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OFFICIAL PARTNER OF
A quick start guide to MAXIMIZING our interactive features.
Welcome to the
Digital Edition of
SHARE an article or
page via social media.
Click PAGES to view
thumbnails of each
page and browse
through the entire issue.
Easily browse all BACK ISSUES.
SEARCH for specifc
articles or content.
View the table of CONTENTS and
easily navigate directly to an article.
DOWNLOAD the issue to your desktop.
PRINT any or all pages. SHARE an article via email.
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through the issue.
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In here, meters keep in touch,
so your crews dont have to.
In the network of possibilities, meters report usage in
real time. The power grid monitors itself to identify
problems before they become outages. And utilities
put resources where theyre needed most. As the
only communications provider offering complete
smart grid solutions, AT&T is a partner you can
rely on to manage your data, so you can focus on
managing your power grid.
Discover what AT&T Smart Grid Solutions can do for you at
att.com/smartergrid
2012 AT&T Intellectual Property. All rights reserved. AT&T, the AT&T logo and all other AT&T marks contained herein are trademarks of
AT&T Intellectual Property and/or AT&T affiliated companies. All other marks contained herein are the property of their respective owners.
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1306PG_C2 2 6/4/13 2:42 PM
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PowerGrid International: ISSN 1547-6723,
is published 12 times per year (January,
February, March, April, May, June, July, August,
September, October, November and December)
by PennWell Corp., 1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa
OK 74112; phone 918.835.3161. Copyright
2013 by PennWell Corp. (Registered in U.S.
Patent Trademark Office). All rights reserved.
Authorization to photocopy items for internal
or personal use, or the internal or personal
use of specific clients, is granted by PowerGrid
International: ISSN 1085-2328, provided that
the appropriate fee is paid directly to Copyright
Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Dr., Danvers,
MA 01923 USA, 978.750.8400. Prior to pho-
tocopying items for educational classroom use,
please contact Copyright Clearance Center,
222 Rosewood Dr., Danvers, MA 01923 USA,
508.750.8400. Distributed to executives and
engineers in electric, water/wastewater and
gas utilities and pipeline companies around the
world. Periodicals Postage Paid at Tulsa, OK
and additional mailing offices. Subscription: $85
per year (U.S.), $94 (Canada/Mexico), $225
(international air mail). Back issues of PowerGrid
International may be purchased at a cost of
$13 each in the U.S. and $21 elsewhere. Copies
of back issues are also available on microfilm
and microfiche from University Microfilm, a Xerox
Co., 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48103.
Available on the NEXIS Service, Mead Data
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and other circulation information to PowerGrid
International, P.O. Box 3264, Northbrook, IL
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addresses to P.O. Box 122, Niagara Falls, ON L2E
6S4 PowerGrid International is a registered
trademark of PennWell Corp. We make portions of
our subscriber list available to carefully screened
companies that offer products and services that
may be important for your work. If you do not want
to receive those offers and/or information, please
let us know by contacting us at List Services,
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Printed in the
U.S.A. GST No.
126813153
Publications Mail
Agreement No.
40052420
2 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
JUNE 2013 VOLUME 18.06
18 A Provocative Look
at the Utility of the Future
Schneider Electrics Phil Davis writes
that now is the time to integrate demand
response lessons into operations.
22 Developing a Business Case
for Distribution Automation
Robert Uluski of Utility Integration Solutions
Inc. examines the costs and benefits of the two
main distribution automation functions many
electric distribution utilities are considering:
volt-VAR optimization and fault location
isolation and service restoration.
32 Utilities, Vendors
Can Help Fill Power
Industry Jobs
Enoservs Sarah Baumann shares
how the Tulsa, Okla.,-based software company partnered with Tulsa
Community College to develop an electrical substation technology
program and other industry vendors to start a training conference.
38 Products
39 Calendar/Ad Index
40 From the Pages of Electricity History
34 Utilities Need Test Bed to Evaluate
Legacy Industrial Control System
Cybersecurity Technologies
Joe Weiss of Applied Control Solutions and Steven
Brunasso of an undisclosed electric utility write that
encryption forms the core of many IT security solutions,
although it might be unnecessary or even harmful to
industrial control system operation.
From the Editor 4
Notes 6
Performing Brain Surgery 14
on Seattle City Lights
Distribution System
Michael Pesin of Seattle City Light explains that the
utility neither could afford to replace all its RTUs
immediately nor to delay its smart grid plan. The best
short-term option was to upgrade existing RTUs.
28
Enterprise Smart Grid
Turning the Focus
to the Demand Side
of the Energy Equation
Linda Jackman of Oracle Utilities writes that
the balanced mix of supplying more energy and
focusing on the negawatt is opening doors to
many energy savings options.
1306PG_2 2 6/4/13 2:58 PM
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
Engineering Services for the Intelligent Grid
With more than 300 professionals located in offices nationwide, SEL Engineering Services provides a
wide range of engineering, procurement, and construction management capabilities. We deliver complete
turnkey solutions to make electric power safer, more reliable, and more economical. Learn more about
SEL Engineering Services, a division of Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, at www.selinc.com/6pgi.
1306PG_3 3 6/4/13 2:58 PM
EDITOR IN CHIEF
Teresa Hansen
918.831.9504 teresah@pennwell.com
SENIOR EDITOR
Kristen Wright
918.831.9177 kristenw@pennwell.com
ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Jennifer Van Burkleo
918.832.9269 jvanburkleo@pennwell.com
ONLINE/ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Jeff Postelwait
918.831.9114 jeffp@pennwell.com
GRAPHIC DESIGNER
Deanna Taylor
918.832.9378 deannat@pennwell.com
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATOR
Angie ODea
918.831.9431 angieo@pennwell.com
CIRCULATION MANAGER
June Griffin
918.832.9254 juneg@pennwell.com
SUBSCRIBER SERVICE
P.O. Box 3264, Northbrook, IL 63264
phone 847.559.7501
fax 847.291.4816 pgi@omeda.com
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, NORTH AMERICAN
POWER GENERATION GROUP
Richard Baker
918.831.9187 richardb@pennwell.com
PENNWELL CORP. IN EUROPE
PennWell International Limited
The Water Tower, Gunpowder Mill
Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN, United Kingdom
phone +44.1992.656600
fax +44.1992.656700
pennwelluk@pennwell.com
CHAIRMAN
Frank Lauinger
PRESIDENT/CEO
Robert F. Biolchini
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, FINANCE
& ADMINISTRATION (CFO)
Mark C. Wilmoth
1421 S. Sheridan Road, Tulsa, OK 74112
PO Box 1260, Tulsa OK 74101
Phone 918.835.3161 Fax 918.831.9834
pgi@pennwell.com
www.pennwell.com
POWERGRID International is
the offcial publication of
4 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
EDITOR IN CHIEF
TERESA HANSEN
FROM THE EDITOR
Tornado Devastates
OG&E Service Territory
I wrote about disruptive events in Februarys From the Editor letter, and
I typically wouldnt write about the same topic four months later. This week,
however, has not been typical in Oklahoma. On May 20, only four days ago,
a massive, killer tornado tore through Moore, a suburb of Oklahoma City. It
was by far the worst of more than a dozen tornadoes
reported in Oklahoma on May 19 and 20, and one of
the worst on record anywhere. Several smaller torna-
does were reported in Northeast Oklahoma, the loca-
tion of PennWells home office, but those tornados were
inconsequential compared with the Moore tornado.
The property destruction is terrible, but the deaths of
24 people, including 10 children, is heartbreaking. For
days the local media has reported on little else, so its
nearly impossible to forget about the devastation for
even a short time.
Ive included some photos from Moore that an editor from our office took the
day after the tornado. I tried to find at least one photo from the more than 60
he shared that show a downed power line or broken power pole. It is impos-
sible to tell a power pole from a window frame in all the broken debris. This
is the landscape in which first responders, as well as the ordinary people who
quickly became first responders, began their work. Employees of Oklahoma
Gas and Electric Co. (OG&E), the util-
ity that provides electricity and gas to
the area, were there, too. OG&E field
crews along with crews from utilities
outside the area have worked around
the clock to restore power. As of Friday,
May 24, just more than 5,000 people
remain without power. That is down
from some 41,000 customers right after the tornado. OG&E expects to have
power restored Sunday, May 26 to all customers in tornado-damaged areas
that can accept electric service. Thats remarkable.
Im sure OG&Es outage management system, which is part of a smart grid
initiative it implemented recently, made the job easier. And the customer-
facing side of its initiative, which includes System Watch, a tool that reports
outage restoration progress via website, smart phone or tablet, has been help-
ful, as have the companys and employees Twitter posts. OG&E gets high
marks for performing well and keeping customers in the loop.
Although it isnt the first, just the latest, to be thrown into a terrible
situation, OG&E and its dedicated employees deserve a shout-out for a
job well done.
P
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1306PG_4 4 6/4/13 2:58 PM

The demand for increased automation, multiple


applications and seamless data communication is
driving the convergence of substations under a
single Ethernet platform.
To support the proliferation of these mission-critical
applications, Belden offers a high quality, high
availability line of Industrial Ethernet network devices
and systems from our globally known brands -
GarrettCom, Hirschmann and Belden.
From the substation to the utility network operations
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1306PG_5 5 6/4/13 2:58 PM
Source: The Utility Smart Grid Outlook 2013 (GTM Research)
2
San Diego Gas & Electric
Southern California Edison
Commonwealth Edison
Oklahoma Gas & Electric
Pacifc Gas & Electric
Arizona Public Service
EPB
CenterPoint Energy
Burbank Water & Power
Florida Power & Light
5
4
3
2
1
0
MATURITY OF THE TOP 10 UTILITIES
Smart Grid Portfolio
Enterprise Management
and Integration
Communication
Networks
Consumer
Engagement
Data Management
and Analytics
NOTES
6 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
REPORT: CENTERPOINT ENERGY, PG&E, SDG&E
LEAD SMART GRID MATURITY CURVE
Which are the most mature smart
grid utilities in North America, and
how are their respective smart grid
technology road maps evolving? GTM
Research is publishing its latest report,
The Utility Smart Grid Outlook in
North America 2013, which analyzes
the utility smart grid deployments of 40
leading North American utilities. The
report combines in-depth and targeted
profiles for all 40 utilities analyzed with
the maturity rankings both overall and
within each of the following key seg-
ments of utility smart grid adoption:
Smart grid portfolio;
Communication networks;
Data management and analytics;
Enterprise management and inte-
gration; and
Consumer engagement.
By identifying and ranking utilities
on the five most important compo-
nents of a successful smart grid plan,
it became evident where utilities are
RANK UTILITY
AVERAGE
MATURITY
STATE OWNERSHIP
ELECTRIC
CUSTOMERS
1
CENTERPOINT ENERGY 4.2 TX IOU 2,280,000
PACIFIC GAS & ELECTRIC 4.2 CA IOU 5,100,000
SAN DIEGO GAS & ELECTRIC 4.2 CA IOU 1,400,000
4 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON 2.0 CA IOU 5,000,000
5
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE 3.6 AZ IOU 1,100,000
BURBANK WATER & POWER 3.6 CA MUNICIPAL 53,000
COMMONWEALTH EDISON 3.6 IL IOU 4,000,000
EPB 3.6 TN MUNICIPAL 174,000
FLORIDA POWER & LIGHT 3.6 FL IOU 4,600,000
OKLAHOMA GAS & ELECTRIC 3.6 OK IOU 833,000
THE BROAD SCOPE OF SMART GRID VS. NERC CIP
1
Source: The Utility Smart Grid Outlook 2013 (GTM Research)
struggling and excelling, said Emma
Ritch, report author and senior analyst
at GTM Research.
As smart grid drivers shift from U.S.
stimulus funds to operational efficien-
cies, utilities are demanding more than
ever that vendors prove a business
case to justify smart grid expenditures.
In addition, it provides insight into
the strategies utilities are employing to
improve energy delivery efficiency and
reliability.
1306PG_6 6 6/4/13 2:58 PM
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FIELD
SERVICES
Software and services keeping you connected and compliant
TRAINING
SYSTEM
PROTECTION
DATABASE
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RELAY TESTING
SOFTWARE
June 2013 | 7
www.power-grid.com
GDF SUEZ ENERGY RESOURCES NA EXPANDS PRESENCE IN OHIO
Illuminating, Ohio Edison and Dayton
Power & Light territories since June 2011.
To serve the central and southern Ohio
markets, the retail electricity provider
recently opened
a sales office in
Columbus and
plans to hire addi-
tional sales people
who will focus on
that region of the
Buckeye State.
Parent company GDF Suez Energy
North America also has in its portfolio a
609-MW natural gas-fired power plant in
Luchey, Ohio.
GDF Suez Energy Resources NA,
one of the countrys largest competitive
retail electricity providers to commer-
cial, industrial and institutional custom-
ers, has entered two
new Ohio competi-
tive retail electricity
markets.
The move broad-
ens the pricing
options and product
offerings available for large commercial
and industrial customers in the American
Electric Power Ohio and Duke Energy
service territories.
GDF Suez Energy Resources began
pricing transactions April 22 for service
that starts in June.
Sam Henry, GDF Suez Energy Resources
president and CEO, said the expansion in
these markets drives competition and
brings more value in pricing and product
options to consumers.
GDF Suez Energy Resources has served
the Toledo Edison, Cleveland Electric
1306PG_7 7 6/4/13 2:58 PM
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The expanding role
of natural gas in
the nations power
generation was
demonstrated in the capac-
ity expansion analyses
and production cost stud-
ies completed in 2011 and
2012. More information
on the gas-electric
interface study will
be posted soon on
the EIPC website.
Draft report:
www.eipconline.
com/resource_
library.html.
The Eastern Interconnection Planning
Collaborative (EIPC) has completed the
transmission analyses as part of an electric
system transmission planning effort fund-
ed by the Department of Energy (DOE).
The EIPC has reached a major mile-
stone with the completion of the elec-
tric system transmission analyses of the
stakeholder-defined scenarios for the year
2030, said Stephen G. Whitley, president
and CEO of the New York Independent
System Operator (NYISO) and chairman
of the EIPC executive committee.
Stakeholders had defined three sce-
narios as part of the first phase of the
EIPCs studies. As a result of the scenario
analyses conducted as a part of the second
phase, three future transmission systems
were created to support the chosen sce-
narios from a reliability perspective. In
addition, the capital costs to install the
future resources assumed in each sce-
nario and the cost to install the support-
ing transmission facilities were calculated
along with the projected annual produc-
tion costs. Documentation of these results
is included in a comprehensive draft
report on the study.
The three scenarios chosen by stake-
holders are described in the report as:
1. Business as usual. This scenario
represents a continuation of existing
conditions, including load growth,
existing renewable portfolio stan-
dards (RPSs) and proposed envi-
ronmental regulations as they were
understood during summer 2011.
2. National RPS (state, regional imple-
mentation). This scenario contem-
plates meeting 30 percent of the
nations electricity requirements
from renewable resources by 2030.
This would be achieved by using a
regional implementation strategy.
3. Combined federal climate, energy
policy. This scenario represents a
combination of: a reduction of econ-
omywide carbon emissions by 42
percent from 2005 levels in 2030 and
80 percent in 2050; meeting 30 per-
cent of the nations electricity require-
ments from renewable resources by
2030; and significant deployment of
energy efficiency measures, demand
response, distributed generation,
smart grid and other low-carbon
technologies. This scenario would
be achieved by using a nationwide/
Eastern Interconnectionwide imple-
mentation strategy.
DOE has requested that we continue
the project to investigate
if sufficient natural gas
infrastructure exists to
support the growing use
of natural gas for power
production, as well as
the associated impacts
on electric transmission
planning, Whitley said.
The effort to analyze
the interface between
the natural gas delivery
system and the electric
transmission system has
just begun and supple-
ments the ongoing work
of the EIPC. EIPC will
be continuing its Eastern
Int erconnect i onwi de
transmission planning
activities in 2013.
The natural gas study
contemplates investigat-
ing the increasing reli-
ance on natural gas for
generating electricity.
EASTERN INTERCONNECTION GRID PLANNING COMPLETES
TRANSMISSION ANALYSES, INITIATES GAS-ELECTRIC INTERFACE STUDY


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NOTES
10 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
RELIANT, GREEN MOUNTAIN ENERGY EXPAND THERMOSTAT PROGRAM
during times of expected high elec-
tricity usage and lets them access
both of Nests new services: Rush
Hour Rewards and Seasonal Savings.
Green Mountain Energy customers
in Texas, Illinois, New York and
Pennsylvania who sign up for the
Pollution FreeEfficient with Nest
plan will receive Nests Seasonal
Savings Service beginning this sum-
mer. Green Mountain Energy is
Nests only retail electricity partner
that is dedicated to cleaner energy.
More than 700,000 NRG customers
through its retail companies use one or
more of its smart energy solutions. In just
three years, the company has launched a
series of 10 innovative new products and
services designed to give customers the
tools and information they need to man-
age their electricity use and change the
way they think about energy.
NRG Energy Inc. President and CEO
David Crane announced an expansion
of its successful partnership with Nest
Labs Inc. to competitive markets nation-
ally through two of its retail companies,
Reliant and Green Mountain Energy Co.
Last year, NRGs largest retail
company, Reliant, became
the first competitive
electricity pro-
vider in the U.S.
to offer the
Nest Learning
Thermost at .
Reliant offered
the Nest as
part of a fixed-
price electricity
plan to help cus-
tomers better under-
stand and conserve energy.
Beginning this summer, both Reliant
and NRGs renewable energy provider,
Green Mountain Energy, will provide
the Nest Learning Thermostat as part of
its local electricity plans.
Reliant customers throughout Texas
will have three ways to save electric-
ity with Nest: the Reliant Learn &
Conserve plan that features the
Nest Learning Thermostat,
which includes a free
Nest; the new
Reliant Free
Weekends plan
with Nest,
the first plan
to offer free
energy charges
all weekend,
along with a Nest
thermostat; and the
Degrees of Difference
program with Nest, which
gives customers the opportunity to
earn credits when they conserve


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FPL COMPLETES DOE-SUPPORTED GRID
ENHANCEMENTS, 4.5M SMART METER INSTALLATIONS
reliable, affordable electricity for our
customers.
FPL was one of only six utilities in the
U.S. to receive a $200 million grant from
the DOE to help fund one of the largest,
most comprehensive grid moderniza-
tion projects. Four years later with an
additional $600 million investment from
FPL, the installation of these smart grid
technologies place FPL among the first
utilities to complete the commitment.
Florida Power & Light Co. complet-
ed its Department of Energy (DOE)-
supported grid modernization projects
and the installation of 4.5 million smart
meters in its 35-county service area.
FPL President Eric Silagy announced
the milestones during a celebration at
FPLs grid-monitoring center in Palm
Beach County that was attended by
Patricia Hoffman, assistant secretary
of energy for the Office of Electricity
Delivery and Energy Reliability, plus
local dignitaries and business officials.
This is one of the most ambitious
projects that has ever been undertaken
in the country and definitely one of the
most ambitious projects that FPL has
undertaken, Silagy said. Completing
the installation of the 4.5 million smart
meters and the deployment of smart
grid technology throughout our service
territory is making it possible for us to
improve our service reliability, prevent
outages and detect problems while giv-
ing customers more control over the
energy they use.
In 2009, we began the deployment of
state-of-the-art smart grid technologies
as part of our commitment to building
a smarter, more reliable and more effi-
cient electrical infrastructure. While we
celebrate the installation of 4.5 million
meters nine months ahead of schedule,
at FPL we never stop working to deliver
1306PG_10 10 6/4/13 2:58 PM
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
June 2013 | 11
www.power-grid.com
UTILITIES RACE TO MEET
CHANGING CUSTOMER COMMUNICATIONS, RELIABILITY EXPECTATIONS
AMID TECHNOLOGY, STRATEGY CHALLENGES
processes and technology.
Utilities were clear throughout survey
responses that customers want bidirec-
tional communication across mediums
including text, social media and web-
sites. The survey revealed that the cur-
rent project initiativesincluding the
continued deployment of smart meters,
completing advanced metering infra-
structure rollouts and grid automation
and expanding the use of demand man-
agement and other energy efficiency
programsare leading upcoming proj-
ect work that will empower customers
to save energy and money.
Utility business consulting and systems
integration solutions provider Bridge
Energy Group recently announced the
results from its 2013 survey on customer
enablement.
Bridge surveyed more than 20,000
utility employees about their views and
experiences in customer enablement.
Results show that 40 percent plan to
add major new functionality to their
existing customer information systems/
customer relationship management sys-
tems (CISs/CRMs) and 37 percent plan
to replace their existing CISs/CRMs, but
76 percent indicated that the supply of
knowledgeable staff and system integra-
tion challenges are the two biggest CIS
project inhibitors.
Most utilities recognize customers want
more clear, bidirectional communications
on outages, rate increases and billing
issues; however, few utilities9 per-
centhave a complete, integrated view
of each customer to analyze the informa-
tion and deliver on those expectations.
In addition, with 69 percent planning
to increase their focus on improving
customer experience, they will face orga-
nizational obstacles including a lack of
customer experience strategy, budgets,


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Chelan County Public Utility District
A great place to work and play
Seeking a Transmission Engineer to lead the engineering
analyses, design and project management to support
capital and O&M programs for three powerhouses on the
Columbia River and one at the outlet of Lake Chelan.
Rated by National Geographic as one of the top 10
mountain towns in the U.S., Wenatchee is located in
Chelan County and is a recreational paradise. Enjoy
water sports on the Wenatchee and Columbia rivers,
hiking, biking, rock climbing and unlimited golng.
Downhill and cross-country skiing are just minutes away.
Information about Chelan PUD and online application
procedures at www.chelanpud.org.
Chelan PUD is an Equal Opportunity Employer
and values diversity at all levels of its workforce.
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
NOTES
12 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
EYE ON THE WORLD
The generation, transmission and distribution of electric-
ity uses the same infrastructure architecture and technol-
ogy throughout the world. The need to make the electrical
grid a smart grid is driven by the same forces, but the solu-
tions and road map to get there are diverging in the main
developed regions of the world. This is because of a differ-
ent emphasis on energy policy, the relative importance of
different drivers and the current state of the transmission
and distribution grid. Analyzing the differences by com-
paring current investment on smart grid across the
U.S. and Europe tells the current status, where the
effort is being concentrated and the reason for
the divergence.
Memooris report on the status
of the market in 2012 shows
smart grid sales across the
US, Europe will follow different smart grid road maps
BY ALLAN MCHALE, MEMOORI
world reached $36.5 billion at installed prices in 2012.
Of this, the U.S. contributed some 20 percent and Europe
10 percent. Based on the technical latent market potential
to install a completed smart grid in each region, the U.S.
has achieved a higher penetration. This is forecast to be
sustained until 2017.
In the U.S., smart grid investment was some $7 billion
in 2012, including refurbishment business to incremen-
tally improve and smarten the control and reliability of
the electrical network. Nevertheless, these numbers are
disappointing, given that the 2009 American Recovery and
Reinvestment Act provided a major incentive for the indus-
try with more than $4 billion in grant funding for smart grid
program demonstrations. This was significantly larger than
any public funds contributed in Europe.
The U.S. also wins on the supply side with much higher
levels of investment going into relatively
new startups than in Europe. The supply
industry in the U.S. has undergone major
consolidation during the past three years
and has a broad base of major and
medium-sized companies. In addition, it
has attracted the information and com-
munications technology industry to buy
into the smart grid business to develop
big data solutions. The supply side looks
more innovative and investment more
readily available at this time. Does this
mean the U.S. is ahead of the game
compared with Europe?
Not necessarily. Europeparticularly
northern Europestarted off with a
much more stable grid than the U.S. It
has been incorporating digital control
systems across the transmission and
distribution networks for many years, and
its outage performance is among the
best in the world. From this base it has
accommodated significant levels of vari-
able renewable energy (VRE) without
yet installing full automated demand
response (ADR). So does Europe think
1306PG_12 12 6/4/13 2:58 PM
it has more time to design a system that
through ensuring interoperability across all
aspects of the grid will achieve its No. 1 goal
of delivering a smart grid, maximizing its abil-
ity to accommodate VRE? Or is it waiting to
learn from the U.S. demonstration programs
before it commits to a multibillion-dollar
investment?
Both factors apply, and in the case of the
latter, Europe has learned from the smart
meter programs in the U.S. that from the start
it must ensure they are interoperable within
advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). This
has caused a rethink in Europe on how the
program should be rolled out. Smart grid
must deliver a fully joined-up solution that
incorporates distributed power from variable
renewable and other efficient sources, other-
wise it will not meet its carbon dioxide reduc-
tion targets or minimize the cost of owner-
ship. Average electricity prices in Europe are
double those in the U.S., and Europes energy
policy depends on VRE, which in the short
to medium term will further widen the price
difference. Europe must get it right the first
time or suffer serious long-term economic
consequences.
The road map for implementing smart
grid must be driven by a countrys energy
policy, and this must set the objective and
benchmarks for smart grid. The U.S. is self-
sufficient in fossil base fuels and particularly
natural gas, which will allow it to accommo-
date VRE more gradually while reducing CO
2

emissions. Europe relies on imported fuels
for power generation, and natural gas is the
only one that will be allowable in the future
in the developed world. World prices for this
energy source will rise significantly, and this
will make VRE a more economical, viable and
secure power source. In Europe, the driver
and No. 1 objective is to deliver a smart grid
that can accommodate as much renewable
power as possible.
How much VRE power can be accom-
modated differs widely among experts in
the U.S. and Germany. Germany is building
its energy power model on the basis that
by 2050, 80 percent of its power needs
will be provided by VRE, and it will not need
conventional spinning reserves. The thinking
in the U.S. is that it would require conven-
tional spinning reserves to be operational
to accommodate VRE and that in the case
of wind power, the tipping point for ben-
efitting CO
2
emissions could not exceed 20
percent of the total central power generated.
Over this limit, spinning reserves will create
more CO
2
emissions and nullify any benefits,
which are the sole reason for installing wind
power in the first place.
But the proof of this will play out during the
rest of this decade; Germany plans to have
renewable sources provide 35 percent of its
electricity by 2020 and 80 percent by 2050.
Germanys grid, which is not yet smart, is
accepting 15 percent, and winds providing
more than 9 percent of the countrys grid
power while solar photovoltaic has more
than a 5 percent share. But penetration
rates can be much higher in real time. Solar
production, for example, went from zero to
15.6 GW on Sept. 30, at which point it was
meeting 30 percent of total demand and
renewables supplied about 40 percent of
Denmarks power in 2011.
Both countries have robust grids and the
lowest outage rates worldwide. Germany,
however, recently has experienced grid sta-
bility problems in the eastern part of the
country where more than one-third of its
wind turbines are located. This concentration
of generating capacity regularly overloads
the regions electricity grid and threatens
blackouts. Manual intervention is needed.
Irrespective of the energy policy difference
between the U.S. and Europe, smart grids
future is assured in both regions.
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1306PG_13 13 6/4/13 2:58 PM
14 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
T
he past 30 to 40 years have
seen Seattle develop into a
major technology hub with a host of
companies such as Microsoft Corp.
and Amazon.com Inc. setting up shop
in the Pacific Northwest. It was about
that long ago when a fleet of Seattle
City Lights (SCLs) substation remote
telemetry units (RTUs) went into
service for an area thats grown to some
1 million residents spread across 130
square miles.
To better serve this dynamic, growing
community, the citys utility embarked
on a project to modernize its systems
including integration of information
technology (IT) with operation
technology (OT) that would bring the
system in line with current and future
demands. A Smart Grid Road Map
was developed in 2009 and become
part of SCLs strategic plan. It detailed
the necessary technology investments
that included substation automation
and distribution automation as some
of the core systems. Adding more
intelligence to the distribution system
would be the foundation of SCLs grid
modernization program. The challenge
was that the existing RTUs at all SCL
substations were of a vintage that
could not support Seattles smart grid
requirements. The solution to enabling
BY MICHAEL PESIN, SEATTLE CITY LIGHT
required functionality was to build new
substation control systems that would
rely on intelligent electronic devices
(IEDs); however, Seattle was facing
some challenges with this approach.
Seattles distribution substations were
built significantly larger than those
at typical North American utilities.
A typical substation has anywhere
between 20 and 30 feeders. With a
significant majority of substation
control and protection devices being
electromechanical, it could take several
years to migrate fully to a new IED-based
Michael Pesin is the chief technology advisor and smart grid architect for Seattle City Light and is
involved in many industry organizations.He has more than 25 years of experience in the electric utility
industry and is a nationally recognized expert in smart grid and utility automation technologies.Reach
him at michael.pesin@seattle.gov.
Performing Brain Surgery on Seattle
City Lights Distribution System


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June 2013 | 15
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SEATTLE CITY LIGHT SUBSTATION ARCHITECTURE 1
Siemens EMS
SONET
L&G8979
JungleMUX
JungleMUX
L&G8979
Remote
Terminal
Unit
RTU
Modems
Substation
Control Center
Modems


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from vendors since 2001 and had
upgraded more than 100 similar RTUs
at several utilities.
The attraction to the upgrade
approach was that SCL wouldnt need
to disturb existing I/O terminations or
replace enclosures.
Best, a single RTU upgrade usually
could be done in less than a daya
90 percent savings over replacement in
labor alone.
control system at just one location.
SCL neither could afford to replace
all its RTUs immediately nor to delay its
smart grid plan.
The option to upgrade existing
RTUsbasically performing brain
surgerywas the best short-term
option for modernizing the local grid.
SUBSTATION-SERVER
ARCHITECTURE
A substation-server architecture is
just like a distributed client-server
application and presents a better
supervisory control and data acquisition
(SCADA) model to configure a
substation with less complexity and
more accessibility for engineers and
technicians.
It consists of local IEDs connected
to a substation server that is interfaced
with an energy management system
(EMS) and other enterprise IT systems.
The new system provides improved
visibility, command and control and
data retrieval for a smarter grid that
delivers improved operational results.
SCLs legacy SCADA architecture
employed Moore Systems MPS-9000S
RTUs that were installed in the early 80s.
RTUs were hardwired to
electromechanical devices and connected
with the EMS over serial modems.
Existing hardware offered no interfaces
to IEDs or open communication
protocols beyond the existing L&G
8979 currently used (see Figure 1).
There are no RTU spare parts, repair
or technical services available, and the
age of these RTUs affected reliability.
Internal analysis indicated a complete
forklift RTU replacement was out of
the question because of the significant
financial and operational challenges,
particularly labor costs and downtime.
SCL began studying possible work-
arounds that could provide the least-
intrusive methods for eliminating the
weak link from its system and getting
maximum functionality from existing
equipment.
In researching alternatives to full
replacement, SCL learned about an RTU
upgrade program offered by Efacec ACS.
The Norcross, Ga.,based company
had been revamping substation RTUs
1306PG_15 15 6/4/13 2:58 PM
16 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
Using this approach, SCL significantly simplifies transition
to the desired modern substation control architecture.
With an upgraded RTU capable of multiprotocol
communications, utilities gradually can move SCADA
functionality from hardwired I/Os to new IEDs as they get
deployed.
At some point, all SCADA functions will be transferred to
IEDs that communicate with a substation server, and all RTUs
can be decommissioned.
The number of IEDs that still need to be deployed means it
might be years before it can happen, though.
NEARLY OFF THE SHELF
The object of an RTU upgrade is to leave the local I/O
terminations and original field I/O wiring in place.
To do this, the original MPS-9000S electronic card files
are swapped for Efacecs Connex logic modules with a
nearly identically sized 19-inch rack-mounted chassis and
expansion card files for analog and digital input I/O.
The original MPS-9000S control relay modules are
interfaced directly through special adapters and cables to
provide standard Efacec ACS isolated relay driver logic to the
original relays.
A new power supply is included and replaces the original
unreliable MPS power supplies.
The high-speed serial and Ethernet gateways with open
protocols for multiple master and IEDs also are added.
Every RTU upgrade unit is customized for each substation
to accommodate the necessary I/O interfaces and termination
points.
Seattle City Light RTU Before and After
2
BEFORE AFTER
Move or Improve?
A Guide to Retrofitting RTUs
Under the best circumstances, a substation remote
telemetry unit (RTU) has a useful life of 20 years,
although technical and spare parts support might be
only half that span. Many utilities with legacy systems
find that their original vendors no longer support the
RTU or might be out of business. Aging RTUs have
limited functionality and are unable to integrate with
intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) such as digital relays
or handle high-speed data communications or 16/32-bit
IED data values necessary for distribution automation.
Completely replacing an old RTU can be time-
consuming and expensive, leaving the alternative of
retrofitting modern logic hardware and software to
an existing system. Its important to consider a few
questions before an upgrade:
1. Are the existing wiring termination assemblies of
the RTU active or inactive? If they are inactive, the
RTU is usually a good upgrade candidate.
2. If the termination assemblies are active, are they
reliable or repairable?
3. Are the existing control interposing relays reliable
or repairable?
4. Is the existing cabinet or rack reusable?
5. Can the original or outside vendor provide an
upgrade kit?
The decision to maintain the original I/O termination
boards on a legacy RTU depends on whether the
present wiring terminations are reliable. This makes
up the bulk of the cost savings with an upgrade and
should be considered when answering the first, second
and fifth questions. If the answer was no to all of the
above, the only choice is a full replacement. Conversely,
a negative answer to one or two of these questions
will affect the total financial gains realized from a
retrofit upgrade but does not necessarily negate all the
advantages like replacing unreliable I/O modules with
more capable, form-fit modules.
A complete replacement requires more than just
budgeting for a new RTU. There is additional budget
needed for project management, substation wiring
diagram revisions, field installation and wiring, labor
for retesting to the end devices, possible changes to
the master database and substation downtime. With a
relatively simple upgrade, many of these costs can be
reduced or eliminated.
1306PG_16 16 6/4/13 2:58 PM
June 2013 | 17
www.power-grid.com
communications digital interface medi-
ums, SLC can begin a transition to grid
modernization in earnest thats also cost-
effective (see Figure 3).
Upgrade projects such as this one have
shown significant savings at other utilities,
averaging 59 percent less in total proj-
ect costs compared with traditional RTU
replacements; 97 percent less engineering
time; and a total field crew labor average
reduction of 92 percent.
With only two completed projects, SLC
doesnt have enough data available yet to
compare statistics, but the time and cost
savings have been pronounced.
By upgrading RTUs, however, SCL can
eliminate the weak link in its SCADA
system and continue its substation
automation project at its own pace without
the threat of sudden system failure.
An included soft-
ware configuration
tool duplicates the
legacy RTU database
in its original proto-
col envelope, leaving
the master database
and displays largely
untouched.
After pre-installa-
tion training, SLC per-
formed the upgrade
in a day, thanks to
having its labor sub-
stantially reduced or
eliminated, including
wiring, testing and
drawing revisions, as
well as master station
database and display
revisions. Figure 2
shows a before and
after upgrade image
of the hardware con-
figuration.
Installation was fairly painless. Each
substation stays online during the
cutover, although there is no telemetry
from the node until the full retrofit is
complete.
Among a few surprises, SCLs current
EMS, only one of its kind in service in the
continental U.S., used a slightly different
variation of the standard L&G 8979 com-
munications protocol.
Efacec ACS accommo-
dated modifications of
the protocol to handle the
variation.
The RTU upgrade
included the necessary
functionality to translate
the data so it could com-
municate with the existing EMS, but it
also offers serial and IP DNP3.0 proto-
col for an easy interface to a new EMS
planned for the next year.
A BEACHHEAD FOR GRID
MODERNIZATION
As stated, the RTU upgrade is a medi-
um-term solution, but the results from the
first two substations have been very good.
By moving forward with an RTU retrofit,
SCL is on a path to replace
unsupported electronics
with modern, reliable and
fully supported hardware
and software.
Adding modern, open
protocols, high-capacity,
high-speed master and
slave gateways (serial, TCP/
IP or both), Windows PC-based configu-
ration and diagnostic tools and the latest
The RTU is a
medium-term
solution, but
the first two
substations
have been
very good.
SEATTLE CITY LIGHT UPGRADE PROJECT 3
Network
Connection
Authorized User PC
Cyber Access
Control System
Outage Management
System
Asset Management
System
PI Historian
Distribution
Management
System
Energy
Management
System
Corporate LAN DMZ LAN Control LAN
Substation
Network Router/
Firewall
Fiber Optic
Network
Video
Surveillance
Server
Substation
Operator
Interface
Distribution
Feeders
IEDs
Serial IEDs
Substation
Server
Protective
Relays
Networked IEDs
Network
Switch(es)
Upgraded
RTU
Substation LAN
Serial
Connection
1306PG_17 17 6/4/13 2:58 PM
18 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
D
emand response continues to teach
lessons about customer interaction.
Successful implementation requires
robust communications with customers,
both human and machine, which must be
founded on sound data analysis.
As utilities and regulators chart the way
to greater efficiency and more renewable
energy, the lessons of demand response
continue to speak loudly and clearly.
A new look at demand response is in
order.
The Department of Energy (DOE)
defines demand response as changes in
electric usage by end-use customers from
their normal consumption patterns in
response to changes in the price of elec-
tricity over time or to incentive payments
designed to induce lower electricity use at
times of high wholesale market prices or
when grid reliability is threatened.
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 declares
that demand response in all its forms shall
be the policy of the United States, with its
use encouraged and barriers removed.
Great words, but what is demand
response really?
Electrons obey the laws of physics.
They travel the path of least resistance
on their way to ground.
Our job is to get them to do a little work
along the way without wreaking havoc,
which electrons like to do.
Demand response is how we do that.
Everything about an intentional electrons
journey is shaped by someones desire to
modify that journey.
Those goals are determined by the vast
community of electron users: customers.
In that sense, everything a utility does is
demand response.
Now is the time to integrate demand
response lessons into operations.
BY PHIL DAVIS, SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
This will help meet the societal and
stakeholder expectations of the utility of
the future.
HISTORY OF DEMAND RESPONSE
We marvel at smart phones and forget
the iPhone first appeared in 2007, 35 years
or so after the first cell phone.
The roots of demand response similarly
stretch back decades to interruptible and
time-of-use rates.
Demand-side management programs
such as energy audits, efficiency rebates
and similar also date back to the 1970s.
The first real changes came in the 1990s:
Bulk power deregulated and launched
the initial active wholesale markets.
Independent power generators out-
paced utilities in unit construction for
the first time.
Phil Davis is senior manager of smart grid
solutions at Schneider Electric.


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to the revenue challenge.
Not every building has a management
team with energy specialists.
Can utilities play that role, sponsoring
the installation, maintenance and evolu-
tion of energy-aware systems that meet the
needs of customers and suppliers?
That leads directly to many questions:
1. Does it make sense for a utility to
subsidize a district program of build-
ing energy management around a
stressed substation, for example, rath-
er than investing a larger amount to
upgrade delivery infrastructure?
2. What is the right technology and the
path to technology evolution?
3. What are the legal and regulatory
implications?
The technology answer is easy.
Led by open standards such as
OpenADR 2.0, available equipment can
and does make this grid relationship pos-
sible.
There even are methods of demand
management that can identify and manage
customer assets to provide frequency sup-
port and other regulation services.
The larger question is how to integrate
the control room-to-customer path and
how to create a customer relationship
around this that delivers value and replac-
es revenue lost to efficiency.
POTENTIAL ANSWER
NO. 2: MICROGRIDS
Another approach might be microgrids.
Typical definitions include an islanding
capability, local generation and organized
control. Plus, someone has to pay for
them.
Consider the core competencies of utili-
ties; no other industry has the same deep
understanding of large-asset finance or a
cultural path to make that happen.
Energy trading started as an efficient
mechanism to bring deregulated
power to market.
The first interval meters were devel-
oped and enabled the advent of time-
of-use measurement.
The 2000s saw the following advances:
Retail deregulation spread, and retail
energy marketers emerged.
Integrated utilities split into distinct
generation, transmission and distri-
bution areas.
Green energy markets appeared.
Independent system operators (ISOs)
took on the role of markets and cre-
ated auctions and other mechanisms
for bidding and clearing increasing
diverse power products, including
demand response.
Third-party aggregators were born
and initially targeted large commercial
and industrial loads and aggregated
them into portfolios of interest to the
ISOs for hedging and risk manage-
ment functions.
Since 2007, these broad functions have
become more granular and more sophis-
ticated.
Aggregators also serve as program man-
agers in outsourcing demand response
programs for distribution utilities, similar
to the role played by project management
firms in the 1970s.
Now, most states have renewable and
efficiency standards, and demand response
is a leading tool to integrate those activities
and maintain grid reliability.
Today there is a form of demand
response analogous to every form of gen-
eration.
And we start to hear the term smart
grid a lot.
IMPACT OF CUSTOMER-SIDE
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
On the customer side, energy efficiency
has matured to the point that there is a per
capita decline in consumption despite an
explosion in energy-using devices.
Load growth is tied more to population
growth and shifts, and it is moderating to
levels well below relatively recent predic-
tions.
Large energy users have learned to use
demand response techniques to avoid
demand charges and frequently call
internal demand response events indepen-
dently of external programs.
This leads to the first significant chal-
lenge: utility revenue.
If many major energy users learn to
manipulate energy patterns to minimize
utility revenue (lower their own costs),
how do utilities and regulators ensure
continued financial stability in a critical
industry?
Already, several utilities are seeing rev-
enue pressure but lack tools available to
nonregulated businesses to adapt.
The answer is to use demand response
lessons to redefine smart grid away from
technology more to business process.
Smart grid should be defined as the
energy supplier plus the energy user.
This requires a collaborative model
between utilities and their customers.
POTENTIAL ANSWER NO. 1:
INTEGRATED DEMAND RESPONSE
Integrated demand response is one
approach.
Already there are buildings with sophis-
ticated modeling tools to shape energy
demand along predetermined strategies.
This lowers energy consumption and
demand.
This capability offers a potential answer


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no artificial boundaries, such as meters, to
stand in the way of efficiency and progress.
Renewable standards and efficiency
goals often are defined as percents of a
total.
There are two ways to increase percent:
Increase the numerator or decrease the
denominator.
To date, our response has been to do
more with more.
Its time for the integrated smart grid to
help us do more with less.
Volt-VAR control fed by smart grid data
offers an example.
Data points provide information on
power at various points on the grid.
Volt-VAR control adjusts send out so it
closely meets standards requirements.
This drops the need for generation 2 to
6 percent.
When that power comes from nonre-
newables, the denominator is reduced.
De facto, this reduces the denominator
automatically and raises the portion of
renewable energy in use without having
invested anything in new generation.
UTILITY OF THE FUTURE
The utility of the future wont look so
different from the utility of today.
Generation, transmission and distri-
bution remain, as do control rooms,
customer service and customers.
What changes are the attitudes, pro-
cesses and relationships of suppliers
and customers, perhaps in ways similar
to a smart phone ecosystem.
We dont ride horses to work any-
more, but most of us still commute.
We dont mail letters, but we still
write to one another.
We dont use cash, but we still buy
products.
What does your utility of the future
look like?

allow greater renewables delivery without
additional construction.
Pilots here and in Europe have shown
30 to 50 percent increases in line capacity
over static limits.
Back in the control room, exactly what
is this ADMS that is appearing in growing
numbers of utilities?
In simplest form, it replaces several
historically independent systemsgeo-
graphic information system, outage man-
agement system, distribution management
system, etc.and provides a platform to
react to new data flows from smart grid
implementations.
A top ADMS system also can dispatch
and monitor millions of points, and sud-
denly, the integration of sophisticated
demand response programs and microgrid
management isnt so farfetched.
A well-designed ADMS can arbitrage
between new assets and technologies
and bring revenue streams and custom-
er benefits far beyond todays traditional
approaches.
Finally, or perhaps first, there is the
human side.
The industry needs a continuous
improvement process that integrates sup-
ply and demand-side activities.
ISO 50001 and the DOEs Superior
Energy Performance programs provide
examples of this process in action.
Identify, plan, act, measure, evaluate,
modify are steps in a continuous loop of
improvement and an area where utilities
have strengths to offer.
FROM CONTROL
CENTER TO CUSTOMER
All of these steps lead to a fully inte-
grated smart grid.
From control centers to customers, there
is a flow of activity that is seamless with
No other industry understands the real-
time management, maintenance and bal-
ancing of diverse and distributed energy
assets.
No industry responds better under
crisis.
Microgrids are a key strategy to meet
many energy challenges.
Using them to manage local renew-
able generation to meet requirements
might be a better choice than massive
wind and solar farms in some cases.
Smart inverter technology can work
with the large grid to provide proper
flow direction under variable circum-
stance.
They can reduce the challenge of
electric vehicle charging to bite-size
pieces, as well as manage them for stor-
age and emergency conditions.
To make that work requires smart
meters, operating centers with advanced
distribution management systems
(ADMS) and expert staffall attributes
of todays utilities.
Under certain conditions, thousands
of small, variable energy assets can be
managed mathematically to follow an
AGC signal.
This enhances rather than detracts from
traditional utility processes.
POTENTIAL ANSWER
NO. 3: GRID-SIDE OPTIMIZATION
The grid has much to offer if we can
release its potential.
The use of dynamic line rating systems
removes the static rating barrier, increasing
power delivery over existing lines.
This fits perfectly with wind generation.
When the wind blows, turbine blades
rotate, but transmission lines also cool
down and can accept more power.
Perhaps the use of this technology can
1306PG_20 20 6/4/13 2:59 PM

JANUARY 28-30, 2014


HENRY B. GONZALEZ CONVENTION CENTER
SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS
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22 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
1
Capacitor
Bank
Field Communication Network
Control
Center
Substation
IEDs
Substation Voltage
Regulator
Line
Recloser
TYPICAL DA SYSTEM
service to customers connected to healthy
portions of the feeder with little or no
manual intervention.
Figure 1 contains a block diagram of
a typical distribution automation system.
THE COST SIDE
Implementing a distribution automation
system is expensive.
Initial costs include procuring, imple-
menting, testing and commissioning vari-
ous supervisory control and data acqui-
sition (SCADA)-ready, medium-voltage
M
any electric distribution utilities
are considering deploying distri-
bution automation as part of their grid
modernization strategies to improve reli-
ability, efficiency, asset utilization and per-
formance of the power delivery system.
Most distribution automation appli-
cations require significant technical and
financial investment.
Before embarking on a widespread dis-
tribution automation deployment, electric
companies must know for the benefit of
customers and shareholders if the expected
benefits outweigh the expected costs.
This article focuses on the costs and
benefits of the two main distribution auto-
mation functions, volt-VAR optimization
(VVO) and fault location isolation and
service restoration (FLISR), that are being
implemented or considered by many elec-
tric distribution utilities.
VVO is a distribution automation appli-
cation function used to improve the overall
efficiency of the electric distribution sys-
tem through optimal control of capacitor
banks, voltage regulators and possibly in
the future distributed energy resources.
FLISR, the self-healing grid, is a distri-
bution automation application that auto-
matically detects and isolates distribution
feeder faults and then quickly restores
(12-kV to 35-kV) power apparatus (line
switches, switched capacitor banks, volt-
age regulators, etc.), installing new sensors
and adding intelligent controls to manage
the operation of these individual compo-
nents.
Significant improvements to the electric
distribution system infrastructure, such
as connecting existing radial feeders to a
backup source of supply and feeder recon-
ductoring, also might be needed to avoid
overloads and undervoltage after feeder
reconfiguration.
BY ROBERT ULUSKI, UTILITY INTEGRATION SOLUTIONS INC.


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June 2013 | 23
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The distribution automation devices
must be able to exchange information and
control commands on a nearly real-time
basis; that is, the latency, or delay, associ-
ated with these information exchanges
must be five to 10 minutes or less.
This requires a reliable, effective com-
munication network that covers the util-
itys entire service territory.
Lack of a suitable communication infra-
structure poses a significant barrier to
successful distribution automation imple-
mentation.
In addition to these initial costs, electric
distribution utilities must develop and
implement an effective commissioning
strategy to enable system operators to
transition to the new distribution automa-
tion system.
The expenditures dont end when
the system is running. Periodic sys-
tem updates, ongoing maintenance and


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Robert Uluski is vice president of distri-
bution automation/DMS systems at UISOL,
an Alstom company. He has more than
35 years of experience in electric utility
transmission and distribution automation
systems. His background includes tenures
with the Electric Power Research Institute,
Quanta Technology, EnerNex Corp. and
KEMA. Reach him at ruluski @uisol.com
RETROFITTING AN EXISTING
DISTRIBUTION SWITCH FOR DA
2
Cleaveland Price
UAD Controller
S&C Electric 2-Way
Padmount Switch
1306PG_23 23 6/4/13 2:59 PM
24 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
24 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
3 ADVANCED VVO SYSTEM
Automated
Line Switch
Switched Cap
Bank
Line Voltage
Regulator
Substation
Load Tap
Changer
Substation
Cap Bank
Geospatial
Info System
Control Room
Operator
Substation
RTU
VVO
Optimizing
Engine
Online
Power
Flow
As-operated
Distribution
System Model
Distribution
SCADA
upgrades to components that are relatively
short-lived from an electric utility perspec-
tive also must be considered.
Utilities have been able to minimize
costs by leveraging existing equipment on
the feeder. Examples of this include:
Adding motor operators to enable
automatic control of existing gang-
operated switches as shown in
Figure 2;
Adding two-way communication
interfaces to existing line reclosers;
Leveraging an existing two-way
communication infrastructure,
such as the advanced metering
infrastructure backhaul communi-
cations network; and
Using information supplied by exist-
ing power apparatus rather than
installing separate standalone sensors.
feeder to near unity through power
factor correction. It is possible to
reduce electrical losses on the electric
distribution system by 5 to 10
percent. If the electric losses to begin
with are some 4 percent of total
energy consumption, then the loss
reduction would be 0.2 to 0.4 percent
of total energy consumption. This
might seem like a small percentage,
but the resulting loss savings is many
gigawatt-hours, which could result in
significant cost savings.
Lower electrical demand during
peak-load conditions through
power factor correction and voltage
reduction. It might be possible to
reduce demand 2 to 3 percent of peak
load. This can result in a significant
savings in capacity charges for
purchased power or the elimination
or deferment of capacity additions.
Fewer device operations for electro-
mechanical power apparatus (volt-
age regulators, capacitor banks,
etc.). It is possible to select minimize
number of device operations as a
VVO business objective. In this case,
the VVO algorithm will propose a
switching plan that minimizes the
number of device operations. This
will reduce wear and tear on the
power apparatus, lower maintenance
costs and potentially extend the
useful life of the equipment. Some
VVO solutions increase the number
of electromechanical operations; in
such cases, changes in the number of
device operations would be viewed as
a negative expense or cost.
Some VVO benefits do not necessarily
have a direct positive impact on a utilitys
bottom line; however, these benefits will
lower the cost of service to customers,
which ratemakers often view favorably.
Nonetheless, costs ranging from
$200,000 to $300,000 per feeder and
higher in some cases can be expected
with ongoing annual maintenance costs of
roughly 3 to 5 percent of the investment
amount. The value of distribution automa-
tion benefits must exceed these costs to
justify the investment.
THE BENEFIT SIDEVVO
The VVO application controls switched
capacitor banks, voltage regulators and,
in the future, distributed energy resources
to achieve one or more utility-specified
business objectives.
Figure 3 depicts a representative VVO
solution. Potential VVO benefits include
but are not limited to:
Lower electrical losses by
improving the power factor on the
1306PG_24 24 6/4/13 2:59 PM
June 2013 | 25
www.power-grid.com
FAULTED FEEDER BEFORE AND AFTER FLISR OPERATION 4
4a: Before FLISR Operation
4b: After FLISR Operation
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SMART GRID ENGINEERING | POWER SYSTEMS CONSULTING | SMART GRID LABS
UTILITY STATS
THE BENEFITS SIDEFLISR
FLISR allows a utility to detect and iso-
late feeder faults quickly and then rapidly
restore power to customers who are con-
nected to healthy portions of the feeder
with little or no manual intervention.
Figures 4a and 4b show the configura-
tion of a faulted feeder before and after
FLISR operation.
As a result, when a permanent fault
occurs, some customers who normally
would be without power for an hour or
longer during the repair or restoration
process have their power restored in less
than five minutes.
Figures 5a and 5b contain service
restoration time lines with and without
FLISR.
Potential FLISR benefits include 50
percent or more improvements in System
Average Interruption Duration Index and
System Average Interruption Frequency
Index.
Some increase in momentary
1306PG_25 25 6/4/13 2:59 PM
26 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
5 RESTORATION TIME LINE WITH AND WITHOUT FLISR
5a: Time Line Without FLISR
5b: Time Line With FLISR
Fault
Occurs
Fault
Occurs
Customer
Reports
Outage
Customer
Reports
Outage
Travel Time
Field Crews
on Scene
Field Crews
on Scene
Fault Investigation
and Patrol Time
Time to Perform
Manual Switching
Fault
Located
Power Restored to
Customers on Healthy
Sections of Feeder
Repair Time
Feeder Back
to Normal
Feeder Back
to Normal
5-10
minutes
5-10
minutes
5-10
minutes
15-30
minutes
15-30
minutes
15-20
minutes
10-15
minutes
45-75 minutes
Power Restored to
Customers on Healthy
Sections of Feeder
Travel Time Patrol Time
Repair Time
1-4
hours
1-5 minutes
interruptions might
occur as long outag-
eslonger than five
minutesbecome
Momentary Average
I n t e r r u p t i o n
Frequency Index
incidentsinter-
ruptions less than
five minutes.
MONETIZING
BENEFITS IS
SIGNIFICANT
CHALLENGE
To perform a
distribution auto-
mation benefit-
cost analysis, the
benefits must be
expressed in dollars
to enable compari-
son with the costs
(also expressed in
dollars).
Many benefits
provided by distri-
bution automation
(e.g., reliability and efficiency improve-
ments) do not translate easily into mon-
etary terms.
Consequently, plausible cost-benefit
comparisons can be difficult to perform.
For example, the application FLISR pro-
vides significant improvement in customer
outage duration; however, there is no
well-established procedure for converting
improved reliability to direct monetary
benefits to determine if these benefits out-
weigh the high implementation cost for
this application.
Several mechanisms for monetizing the
VVO and FLISR functional and physical
benefits are shown in the VVO and FLISR
benefit trees in Figures 6a and 6b.
Some expected benefits do not benefit
the electric utilitys bottom line directly.
For example, the costs associated with
electrical losses often are passed on to
customers in the kilowatt-hour rates;
however, although such improvements do
not directly benefit the utility, investment
recovery may be permitted for prudent
investments that reduce losses (such as
VVO) for the benefit of the customers.
VERIFYING THE BENEFITS
One of the most significant challenges
facing utilities that are conducting dis-
tribution automation projects and proof
of concept demonstrations is determin-
ing the benefits that can be attributed to
distribution automation.
Determining the benefits would be sim-
ple if feeder loading and operating condi-
tions were consistent from day to day.
If loading and operating conditions
were identical each day, it would be simple
to apply distribution automation for a day
and then compare the days results with
the previous days.
Unfortunately, determining the benefits
is not that simple.
The electrical conditions of every feeder
can vary significantly from day to day
because of changing weather, random cus-
tomer behavior and other factors.
The most common approach for deter-
mining FLISR incremental benefits is to
1306PG_26 26 6/4/13 2:59 PM
June 2013 | 27
www.power-grid.com
DA BENEFIT TREES
6a: VVO Beneft Tree
Functional Beneft
Lower Electric
Demand
Reduce Electric
Losses
Reduce (Increase)
Frequency of
Equipment Operations
Monetary Beneft
Unit Cost of
Capacity Addition
or Demand
Change Savings
Defer Capital
Expenditures for
Capacity Additions
Reduce Cost of
Energy to Supply
Given Load
(Who benefts?)
Lower (Higher)
Maintenance Costs
(Labor and Materials)
Defer (Accelerate)
Investments for
Equipment
Replacement
Volt-VAR
Optimization
$$$
$$$
$$$
$$$
$$$
$
$
$
$$$
$$
$$
Automatic
Fault
Location,
Isolation and
Service
Restoration
Functional Beneft
Improve SAIDI, SAIFI,
and Other
Reliability Statistics
Reduce Fault
Investigation Times
Reduce Unserved
Energy (kWh)
Monetary Beneft
Achieve Regulatory
Incentives
Displace Conventional
Reliability Improvement
Measures
Sell More
Kilowatt-hours
(Get Meters Turning
Sooner)
Reduce Customer
Cost of Outage
Labor/Vehicle Savings
Environmental Impact
of Lower Pollution
Due to Less Driving
6b: FLISR Beneft Tree
6
record the time sequence of each FLISR
operation and then manually replay
the event assuming that FLISR was not
present.
During the manual replaying of the
event, an electric utility can assume aver-
age travel, fault investigation and manual
switching times that normally would occur
if FLISR is not present.
This straightforward approach enables
the utility to determine impacts on cus-
tomer outage duration and frequency for
each event with and without FLISR.
The difference between the with-FLISR
and without-FLISR calculations is the
incremental benefit.
The measurement and verification pro-
cess for VVO is more complicated than
FLISR measurement and verification
described because it is difficult to distin-
guish between performance impacts that
can be attributed to VVO and naturally
occurring variations.
Utility companies often resort to day-on/
day-off testing and robust statistical analysis
over an extended period to determine what
would have happened if VVO were not
deployed.
The difference between measured val-
ues and the results of the what-would-
have-happened analysis is the incremen-
tal VVO benefit.
CONCLUSIONS
Distribution automation has proved
effective for improving the efficiency, reli-
ability and overall performance of the elec-
tric distribution system; however, it also has
proved costly.
Before embarking on a distribution auto-
mation project, an electric distribution util-
ity should do a thorough financial analysis
of all costs and expected benefits.
Small-scale demonstration projects might
be needed to support this analysis.

1306PG_27 27 6/4/13 2:59 PM
28 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
I
n recent years, much attention has
been paid to the supply side of the
electric grid and to smart grid technol-
ogy and processes applied to the pro-
duction, transmission and distribution
of electricity to consumers.
There are many consumeror
demand-sidebenefits to this technol-
ogy, including increased reliability of
electricity, shorter outage durations and
the increased ability to use new custom-
er usage data provided by smart meters
to better provide those customers with
the best options in demand-side man-
agement (DSM) programs.
Enterprise smart grid refers spe-
cifically to the application of smart
grid concepts to the demand side of
the electricity-usage equation. The con-
ceptual difference between enterprise
smart grid and utility smart grid is this:
Enterprise smart grid focuses on energy
reduction from a commercial, industrial
or institutional standpoint using a set
of technologies that typically start at
the utility main meter and center on
specific loads and energy types.
More specifically, enterprise smart
ENTERPRISE SMART GRID
Turning the focus to the demand
side of the energy equation
BY LINDA JACKMAN, ORACLE UTILITIES
grid uses submeters, demand response
and energy management software and
building management systems to drive
reductions in energy use beyond the
Linda Jackman is group vice president of
industry strategy at Oracle Utilities.


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the negawatt, or the energy not con-
sumed, has become increasingly impor-
tant to avoid the massive costs of adding
new megawatts to the grid. Managing
that demand side of the equation has
grown to include energy efficiency
(in appliances and lighting), demand
response (such as smart thermostats
or other load-shifting programs), grid-
side resources (such as distributed gen-
eration and energy storage) and other
energy management resources, both
residential and commercial.
Its a balanced mix that is opening
doors to many energy savings options.
Energy efficiency programs promote
future reduction of consumption
through efficiency measures and educa-
tion and are considered more longer-
focused objectives. Demand response
programs, conversely, promote immedi-
ate change of consumption by shifting
or reducing load through incentives or
pricing mechanisms. And finally, grid-
side resource programs add resources
(such as solar, wind, storage and vir-
tual) to offset energy demand.
The objective in DSM is to have the
ability to reduce the amount or tim-
ing of energy consumption. This helps
increase energy reliability and customer
satisfactionof primary importance
while behaving in a more environmen-
tally responsible manner as a utility.
WHY ITS USEFUL
The success of DSM programs main-
ly depends on how big a portion of
the total energy load is controllable,
according to the IEEEs The Role of
Demand Side Management. It says the
emergence of new equipment, such as
plug-in electric vehicles, is expected
to make a large demand on the grid in
coming years but through special pricing
meter. These solutions typically are
owned and managed by commercial,
industrial or institutional consumers
rather than electric utilities.
As defined by Groom Energy, the
organization that coined the phrase, it
is an intelligent network for under-
standing and managing dynamic energy
consumption within a large organiza-
tion with linkages to business deci-
sion-making and the companys P&L.
The networked application includes
digital metering and control technolo-
gies which enable energy managers
and operators to monitor where, when
and how energy is being consumed,
while optimizing consumption based
on business rules, embedded intelli-
gence and behavior change.
THE CHANGING FACE
OF DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT
Electric utilities have two choices
for managing customers demand for
energy.
The first, supplying more energy, is
the way utilities have been managing
for years, adding megawatts to the mix
by building more power plants, buying
additional energy or investing in more
renewable projects.
In recent years, however, a focus on
1306PG_29 29 6/4/13 3:00 PM
30 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
industrial and institutional customers
begin to experiment with these types of
data mash-ups. An enterprise smart grid
offers the ability to determine a compa-
nys basic energy load profile and what
affects it and to experiment with chang-
es in usage and determine how each
affects the bottom line. Energy usage
is integral to any companys expenses,
and being able to delve deeply into the
possibilities for change to that bottom
line can make a positive difference to a
companys potential profits.
THE UTILITY PERSPECTIVE
So what does enterprise smart grid
mean for individual electric utilities?
First, it offers the potential for increased
demand response program involvement
by commercial, industrial and insti-
tutional customersthose who con-
sume the most of the energy load. This
increased negawatt usage balances the
utilitys need to build or purchase new
generation to feed the demand.
Second, an aware and intelligent
consumerespecially a large one
becomes a utilitys best partner. This
more intelligent end-use balance of
commercial/industrial/institutional
demand means the utility can focus on
reliability and optimum load shaping to
increase its operational efficiency and
the healthy longevity of its assets, there-
by keeping its electricity prices as low
as possible for its entire consumer base.
Finally, it could create new and deep-
er partnerships between a utility and its
largest consumers. The opportunities
provided by enterprise smart grid open
doors to utilities to better discuss with
large consumers how specific smart grid
technology has assisted the utility and
how a similar approach might assist the
customer company.

VISIBILITY, CONTROL
AND ACCURATE ANALYSIS
As mentioned, enterprise smart grid
applies smart grid concepts to the
demand side of the energy equation
with a focus on three fundamental
capabilities for the company: visibility,
control and management integration,
according to Groom Energys Enterprise
Smart GridAn Overview. The enter-
prise smart grid market
continues to grow and
evolve as market partici-
pants already involved
with utility smart grid
hone the focus of their
hardware, software and
metering technologies to
assist large consumers
deal with their energy
usage better. Individual
commercial, industrial
or institutional consum-
ers gain through the inte-
gration of these technologies greater
visibility and control over energy con-
sumption and the ability to analyze the
resultant energy usage data to set and
monitor key performance indicators,
carbon accounting and more.
As important as the role that it plays
in the overall utility smart grid equa-
tion, data analytics plays a critical role
in the success of an enterprise smart
grid deployment. Reportingwheth-
er to utilities or government agencies
within the boundaries of energy rebate
programs or to a board of directors or
investors about the companys profit
and loss statementbecomes easier,
and thats just the beginning.
Just as utilities are experimenting
with mash-ups of the disparate types of
new data they are collecting with smart
grid technology, so too can commercial,
programs and incentives, they offer an
exceptional opportunity to increase the
percentage of controllable load, as well.
Take demand response, for exam-
ple. As more U.S. utilities introduce
demand response programsincen-
tive-based and time-basedthe poten-
tial resource contribution from demand
response continues to rise. According
to the Federal Energy Regulatory
Commissions (FERCs)
Assessment of Demand
Response and Advanced
Metering Staff Report
from 2012, that num-
ber is estimated to be
nearly 72,000 MW, or
about 9.2 percent of
U.S. peak demand. This
is an increase of about
13,000 MW from the
2010 FERC survey.
The FERC survey
also notes that reported
potential peak reductions by commer-
cial and industrial customers increased
31 percent, the largest increase of the
three customer classes. This increased
potential has been attributed to
the existence of new and expanded
demand response programs, along with
improved reporting of existing pro-
grams. It also indicates there is a place
for customer-managed intelligent ener-
gy networks.
An enterprise smart grid also offers
large energy customers the opportuni-
ty to better manage their energy costs.
A comprehensive approachincluding
more visibility and control over demand
response programs and a better ability to
measure and verify demand reductions
for rebate purposesallows companies to
better track and manage what is usually
one of their biggest expenses: energy use.
Reported
potential peak
reductions by
commercial
and industrial
customers
increased
31 percent,
the largest
increase of the
three customer
classes.
1306PG_30 30 6/4/13 3:00 PM
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Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
1306PG_31 31 6/4/13 3:00 PM
32 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
R
elay and substation maintenance
technicians are in high demand
as the current work force nears
retirement, but utilities and vendors
can do something besides waiting for
the perfect candidates to walk through
their doors.
Enoserv, a Tulsa, Okla.,-based soft-
ware company that pioneered the idea
of universal/multiplatform system pro-
tection testing for power companies,
recently came up with two ways to
place qualified job seekers into high-
demand technician jobs with annual
starting salaries of about $50,000.
And with a few years of experience,
a technician easily can earn a sal-
ary in the six-figure range, said Dennis
Loudermilk, Enoserv president and
CEO.
As a software and service provid-
er, we are constantly aware of the
urgent need for good relay technicians,
Loudermilk said. This is especially
encouraging in an economy where jobs
are a scarcity.
Utilities and testing contractors are
moving beyond job search websites
Utilities, Vendors Can Help
Fill Power Industry Jobs
BY SARAH BAUMANN, ENOSERV
and traditional recruiting techniques.
Instead, theyre reaching out to external
industry resources in search of quali-
fied, experienced techs.
Thats how Enoservs field services
division came about. The company
received weekly and often daily calls
Enoserv President Dennis Loudermilk, third from left, presents a
$100,000 check to, from left, Dave Sollars, Tulsa Community College
associate dean of science, mathematics and engineering technology;
Lauren Brookey, vice president of external affairs; and John Gibson,
Northeast Campus provost.
Sarah Baumann is the marketing director
for ENOSERV LLC. She graduated from
Oklahoma State University with a degree in
graphic design and has more than a decade
of marketing experience in technology
companies. Reach her at sbaumann@
enoserv.com.
1306PG_32 32 6/4/13 3:00 PM
June 2013 | 33
www.power-grid.com
In addition to providing a knowl-
edgeable industry instructor for the
courses, Enoserv donated $100,000
and relay equipment to TCC to support
the program.
Classes began this past spring semes-
ter with a substation relay circuits class
offered in the second eight-week ses-
sion, which started mid-March.
The class met four hours on Fridays
for eight weeks.
The substation-specific courses will
be offered in a credit or noncredit for-
mat, which will allow traditional stu-
dents and seasoned electrical workers
to be in the same class.
Lauren Brookey, TCC vice president
of external affairs, said the college wants
to remain responsive to work force
demands of local employers.
This program is an example of what
we can do, she
said. TCC con-
tinues to serve our
students by equip-
ping them with
skills that transfer
to the job market,
and this training
could allow them
to step directly into the work force,
thanks to the current environment.
Few schools in North America offer a
hands-on approach to teaching substa-
tion maintenance and relay testing, and
the schools that offer the courses often
need instructors.
Enoservs Loudermilk spent years try-
ing to start a program with other power
companies and schools, he said.
Enoserv constantly strives to find
ways to support the power industry,
he said. In terms of timing, this was
the perfect opportunity for us to pair up
with TCC.

technicians find it difficult to get away
from the office and field.
Questions and requests arose about
starting a short, intensive training that
was centrally located in the United
States and taught by manufacturers.
And others expressed a need for
degreed employees who received
hands-on training in school.
Enoserv came
up with two
solutions: a
conference and
a training cur-
riculum at a
community col-
lege.
The first solution was teaming with
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories
Inc., ABB, GE Digital Energy and Basler
Electric Co. to form the Enoserv Relay &
Protection Training
Conference.
The first confer-
ence will be Sept.
10-12 in Fort
Worth, Texas.
The second solu-
tion is a response to
the need for skilled
workers for power utilities and large
manufacturers that depend on their
own electrical substations.
Enoserv partnered with Tulsa
Community College (TCC), one of the
most comprehensive community col-
leges in the U.S., to develop a new elec-
trical substation technology program.
The school ranks 23rd in the number
of graduates among 1,150 community
colleges nationwide.
Serving 27,000 students annually in
credit courses, TCC is the states largest
two-year college and has four campuses
in the Tulsa area.
from clients and testing contractors
who were looking for last-minute help
and testing, said David Beard, field ser-
vices manager.
Our field services division has seen
a rapid spike in calls and requests for
our services, he said. Not just calls
for utilizing our software for protective
relay testing and compliance, but actual
day-to-day relay technician work.
Field services technicians sched-
ules, however, are booked months in
advance. The demand is partly because
experienced technicians are retiring.
Theres also a shift in power tech-
nology that requires more tech-savvy
technicians.
The shifting technologies range from
implementing the smart grid, outage
management systems or both to chang-
ing out old, mechanical relays with dig-
ital relays, new compliance standards
and the push to use testing software.
Not only clients need to fill relay tech
jobs; Enoserv felt the same need. And
then came training requests for the cur-
rent and incoming work force.
In response, Enoserv formed a train-
ing division.
Clients wanted to learn more about
the companys RTS and PowerBase soft-
ware and gain industry-specific knowl-
edge and training, such as schematic
electrical print reading, substation
maintenance and relay basic funda-
mentals.
Although training is vital, relay
Enoserve partnered
with Tulsa Community
College to develop
a new electrical
susbstation
technology program.
1306PG_33 33 6/4/13 3:00 PM
34 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
Utilities Need Test Bed
to Evaluate Legacy Industrial Control
System Cybersecurity Technologies
BY JOE WEISS, APPLIED CONTROL SOLUTIONS, AND STEVEN BRUNASSO, AN ELECTRIC UTILITY
dedicated local serial buses. ICS protocols
generally are insecure, particularly in older
legacy ICSs where they might connect only
instruments or actuators on a local ICS
serial loop rather than the wide-area net-
work. ICSs include forensics and logging
for physical parameters such as pressure,
temperature and voltage to perform
root cause analyses after
an upset condition.
Few ICSs, especial-
ly legacy ICSs,
however, have
t r a di t i ona l
cyberforensics
and logging
capabilities,
which makes it
difficult to recog-
nize cyberincidents
that affect field devices
such as controllers. Most
modern systems can add a large
historian solution on the chassis; how-
ever, most sites use the existing controller
memory for this function, but it limits ones
ability to perform forensics in the IT sense.
IT testing and technologies have affected
the performance of ICSs. Even a simple
scan of the basic network connectivity has
Industrial control systems (ICSs) are
technologically and administratively dif-
ferent than information technology (IT)
systems. ICSs are purpose-built systems
engineered for highly reliable operations
in harsh settings 24/7/365 and operate like
a well-engineered clock. They often use
older, resource-constrained systems and
devices. They are deterministic systems
that must function precisely within well-
defined and regulated periods often within
tens to hundreds of milliseconds. Drifting
beyond that precise cycle time through
variations of latency can lead to denial-of-
service or worse.
Many IT cybersecurity technologies,
however, were designed to operate with
unlimited resources that could delay oper-
ation a few seconds, such as many anti-
virus solutions, yet still be considered
within IT design requirements. Encryption
forms the core of many IT security solu-
tions, although it might be unnecessary
or harmful to ICS operation. Introducing
a pair of encryption or decryption devices
can introduce latency of 2-3 milliseconds.
This delay on every loop might cause the
ICS to fail because of a cascading slip-
page in the timing of the ICS program
loops. Significant latency, however, cannot
be tolerated in ICS applications without
affecting their core mission: reliable, deter-
ministic performance. Delaying a power
relay one cycle (0.017 second) poten-
tially could expose some 4,996 kilometers
of your interconnected neighbors to that
fault over interconnections. Most ICS and
supervisory control and data acquisition
(SCADA) security solutions, however, are
recycled IT solutions and do not address
the ICS-unique issues. This was confirmed
during the 2013 RSA Conference in San
Francisco.
Whereas IT applications follow the
conventional CIA triadconfidentiality,
integrity, availabilityICSs follow
the inverse: IAC. Because
integrity and authen-
tication are critical,
but not confiden-
tiality, encryp-
tion might
be unneces-
sary for data
in motion
appl i cat i ons .
ICSs generally
consist of any com-
bination of networks,
some with routable Internet
Protocol (IP) and some direct links
such as point-to-point serial. These point-
to-point links provide the smallest pos-
sible latency for a communication path
but have no external visibility beyond
the two systems connected. The benefit
of encrypting this information is unclear.
This might be why they are excluded from
the North American Electric Reliability
Corp. (NERC) critical infrastructure pro-
tection (CIP) requirements.
Security information and event manage-
ment (SIEM) systems were designed to
monitor all the traffic on an IP-addressed
network and do not address cyberin-
formation from non-IP networks or


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Joe Weiss is an industry expert on
cybersecurity of industrial control sys-
tems who provides subject matter expert
support to government, end users and
equipment suppliers.
Steven Brunasso is a security systems
manager at an undisclosed U.S. electric
utility.
1306PG_34 34 6/4/13 3:00 PM
8ECURE REMOTE ACCE88
AND COMPREHEN8VE
DEVCE MANAGEMENT
Discover how RuggedSolutions can help at
www.RuggedCom.com/ruggedsoIutions

NERC CP Compliance Reporting

Centrally Managed Access Control for EDs

Configuration Management

Automated Password Management

Fault and Event Data Retrieval
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.


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P
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/

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1306PG_35 35 6/4/13 3:00 PM
36 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
evaluate technologies for securing legacy
ICSs. There is also a need for the utility test
bed to demonstrate that well-engineered
solutions that include security technologies
can help maintain or improve operational
reliability, that is, improve ICS robustness.
Security for securitys sake is poor insur-
ance with an almost guaranteed negative
return on investment; however, if the secu-
rity technology can provide an operational
benefit, it will be used and maintained.
Through sharing good systems engineer-
ing solutions with security as a design con-
straint, we might achieve protection of all
the critical infrastructures, which was the
original intent of the NERC CIPs.
CHARACTERISTICS NECESSARY FOR
UTILITY TO STAND UP TEST BED
Why isnt there a utilitynot a national
labcybersecurity test bed? The answer is
because the necessary ingredients havent
been there until now. These ingredients
include:
The utility does not need to meet
NERC CIP requirements so it can
concentrate on reliability, not compli-
ance, and the attendant audit risks of
not being compliant.
The utility has visionary senior man-
agementengineers who focus on
reliability, not compliance.
The utility needs ICSs representative
of the industry.
The utility needs to understand why
this is important; that is, understand
the impacts of intentional and unin-
tentional ICS cyberincidents.
The utility needs to be willing to dis-
cuss results openly within reasonable
constraints.
The utility needs to be willing to be a
test bed without government support so
government strings that concern what can
be tested, what can be disclosed, vendor
interactions, etc., are eliminated.
also creates an unintended consequence
through the lack of data on the resources
required to secure legacy ICSs. And often,
ICS domain experts either are excluded or
see no reason to participate in ICS security
evaluations that are in the purview of the
NERC CIP compliance specialists, further
minimizing the potential that reliability
and robust control will be considered.
An unintended consequence of this
compliance approach is the removal of
engineering from security.
A UTILITY TEST BED IS NEEDED
Most utility (large industrial) assets have
a life span measured in decades, and reli-
ability is most important. This generates
a tendency to wait until technology has
been demonstrated in an environment
with equipment similar to what has been
installed. In other words, utilities often are
in a rush to be No. 2 after No. 1 has had
a positive outcome and clear benefit. This
is what drove the establishment of dem-
onstration test beds such as the Electric
Power Research Institutes (EPRIs) moni-
toring and diagnostic center at what was
Philadelphia Electric Co.s
Eddystone Power Plant to
evaluate and demonstrate
the value of predictive
maintenance technolo-
gies. The Instrumentation
and Control (I&C) Center
at the Tennessee Valley
Authoritys Kingston Steam Plant provided
a similar venue to evaluate and demon-
strate the value of new, generally digital
I&C technologies. Neither center consid-
ered cybersecurity because cybersecurity
was not considered an engineering design
requirement yet. When the Idaho National
Laboratory was being established in 2003-
2004, I helped obtain vendor support for
the National SCADA Test Bed. The same
approach of having vendors participate
is being used for the utility test bed to
disrupted normally stable ICS networks.
ICSs require periodic updating, which
generally is done remotely or through por-
table devices. It is impossible to exclude
remote access to these systems without an
unacceptable impact on performance.
Currently, there is no objective and stan-
dardized criteria for how much security is
enough. Performance must win. ICSs are
systems of systems where the security vul-
nerabilities might not be in the individual
boxes but in the interconnections between
the boxes. Consequently, legacy ICSs need
different security approaches than tradi-
tional IT systems. They need a systems
engineering approach with specialists that
know the range of technologies from pro-
cess control, computer engineering and
awareness of what traditional IT system
security might already have addressed.
STATE OF ELECTRIC INDUSTRY
FOR SECURING LEGACY CONTROL
SYSTEMS
Electric utilities have developed and
focused on NERC CIP compliance. The
NERC CIPs do not require ICSs to be
secured. They make spe-
cific requirements for some
solutions to be implement-
ed despite their effect on
ICS performance. Another
unintended consequence
of the NERC CIPs to the
protection of critical infra-
structure is inhibited innovation that could
improve security and reliability. If a utility
has a better solution that doesnt meet the
mandate and implements the solution,
it may be considered a potential audit
finding and result in a large financial
impact. Without sharing good solutions
and engineering practices, there is less
innovation. Consequently, there is not a
thriving market for ICS vendors to provide
security solutions for legacy ICSs when
there is little market demand. This silence
Utilities often
are in a rush
to be No. 2
after No. 1 has
had a positive
outcome and
clear beneft.
1306PG_36 36 6/4/13 3:00 PM
June 2013 | 37
www.power-grid.com
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
Achieving IT/OT Convergence using
Advanced Communication Networks
Originally broadcast: May 21, 2013, 2:00pm EST, sponsor: ABB Tropos
From Project to Deployment: Realizing
Benefts with ADMS Technology
Originally broadcast: January 30, 2013, 3:00pm EST, sponsor: Schneider Electric
How Oncor Restored 20 Percent of Outages
Before Customers Knew They Occurred
Originally broadcast: January 29, 2013, 2:30pm EST, sponsor: Intergraph
F
B
O
A
A
Or
H
B
Or
Dont Miss These
www.power-grid.com www.elp.com
with several ICS suppliers to address inse-
cure legacy ICSs already installed. As these
systems continue to operate reliably, they
will not be replaced simply because they
are not secure. The utility and its vendors
are working on technologies that can have
a security retrofit and with technologies
that are incapable of a security technology
retrofit (unfortunately, this is very com-
mon).
For this approach, the vendors provide
the technologies and support for specific
applications, and the utility evaluates the
technology and discusses the results. The
result is helping develop demonstrated
solutions and making a market for imple-
menting security technologies that can
have a positive ROI.
The utility and selected vendors will dis-
cuss the project status at the October ICS
Cybersecurity Conference in Atlanta.

This utility is also the initial test bed
for implementing the Aurora hardware
mitigation solution. As the Aurora test and
mitigation were performed in the 2007
time frame, the project is also evaluating
how newer technologies such as phaser
measurement units might support the
Aurora mitigation effort and address other
grid vulnerabilities.
The first step for the test bed is to make
ICS and security solution providers aware
of this opportunity. Interested solution
providers are asked to provide a one-page
description of the technology and where it
has been used so the utility can decide if
the technology might have promise. If so,
the utility will work with solution provid-
ers by first evaluating the technology in a
test bench situation to validate the solution
will do no harm before moving to field-
testing. Concurrently, the utility is working
WHAT IS HAPPENING NOW
A domestic utility is willing to be a test
bed and discuss the results. (This same
model is being discussed with an inter-
national utility.) The utility is representa-
tive of most utilities with power plants,
electric distribution, electric subtransmis-
sion, SCADA and other common systems
supplied by a mix of major ICS suppliers
with a mix of vintagessome old, some
new. The basic thesis of this project is
to consider security as a discipline to
increase reliability (robustness), not com-
pliance. Consequently, a major part of
this effort will be to quantify the impact
(plus or minus) on reliability. The test bed
approach is viewed as a long-term effort to
evaluate new security and reliability tech-
nologies as they are developed and share
solutions that have been implemented and
evaluated.
1306PG_37 37 6/4/13 3:00 PM
PRODUCTS
38 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
Safety Technology Catalog
Thomas & Betts (T&B) recently pub-
lished its Safety Technology catalog,
the last of a series of four catalogs,
each of which groups electrical divi-
sion products by similar benefits to
customers. Products in T&Bs Safety
Technology Catalog include hazardous
and emergency lighting and surge suppression products.
The three other catalogs that were previously published
are: Wire & Cable Management, which includes innova-
tive solutions such as boxes and covers, fastening systems,
identification products and metal framing and cable tray
products; Cable Protection Systems, which includes con-
duit and fittings that offer reliability in demanding applica-
tions; and Power Connection & Control, which includes
connectors and grounding, power and high-voltage prod-
ucts, and wire termination products that offer reliable and
intelligent solutions.
Thomas & Betts
GO TO HTTP://PGI.HOTIMS.COM FOR MORE INFORMATION
Environmentally Friendly
Composite Poles
Duratel composite poles are
environmentally friendly and
require no preservatives. They
have proven advantages for
lighting solutions, monopoles, H-frame structures for
distribution and transmission applications and cross-arms.
Duratel poles have proven to outperform wood poles
across numerous categories. The poles have a significantly
longer life, are easier to install and require virtually no
maintenance. They do not leach toxic chemicals and can
be recycled safely at the end of their life span. The average
wood pole lasts up to 30-40 years, but Duratel poles are
designed for more than 80 years of service life. A typical
45-foot Class 3 wood pole weighs about 1,475 poles; an
equivalent Duratel pole weighs about 450 pounds. Lower
weight means easier handling and reduced transportation
and installation costs.
Duratel
GO TO HTTP://PGI.HOTIMS.COM FOR MORE INFORMATION
GPS Fleet-tracking Software
GPS Insight, a technology provider of GPS fleet-tracking
software, has upgraded its dashboard mapping and
browser-based mapping to Google Maps. This upgrade
gives users new functionality and faster load times.
Google Maps provides GPS Insight with best-of-class
maps, addressing, traffic, satellite imagery, as well as a
new Street View option for customers that provides actual
photographs of a vehicles location.
GPS Insight
GO TO HTTP://PGI.HOTIMS.COM FOR MORE INFORMATION
Brush Cutter
The Geo-Boy Brush Cutter
from Jarraff Industries is
designed for land clearing
and vegetation management.
Available in wheeled and track
configurations, the Geo-Boy can lift the cutter head
approximately 11 feet high and can clear brush and
trees up to 12 inches in diameter quickly and effectively.
With two tier III engine options, 220 horsepower and 260
horsepower, the Geo-Boy is more powerful, maneuver-
able and fuel-efficient than other brush cutters in its class.
Both Geo-Boy models are ROPS and FOPS certified. The
Geo-Boy also offers additional safety features, including
full Lexan, No Mar windows and a rear view.
Jarraff Industries
GO TO HTTP://PGI.HOTIMS.COM FOR MORE INFORMATION
Storm Center Automation Solution
Designed for electric utilities, Macrosofts Resources on-
Demand is the industry standard and only commercially
available storm center automation solution available to
the marketplace. The tool manages resource requests,
tracks personnel movements and supports lodging/logis-
tics during power restoration events. It is used extensively
by both large and small utilities throughout North America
and the result has been quicker restoration, cost savings
and a streamlined approach to outage management.
Macrosoft
GO TO HTTP://PGI.HOTIMS.COM FOR MORE INFORMATION
1306PG_38 38 6/4/13 3:00 PM
CALENDAR
June 2013 | 39
www.power-grid.com
S
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DistribuTECH 2014: The industrys most comprehensive
conference on automation, smart grid and T&D
engineering. Jan. 28-30, 2014, San Antonio. Phone
918.832.9265 www.distributech.com
1421 S. Sheridan Road, Tulsa, OK 74112
P.O. Box 1260 : Tulsa, OK 74101
918.835.3161, fax 918.831.9834
http://pennwell.com
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, NORTH AMERICAN
POWER GENERATION GROUP
Richard Baker
918.831.9187 richardb@pennwell.com
PRODUCTION MANAGER
Daniel Greene
918.831.9401 danielg@pennwell.com
ADVERTISING TRAFFIC MANAGER
Dillon Waters
918-831-9454 dillonw@pennwell.com
SALES DIRECTOR, WESTERN,
INTERNATIONAL SALES MANAGER
Candice Doctor
918.831.9884 fax 918.831.9834
candiced@pennwell.com
EASTERN REGIONAL
SALES MANAGER
Tom Leibrandt
918.831.9184 fax 918.831.9834 toml@pennwell.com
CHINA & HONG KONG SALES MANAGER
Adonis Mak
ACT International
Unit B, 13/F, Por Yen Building
478 Castle Peak Road, Cheung Sha Wan
Kowloon, Hong Kong
+86.138.252.678.23 fax +852.2.838.2766
adonism@actintl.com.hk
ISRAEL SALES MANAGER
Daniel Aronovic
Margola Ltd.
1/1 Rashi Street, Raanana 43214 Israel
phone/fax +972.9.899 5813
aronovic@actcom.co.il
SENIOR DISTRIBUTECH EXHIBIT
& SPONSORSHIP SALES MANAGER
Sandy Norris
918.831.9115 fax 918.831.9834
sandyn@pennwell.com
DISTRIBUTECH EXHIBIT &
SPONSORSHIP SALES MANAGER
Melissa Ward
918.831.9116 fax 918.831.9834
mward@pennwell.com
REPRINTS
Rhonda Brown
219.878.6094 fax 219.561.2023
rhondab@fosterprinting.com
ADVERTISER. ............................ PG#
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ENERNEX CORP. .................... 25
ENERSYS ................................... 1
ENOSERV .................................. 7
HD ELECTRIC CO. .................. 13
HUBBELL POWER
SYSTEMS INC ......................C3
RUGGEDCOM INC ................ 35
SCHWEITZER ENGINEERING
LABORATORIES ................ 3,11
WEBCASTS ............................. 37
J
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23 25
BOMA Every Building Conference & Expo
www.bomaconvention.org
San Diego
8 12
ESRI International Users Conference
www.esri.com/events/user-conference
San Diego
9 11
National Town Meeting on
Demand Response and Smart Grid
www.demandresponsetownmeeting.com
Washington, D.C.
23 26
HYDROVISION International
www.hydroevent.com
Denver
10 12
Energy Storage North America
www.esnaexpo.com
San Jose, Calif.
24 26
DistribuTECH Brasil
www.distributechbrasil.com
Sao Paulo
16 19
International Linemans Rodeo & Expo
www.linemansrodeokc.com
Overland Park, Kan.
21 24
Solar Power International
www.solarpowerinternational.com
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Urban Land Institute Fall Meeting
www.ulifall.org
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12 14
POWER-GEN International/
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20 22
Greenbuild International Conference and Expo
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Philadelphia
1306PG_39 39 6/4/13 3:00 PM
40 | June 2013
www.power-grid.com
OF EL ECTRI CI TY HI S TORY

J UNE
1932
Substation Nation
A photo of the Philadelphia Electric Co.s Wayne substation,
which supplies power for the Reading Railroad electrification,
shows part of the switching structure and the housings of the two
outdoor 15,000-kW frequency converter sets. Also, a photo of
Central Power and Light Co.s outdoor substation at Pharr shows
the connection point of the 66-kV and 38-kV systems and is
attended by one operator.
1945
Utilities Gain Radio Channels
The Federal Communications Commission increases the
number of radio channels allotted to utilities. Electric, gas,
water and steam utilities are allotted 31 channels in the 25-162
megacycle frequency range.
1996
FERC Orders Collectively Break all
Conventional Rules of Public Utility Governance
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 888 and 889 in April 1996
become effective at the end of June. FERC Order 888 opens wholesale power sales
to competition. Specifically, Order 888 requires utilities that own, control or operate
transmission lines to file nondiscriminatory open-access tariffs that offer others
transmission service that is comparable to the service they provide to themselves.
FERC Order 889, also known as the Open-Access Same-Time Information System rule
(OASIS), requires utilities to obtain data about their transmission systems for their own
wholesale power transactions in the same way their competitors dothrough an OASIS
on the Internet. Order 889 also requires utilities to deintegrate their wholesale power
marketing and transmission operation functions.
1965
Kentucky Computes
Use of the electric power industrys first digital
dispatch and operations computer system of its
kind enables the Kentucky Utilities Co. to improve
operating efficiency and system reliability.
1306PG_40 40 6/4/13 3:00 PM
ENDURING PRODUCTS & PEOPLE
YOU CAN DEPEND ON
hubbellpowersystems.com
For the last 20 years, Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. has provided application-specific marketing posters to engineers,
purchasers, distributors, packagers and linemen alike. They are tacked up in hallways, on office walls, and the back
of doors. They've been requested for museums, elementary schools and linemen schools. They are a staple of firsthand
education for newbies entering the power industry. With that kind of iconic status, we thought long and hard about
updating our posters. After two years of work, we are proud to reveal a brand new world of posters that highlight
Hubbell Power Systems. These high-definition posters span the delivery of power including communications, commercial
and industrial. Each market walks you through a graphically-rich scene depicting how our products are installed in their
environment while showcasing various product lines.
A POWERFUL NEW WORLD
AWAITS YOU.
For more information
on the new marketing posters,
contact your
territory manager or visit:
hubbellpowersystems.com/literature/request/
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
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A breakthrough in Smart Grid performance. A b k h h d f A b kth h i S t G id f
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Call 919.212.5067, contact sales@us.elster.com or visit www.elsteranswers.com
for more information.
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
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