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A2_205_2010

CIGRE 2010

Aged Transformer Maintenance and Diagnostics with New Methods using Dissolved Gas Analysis in Japan H. OKUBO H. IMAGAWA T. KOBAYASHI Nagoya University Chubu Electric Power Co. Tokyo Electric Power Co. T. SATO Y. EBISAWA Y.SHIRASAKA Kansai Electric Power Co. Toshiba Corp. Japan AE Power Systems Corp. Japan

SUMMARY
As a key equipment in power transmission systems, many transformers were installed during the high economic growth period from late 1960s to early 70s in Japan. As failures of transformers, many of which are reaching old ages, socially and economically have serious impacts, they need to be refurbished at an appropriate time. Therefore, Japan decided to establish a national guideline for refurbishing transformers. This paper presents new maintenance methods for oil-immersed transformers by dissolved gas analysis (DGA) that plays an important role in the guideline and the process as well as contents. The theme of this paper corresponds to Preference Subject 2 of CIGRE SC A2 "Transformer Life Maintenance: maintenance practice, diagnostic, new technologies, life assessment, use of online monitoring system and expert system, reinvestment policy". In addition to verifying that the criteria for DGA established in 1999 are still appropriate, "Gas pattern diagnosis" and "Specific gas diagnosis" as the diagnostic method are enhanced. Furthermore, newly developed methods such as "Equivalent overheating area diagnosis" (that distinguishes between an iron core part and a winding part in case of overheating abnormality), "Trend diagnosis" (that considers correlation between time-series data of DGA and internal abnormalities) and "Linear discriminant equation diagnosis" (that applies linear support vector machine) are elaborated as new evaluation techniques. When judging whether the aged transformer can continue to be used or not, it shall be important to grasp the phenomenon, parts and degree of abnormalities. DGA enables indirect diagnosis of parts and conditions of internal abnormalities of transformer through the analysis from every viewpoint with the measured gas data. In order to presume the phenomena and parts of the abnormality, however, it is necessary to apply not only one diagnostic method but also multiple diagnostic methods mentioned above synthetically. Continuous efforts for maintenance and improvement of the accuracy of DGA, improvement of judgment and diagnosis technology, and accumulation of data are desirable in the future.

KEYWORDS
Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) - Gas pattern - Specific gas - Equivalent overheating area - Trend Linear discriminant equation

Imagawa.Hiroshi@chuden.co.jp

1. Introduction
As a key equipment in power transmission systems, many transformers were installed during the high economic growth period from late 1960s to early 70s in Japan. As failures of transformers, many of which are reaching old ages, socially and economically have serious impacts, they need to be refurbished at an appropriate time. As a diagnostic method of oil-immersed transformer, dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is commonly used worldwide. In Japan, a maintenance management method and management criteria by DGA were shown in "Maintenance management of oil-immersed equipment by dissolved gas analysis" (Electric Technology Research Association, Vol.36, No.1, 1980). Afterwards, the actual data in Japan were gathered and published as "Maintenance management of oil-immersed transformer" (Electric Technology Research Association, Vol.54, No.5-1, 1999), analysis sensitivity and accuracy required for DGA were set, and criteria for maintenance management was reviewed. According to the maintenance management described in the above-mentioned publication, however, it was difficult to diagnose the condition of internal abnormality and its development in the case the measured data exceeds criteria. To solve this problem, advancement of the maintenance management had been desired. Against such a background, 'Study committee for the guideline for refurbishment of electric power transformers' of Electric Technology Research Association was established to make a guideline for refurbishment of power transformers in October 2005 nationwide in Japan. The study committee consists of persons with relevant knowledge and experience, electric power utilities, transformer manufacturers, oil companies and analysis companies. This paper presents new maintenance management method for oil-immersed transformers by DGA that plays an important role in "The guideline for refurbishment of electric power transformers" (Electric Technology Research Association, Vol.65, No.1, September 2009) and their process as well as contents.

2. Evaluation of criteria for DGA


As a general method for maintaining oil-immersed transformers, maintenance management by DGA is adopted worldwide at each electric power company, and it is utilized for abnormality diagnosis and failure prevention. In Japan, "Maintenance management of oil-immersed transformer" (Electric Technology Research Association, Vol.54, No.5-1) was published in 1999, after which Japanese power companies have accumulated analysis data based on unified analysis sensitivity and accuracy. The data sampled from 22-500kV (high voltage side) oil-immersed transformers (for 2,323 transformer units in total: 1,033 units in normal operation; 1,173 units in follow-up monitoring, and 117 units diagnosed abnormal) from April 1996 until March 2006 were collected and analyzed to evaluate the judgment classification (Caution I, Caution II and Abnormal) and judgment level proposed in the above-mentioned publication as criteria. Diagnosis of internal abnormality by DGA was focused on. (1) Basic policy on criteria Judgment level was evaluated paying attention to the transformers in which internal abnormalities were confirmed as well as considering the generated gas level of the transformers in normal operation. C2H4 and C2H2 are characteristic gases that are generated when insulating oil is pyrolyzed with high temperature due to arc discharge and so on among combustible gases. Therefore it is necessary to shorten analysis interval and to carry out a follow-up survey when C2H4 or C2H2 is detected even a very small amount. Since there was not a clear difference in characteristic of DGA data by capacity or by voltage level, a uniform judgment level was applied. In the evaluation of the criteria on DGA, investigation of both domestic and international maintenance management standards was carried out. Judgment was made through examination of DGA data of transformers with abnormality, in follow-up monitoring and in normal operation. (2) Judgment classification As a result of evaluation, judgment classification was confirmed to be appropriate as criteria to catch a sign of abnormality. Therefore the judgment classification of three levels (Caution I, Caution II and Abnormal) and criteria described in the above-mentioned publication were applied, taking continuity of the future data accumulation into consideration.

(a) Caution I level 'Caution I' level implies that some kind of internal change is supposed. When the density of either one of TCG (the sum total of H2, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, CO) or each gas reaches or exceeds the value shown in Table 1, the case is judged as 'Caution I' level. Table 1. Caution I level TCG 500 H2 400 CH4 100 C2H6 150 C2H4 10 C2H2 0.5 [ppm] CO 300

(b) Caution II level 'Caution II' level implies that a sign of abnormality appears inside the transformer. When either of the conditions shown in Table 2 is fulfilled, the case is judged as 'Caution II' level. Table 2. Caution II level (1) (2) C2H2 0.5 ppm C2H4 10 ppm AND TCG 500 ppm

(c) Abnormal level 'Abnormal' level implies that abnormality in Caution II level has progressed and abnormality is evidently generated inside transformer. When either of the conditions shown in Table 3 is fulfilled, the case is judged as 'Abnormal' level. Table 3. Abnormal level (1) (2) (3) C2H2 5 ppm C2H4 100 ppm AND TCG 700 ppm C2H4 100 ppm AND Increasing rate of TCG 70 ppm / month

3. Improvement of equipment condition diagnosis by DGA


When judging whether the aged transformer can be continuously used or not, it is important to grasp the phenomenon, parts and degree of abnormalities. In case of electric discharge, immediate measures are necessary because there is a strong possibility that the transformer may lead to breakdown. In case of overheating, the identification of the part is important. When a winding is overheated, there is a strong possibility of failure, while when iron core is overheated, it is thought that the transformer can be used. In order to raise the accuracy of the condition diagnosis, such as electric discharge and overheating, and to judge the necessity of immediate measures, (1) Gas pattern diagnosis, (2) Diagnosis by gas composition ratio, and (3) Specific gas diagnosis were enhanced from the results of DGA data. It mainly comes from improvement in the accuracy of C2H2 data. Besides that, since it is considered that a change in generated gases appear when internal abnormality progresses, (4) Trend diagnosis in which the change in time-series data of generated gases is considered was devised. In addition, (5) Equivalent overheating area diagnosis that distinguishes between a winding part (related to insulating materials, such as insulating paper) and an iron core part (not related to insulating materials) when diagnosing the condition of overheating, and (6) Linear discriminant equation diagnosis were newly developed and introduced. In case that the progress of abnormality is confirmed by a change in gas pattern or trend diagnosis results, immediate measures shall be necessary.

(1) Gas pattern diagnosis The process of gas pattern diagnosis is (i) arrange five gas components of H2, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2 in order on horizontal axis, (ii) set maximum value 1 among those gas components and calculate the ratio of each gas component, (iii) plot those data, and (iv) diagnose the condition of internal abnormality by comparing the shape of graph with reference gas patterns. (a) Leading gas of each phenomenon Gas patterns are roughly classified into H2 leading pattern, CH4 leading pattern, C2H6 leading pattern, C2H4 leading pattern, and C2H2 leading pattern by the leading gas whose gas density is set to 1. In the case of overheating phenomenon, H2 leading pattern is possible as well as CH4 leading pattern and C2H4 leading pattern. In most cases of electric discharge phenomenon (arc discharge, electric discharge, and partial discharge), H2 leading pattern and C2H2 leading pattern are observed. In the case of overheating and minute discharge occur at the same time, M-shaped CH4 leading pattern is observed. (b) Diagnosis by the change of leading gas and gas pattern It is useful to carry out follow-up investigation of the change of leading gas and gas pattern for diagnosis of root cause and progress of internal abnormality of transformer. In the case a leading pattern changes, there is a strong possibility that abnormalities have been revealed and progressed, and thus attention should be paid. In particular, when CH4 leading pattern (dotted line) changes to C2H4 leading pattern (solid line) as shown in Figure 1 (a), there is a possibility that it shifted to the phenomenon of higher temperature. When CH4 leading pattern or C2H4 leading pattern (dotted line) changes to H2 leading pattern or C2H2 leading pattern (solid line) as shown in Figure 1 (b), there is a possibility that electric discharge occurs in addition to overheating and influenced area might be expanded. In the case that a change of leading gas is observed under the follow-up monitoring, much more attention must be paid. 1.0 1.0

0.5

0.5

0.0

H2

CH4

C2H6

C2H4

C2H2

0.0

H2

CH4

C2H6

C2H4

C2H2

(a) CH4 leading pattern to C2H4 leading pattern (b) C2H4 leading pattern to C2H2 leading pattern Figure 1. Example of the change of gas pattern (2) Diagnosis by gas composition ratio (Abnormality diagnosis diagram) Diagnosis by gas composition ratio judges abnormalities mainly from the ratio of gas density between C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 as characteristic gas as shown in Figure 2. As the accuracy of newly collected C2H2 data had improved, abnormality diagnosis diagram became more effective for grasping phenomena.

1000 100 10 1 0.1 0.01

Arc discharge (High energy) ()

C2 H2 /C2 H6 C2H2/C2H6

Discharge (Middle energy) () Partial discharge

Discharge Overheating Overheating +Small discharge

(Low energy) ()

Overheating >700oC 700 or Overheating + Discharge + Overheating (300-700oC) (300700)

Overheating (<300oC) (300)

Overheating o (>700 C) (700)

0.001 0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

C2 H4 /C2 H6 C2H4/C2H6

Figure 2. Examples of abnormality diagnosis diagram (3) Specific gas diagnosis In this method, abnormalities or parts are diagnosed by paying attention to characteristic gases including CO, CO2, C2H4, and C2H2. Among those gases, CO and CO2 are noticed as specific gases concerning insulating materials. As a result of analysis of newly collected data, when electric discharge occurs, the possibility of abnormalities concerning insulating material is regarded the highest in case of CO 300 ppm and CO2 / CO 3. Though detections of C2H2 among specific gases are causes of concerns in transformer maintenance, permeations of insulating oil from diverter switch compartment of on-load tap changer that is not directly related to internal abnormality might be included. If this permeation of insulating oil can be excluded before carrying out diagnosis of internal abnormality by DGA, appropriate maintenance is enabled. Based on the data analysis, diagnostic flow chart for permeation of insulating oil was established as shown in Figure 3.
Dissolved gas analysis Caution II or Abnormal level No

Does the trend of C2H2/C2H4 range 0.02~1 ?

No

Does the trend of C2H2/C2H4 range 1~3 ?

Yes
Is the combination of gas pattern and abnormality diagnosis diagram peculiar to permeation of insulating oil?

No

Yes No
Is the combination of gas pattern and abnormality diagnosis diagram peculiar to permeation of insulating oil?

Is the combination of gas pattern and abnormality diagnosis diagram another pattern of permeation of insulating oil?

No

Yes

Yes

Small possibility of insulating oil permeation

Yes Insulating oil permeation is possible

Small possibility of insulating oil permeation

Large possibility of insulating oil permeation

Insulating oil permeation is possible

Figure 3. Diagnostic flow chart for permeation of insulating oil

(4) Trend diagnosis Since generation of some gases show characteristic trends according to the phenomena and parts of abnormalities, a grasp of correlation between time-series DGA data and abnormalities was considered to be an effective diagnostic method. For this reason, newly collected data were studied on gas pattern variations, estimated overheat temperatures, gas increase rates, data shifting patterns on the abnormality diagnosis diagram, etc. to produce a new diagnostic flow chart based on trend diagnosis as shown in Figure 4.
H2 leading
H2 - A or B pattern? Temporary increase in TCG?

* Discharge Metallic parts (LTC terminals, bushing shield, etc.) C2H4/C2H6 < 3.4 (t<700oC)

* Small discharge Metallic parts (Floating electrode at incomplete contact, etc.) C2H4/C2H6 < 1.7 (t<600oC)
Gradual increase in TCG?

H2 - C pattern?

* Overheating Metallic parts (Connection at incomplete contact, iron core, etc.) C2H4/C2H6 > 3.4 (t>700oC) Change from H2 leading to C2H4 leading is possible

(A)
H2 - D pattern?

* Arc discharge Lead (Tap lead, linkage lead, etc.) C2H4/C2H6 > 3.4 (t>700oC) (A): Depending on the difference in progress of phenomena, gas patterns or trend of gas increase might not be identified in some cases. Or other factors could be considered.

(A)

Figure 4. Example of trend diagnosis flow chart (5) Equivalent overheating area diagnosis In the conventional diagnostic method established in 1999, though distinguishing electric discharge and overheating was possible, it was difficult to distinguish abnormality of winding parts where the risk of transformer failures was high and that of iron core parts where the risk was not so high when overheating occurs. In case abnormality of winding parts is identified, immediate measures shall be necessary because there is a strong possibility that it leads to breakdown. In addition, overhaul of transformer requires transportation to manufacturer's factory and long-term interruption. On this account, equivalent overheating area diagnosis that involves overheating areas was newly developed from the DGA data for diagnosis of the overheating parts as shown in Figure 5. The results of analysis of overheating cases at iron core and winding are as follows, respectively. In an overheating case at iron core, overheat temperature of insulating oil is high because bare metal part directly exposed to insulating oil is overheated. Since heat radiation effect of iron core is high, overheating area tends to be hard to spread. On the other hand, in an overheating case at winding, overheat temperature of insulating oil tends to be lower than that of overheating case at iron core. In this case, since overheat progresses through insulating oil, overheating area spreads gradually. Equivalent overheating area S [cm2] can be expressed by Equation 1. S = (Qoil C 10 -3) / (30 24 K) (1) Where Qoil: Transformer oil volume [liter] C: Increasing rate of combustible gas [ppm / month] K: Gas-generating speed [ml / cm2-h] Here, gas-generating speed K is given as a function of overheat temperature t, which can be estimated with the ratio of C2H4 to C2H6.

10
Overheating at iron core

Iron core03-01 Winding03-02 - contact between turns Winding03-03 - shield

C2H4 / C2H6

Overheating at winding (contact between turns) Overheating at winding (shield)

1 0.001

0.01

0.1 1 10 Equivalent overheating area [cm2]

100

Figure 5. Example of equivalent overheating area diagnosis (6) Linear discriminant equation diagnosis Since so many DGA data with same level of analysis sensitivity and accuracy were accumulated after 1999, it became possible to study maintenance management by applying multivariate analysis to those data. Therefore, diagnosis by linear support vector machine[2], which is one of multivariate analysis methods, was newly developed by analyzing data of 1,033 units in normal operation and 102 units that indicate abnormality. (a) Judgment of transformer with internal abnormality by linear support vector machine By applying linear support vector machine to the collected DGA data, the following linear discriminant equation was obtained. Z = A1 H2 + B1 CH4 + C1 C2H6 + D1 C2H4 + E1 C2H2 + F1 CO + G1 (2) Where, A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1: positive or negative constant H2, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, CO: gas density If Z is positive, it is judged as a transformer in normal operation. On the contrary, if Z is negative, it is judged as a transformer with internal abnormality. However, value of Z does not necessarily show the degree of abnormality. As a result of judgment by discriminant Z mentioned above, it was confirmed that there was not any false distinction for given data. Though equation (2) is discriminant equation with six components of gases, the combination of the fewest components of gases, with which correct discrimination between normal transformer and transformer with internal abnormality (for 1,135 units in total) is possible, was studied. As a result, it was found that the combination of only two components of gases of C2H4 and C2H2 as shown in Equation (3) makes correct discrimination possible. Z = D2 C2H4 + E2 C2H2 + G2 (3) Where, D2, E2, G2: positive or negative constant H2, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, CO: gas density (b) Condition diagnosis by linear support vector machine Toward four types of abnormality phenomena of (i) overheating, (ii) electric discharge, (iii) overheating and minute discharge, and (iv) permeation of insulating oil from on-load tap changer, linear support vector machine discriminant with six components of gases were derived from 378 cases in total. There is a case that the values become negative in two discriminants or more among the four discriminants when substituting DGA data of a certain transformer. In that case, abnormal phenomenon with larger absolute value should be chosen. In order to enable derivation of more accurate discriminant in the future, it will be necessary to accumulate more sets of DGA data of transformer with internal abnormality and the condition of abnormality.

(7) General diagnosis As described above, DGA makes it possible to analyze from various aspects for acquired data and to diagnose parts and conditions of internal abnormality of transformer indirectly. However, it is necessary to apply not only one diagnostic method but also multiple diagnostic methods as well as other complementary technique to identify phenomena and parts of abnormality.

4. Future challenges
Maintenance management to diagnose internal abnormality of transformer by applying DGA is very important as it allows easy maintenance keeping the transformer in operation and no effective alternatives exist. However, it is difficult to grasp internal abnormality of transformer exactly and judge it because DGA is a technique to extract gas that is dissolved in insulating oil and estimate internal abnormality indirectly. For this reason, it is required to promote further research and data accumulation continuously, putting stress on the following points. (1) DGA technique Maintenance and improvement of comprehensive analysis accuracy from sampling oil through gas extraction at electric power companies or analysis companies (2) Improvement of judgment and diagnostic technology - Improvement of accuracy of abnormality diagnostic method including newly developed methods - Grasp of correlation between specific gases for clearer distinction between overheating and electric discharge (3) Data accumulation Establishment of database in which details of abnormality (part, condition, degree, cause, location, historical data of operation, etc.) and trend of generated gas correspond to each other

BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1] [2] Electric Technology Research Association of Japan, Vol.65, No.1, "The Guideline for Refurbishment of Electric Power Transformers" (September 2009) T. Onoda. "Support Vector Machine" (Ohmsha, 2007)