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Reid 1 Seth Reid Professor Nagy English 184.

3 14 June 2013 O Cyclops, Cyclops: The Artistic Monster from Classic Poetry to Cartoons In the ninth book of Homers Odyssey, Odysseus tells of Poluphemus the Cyclops in a way that is typical of a hero describing his first encounter with an inhuman or monstrous enemy. The warrior spots the outsize man sleeping near his cave and describes him as one that lived apart with the mind of an outlaw./ Hed grown amazingly huge, hardly resembling/ a breadeating man at all, more like a wooded mountain/ crag thats high and alone, away from the others (Homer, 187-92). Odysseus seems determined that his listener should understand this creature as solitary, inhuman, and inextricable from the uncultivated landscape in which he dwells. For Lord Alkinoos, to whom Odysseus tells his tale, or for any modern reader, these characteristics will likely fit comfortably within an understanding of what makes a figure monstrous. Because of the monsters separation from human civilization and the fact that he is more a feature of the scenery than a reasoning being with his own motives, the listener of this story cannot expect the Cyclops to be an actor in the drama any more than a storm that wrecks a ship or a rock face that must be scaled could be considered an actor. Instead, the Cyclops role within Odysseus story, and within Homers text, will not break the limits of an obstacle, which, once overcome, glorifies the heros strength and, of course for Odysseus, his cunning. As Odysseus goes on to tell of his adventure within the Cyclops lair, the monster achieves his literary purpose as a problem to be solved, and his violent behavior while doing this helps securely place him within Odysseus earlier definition of monstrosity, as Poluphemus

Reid 2 alternates between tending to his flocks and brutally killing and eating Odysseus men two at a time while he has them trapped in his cave. However, because Odysseus frames the Cyclops in his story as a violent, uncivilized monster, the chores that occupy half of Poluphemus time stand out from his otherwise beastly actions in the text. Indeed, in the background of Odysseus story of triumph and hardship, the monstrous obstacle has his own life completely separate from the action of the heros tale. Additonally, the duties that Polyphemus performs, milking, herding and even making cheese, suggest a level of civilization that pushes against the picture that Odysseus paints of the Cyclops as a solitary mountain living among the trees. With this alternative vision of Poluphemus lurking in the shadows of the tale, we might question why we only get the violent cannibal version. Much of the answer lies in perspective; because the story is told from Odysseus point of view, we have no access as readers to the Cyclops that exists when Poluphemus leaves the men in the cave to perform his chores. However, the question of purpose is just as important. The lack of the Cyclops perspective is essentially a lack of interest, for Homers poem, in creating a more relatable version of the monster. This is understandable considering The Odyssey is the story of Odysseus, and the existence of the monster must remain subject to advancing that heros narrative. But the challenge that the peripheral, civilized Cyclops presents to the comfortable definition of a monster poses questions about how elements of civilization change our perspective of the monster figure and how authors use that changed figure within their work. I will explore these questions by focusing on the Cyclops as he appears in Theocritus, Virgil and Ovid, all of whom challenge the definition of monstrosity by creating a Cyclops who sings. Finally, I will examine a contemporary rendering of the Cyclops in American television to see what elements of this

Reid 3 conversation about the level of access a monster can have to civilization, especially in the form of art and song, while still retaining the role of monster. Theocritus Cyclops appears in the Idylls as the subject of the eleventh poem, and the third-person view of Polyphemus provides a glimpse of the monster doing something that hardly fits with any concept of monstrosity, namely singing. In this poem, which takes place before the arrival of Odysseus on Polyphemus island, a poet describes the Cyclops to a doctor named Nicias in order to prove that the only cure for unrequited love is inspiration from the Muses. The poet uses Polyphemus as an example for this argument because of the story that the Cyclops uses song to attempt to woo the sea nymph, Galatea. The poet then recites Polyphemus song, which constitutes the majority of the poem. The Cyclops use of song serves as a complication to the definition of monstrosity found in Homer because it contradicts the image of the Cyclops as uncivilized, which is created in the interchangeable relationship between the monster and the raw nature in which he lives. The use of song goes much farther in undoing this definition than the Cyclops civilized chores in The Odyssey, as song is an artistic outlet, which excludes the practical connotations of cheese-making and shepherding. Moreover, the ability to craft emotion into an artistic product does not fit into the literary purpose of advancing another characters story. Instead, a singing Cyclops would seem to have his own motives and conflicts and, therefore, has greater value within the scheme of the text than that of an obstacle. But does the fact that the Cyclops can sing mean that he is no longer a monster? Although Theocritus provides a much more artistic version of Polyphemus in the Idylls, the Cyclops remains a figure in exile, and this loneliness does just as much as the violence in Homer to paint Polyphemus as separated from the civilized world. In fact there is a similarity between Homers Polyphemus and Theocritus in that fact that in both texts the Cyclops is monstrous

Reid 4 partially because of where he lives. In Theocritus, much of Polyphemus attempt to woo Galatea takes the form of either trying to convince her to join him in living in the woods and hills or in disparaging the world she occupies, which is the sea. Polyphemus sings, Oh please, come. You will see that life is just as good/ if you leave the grey-green sea behind to crash on the shore,/ and at night you will find more joy in this cave with me (Theocritus, 42-44). Although Polyphemus seems to have crossed a boundary in using song to express himself, his song only affirms his placement in a world that leaves him removed from the more pleasing society of his beloved. Even Polyphemus attempts to describe Galatea seem to require him to first imagine that the barrier set up between their two, exclusive worlds has broken down: Polyphemus describes her as whiter to look at than cream cheese, softer than a lamb,/ more playful than a calf, sleeker than the unripe grape (20-21). In the description of Galatea, Polyphemus imposes aspects of his own rural surroundings onto her. It is as if in order to be his lover, she must be completely absorbed in the environment in which he lives. And her unwillingness to do that, along with his inability to swim and enter her world, allows the environment, specifically Polyphemus untamed natural surroundings, to serve as the source of the Cyclops monstrosity in the Idylls where violence and perspective served in The Odyssey. Instead of singing making Polyphemus less of a monster, it actually acts as an indication of his monstrosity; the Cyclops song provides him with a more emotional presence in the text, but it ultimately takes the form of a lament that tells the reader precisely what makes this figure monstrous, namely his exile in raw nature. The characters monstrosity may not be undone by making him artistic, but Polyphemus artistry does change the way that the monstrous figure functions within the poem. H.M. Richmond provides a possible purpose for Polyphemus to serve in the poem through the monsters art rather than through his ability to be in a heros way.

Reid 5 Richmond places Polyphemus song within a genre of pastoral poetry in which the unpolished countryman addresses his intended mistress in uncouth but forthright speech attempting to translate into terms of rural resources those costly temptations to indulgence of which a metropolitan lover might dispose. Flowery meads are offered for carpets, spring water for wine, pretty baby animals for playthings, and so on (Richmond, 230). Richmond reads Polyphemus song as a tool for navigating the roles in which he finds himself and his lover. This adds another function to the Cyclops song besides affirming his monstrosity; he also uses the song in an attempt to overcome his monstrosity, or at least permeate the barrier that keeps him exiled from more delicate, refined society. Although Polyphemus does not succeed in changing his own or his lovers perception of himself, the use of song to struggle to do so gives the monster figure a literary purpose that is reserved for the human hero in Homers text: in Theocritus Idylls, Polyphemus exists as a didactic figure, which the reader can observe and learn from. By looking at Idyll XI as a text about struggling to either overcome or occupy the unpleasant role of monster, Polyphemus didactic purpose in the text becomes salient. In particular, the final verse to Polyphemus song, in which he abandons his pursuit of the Galatea begins to make more sense. Polyphemus abruptly loses confidence in his ability to win Galatea and directs his song with a chastising tone to himself, singing O Cyclops, Cyclops, where have your wits flown away? He then uses a rustic aphorism to convince himself to milk the ewe at hand rather than chase the one who runs away (72-75). The pastoral language that points Polyphemus back to his chores as a shepherd in his admonition to himself insists that he ought to give up reaching into realms outside of his solitary, rural world. Even his decision to refer to himself as Cyclops instead of by his name implies his surrender to the monstrous role that

Reid 6 makes Galateas love an impossible goal. But rather than end with the last stanza of Polyphemus song, the narrator poet delivers a brief summary of the lesson that the Cyclops has learned: So by singing the Cyclops shepherded his love,/ And more relief it brought him than paying a large fee (80-81). This small addition seems to simply restate Polyphemus lesson, especially in its similar pastoral imagery, using shepherd as a verb to reiterate the Cyclops unbreakable ties to his lonely environment. However, giving the last word to the third-person, human narrator, who is relating the entire song for the benefit of Nicias, takes the lesson within the text away from Polyphemus and offers it to Nicias the human doctor. Instead of Polyphemus song serving the Cyclops alone, the function of the monster who conveys his struggle through song is to instruct the human audience. For Theocritus, the singing Cyclops appears to achieve its main literary purpose when the struggle that Polyphemus conveys through song is translated into a moral that benefits the audience. Polyphemus serves this purpose again in the sixth poem of the Idylls, in which two pastoral poets, Damoetas and Daphnis, take turns making a song out of Polyphemus famous courtship of Galatea. As in Idyll XI, this poems subject is Polyphemus song, which is prefaced and concluded with the presence of a human poet. However, even the treatment of Polyphemus song as a subject in Idyll VI indicates that the interest of the two poets is not in reverence to Polyphemus song or the struggle that the song communicates. Instead, these two poets toss the subject back and forth, seemingly just as a way to pass the time. Again, the literary value of the singing Cyclops is not in the struggle of the monster but in how the human observers can make use of that struggle. The way the cowherds use the artistic, monstrous figure for their benefit is apparent once each of them has finished delivering a version of Polyphemus song: Damoetas ended his song with a kiss for Daphnis.

Reid 7 He gave him a pipe and received a flute in return. Damoetas began to play on the flute, and Daphnis on the pipe, And at the sound the calves began straight away to frisk On the soft grass. There was neither victory here, nor defeat. (41-45) Dwelling for a moment on the figure of the enamored, artistic Cyclops has allowed these two human men to strengthen their friendship. Additionally, the gifts they choose to exchange imply the monstrous figures use in the progress of art in general; each man is inspired to give the other a musical instrument that aids in the completion of their duties. In this way, the Cyclops contributes to the advancement of humanity, not simply by being an obstacle and being killed, but by facilitating artistic inspiration. Although the monstrosity in the Cyclops features and exile keep him from being a sympathetic character, whose struggles have literary value on their own, Theocritus use of the artistic monster allows the monstrous figure to exist as a more complicated character than we have seen in Homer, while offering the same glorification to the nonmonstrous figures in the text. Virgil complicates this change in the representation of monstrosity from Homer to Theocritus in his attempt to write a poem with essentially the same subject as Idyll XI. Virgils second poem in his Eclogues focuses on another rustic lover, trying to use song to woo a mate that is well out of his league. It is the same premise of Idyll XI, and Corydon, who is Polyphemus equivalent in Virgils work, uses many of the same persuasive tactics as Polyphemus to court his beloved, who is now a young man named Alexis. The key difference between the two poems is in the fact that Corydon is a physically normal human male. Though Corydon lacks the inhuman aspect of monstrosity, he is still exiled and made unpleasant to the object of his affection by his bonds to the bucolic world. And Virgils fidelity to Theocritus in

Reid 8 the structure and content of Eclogue II creates a Corydon that is nearly identical to Polyphemus despite the lack of physical monstrosity. Indeed, Corydon seems to try to permeate the same environmental barriers that keep him as untouchable as Polyphemus: Corydon sings to his beloved, I am despised by you. You dont search out my sort/ how rich in sheep or how awash in snowy milk./ A thousand lambs of mine are ranging Sicilys hills (Virgil, 19-21). Part of Virgils project in Eclogue II appears to be a retelling of Theocritus poem, but why would this project include editing out the main characters physical monstrosity? The monstrous figure in this poem appears to serve nearly the same literary purpose as Polyphemus in Idyll XI, but the hesitation towards overt monstrosity suggests a change in the purpose for which his text uses the artistic, monstrous figure. Indeed, Eleanor Winsor Leach notices this pull towards changing the function of the artistic monster in Virgils text when she describes it as imitative [of Theocritus], but the imitations reveal a questioning rather than an acceptance of their models (Leach, 428). One of the most relevant contrasts Leach finds between Theocritus monster figure and Virgils is in her analysis of lines 60 through 68 of Eclogue II, in which Corydon makes a very Polyphemus-like attempt to cast his woods in a more appealing light for both Alexis and himself: Corydon's analogy is witty and well contrived, but false. Corydon the shepherd is not really like the gods who were only temporary sojourners in nature. The allusion to Trojan Paris suggests a desire to be a kind of hero in disguise. By comparing himself to gods and to animals, Corydon actually avoids a direct contemplation of his own place in nature. His order is playful and figurative, and again an escape from reality. (439). On the one hand, Leach notices Corydons effort to overcome the restrictions of his rural surroundings, and this is very similar to Polyphemus effort in Idyll XI. But Leach points out

Reid 9 that Corydon clings to the delusion that he does not fit into the surroundings that make him monstrous to Alexis (Leach, 440). This delusion suggests a key departure from Theocritus use of Polyphemus: Corydon does not seem to learn the lesson about submission to his role that Theocritus develops for the Cyclops. Instead, Corydons refusal to blend into nature causes this monstrous, artistic human to function more complexly in the text than as a simple, moral figure. Along with changing the exiled, lonely, artistic figure to a human, the text seems unwilling to allow Corydon to serve the same didactic purpose that Polyphemus serves in Idyll XI. In other words, because the monster figure is a human, his function in the text appears expanded to include an ongoing struggle against the environment that makes him monstrous. The continuation of this struggle exists in the conclusion of Eclogue II, in which Corydon does not berate himself for wasting time on impossible goals. Instead, that reprimand comes from the narrating poet, who echoes the lesson Polyphemus learns in saying, Ah Corydon, Corydon, what mindlessness carries you off?/ ...why dont you rather at least prepare to finish weaving/ something use requires from withies and soft rush? (Virgil, 69-73). Here the narrator adopts almost the same lament that Polyphemus sings once the Cyclops loses confidence in his ability to win Galatea. But Corydon does not actually participate in this didactic element of Virgils poem, and the conflict that the shepherd introduces with his song remains unresolved. In this lack of a comfortable moral ending, Virgils singing monster exists as a more complex character than Polyphemus, which may explain why this reprise of Theocritus poem stars a human. Corydons song cannot be easily absorbed as a lesson by its listeners, providing instead an interest in Corydon as a character rather than a moral. By allowing Corydon to serve a more complex literary function, Virgils text implies that the singing monster who is human has more literary value than the overtly monstrous Cyclops.

Reid 10 In Ovids version of the doomed courtship, the singing monster is once again Polyphemus the Cyclops, but Ovids poem seems to take up the preference for humanity found in Virgil by facilitating more interest and sympathy for the non-monstrous characters in the poem than in the lovesickness of the Cyclops himself. In book thirteen of Ovids Metamorphoses, a narrator recites Polyphemus song, which is the case in both Theocritus and Virgil, but in this case the narrator is Galatea herself, who remembers the song sung to her and tells another seanymph about the unwelcome courtship. Galatea prefaces her recitation by introducing Polyphemus with insults and mockery. She calls him a savage, and makes fun of the way he was suddenly taking pains with his appearance, trying to cultivate/ the art of pleasing, using a rake to comb/ his shaggy mop, resorting to a sickle/ to trim his beard (Ovid, 761-771). Much of Galateas description of Polyphemus echoes the features of monstrosity that appear in Virgil and Theocritus: he is uncivilized, ugly and emblematic of an unpleasant, rustic lifestyle. However, rather than creating this description through Polyphemus song, Galatea paints Polyphemus as a monster before the reader even has a chance to hear any of the Cyclops art. This narrators bias ensures that the only role the tuneful monster plays in this text will be subject to the beautiful sea-nymphs intentions for her narrative. In fact, Galatea does not plan to present Polyphemus as the main character of her story. The critical aspect of the plot for Galatea is the fact that Polyphemus murders her lover, Acis, once the Cyclops finishes his song. Though this presentation of the monsters song is reminiscent of Theocritus, the role that the monsters art plays in Ovids text is reduced to that of a negative experience in the lives of two non-monstrous characters. Through the course of his song in Metamorphoses, Polyphemus appears to face the same struggle of being unable to break his shackles to the uncivilized, rustic environment, which aids

Reid 11 in forming his monstrosity and his inability to access Galatea. However, Ovids Polyphemus does not accept his inevitable separateness from Galatea. In fact, any acceptance of his role, which would imply a process of inner conflict and rumination, is replaced by a violent outburst in which Polyphemus threatens to kill Acis: Polyphemus sings, Let [Acis] give me a chance,/ He will find me as strong as I am big,/ I will tear his guts out, I will pull him to pieces (864866). This is a Polyphemus who is defined by his violent actions more than by his ability to sing, which appears only supplementary to his greater purpose of taking the object of his desire. Additionally, his actions in the poem define his rustic monstrosity just as much as his artistry. Once Polyphemus issues the threat, Galatea describes his attack of Acis as being like a bull in rut, and Polyphemus murders her lover using a boulder that he rips from a mountain (874-887). Both of these descriptions place Polyuphemus as an indelible aspect of the rural world around him; he is more an animal than a man, and he uses raw materials as weapons. However, in using a piece of his own environment to kill Acis, Polyphemus is blindly destructive of his own natural surroundings, making the reasonable acceptance of his role within nature impossible. Ovids poem does use the monsters access to song to develop Polyphemus into a certain type of character, which is also what Ovids predecessors do with the story of the hopeless, monstrous lover. But Ovids Cyclops is just as much a singer as he is a chaotic murderer. Ovids Polyphemus does not exist as a vital tool within the text, as the artistic monsters do in both Theocritus and Virgil. Despite his use of civilized expression through song, the Polyphemus that Galatea describes appears to function more like the Cyclops is Homers text; both of these monstrous figures exist as characters only to provide a deadly opposition to a nonmonstrous character. The song itself, rather than being used to benefit a human audience or create a lesson for the reader, is appropriated by Galatea in order to present the conflicts of

Reid 12 characters like herself and Acis, who then occupy the more vital roles within the text as sympathetic and relatable figures. In this way, Ovids text seems to dissolve some of the literary power that song gives to the artistic monster in Theocritus and Virgils renderings. In fact, Polyphemus placement within the scheme of Metamorphoses reaffirms this demotion. As Alan H. F. Griffin observes about the context of the Cyclops song in Metamorphoses, [Ovid] arranges his material like the brackets of an algebraic formula. The first bracket opens with the story of Aeneas, the second with the story of Scylla and the third with the story of Galatea. Each of these brackets is carefully closed in sequence. At the end of the story of Galatea Ovid returns to Scylla and concludes her legend before continuing with the account of Aeneas' journey. (Griffin, 191) The singing Cyclops only exists as a small factor in a formula that is designed to advance a narrative about the hero Aeneas, and the content of that song is ultimately subject to that hero figure. Because Polyphemus is not the central feature of the text in which he appears, he is less able to function as the kind of didactic or complex character that appears in Theocritus and Virgil respectively. Griffin also points out that the introduction of Acis as a handsome, acceptable love interest for Galatea presents another sympathetic character to contrast with Polyphemus. Griffin observes that Acis is an Ovidian innovation: he does not appear in any of Ovid's predecessors. Ovid gives us a triangular love tangle with much more explosive emotional potential than Theocritus' two poems. In Idyll 6 the lovesick Cyclops only has to deal with a coquettish 'come hither' approach on Galatea's part, and in neither Idyll 6 nor Idyll 11 is there any mention of another boyfriend (192). In Griffins reading, Acis serves as the source of drama in the Cyclops

Reid 13 episode, and any internal conflict or characterization of Polyphemus, which Theocritus heavily emphasizes in the Idylls, is secondary to the presence and death of this young, handsome boy. The depreciation of Polyphemus role in favor of a human character helps define the literary purpose that the singing monster serves in Ovids text. Just as the Polyphemus story in Metamorphoses only serves the purpose of advancing the narrative of Aeneas, Polyphemus song within that story only serves the drama that centers on Acis, the climax and conclusion of which develop through the boys death. This is far from the narrative relevance that Polyphemus has in Theocritus. And even Virgils text, though it does show a preference for humanity in its creation of the main character, allows the monstrous artist to serve a vital and complex role. In Ovids text, Polyphemus artistry does not diminish his monstrosity any more than the Cyclops ability to harvest milk and make cheese diminishes his monstrosity in The Odyssey. Indeed, Polyphemus in Metamorphoses serves the same role of obstacle that he does in The Odyssey. However, the retention of this role despite his access to art and emotion makes a much more powerful statement about the role of monsters in literature in general: in Ovids poem, monsters, even those that display civilized behavior such as song, do not have the same literary relevance as human characters. By putting the narration in Galateas hands and inventing Acis as the source of dramatic conflict in the poem, Ovids text insists that Polyphemus alone is not enough to produce the literary complexity and interest that these non-monstrous characters create. It is interesting that as the representation of the Cyclops has progressed from Homer to Ovid, the latter poet seems to prefer the violent, troublesome version of the monster developed by the former. And as contemporary artists have taken up creating their own versions of the Cyclops, some appear to gravitate even more towards the Homeric template, favoring antagonistic renderings that act as minor complications in a larger narrative. In an episode of the

Reid 14 American animated television program, Adventure Time, a Cyclops character is introduced in a pastoral landscape reminiscent of Theocritus Idyll VI and XI. But the audience is led to the monster through the journey of the programs main character, whose name, Finn the Human, leaves little room for reading any amount of monstrosity in his behavior. In this episode, titled Another Way, Finn searches for a Cyclops living in The Forest of Trees, whose magical tears can cure any wound. Finn intends to use those tears in order to cure the toes that he and his companion Jake the Dog broke on a previous adventure that is mentioned but not part of any earlier episode. The Cyclops part in this miniature drama echoes the kind of obstacle role that appears in Homer and Ovid: Finn is a human hero on a quest, which acts as the primary narrative of the episode, while the Cyclops is, at best, a resource for Finn to harvest in the completion of his quest for his own benefit and the benefit of his friend. The episode constructs Finn as the character whom the audience should root for, and the happy ending can only be reached if he causes the monster to cry. Finns encounter with the Cyclops affirms the definition of monstrosity that appears in Homer. In fact, the episode seems to draw on Odysseus comparison of Polyphemus to a lonely mountain crag, as the Cyclops in Adventure Time turns out to be the grassy cliff on which Finn has been standing. The monster is so camouflaged in nature that Finn is unable to detect the Cyclops presence for several minutes. Even the way the Cyclops is drawn, with grass for hair and trees growing out of his back, recalls the fusion of the monster with nature that keeps Polyphemus exiled from humanity in each of the classical representations above. And this contemporary Cyclops is just as violent as Homers Polyphemus, immediately accusing Finn of trying to make him cry in order to collect his magical tears, and when Finn

Reid 15 shows reluctance towards fighting, the Cyclops throws the first punch, confirming the violent, unreasonable aspect of his monstrosity. However, this monster does not engage in any behavior that could be considered civilized or artistic, so why, other than being a modern version of Homers Polyphmeus, does he add to the conversation about the representation and function of artistic monsters in literature? Although the monster is not an artist, the Cyclops scene in Adventure Time occurs in a distinctly pastoral landscape, and one character does sing a lament that explores the struggle of behaving in a way that civilized society does not accept. But rather than the monster exploring this struggle through song, it is Fin the Human who expresses himself in this way. Before Finn realizes that the cliff is actually the monster, he climbs to its peak and sings a brief song of apology to those he has hurt in his obstinate quest for the magical tears; indeed, Finn does act with monstrous violence towards several innocent characters as he makes his way to the forest. By shifting this process of seeking comfort and acceptance through song to the human hero, the Adventure Time episode carries on the trend from Ovid of taking the power of artistry away from the monster and focusing it on the relatable, non-monstrous figure. The ability to sing in each of the classical texts has, in varying degrees, allowed the monster access to self-evaluation and even the possibility of comfort in acceptance of the lonely natural world. In Adventure Time, that process of evaluation and acceptance, along with the moral lesson that Finn arrives at through the song, is only accessible to the human character. In fact, the Cyclops reveals himself and attacks Finn immediately after the conclusion of Finns song, as if the monster finds the act of singing and artful reflection infuriating. As the human figure adopts the artist role, which only exists in the monstrous characters in the classical texts, he is able to use the power that song grants more successfully than any

Reid 16 singing Cyclops. Even when the Cyclops has access to self-reflection through song, his artistry can, at best, win him an acceptance of the lonely, uncivilized role he occupies in nature, far away from the woman he sings for, who is a prize that no monstrous figure, regardless of skill or physical attractiveness is able to obtain. When Finn the Human takes on the role of the artistic hero, he is able to easily navigate between the world of nature and civilization. After Finn uses his song to heal his misgivings about his quest and uncover the monsters hiding place, he easily tricks the monster to come close enough that he can punch the Cyclops eye and causes him to cry. Finn then pulls off the monsters head, which remains living, and uses its tears to heal all the people that Finn hurt on his quest to find the Cyclops before bringing it back to his home to heal Jakes broken toe. In Finns bringing the Cyclops head back to his home, Finn takes an element of the rustic world, which seemed so inexorably tied to the natural environment that it could not be distinguished from a grassy cliff, and makes use of it in the world of domestic safety and civilization. In other words, Finn successfully crosses the barrier between natural and civilized. This is a barrier that has formed the center of the conflicts surrounding each version of the Cyclops so far, and none of the monstrous artists are able to use their song to accomplish the same feat. But once the ability to sing is transferred to a human, that human figure easily serves the literary purpose of combining the two worlds, leaving the monstrous figure to be thrown aside the same way Finn discards the Cyclops still living head, with no promise of a future reunion to its body and no promise of any more purpose in the narrative once its small function in a grander project is complete. Just as each poet from Homer to Ovid relies on the work of the poet before him to change the representation of the Cyclops, the Adventure Time episodes similarity in setting, narrative and the use of song to the Greek and Roman texts provides a new voice in the conversation of

Reid 17 how art and monstrosity are used together in the same text to challenge the definition and function of both. In all of these works, the question of who wields the access to art decides which characters can serve a more complex function within the narrative. But as texts like Theocritus Idyll XI provide more complex literary functions to a monster, it becomes harder and harder to distinguish that monster as an essentially monstrous figure. In other words, the more artistic the Cyclops, the harder it is to say he belongs in exile and to hope for his demise at the hands of some handsome hero. I believe it is this challenge to the function of a monster in a narrative that pushes poets like Virgil and Ovid to take that artistry and apply its benefits to human characters, which makes the Cyclops easier to manage as an unwanted being. As this same pressure to keep monstrosity and artistry separate exists in contemporary representations of monsters, which we see in Adventure Time, the question of who commands art? easily becomes the same as who is the protagonist? The equality of these two questions opens up limitless possibilities in portraying exiled, unwelcome figures through their inability to access art. This gives the poet or animator power in deciding what constitutes art and who deserves to be restricted from that art, and reading the decisions that authors make with that power sheds light on what kinds of figures they, and the culture from which they are writing, are willing to marginalize for the sake of making these distinctions.

Reid 18 Works Cited Another Way. Adventure Time. Cartoon Network. Atlanta. 23 Jan. 2012. Television. Griffin, Alan H.F. Unrequited Love: Polyphemus and Galatea in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Greece & Rome 2nd ser. 30.2 (1983): 190-97. JSTOR. Web. 14 May 2013. Homer, Edward McCrorie, and Richard P. Martin. The Odyssey. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2004. Print. Leach, Eleanor W. "Nature and Art in Vergil's Second Eclogue." The American Journal of Philology 87.4 (1966): 427-45. JSTOR. Web. 7 June 2013. Ovid, and Rolfe Humphries. Ovid Metamorphoses. N.p.: Indiana UP, 1995. Print. Richmond, H.M. "Polyphemus in England: A Study in Comparative Literature." Comparative Literature 12.3 (1960): 229-42. JSTOR. Web. 14 May 2013. Theocritus, Anthony Verity, and R. L. Hunter. Idylls. New York: Oxford UP, 2002. Print. Van, Sickle John, and Virgil. Virgil's Book of Bucolics, the Ten Eclogues Translated into English Verse: Framed by Cues for Reading Aloud and Clues for Threading Texts and Themes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 2011. Print.

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