account the previous
information, the daily electricity production scenario of
the PV-Gas hybrid EGSAS is shown in figure 5.
25
f
Requested Net Energy of System: 18.24 kWh/day
!
20
!
I
,.

"
,.
~
.
6
8


..
1::
JAN FEB MAR Af'R MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
IlGASPROO
" "
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ..
" DPVPROO
'"
".
'" '" '" '" '" '" '" '"
". '"
Month
Figure 5. Daily electricity production estimates for
EGSAS.
In the same way, Table 1 shows the monthly PVenergy
production maximum levels (kWh/day) of the EGSAS
through the year, the surplus PV energy with respect to
the demanded by the working load, the energy
978-1-4244-1641-7/08/$25.00 2008 IEEE
contribution to the EGSAS of the gas generator sets,
and the estimated monthly and annual time of operation
of these secondary generation sources.
Table 5. H ~ b r i d EGSAS Oeeration.
PV Production Surplus Deficit GensetOp.
(kWh/day) (kWh/day) (kWh/day) (Hr/month)
JAN 15.0 3.2 40
FEB 17.8 0.4 5
MAR 21.4 3.1 0
APR 23.0 4.8 0
MAY 22.0 3.8 0
JUN 19.9 1.6 0
JUL 19.2 1.0 0
AUG 20.2 2.0 0
SEP 19.2 1.0 0
OCT 18.3 0.1 0
NOV 16.6 1.6 19
DEC 14.9 3.4 42
ANNUAL 19.0 107
In this case, the energy provided by the gas
generator sets represents 4% of the annual energy
demanded by the loads. In practice this means around
107 hours/year of operation of one of the gas generator
sets, working at 80% of its nominal power.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
Using hybrid EGSAS in offshore oil platforms
(uninhabited) is an reliable and robust choice in order to
supply locally electrical energy, because of it requires a
minimum maintenance and meets the standardization
referent to hazardous (classified) location as Class I,
Division 2. However, the appropriated sizing is essential
for ensuring and maximizing its operational availability
and reliability, specially in the main generation source
(PV); where the following factors must be considered:
a).- The magnitude of daily work load demand; b).- The
requirements of additional energy in power consumption
for meeting with the Class I, Division 2 standardization;
c).- The losses by storing the energy in the batteries
during daily duty cycle; and d).- The losses by
transmitting electricity from the generation point to the
consume point. Last two factors may be significant if
both are considered the operation voltage (24 VCD),
and typical distance between the EGSAS and loads
distribution board (50-70 m) .
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Authors wish to acknowledge the support of Ing.
Lindoro Marin R. manager of project of AIC-PEP
PEMEX in Mexico.
REFERENCES
[1] Gonzalez R., Jimenez H.; "Evaluaci6n de los
Sistemas Aut6nomos de Generaci6n Electrica Hibrida
en las Plataformas Satelites del Campo Nohoch y la
Plataforma Akal-CI del Complejo Akal-J". Report No.
IIE/01/14/13019/1 001/F/DC, Oct. 2006.