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Pythagoras and Pierrot: An Approach to Schoenberg's Use of Numerology in the Construction of 'Pierrot lunaire' Author(s): Colin C.

Sterne Source: Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 21, No. 1/2 (Autumn, 1982 - Summer, 1983), pp. 506534 Published by: Perspectives of New Music Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/832890 . Accessed: 21/06/2013 02:54
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PYTHAGORAS AND PIERROT an approach to Schoenberg's use of numerology in the construction of 'Pierrotlunaire' Colin C. Sterne
"It is notsuperstition, it is belief."' Thus did Arnold Schoenberg theimportance he attached defend tothepower ofnumerology andtoits influence on hislife. ofthenumber Hisfear thirteen iscommon knowledge. that number hisbirth marked 13, So, too,is the wayinwhich (September is saidto 13, 1951,atage 76). Schoenberg 1874) anddeath July (Friday, have observed the ofhiscreative the flagging energy during compositional at whose were measures numbers thirteen or a its process multiples, circumstance that to led his of in measures his reportedly numbering as 12, 12a, 14. We are told that eventhechoiceofa name manuscripts forhis son, Lawrence the name Adam,was made onlyafter Roland, forhim(and an anagram intended of hisfather's first originally name), wasfound tobe numerologically unfavorable. almost pathoSchoenberg's thirteen of hisdeath, produced logicalfearofthenumber forebodings evenhavecontributed itabout. tobringing and,one suspects, may Nor has the number of Schoenberg's lunaire Pierrot symbolism It has been notedthat been completely forhis Opus 21 overlooked. chose21 ofAlbert Giraud's poemsas texts Schoenberg fifty (translated from French into thework the German Erich byOtto Hartleben), giving Dreimal sieben title Gedichte aus ALBERT Pierrot complete GIRAUDs and beginning to compose it in the third month of a year lunaire, thesymbolic 21 in reverse 1912. In spite ofall order, containing digits little attention has been focusedon thepartthat the this, surprisingly

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determinants within thework3 and 7 playas structural numbers title Schoenberg's obviously suggests.2 something notbythecrisp, is indeedgoverned lunaire Pierrot by numbers, but by the more shadowy, moonlit of mathematics, numbers bright of numerology. Some knowledge of basic numerological numbers themusic.3 is essential, before then, procedure approaching that numbers relationThe numerologist is convinced and number theuniverse andthat the ofan individual depends ships well-being govern inaccord with vibrations. He traces hisbelief cosmic back uponhisbeing theEgyptians, toantiquity-to Hebrews, Chaldeans, Phoenicians, Chinese, itis Pythagoras towhom hegives credit for and Hindus--but establishing in theWest.As to thepowerof numbers a thesystem on individuals, theinfluence are thetwoareas where of person'snameand birthdate is most felt. To determine theseveral vibrations numbers number strongly ina person's theletters ofthealphabet arenumbered name, consecutively 1 through from 26. Inall aspectsofnumerology, however, double-digit numbers are reduced to single-digit numbers thedigits. The byadding ofthe tenth letter for is not numbered J, 10, but1. The alphabet, example, will chart demonstrate theprocedure. following 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

A B C D E F G H I J (K) L M N O P Q R S T U (V) W X Y Z
Notethat twoletters, K andV,are parenthesized. arethe11th They and22nd letters ofthealphabet and retain those values. respectively, they to the 11 22 reduced intraditional rule, and are never Exceptions general andare referred toas master numbers. numerology The application of the chartmay be demonstrated by using name: Schoenberg's ARNOLD 195634 (=28 = 10=)1 SCHOENBERG 1386552597 = 7 +(= 51=)6

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The process is that ofassigning each letter inthenameitsnumber at one the for first name and one for thelast, value, arriving twosums, those sums and at the final sum,7reducing byadding digits, arriving for thebasicnumber value Schoenberg's name. number" is "Expression term. are additional thenumerological Butthere numbers to be derived a person'sname. Here is a listof those pertaining from to Arnold Schoenberg:4

First Name LastName Total = 7 + Basic number 1 6 (expression) + = 11 Consonants 3 8 (quiescent self) + Vowels 7 7 = 5 (soulurge) = 1 First initial 1 (cornerstone) + Totalnumber ofletters 1 = 7 (namecycle) 6

The procedure for at thebirth datenumber is notpertinent arriving to thematter at Nor are the numbers with hand. associated immediately theplanets, with with etc.Butnumbers are also associated colors, gems, with thenotes ofthescale.The traditional one gearedto the procedure, diatonic oflittle use toSchoenberg. Hismodification, scale,wasobviously inPierrot, from itsapplication results inthe to be substantiated presently the for chromatic scale: set of values number following

C C# D D# E 1 2 3 7 5

F F# G G# A A B 6 7 8 9 1 11 3

number of assigning Itwillbe seen that procedure Schoenberg's thealphabet. is similar tothat usedfor toscaledegrees values A,thetenth to become1, and B, thetwelfth noteinthechromatic scale,is reduced itsmaster butretains is notreduced, as expected, becomes3. A#. note, 11. number, of7 to D4, thefourth is theassigning however, unexpected, Totally

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of7 for that noteis not todiscover: note. derivation difficult Schoenberg's thefourth notein a chromatic scale built on C, butthe D#is notonly sixteenth as well.And 16=6+1= 7. Butthat can Schoenberg's reason to do with that be? The most has fateful 13. In number, explanation logical 13=4. AndSchoenberg seemsdetermined toavoid13, even reduction, in itsreduction. Anadditional factor D#as E b has particular maybe that for thecomposer: as Es in German itis hissignature note, significance the initial of his last name. this To note representing important a 4 give will valuewouldbe unthinkable. be occasion to return to D*-Eb (There andSchoenberg's musical Twoadditional bonuses result signature later.) thebanishment from of4 from thecanon:(1) thescale is thusmade with thealphabet, consistent bothhaving a total number valueof9, and the scale contains a of double favorite numbers, portion Schoenberg's (2) 1,3, and 7. In thetitle ofPierrot indicates theimportance in the Schoenberg work oftwonumbers, 3 and 7. The importance oftheir 21, is product, also implied, and although 21 does indeed assumesomeimportance in itmust be remembered that It 21 has been Pierrot, numerologically=3. for that theopusnumber ofPierrot, out, 21, is reversed pointed example, inthelast of the of 1912. Butthis is not the two year its composition, digits Theterm isnot a part ofthenumerologist's point. "retrograde" vocabulary. Rather are 12 and 21 related because both are 3 values.On theother the sumof3 and7 is important inPierrot. Theaddition ofnumbers hand, after an essential of 1. 7+3= 10= is, all, part numerology: Numerologists often thata number arrived at by reduction never pointout,though, loses its original A 1 arrived at through completely imprint. 10, for still retains thevibrations of 10. Thisfact willfigure to some example, extent intheanalysis ofPierrot. Thereare,then, three numbers that assumeprimary in importance 1. and 21 Numbers and 10 in lurk the 3, 7, Pierrot: background, making their butnotbeing touse except as 3 and 1. felt, presence put Two other numbers inPierrot that are notsingled outinthe figure title of thework: the master 11 and 22. There are several numbers, reasonsfortheir The first of these has to with do their appearance. It in mind be kept that numerological significance.must 3, 7, and 1 are not numbers tonumerologists. arenot even numbers. merely They "lucky" Rather are they forces for or their powerful evil, good exerting influence on theuniverse andprofoundly the lives of individuals. Oratleast affecting

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for Herearemeanings were that Arnold for 3, 7, and 1 they Schoenberg. that aregenerally upon bynumerologists: agreed ofartistic therealm 3 - artist, expression 7 - priest, therealm ofspirituality therealm of 1 - creator, innovator, pioneer, ofinnovation invention, toArnold Schoennumbers The three maybe seenas appropriate to are But more appropriate Pierrot important, they particularly berg. and thespiritual theart-artist where lunaire, relationship aspectofthat theme. is a primary relationship 11 and22 havethese meanings: ofartistic therealm 11 - idealist, dreamer, visionary, inspiration to benefit onewhouses hispower 22 - practical idealist, mankind matter of tothesubject ofthese numbers theappropriateness Again, final the 22 11 and flavor of The is Pierrot apparent. strong throughout Schoenthefirst of"Mondestrunken," section suggests song inPierrot, there.5 described view ofthePoet-Pierrot-Schoenberg figure berg's because itfigures 11 is also important Number amongSchoenthat it it interest tonote is of some And name numbers. own finally, berg's work: in Schoenberg's is associatedwithsomeoneelse who figures is 7, number is 11,whoseinitial namenumber total whose Pierrot himself, 7 letters. andwhosenamecontains for selected which Giraud The 3X7 poemsofAlbert Shoenberg that ofthe thepoetic lineslong.However, are each thirteen form, Pierrot with tocometogrips everhaving from savesthecomposer 13, rondeau, seven and lines as are each of sincelinesone and two repeated poem 10 is only thirteen. The result one is repeated and line againas line eight, hisOpus linesineach poem.Schoenberg's composition, (= 1) different was37 years thecomposer in1912 (=3), when 21 (=3), wascomposed on Tuesday work onthecomposition old(= 10= 1). He commenced (day 20 of March 3 oftheweek), 3) 12 (=3), and he hadcompleted (month until thework, 30. He delayed the21 songsbyMay however, completing theremaining hecouldcomplete 7) (month (day3), July songonTuesday In his 21 to 12 and of the two numbers dates, 9, (=3).6 up adding 9--the "Pierrot theFrench retains German otherwise title, Schoenberg lunaire"-are called and a reciter Fiveinstrumentalists ineach word. with 7 letters

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511

and they, form a group of7. for to perform thework, plusa conductor, bass clarinet, and instruments alternate With thethree (piccolo, specified becomes this number viola), 7+3=-10=1. numbers is presented on the ofPierrot A mostimpressive display title ofwhich must havebeen 1914 edition's certainly page,theformat The number ofletters and ofwords ineach of overseen bythecomposer. thesignificant numbers ofthecomposition: is usedto produce itslines
words perline letters perline

3 3 3

DERERSTEN INTERPRETIN ZEHME ALBERTINE FRAU INHERZLICHER FREUNDSCHAFT

20=2 18=9 24=6

=22

17=8-

3 3 2 5

DREIMAL 21=3 GEDICHTE SIEBEN AUSALBERT 16=7 GIRAUDS PIERROT LUNAIRE 14=5 VON OTTO ERICH 28=1 (DEUTSCH HARTLEBEN)

=16=
7

16=7 -

31
7 6

= 16=

Klarinette Klavier, (auchPiccolo), Fl6te (auchBass- 41 =5 undVioloncell 40=4 Klarinette), Geige(auchBratsche)

eine Sprechstimme FOr

19=1
10=1 -

=11

1
2

1 = 4von

(MELODRAMEN)

ARNOLD SCHONBERG

10=1 3

15=6

10=1 Op.21

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inthis Eventheindividual for themost share, part, poemsofPierrot number with words and one factor in the and letters, composer's play choices from wouldseem to have been Hartleben's translations fifty their The text of"Mondewhether or not numbers fitted hisownscheme. fits thefirst well: ofthesongs, strunken," extremely words perline 7 7 4]7 3J 16= 7 4] 5 7 7 schauerlich undsOss, Geloste, ohneZahldie Fluten! Durchschwimmen Den Wein, denmanmit trinkt, Augen Giesst Nachts derMondinWogennieder. letters perline 27=9 32=5 29=11 18=9 34=7 25=7 31= 4 27=9 32=5
25= 7

Den Wein, denmanmit trinkt, Augen Giesst Nachts derMondinWogennieder, UndeineSpringflut uberschwemmt Den stillen Horizont.

61 6 257 5 8 7

Der Dichter, dendieAndacht treibt, sichan demheilgen Berauscht Tranke, Gen Himmel wendet erverzCckt er undschlorft Das Haupt undtaumelnd saugt trinkt. Den Wein, denmanmit Augen

29=1 1 31= 4 25=7 37= 1 27=9

32=5
19=10=1 themusicalprowillalso serveto demonstrate "Mondestrunken" The threestanzasof Giraud'spoem cedure of ArnoldSchoenberg. theclose ofthree musical on thepieceitsoverall sections, design impose I is 14 (=5) measures ofeach section marked Section bya ritard. being and Section IIalso consists of14 (=5) measures, in length. Section IIIis

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of the piece is 39 The totallength 11 (=11) measuresin length. but its is length 5+5+11 =21=3. numerological (=12=3) measures, the not of five The influence however, numbers, 1,3, 7, 11, and22, isfelt, three ofits inthetotal ofthepieceand inthelengths sections, length only as well. The time ofevery one ofitscomponent butinthelength phrases inunits is measured ofeighth notes, spanofeach phrase (andeach rest) choice of notes. less sixteenth or, notes, quarter Schoenberg's frequently, within a on thepredominant seemstodepend theunit ofmeasure activity with a phrase will Attimes theactivity ofthe linesconcurrent phrase. determine itsunit ofmeasure. and number Within each notewillhavea pitch each phrase value, inappropriate will be thepitch thesumofthese number reduction, values, as opposedtoitstime valueofthephrase spanvalue. setsofnumber Two additional valuesare generated bythemusic. derives themeasurement The first ofthese from ofdistances between the themeasurement ofa phrase. tochords, is that individual pitches Applied ofthechord. ofthedistance between These eachofthepitch components insemitones. The secondsetisa values arenormally measured intervallic of the pitches thatgo to make up a simplequantitative numbering ofa line. particular segment in theclosed number-system To sum up,there elements are four inPierrot: usedbySchoenberg 1. Pitchvalues,derived from the numbers as assignedby tothetwelve notes ofthechromatic scale Schoenberg 2. Timespanvalues, derived from thelength ofa measuring musical in statement sixteenth notes, notes, (or rest) eighth orquarter notes 3. Intervallic frommeasuring the distances values,derived betweenpitches,in eithera melodic line or a chord the unitof measurement formation, normally beingthe semitone 4. Quantitative derived from thenumber values, pitch counting ofpitches that to make a musical statement go up particular The process willbe clarified it to byactually applying Schoenberg's A scoreof"Mondestrunken," music. a numerological containing analysis, forms an integral ofthepresent Inpursuit article. ofclarity, slurs part only andphrase havebeenretained with thenotes ofeach part, such markings as thoseofdynamics and tempo beeneliminated. The markings having

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514

has been beamedin orderto makephrases more partforthereciter and stem note in cancellations that apparent, Schoenberg's parthave beenremoved. Number thetime valuesfor havebeenplaced spanofeach phrase belowthe staff, thoseforpitches havebeen placedabove,with totals circled for Inextended those ofthereciter, emphasis. phrases, particularly ofsmaller subtotals units havebeencalculated where areappropriate. they Eachsubtotal is marked with a semicircle. Final totals have beencomputed from them andcircled.7 "Mondestrunken" with violin a quasi-ostinato begins figure played by and piano. The violin is one of notes. in Each of the two 3 pitches figure thefigure, and a of has value and The 3X7=21 =3. 3 D#, 7, pitch F# notes ofthefigure, with their initial rest eighth eighth (= 1), are repeated four a timespan of 16=7 eighth notes. The times, thereby occupying ofthefigure is 3 semitones. range (D#-F#) thepianois playing a figure of7 notes(preceded Meanwhile, bya = sixteenth The of rest these +3+ value notes is 9+5+1 single pitch 1). 11+2+8=39= 12=3. The four ofthefigure a time repetitions occupy of 16=7 notes. The the of measured span eighth range figure, c"#-g"'#, insemitones, is 19= 10= 1. Alternatively, theinterval if considered C#-G# 7 within an octave, a distance of semitones. The unreduced represents sum of the pitches is 39-the same figure as the totalnumber of And its intervallic in measuresin "Mondestrunken." value,measured is4+4+2+4+9+6=29= 11. Butinthis semitones, instance, particular measurement theunit alternative can be madewith ofthe an interesting E toC=2 whole C to D= 1 whole tone:Go to E=2 whole tones, tones, With thesumthus far wholetone, and D to Bb=2 wholetones. at 7, a whole tonescales, is then madetothesecondofthetwoavailable switch is 7+3=10=1. and the final C# to G=3 wholetones.The result the 7 to another of notes into 5+2 leads revelation. this division Accepting =29= first five notes is 9+5+1+3+11 valueofthe The pitch 11, and is 2+8= 10. 11+10=21. that ofthefinal twonotes the flute an the makes Before violin andpiano areconcluded, figures line with time of 10 His rest a a span (=1) eighths. following entry and thepitch valueofhisfive occupiesa time spanof 10 (=1) eighths, The intervallic valueof his phrase notesis 1+11+1+7+1=21=3. when addedtothe7 insemitones) is 14=5, a subtotal which, (measured in 12= 3. results valueofhissecondphrase,

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for a time before The reciter with a spanof7 eighths entering delays Itspitch valueis 11 +4= 15 whosetime phrase spanis 21 (=3) eighths. is 22+6=28=10=1, ofthefollowing thetotal of =6, butthat phrase the thetwophrases of first 6+1 The intervallic value is phrase being -7. while of the is 7+4= 11. that second 49=13=4. The 34=7, phrase three second phrase,incidentally, sixteenth since it beginswith notes a sixteenth must haveitstime madein rest, spanmeasurement following sixteenths. That valueis 39 12= 3. The quantitative I of"Mondestrunken" valuesinSection areas pitch follows; Flute =3 5+(13=)4+(14=)5+(16=)7=21 Violin (12=)3+(28=)1 + 1+ 11= 16=7 Reciter (31 =)4 Piano (28=)1 +(19=)1 +9+(34=)7+(12=)3+(14=)5=26=8 The part forthereciter in SectionI contains 31 pitches, a figure which at first seemsdisappointing. In measure 8, however, Schoenberg takesan unusual action: he inserts an eighth restbetween thesyllables and"flut." Thiscaesuranotonly an unexpected "Spring" produces pitch of value 22 atthat butalso divides thelineinto 21 pitches point, plus10 3 and 1 arethus thetwo values. pitches. quantitative Thetotal value thesection for is22. Thetotal for Section quantitative for IIIis 11. 22+22+11 =55=10= 1. Section II is also 22, andthat Boththeflute and thereciter at the beginand end their phrases of"Mondestrunken" on thenote A (= 1) and pivot around that beginning Of moreinterest is thevery first noteof thepiece-the piano's pitch. thebeginning ofeach ofthethree sections G# Thatnotemarks opening ofthesong.Itsnumber valueis 9, and itfunctions thus. G#is,however, notonly theninth chromatic butnote 21 as well-a fitting note, keynote, tothesongandtotheentire then, composition. The procedure to be observed in"Mondestrunken", as itcontinues
to unfold, is the procedureforthewhole ofArnoldSchoenberg'sPierrot lunaire. their control thecomposition. 1, 3, 7, 11, and 22 retain throughout Whatis fascinating, is therichvariety ofapproachesto thosekey however,

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thedark Part into ofthesoul,summons numbers. journey up, night II,that be expected, as might of 13. The malevolence of frequent appearances is felt it before is that number transformed however, onlybriefly, swiftly into lesssinister. aretheopening ofNo. Examples pianonotes something ofthereciter in No. 9 (8+5), thefirst 8 (5+8), thefirst twonotes two ofNo. 10 (8 +5), thefirst ofthereciter inNo. 12 chords twonotes string inNo. 13 (6+ 7). ofthereciter twonotes (5+8), andthefirst thepoetry, As befits there aremore felicitous ofnumber appearances in PartIll.Two ofthem to numerology) 5 (freedom, according change, are thelastinstrumental soundsofthe (5+5=10=1) inthepianopart in are one of musical by Schoenberg's signatures, piece.They preceded a multi-layered one (A,S, AS,andA. SCHoenBErG) this instance played inmeasure 28 (= 10= 1) ofthefinal song. bythepianoand occurring has beenmade:number Butcertainly bynowthepoint symbolism in the this a a role of crucial composition, plays organization extraordinary in was careful to out the and one that rolethat title, point Schoenberg inanythorough ofthework's structure. be ignored cannot study thetitle inspite ofthefact that ofPierrot lunaire isthesingle Finally, inthe hisuseofnumerology instance ofits structuring composer indicating to that Used theprocedure is notat all peculiar ofa work, composition. the at least as as Chamber Opus 9, early Symphony, systematically in as a structural device tobe usedby continued Schoenberg numerology theperiod the endofhislife. hismusic until Schoenberg very Throughout used inPierrot to thenumbers remained lunaire: 1, 3, 7, 11, and loyal assumes innumerthis 22. Butwith troupe versatility meager astonishing variedsettings and withan ever changing able roles in constantly toSchoenberg's music has gone contribution cast.Thattheir supporting theprevailing number is most unfortunate. unnoticed euphony Overlooking for has ledto frustration in a work suchas Erwartung, on the example, of those critics whose search has been for a more conventional part diligent oforder. system of all, even Schoenberg's twelve-tone Perhapsmostastonishing musicretains thisindispensable second layer of numerological order. The rowmay thesequenceinwhich areto be usedina propose pitches but rhythms, cadence points, composition, particular phraselengths, chord androw note section formations, transpositions repetitions, lengths, thenumber ofnumerology. notbytherow, but values areall regulated, by will them rows themselves reveal ofSchoenberg's an examination Indeed,

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to be, notarbitrary oftwelve butthecareful notes, arrangements integration ofthenumber that to emphasizethe values ofthosenotes.Itfollows, then, numbersof the row in thislatermusic,as has been done, and to ignore themystical ofnumerology is to project a seriously distorted figures image the of composerand hiswork.

NOTES in America," in "Schoenberg The Musical Rubsamen (1) QuotedbyWalter vol.XXXVII, no.4, October, 1951. Quarterly, in The "Pierrot for instance, lunaire," published (inhisarticle (2) GeorgePerle, of Music,edited Commonwealth Reeseand Rose Brandel, The byGustave that FreePress,NewYork,1965) makesthestatement use "Schoenberg's no musical Sinceeachofthe ofmagicnumbers has,ofcourse, significance. he thought an unlucky it ofthirteen number, lines, perhaps poemsconsists threeand wellto organizethe wholeaccording to two lucky numbers, seven." YourDaysAre is supplied on numerology from (3) Muchoftheinformation Numbered M.A.,The Gateway, Ferndale, Campbell, byFlorence Evylinn more systematic 1931. There are manymore modern, Pennsylvania, handbooks on thesubject, butthis rather a classicinits quaint publication, reflects as itwas practiced thefirst ofthe field, quarter numerology during the when have first must become interested init. period century, Schoenberg usedtheoriginal ofhisname, (4) The composer spelling during "Schonberg," theperiod ofthecomposition ofPierrot. The changeto"Schoenberg" was made soon after his arrival in the in Unites States The 1933. name evidently numbers fortheoriginal are presented belowfor In spelling comparison. the raw values have been used rather than number, computing expression reduced ones inorder notto concealtheimportant 11. Arnold Franz total, Walter hisrarely usedfull has a consonant number value name, Schonberg, of13.

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ARNOLD 195634
Expression self Quiescent Soul urge Cornerstone Namecycle

SCHONBERG 138652597
Name LastName Total First 28 (= 10) + 46 (= 10) = 74= 11 11 + 3 8 = = 18=9 + 7 11 =1 = 15=6 + 9 6

identifies with thepoetis strongly bythemusic. suggested (5) ThatSchoenberg first of remained mute the ofall,thecello,having First twosections during the mention with an at first of enters "Mondestrunken," impassioned song theviolin thepoet.Solidly bya 3-notepedal(10= 1), and with grounded with it line 11's comesto above this is saturated until it, finally soaring airily the final with five The four-note chord of rest chords. bar,played pizzicato D' (read as Eb, S in consists of the notesC, B (H in German), twice, that reduced numbers thesignature A. SCH. Recalling A-forming German), to the is retain still some oftheir flavor, temptationstrong assignA original thechordas 1+3+7+10=21--a thevalueof 10 here, thereby reading havecontrolled thepiece.Inthe the that as it of numbers summation, were, final a to the been on that has chord, score, temptation yielded analytical of a of but an intervallic value that then not value chord 21, has, only pitch 21 as well. a The Works ofArnold Schoenberg: JosephRufer, (6) The datesare from St. and Paintings, D. Newlin, ofHis Compositions, tr., Writings, Catalogue NewYork, Martin's 1962. Press, number valueshavebeenentered theintervallic northequantitative (7) Neither an in theanalytical score.To havedone so wouldhavebeento produce for Then the of numbers. too, procedures counting indecipherable jumble intervals notesand measuring all,simple are,after enoughso as to hardly to as an attempt call forguidance.This actionis notto be interpreted values.On the or quantitative intervallic ofeither minimize theimportance where theintervallic in Pierrot, for Thereare instances example, contrary. value.Such a situation overthepitch valuewouldseemto takeprecedence ofthe theheadmotive inthepassacaglia theme ofNo.8, where exists theme, a significant is not Two a of 5+8+7=20=2. has value E-G-Eb, pitch is value of thesame motive, in Pierrot. The intervallic number however, 3+4=7.

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Mondestrunken a numerological analysis

SEcroM I
FLUTE

ff 1 17

I
7
VIOLIN

=
7 7

,,

>0 =0
-

-4

12t

tI CELLO 1 RECITER
L

in6

6 =

5
WEIN,

11
DEN

it 1

2
12 59 l2= = :
I --

DEN

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=
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TRINKT,

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--

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9 138

7'=

= 10-

f11 7

11 9

7 2 3 391 i

S3
.7

11

UNDEINE

2 Cz SPRING-

7=

3
FLUT

2
USER-

7
SCHWEMMT 9 lw I

3
DEN

31=110=

2 3 3 9

i1 8 2 6

5'8= f = 13 = (

98

2339 6666663

82

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7513112

159

=, 74

=3

112 8

fl=

1= 172=

5 1 2 11

1 7 ~ 3 7 7=

FLAG-.

5
SIlL -

59 1 3 =
LEN Hoi ZONT

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12=
+ S5 1 7 3

2
1

3 5

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1=3

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S=

= )

1
10.4 =

Z 3 7

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3
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5 7 7 3

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533

NOTES ON THE ANALYTICAL SCORE Bar Beat 7 1 7 (flute) 3 (violin) against 7 1,2 thescore,chordformations receive their values Throughout pitch from thesumoftheir The pianochord on thesecond components. beatofthis with an intervallic valueof11 (and bar,a 10= 1 chord thusthe implication of 21), willlater serveas the22- pedal in Section III. receives thesingle wordsung "stillen" specialemphasis bybeing in"Mondestrunken." Its value is 5+8= pitch 13, implying, perhaps, that thehorizon is notonlystill, thesaving but,lacking graceof sterile and lifeless as well.Such an interpretation is moonlight, hand of the piano part supported by the phrase in the right on thelastsixteenth noteofmeasure 7. Itspitch valueis beginning 13 (=4). Dovetailing with the 13 of "stillen," the piano 13 is transformed intoa 7, after a dramatic break, bythe mysterious 3X 22 chords ofmeasure 10. As noted inthescore, thepianochord herehasa pitch valueof22. Its intervallic value is also 22. And withthe numbersof its itbecomesa veritable ofPierrot component pitches, compendium number values:1+3+7+11= 22. In addition, thisseriesdraws attention to theprocessbywhich theoriginal twonumbers ofthe 3 and 7, generate theothers intheset:3+7= 1; 3+7+1 = title, 11; 3+7+1+11=22.

10

10

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534

10

that itistheonly harmonic The isolation oftheviolin G andthefact Its calledforin thesong bothgivethenotespecialprominence. thephrasewhich as 8 ittransforms function, too, is significant: a pitch valueof 11 to one of 10. "Power"is the precedesitfrom for11 and 10 (1) have for8. Meanings meaning numerological inthebody beensuggested ofthetext. theseveral comments madeon the As mustbe apparent from inthis measure 10 ofthepiece),its measure (appropriately, activity to thenumerocould bestbe explained byreferring significance logical meaningsof numbersand to Schoenberg'spersonal and use of them. A thorough examination of this interpretation not onlyforPierrot subjectwould be extraordinarily revealing, butfortheentire Such a lunaire, work. corpusof Schoenberg's of the the of is, course, project quitebeyond scope present study. The 5 valueas thetotal forthereciter's in SectionII is pitches itto the7 total in 12=3, of SectionI results equivocal. Adding thetotal whereas itwith ofSection IIIproduces 16=7. combining The number ofnotesinthefirst ofthecellolineis 11, and phrase that ofthesecondphrase is 10. 11+ 10= 21 =3. With thesemitone as theunit of measure, theintervallic valuefor thefirst phraseis thesecondphraseis 22. 7+22=29= 11. 34= 7. Thatfor The time theright handofthepianopart from thesecond spanfor half ofthis beatuntil theend ofbar34 is 29 = 11. 11 (flute) 3 (piano) against

26

29

29 37

1 3

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