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8

First Declension Nouns (Module A)


Feminine Nouns
Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3)



Lesson Eight Overview
8.0 Introduction, 8-1
8.1 General Observations, 8-2
8.2 Flow Chart, 8-3
8.3 The Alpha Pure Pattern, 8-4
8.4 The ta Pure Pattern, 8-11
8.5 The Hybrid Pattern, 8-15
8.6 Summary of Feminine First Declension, 8-19
8.7 Declension-Paradigm Notation, 8-22
8.8 Vocabulary Study, 8-23
Study Guide, 8-26













8.0 Introduction

Lessons Six and Seven examined second declension nouns. Second
declension nouns encompassed all three genders, masculine, feminine,
and neuter nouns, whose nominal stem ended with an omkron. Three
paradigms were set forth for second declension nouns as they inflected for
case, gender and number. These paradigms were designated as n-2a
(masculine nouns), n-2b (feminine nouns), and n-2c (neuter nouns).

We now come to a new declension, the first declension. Nouns of this
declension will also have different paradigms as they inflect for case,
gender and number. Furthermore, the pattern of first declension noun
endings will differ from those of the second declension.

First declension nouns differ from second declension nouns in several
respects. First, feminine nouns dominate the declension with masculine
nouns in a remote second. Second, there are not any neuter nouns in the
first declension. Third, while the omkron sound dominated the second
declension, the alpha or ta sounds control the first declension. Finally, all
first declension feminine nouns exhibit identical case-number suffixes.
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Eight different noun patterns are in the first declension, reflected in eight
different paradigms. However, only three of these eight will be examined
in this lesson, with the remaining five studied in Lesson Nine. The
essential distinction between these paradigms is due to phonetic changes
in the singular inflectional forms. These phonetic changes involve the
alpha changing to ta throughout the singular, while in a few other nouns
the alpha becomes ta in the genitive and dative singular only.

8.1 General Observations of First Declension Nouns

1. Nominal stems that belong to the first declension terminate with
either the vowel alpha or ta. If all the singular forms terminate with
alpha, it is considered an -o pure noun (cf. n-1a). If all the singular
forms terminate with ta, then it is considered an -q pure noun (cf.
n-1b). A noun, whose stem is a mixture of both alpha and ta in the
singular forms, is considered a hybrid noun (cf. n-1c

2. The first declension is often called the alpha-declension since most
nouns belonging to this declension terminate with the vowel alpha
before the case endings are appended.

3. The first declension is composed mostly of feminine nouns.
Masculine nouns are only about thirty percent of all first declension
nouns. There are not any neuter nouns in the first declension.

4. The nominative singular is the lexical entry for all first declension
nouns, whether feminine or masculine.

5. Eight different paradigms are in the first declension. These are
designated as n-1a, n-1b, n-1c, n-1d, n-1e, n-1f, n-1g and n-1h.

6. Regardless of the nominal stem, all feminine nouns are inflected
identically according to their number and case. Furthermore,
regardless of a first declension nouns paradigm, all plural case
endings are identical.

7. The article inflects to modify both feminine and masculine first
declension nouns according to gender, number and case.

8. The nominative and vocative singular forms have no case ending.
Their forms are identical to the lexical entry.

9. Vocative plurals are identical to nominative plural case endings.
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8.2 Flow Chart for First Declension Feminine Nouns


What vowel terminat es
t he nomi nat ive f eminine singular noun?
o
Does epslon, ita, or rh
precede alpha?
to
opto
opto,

v
i
ov
i,
,
i
,

v
opto
opto
opto
opto
opt
opto
opto
opto
|opio
|opio
|opio
|opio
|opio
io
YES
ovq
ovq
ovq
ovq
ovq
ovo
ov
ovo
ovo
ovo
n-1b Pure q
NO
o o
o q
o q
o o
o o
n-1c Hybri d
o o
o
o o
o o
o o
|opio
|opi
|opio
|opio
|opio
,
v
i
ov
i,
,
i
,

v
i
ov
i,
,
i
i
ov
i,
,
i
po
opo
opo
opo
opo
opo
opo
op
opo
opo
opo
,

v
i
ov
i,
,
i
q
NOTES
This flowchart illustrates a simple method
to determine the paradigm that a first declension
feminine noun will follow.
A maximum of two decisions is necessary
to determine the correct paradigm for these nouns.
These paradigms represent 99.99% of all
first declension feminine nouns.
Regar dless which paradigm a first declension
feminine noun follows (n-1a, n-1b, n-1c), the plural
case endings for all three are identical.
"Pure" relates to which vowel terminates the
singular stem (all plurals have identical
case- number endings): n-1a [Pure o];
n-1b [Pure q]; n-1c [Hybrid, both o and q].
Explanation for the shift of accents for first
declension nouns, as well as for second
declension nouns, will be presented in Lesson Ten.
or
or
n-1a Pure o
n-1a Pure o
n-1a Pure o


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8.3 First Declension Feminine Alpha Pure Nouns (n-1a)

Except for three contracted noun stems, all feminine nouns in the first
declension that terminate with the o-pure stem are uncontracted. These
stems represent the bulk of first declension nouns; for this reason, the first
declension is usually identified as the alpha-declension.

Most first declension feminine noun stems, whose last letter before the
stem vowel is either a vowel or rh, and have the abbreviated genitive
singular o, terminate with a long alpha. However, forty-seven vocalic
stems terminate with a short alpha. No phonological explanation exists
why the long alpha sometimes becomes short. In these instances, the
alpha is short in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular, and the
noun is accented with the acute on the antepenult lexical form (e.g.
oiqtio). Whether the alpha is long or short, all first declension feminine
opure nouns are designated as n-1a.

A vowel comparison between feminine singular stems with their respective
case-number endings, terminating with a long or short alpha, may be
represented in the chart below. The actual singular case-number inflected
endings are represented in red. The macron above the vowel represents a
long alpha and the v, a short alpha.

Singular
n-1a Long Stem Alpha Short Stem Alpha
Nominative o o
Genitive o, o,
Dative o (ita subscript) o (ita subscript)
Accusative ov ov
Vocative o o

Regardless of the vocalic quality of the alpha in the singular form, all first
declension plural nouns are inflected identically in their respective case-
number endings.

Some nouns of foreign origin whose stems do not terminate with a vowel
or rh also use the o-pure inflected case-number endings (cf. 8.3.4).
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8.3.1 Case formation. The case endings for o-pure first declension
feminine nouns are also identical to n-1b and n-1c first declension feminine
nouns. The case endings are indicated below in red. Comments about
their formation follow. The feminine noun opo serves for the n-1a
paradigm.

opo, o,, q (hour) opo + case ending

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative opo
1, 2
opoi
6

Genitive opo,
3
opov
7

Dative opo
4
opoi,
Accusative opov opo,
3

Vocative opo
1, 5
opoi
6


1. The stems of first declension uncontracted feminine nouns terminating
with alpha (long or short) are identical both in their nominative and
vocative singular forms. The nominative and vocative singular forms do
not exhibit any inflected case-number endings. The alpha which
terminates these nouns is actually the stem vowel. A few introductory
NTGreek grammars posit that the case ending for first declension
nominative and vocative ending terminates with o. They do this with
the hope it will help the beginning student, but in the end, it actually
hinders.

2. The accented nominative singular form is the lexical entry for all first
declension feminine nouns. In a Greek-English lexicon, its abbreviated
genitive singular follows to indicate its declension-paradigm pattern,
then an article to specify its grammatical gender.

3. The feminine genitive singular and accusative plural case endings are
inflected identically. Normally context or modifying words will help
determine its proper case function. Furthermore, when first declension
nouns are accented on the ultima in the nominative singular, they
regularly have the circumflex on the genitive singular and the acute
accent on the accusative plural (opto, / opto,).

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4. The feminine dative singular is actually the stem + i. The ita regularly
monophthongizes and is written under the long alpha as an ita
subscript.

Dative Singular: opo + i > opoi > opo

The stem vowel, alpha, first combines
with the dative feminine singular case
ending, ita, to create a diphthong.




5. First declension feminine vocative singular nouns are ALWAYS
identical in case-number to the nominative singular. Context will
determine whether the noun is functioning as a nominative or vocative.

6. First declension feminine nominative and vocative plural case-numbers
are inflected identically. Context will determine whether the noun is
functioning as a nominative or vocative.

7. The genitive plural is ov because of vowel contraction and not
because of absorption as in second declension nouns. The circumflex
accent is evidence of this contraction.

The above morphological comments may be summarized in the following
chart for all o-pure first declension feminine nouns. The case endings
below are also identical to n-1b and n-1c first declension feminine nouns.

Singular Case Endings Plural Case Endings
Nominative


(no case ending)
i
(identical to vocative plural)

Genitive
,
(identical to accusative plural)

ov
(contraction)

Dative
i (subscript)
(contraction)

i,
Accusative v
,
(identical to genitive singular)

Vocative

(no case ending)

i
(identical to nominative plural)

The diphthong becomes a single
vowel sound by the formation of
the improper diphthong, o.
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8.3.2 Paradigm. A representative n-1a paradigm follows. Regardless if
the stem terminates with a vowel or rh, they are declined identically.

opo, o,, q (hour) opo + case ending listen












Singular Plural
n-1a
Article Noun Article Noun
Nominative q opo oi opoi
Genitive q, opo, ov opov
Dative q opo oi, opoi,
Accusative qv opov o, opo,
C
A
S
E

Vocative opo opoi
The morphological observations concerning opto (8.3.1) are also true
for first declension feminine noun stems terminating in -io.

8.3.3 Vocabulary paradigms. For illustration, many of the lessons
vocabulary words whose vocalic stem terminates in o-pure are declined
below. As with second declension paradigms, do NOT memorize these
paradigms. It is unnecessary to do so! These paradigms are cited for
illustration, and not for memory work! It is imperative, however, to
recognize and know the inflectional forms for first declension n-1a nouns
as they relate to case, gender and number.

Because the nominative and vocative singular and plural are declined
identically, the vocative is omitted in these examples.

oiqtio, o,, q (truth) oiqtio + case ending (short final alpha)

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative q oiqtio oi oiqtioi
Genitive q, oiqtio, ov oiqtiov
Dative q oiqtio oi, oiqtioi,
Accusative qv oiqtiov o, oiqtio,
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oopio, o,, q (sin) oopio + case ending

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative q oopio oi oopi oi
Genitive q, oopio, ov oopiov
Dative q oopio oi, oopioi,
Accusative qv oopiov o, oopio,

ooiitio, o,, q (kingdom) ooiitio + case ending

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative q ooiitio oi ooiiti oi
Genitive q, ooiitio, ov ooiitiov
Dative q ooiitio oi, ooiitioi,
Accusative qv ooiiti ov o, ooiitio,

loiiioio, o,, q (Galilee) loiiioio + case ending

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative q loiiioi o
Genitive q, loiiioio,
Dative q loiiioio
Accusative qv loiiioiov
loiiioio is a proper name. Plural
forms should not be expected for
proper names. All proper names
begin with a capital letter to follow
modern convention.

opto, o,, q (gift) opto + case ending

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative q opto oi optoi
Genitive q, opto, ov optov
Dative q opto oi, optoi,
Accusative qv optov o, opto ,
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t||iqoio, o,, q (Church, assembly) t||iqoio + case ending

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative q t||iqoio oi t||iqoioi
Genitive q, t||iqoio, ov t||iqoiov
Dative q t||iqoio oi, t||iqoioi,
Accusative qv t||iqoiov o, t||iqoio,

qtpo, o,, q (day) qtpo + case ending

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative q qtpo oi qtpoi
Genitive q, qtpo, ov qtpov
Dative q qtpo oi, qtpoi,
Accusative qv qtpov o, qtpo,

|opio, o,, q (heart) |opio + case ending

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative q |opio oi |opioi
Genitive q, |opio, ov |opiov
Dative q |opio oi, |opioi,
Accusative qv |opiov o, |opio,

ooio, o,, q (wisdom) ooio + case ending

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative q ooio oi ooioi
Genitive q, ooio, ov ooiov
Dative q ooio oi, ooioi,
Accusative qv ooiov o, ooio,
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_opo , o,, q (joy) _opo + case ending

n-1a Singular Plural
Nominative q _opo oi _opoi
Genitive q, _opo, ov _opov
Dative q _opo oi, _opoi,
Accusative qv _opo v o, _opo ,

8.3.4 Exceptions. There are nine nouns also classified as n-1a nouns that do
not end in -to, io or -po, but are declined according to the n-1a paradigm.
Only one of these is not a proper name (ooo).

Noun Translation
1. Avvo, o,
Hanna (sometimes improperly translated
as Anna in the NT.
2. Euo, o, Eve
3. Itpoooiuo Jerusalem (indeclinable)
4. Ioovo, o, Joanna (alternate spelling for Ioovvo).
5. Ioovvo, o, Joanna
6. Mopo, o, Martha
7. Nuo, o, Nympha
8. Ptt||o, o, Rebecca (or Rebekka)
9. ooo, o, (roofed) colonnade or cloister, portico

The lessons vocabulary study will not include these nouns. However, they
may be used in the exercises in conjunction with this lesson. The student
should not have any difficulty identifying these proper names since most of
them transliterate well into English.




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8.4 First Declension ta Pure Nouns (n-1b)

Most first declension feminine noun stems terminate with alpha. However,
two hundred and thirty-eight feminine vocalic stems in NTGreek terminate
with ta. Phonologically, whenever a first declension feminine stem
terminates with a letter other than a vowel (epslon, ita, or omkron), rh,
or a sibilant before the stem vowel, the stem vowel alpha becomes ta in
the nominative singular which is retained throughout all singular forms.
The plural case-number forms for all first declension nouns are identical.

The declension-paradigm notation for this classification of nouns is n-1b.
Including proper names, two hundred and thirty-eight nouns are n-1b
nouns in NTGreek.

The n-1b paradigm case endings are identical to those of n-1a. The only
distinction is that the nominal stem terminates with ta instead of alpha.
To the nominal stem, the inflected case endings are added.

8.4.1 Case formation. The case endings for all n-1b first declension
feminine nouns follow. Comments about their formation follow. The
feminine noun, ovq, serves as the n-1b paradigm.

ovq, q,, q (sound, noise, voice) ovq + case ending

n-1b Singular Plural
Nominative ovq
1, 2
ovoi
6

Genitive ovq,
3
ovov
7

Dative ovq
4
ovoi,
Accusative ovqv ovo,
3

Vocative ovq
1, 5
ovoi
6


1. The stems of first declension feminine nouns terminating with ta are
identical both in the nominative and vocative singular forms. The
nominative and vocative singular forms do not exhibit any inflected
case-number endings. The ta which terminates these nouns is
actually the stem vowel. A few introductory NTGreek grammars posit
that the case ending for first declension nominative and vocative ending
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terminates with q. They do this with the hope it will help the beginning
student, but in the end, it actually hinders.

2. The accented nominative singular form is the lexical entry for all first
declension feminine nouns. In a Greek-English lexicon, its abbreviated
genitive singular follows to indicate its declension-paradigm pattern,
then an article to specify its grammatical gender.

3. N-1b feminine genitive singular and accusative plural case endings are
inflected identically. Apart from context, a modifying word, or difference
of accent, ambiguity exists between these forms. This ambiguity,
however, does not exist with q-pure noun stems (ovq, / ovo,).

4. The feminine dative singular is actually the stem + i. The ita regularly
monophthongizes and written under the ta as an ita subscript.

Dative Singular: ovq + i > ovqi > ovq


The stem vowel, ta, first combines
with the dative feminine singular case
ending, iota, to create a diphthong.
The diphthong becomes a single
vowel sound by the formation of
the improper diphthong, q.



Monophthongization also occurs in second declension dative
masculine, feminine, and neuter singular nouns.

5. First declension feminine vocative singular nouns are ALWAYS
identical in case-number to the nominative singular. Context will
determine whether the noun is functioning as a nominative or vocative.

6. First declension feminine nominative and vocative plural case-numbers
are inflected identically. Context will determine whether the noun is
functioning as a nominative or vocative.

7. The genitive plural is ov because of vowel contraction and not
because of absorption as in second declension nouns. The circumflex
accent is evidence of this contraction.

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The above morphological comments may be summarized in the following
chart for all q-pure first declension feminine nouns. The case endings
below are also identical to n-1a and n-1c first declension feminine nouns.

Singular Case Endings Plural Case Endings
Nominative


(no case ending)
i
(identical to vocative plural)

Genitive
,
(identical to accusative plural)

ov
(contraction)

Dative
i (subscript)
(contraction)

i,
Accusative v
,
(identical to genitive singular)

Vocative

(no case ending)

i
(identical to nominative plural)


8.4.2 Paradigm. A representative n-1b paradigm follows. Plurals are
identical to those of n-1a nouns.

ovq, q,, q (sound, noise, voice) ovq + case ending listen












Singular Plural
n-1b
Article Noun Article Noun
Nominative q ovq oi ovoi
Genitive q, ovq, ov ovov
Dative q ovq oi, ovoi,
Accusative qv ovqv o, ovo,
C
A
S
E

Vocative ovq ovoi

8.4.3 Vocabulary paradigms. For illustration, several of the lessons
vocabulary words whose noun stem terminates in ta are declined below.
As with the other paradigms in this lesson, do NOT memorize them.
Because the nominative and vocative singular and plural are declined
identically, the vocative is omitted in these examples.
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oyoq, q,, q (love) oyoq + case ending

n-1b Singular Plural
Nominative q oyoq oi oyooi
Genitive q, oyoq, ov oyoov
Dative q oyoq oi, oyooi,
Accusative qv oyoqv o, oyoo,

ypoq, q,, q (writing, Scripture) ypoq + case ending

n-1b Singular Plural
Nominative q ypoq oi ypooi
Genitive q, ypoq, ov ypoov
Dative q ypoq oi, ypooi,
Accusative qv ypoqv o, ypoo,

oq, q,, q (life) oq + case ending

n-1b Singular Plural
Nominative q oq oi ooi
Genitive q, oq, ov oov
Dative q oq oi, ooi,
Accusative qv oqv o, oo,

u_q , q,, q (soul) u_q + case ending

n-1b Singular Plural
Nominative q u_q oi u_oi
Genitive q, u_q, ov u_ov
Dative q u_q oi, u_oi,
Accusative qv u_qv o, u_o ,
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8.5 First Declension Hybrid Nouns (n-1c)

The final group of first declension nouns considered in this lesson is nouns
whose paradigm is a mixture of n-1a and n-1b singular case endings.

Apart from five exceptions cited later in 8.5.4, first declension feminine
vocalic stems follow a hybrid pattern whose last letter before its stem
vowel is a consonant other than rh. The vocalic stem vowel alpha of the
nominative singular lengthens to q, and q in the genitive and dative
singular. The declension-paradigm notation for this classification of nouns
is n-1c. Including proper names, thirty-eight nouns follow this paradigm in
NTGreek.

Phonologically, this hybrid pattern occurs thirty-four times in NTGreek
when a sibilant phoneme (zta, sigma or a compound consonant)
precedes the vocalic stem vowel alpha. As with all other first declension
nouns, the plural case-number forms are identical.


Stem Preceded by a Sibilant or
Compound Consonant
Nominative o
Genitive q,
Dative q (ita subscript)
Accusative ov
N
-
1
C

S
i
n
g
u
l
a
r

Vocative o

As illustrated above, the final alpha in the nominative, accusative, and
vocative singulars are always short.

8.5.1 Case formation. The case endings for all n-1c first declension
feminine nouns are identical to those of n-1a and n-1b first declension
nouns. Comments about their formation follow. The feminine noun,
oo, serves as the n-1c paradigm.




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oo, q,, q (glory) oo + case ending

n-1c Singular Plural
Nominative o o
1, 2
o oi
6

Genitive o q,
3
oov
7

Dative oq
4
o oi,
Accusative o ov o o,
3

Vocative o o
1, 5
o oi
6


1. The stems of first declension feminine hybrid nouns terminating with a
short alpha are identical both in the nominative and vocative singular
forms. The nominative and vocative singular forms do not exhibit any
inflected case-number endings. The short alpha which terminates
these is actually the stem vowel. A few introductory NTGreek
grammars posit that the case ending for first declension nominative and
vocative ending terminates with o. They do this with the hope it will
help the beginning student, but in the end, it actually hinders.

2. The accented nominative singular form is the lexical entry for all first
declension feminine nouns. In a Greek-English lexicon, its abbreviated
genitive singular follows to indicate its declension-paradigm pattern,
then an article to specify its grammatical gender.

3. N-1c feminine genitive singular and accusative plural case endings are
inflected identically. Apart from context, a modifying word, or difference
of accent, ambiguity exists between these forms. This ambiguity,
however, does not exist with hybrid noun stems (oq, / oo,).

4. The feminine dative singular is actually the stem + i. The ita regularly
monophthongizes and is written under the long alpha as an ita
subscript.

5. First declension feminine vocative singular nouns are ALWAYS
identical in case-number to the nominative singular. Context will
determine whether the noun is functioning as a nominative or vocative.

Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-17
Feminine nouns
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6. First declension feminine nominative and vocative plural case-numbers
are inflected identically. Context will determine whether the noun is
functioning as a nominative or vocative.

7. The genitive plural is ov because of vowel contraction and not
because of absorption as in second declension nouns. The circumflex
accent is evidence of this contraction.

The above morphological comments may be summarized in the following
chart for all hybrid first declension feminine nouns. The case endings
below are also identical to n-1a and n-1b first declension feminine nouns.

Singular Case Endings Plural Case Endings
Nominative


(no case ending)
i
(identical to vocative plural)

Genitive
,
(identical to accusative plural)

ov
(contraction)

Dative
i (subscript)
(contraction)

i,
Accusative v
,
(identical to genitive singular)

Vocative

(no case ending)

i
(identical to nominative plural)


8.5.2 Paradigm. A representative n-1c paradigm follows.

oo, q,, q (glory) oo + case ending listen











Singular Plural
n-1c
Article Noun Article Noun
Nominative q o o oi ooi
Genitive q, oq, ov oov
Dative q oq oi, ooi,
Accusative qv oov o, oo,
C
A
S
E

Vocative

oo

ooi
Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-18
Feminine nouns
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8.5.3 Vocabulary paradigms. For illustration, several of the lessons
vocabulary words whose noun stem terminates with a short alpha and
whose genitive singular is q, are declined below. Since the vocative
singular and plural forms are identical to the corresponding number in the
nominative, they have been omitted in these examples.

lttvvo, q,, q (Gehenna) lttvvo + case ending

n-1c Singular Plural
Nominative q lttvvo
Genitive q, lttvvq,
Dative q lttvvq
Accusative qv lttvvov
lttvvo is a proper noun.
Therefore, as one should expect,
there are not any plural forms.
The word is capitalized here
although not capitalized in most
Greek editions.

yioooo, q,, q (tongue, language) yioooo + case ending

n-1c Singular Plural
Nominative q yioooo oi yiooooi
Genitive q, yioooq, ov yioooov
Dative q yioooq oi, yiooooi,
Accusative qv yioooov o, yioooo,

oioooo, q,, q (sea, lake) oioooo + case ending

n-1c Singular Plural
Nominative q oioooo oi oiooooi
Genitive q, oioooq, ov oioooov
Dative q oioooq oi, oiooooi,
Accusative qv oioooov o, oioooo,




Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-19
Feminine nouns
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pio, q,, q (root, branch) pio + case ending

n-1c Singular Plural
Nominative q pio oi pioi
Genitive q, piq, ov piov
Dative q piq oi, pioi,
Accusative qv piov o, pi o,

8.5.4 Exceptions. The following five first declension feminine nouns
occur in NTGreek. Although these nouns end with po, they are declined
like n-1c nouns (genitive singular, q,) instead of n-1a. These nouns fall
into this paradigm because the final alpha is short.

Noun Translation
1. o_oipo sword
2. iqupo high water, flood
3. popo bow, prow of a ship
4. 2oipo Sapphira
5. otipo cohort (tenth part of a legion)

8.6 Summary of First Declension Feminine Nouns

We have come to the end of our study of first declension feminine nouns.
Masculine nouns belonging to this declension will be studied together in
Lesson Nine, along with first declension contracted nouns.

The following principles concerning first declension feminine nouns must
be clearly understood before learning the paradigms of first declension
masculine nouns. These condensed points are for further study purposes,
and not meant to replace the fuller explanations concerning these
paradigms in the lesson.

8.6.1 General Observations. Noun stems terminating in a long or short
alpha or ta are first declension feminine nouns. All singular and plural
case forms for first declension feminine nouns are identical (cf. 8.1[6]).
Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-20
Feminine nouns
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8.6.2 Alpha-Termination. Two first declension feminine noun patterns
terminate with alpha, the n-1a and n-1c paradigms.

8.6.21 If the feminine nominative singular ends with alpha (n-1a), and its
genitive singular is o,, alpha appears in all the cases of the singular. In
this pattern, the letter before alpha is a vowel (t or i) or p (rh). However,
nine nouns are also classified as n-1a nouns which do not end in to, io
or po, but declined according to this paradigm (cf. 8.3.4).

8.6.22 Most first declension feminine nouns that end with alpha and have
the genitive singular as o,. Furthermore, the final alpha in the
nominative, vocative, and accusative singular cases is generally long.

n-1a
Long alpha in
the nominative
singular form.
Singular Plural
Nominative opo opoi
Genitive opo, opov
Dative opo opoi,
Accusative opov opo,
Vocative opo opoi

8.6.23 The final alpha in the nominative, vocative, and accusative forms
is short in a few instances, while the final alpha in the genitive and dative
singular forms is long. The vowel length (whether long or short alpha) will
generally be indicated by the accent shift between the nominative singular
(alpha is short) and the genitive singular (alpha is long).

n-1a
Short alpha in
the nominative
singular form.
Singular Plural
Nominative
oiqtio oiqtioi
Genitive
oiqtio, oiqtiov
Dative
oiqtio oiqtioi,
Accusative
oiqtiov oiqtio,
Vocative
oiqtio oiqtioi
Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-21
Feminine nouns
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8.6.24 If the feminine nominative singular ends with alpha, and the
preceding letter is NOT t, i, or p, and the genitive singular is q,, the final
alpha in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular is always short.
The ta replaces the alpha in the genitive and dative singular cases, but
not in the nominative, accusative, and vocative forms. These nouns are
designated as n-1c, hybrids of n-1a and n-1b patterns.

n-1c
Short alpha in
the nominative
singular form.
Singular Plural
Nominative oo (short alpha) ooi
Genitive oq, oov
Dative oq ooi,
Accusative oov (short alpha) o o,
Vocative o o (short alpha) o oi

The alpha changes to ta in the genitive and dative singular because of
internal phonetic conditions. Whenever the continuant consonants (4.1)
m, n, sigma, zta, xs, ps, or double-lambda (ii) precede the final
alpha, the case ending undergoes this predictable phonetic change.

Five first declension feminine nouns terminate with po, but decline as
n-1c nouns (genitive singular, q,) instead of n-1a (8.5.4).

8.6.3 Eta-Termination. If a feminine noun has a final ta in its
nominative singular form, all singular forms will terminate with ta before
the case ending instead of alpha. The designation for these nouns is n-1b.

n-1b
Singular Plural
Nominative ovq ovoi
Genitive ovq, ovov
Dative ovq ovoi,
Accusative ovqv ovo,
Vocative ovq ovoi
Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-22
Feminine nouns
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8.7 Declension-Paradigm Notation for First Declension
Feminine Nouns

The three paradigms for first declension feminine nouns studied in this
lesson are presented in tandem below for the purpose of comparing and
contrasting the singular inflected forms. Plurals of all forms are inflected
identically.

n-1a
listen
Singular Plural
Nominative q opto oi optoi
Genitive q, opto, ov optov
Dative q opto oi, optoi,
Accusative qv optov o, opto,
Vocative opto optoi

n-1b
listen
Singular Plural
Nominative q ovq oi ovoi
Genitive q, ovq, ov ovov
Dative q ovq oi, ovoi,
Accusative qv ovqv o, ovo ,
Vocative ovq ovoi

n-1c
listen
Singular Plural
Nominative q oo oi ooi
Genitive q, oq, ov oov
Dative q oq oi, ooi,
Accusative qv oov o, oo,
Vocative oo ooi
n-1a

The abbreviation n-1a
represents the following:

n = noun (part of speech)
1 = first declension
a = paradigm a

Feminine nouns whose noun
stem ends with to, io or
po belong to this paradigm.

n-1b

The abbreviation n-1b
represents the following:

n = noun (part of speech)
1 = first declension
b = paradigm b

Feminine nouns ending in ta
in the nominative singular
follow the n-1b paradigm.

n-1c

The abbreviation n-1c
represents the following:

n = noun (part of speech)
1 = first declension
c = paradigm c

Feminine nouns ending with
o and genitive singular q,
follow the n-1c paradigm.


Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-23
Feminine nouns
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8.8 Vocabulary Study

As you study your vocabulary, try to utilize it in daily activities as often as
you can. Think of places where you may verbally use it. For example,
whenever you are in your house, think of yourself in your oi|o,. On the
other hand, if you have a brother or sister, think of them as your otio,
or otiq. The more you engross yourself in your vocabulary, the quicker
the language threshold will be crossed.


Vocabulary Word Meaning Part of Speech
love noun
oyoq, q,, q
Stem: oyoq
oyoq (a-g-p) n-1b
sister noun
otiq, q,, q
Stem: otiq
otiq (a-del-ph) n-1b
truth noun
oiqtio, o,, q
Stem: oiqtio
Final alpha is short.
oiqtio (a-l-thei-a) n-1a

sin noun
oopio, o,, q
Stem: oopio
oopio (ha-mar-t-a) n-1a
beginning, ruler noun
op_q, q,, q
Stem: op_q
op_q (ar-ch) n-1b
kingdom noun
ooiitio, o,, q
Stem: ooiitio
ooiitio (ba-si-le-a) n-1a
Galilee noun
loiiioio, o,, q
Stem: loiiioio
loiiioio (Ga-li-la-a) n-1a
Gehenna proper noun
lttvvo, q,, q
Stem: yttvvo
Final alpha is short.
lttvvo (G-en-na) n-1c
This grammar will NOT follow the English translations
which render this proper name as hell/Hell. Instead,
this proper noun of place will properly be translated as
Gehenna. Gehenna is not to be confused with Hades,
which is another word, or with the Lake of Fire.
Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-24
Feminine nouns
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Vocabulary Word Meaning Part of Speech
tongue, language noun
yioooo, q,, q
Stem: yioooo
yioooo (gls-sa) n-1c Final alpha is short.
writing, Scripture noun
ypoq, q,, q
Stem: ypoq
ypoq (gra-ph) n-1b
demon noun
oioviov, ou, o
Stem: oiovio
oioviov (dai-m-ni-on) n-2c
glory noun
oo, q,, q
Stem: oo
oo (d-xa) n-1c Final alpha is short.
gift noun
opto, o,, q
Stem: opto
opto (d-re-) n-1a
peace noun
tipqvq, q,, q
Stem: tipqvq
tipqvq (ei-r-n) n-1b
Church, assembly noun
t||iqoio, o,, q
Stem: t||iqoio
t||iqoio (ek-kl-s-a) n-1a
commandment noun
tvoiq, q,, q
Stem: tvoiq
tvoiq (en-to-l) n-1b
authority, power noun
touoio, o,, q
Stem: touoio
touoio (ex-ou-s-a) n-1a
Eouoio is a compound word composed of the
preposition, t| (the kappa changes to an xs before a
vowel), and the participle form of tii.
life noun
oq, q,, q
Stem: oq
oq (z-) n-1b
day noun
qtpo, o,, q
Stem: qtpo
qtpo (h-m-ra) n-1a
sea, lake noun
oioooo, q,, q
Stem: oioooo

oioooo (th-las-sa) n-1c
Final alpha is short.
Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-25
Feminine nouns
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Vocabulary Word Meaning Part of Speech
heart noun
|opio, o,, q
Stem: |opio
|opio (kar-d-a) n-1a
head noun
|toiq, q,, q
Stem: |toiq
|toiq (ke-pha-l) n-1b
parable noun
opooiq, q,, q
Stem: opooiq
opooiq (pa-ra-bo-l) n-1b
A compound word composed of the preposition, opo,
and the verb oiio.
Paul proper noun Houio,, ou, o
Stem: Houio

Houio, (Pa-los) n-2a
Houio, is always a surname, never employed as a first
name in Greek literature (BAGD, p. 637).
root, shoot noun pio, q,, q
Stem: pio
pio (rh-za) n-1c Final alpha is short.
wisdom noun
ooio, o,, q
Stem: ooio
ooio (so-ph-a) n-1a
synagogue, meeting noun
ouvoyoyq, q,, q
Stem: ouvoyoyq
ouvoyoyq (sy-na-g-g) n-1b
This noun is a compound word composed of the
preposition, ouv and the verb oyo.
sound, noise, voice noun
ovq, q,, q
Stem: ovq
ovq (ph-n) n-1b
joy, delight noun
_opo , o,, q
Stem: _opo
_opo (cha-r) n-1a
soul noun
u_q, q,, q
Stem: u_q
u_q (psu-ch) n-1b
hour noun
opo, o,, q
Stem: opo
opo (h-ra) n-1a

Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-26
Feminine nouns
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Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session


Study Guide
First Declension Nouns (Module A)
Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3)

8
Exercise One: True or False. Select the correct answer. Be careful, all
of the answer has to be correct in order for it to be true.

1. First declension feminine nouns are inflected differently in the plural.
True False

2. First declension nouns are characterized by the vowels alpha or ta
occurring at the end or near the end of the noun. True False

3. The elementary distinction between first declension paradigms (n-1a,
n-1b, n-1c) is due to phonetic changes in the singular inflectional forms.
True False

4. The first declension is composed of masculine, feminine, and neuter
nouns. True False

5. The lexical form of opo is the same as its noun stem except for the
accent (opo). True False

6. The vocative singular and plural are identical to their nominative forms
for first declension feminine nouns. True False

7. The first declension feminine genitive singular and accusative plural
case forms are inflected identically alike for nouns like opo.
True False

8. Almost all first declension feminine nouns that end with to, io or po
have the same singular declension endings. True False

9. Monophthongization does not occur in first declension feminine dative
singular nouns. True False

10. It is more important to learn every first declension paradigm rather
than to memorize the case endings. True False

Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-27
Feminine nouns
________________________________________________________________


Exercise Two: Multiple choice. Choose the best answer.

1. First declension nouns are of what gender?

a. masculine and neuter c. masculine, feminine, and neuter

b. masculine and feminine d. feminine and neuter

2. The feminine article agrees in number and case with what other nouns
in the first declension?

a. masculine and feminine nouns c. only masculine nouns

b. only feminine nouns d. none of the above

3. Which of the following is correct because of grammatical concord?

a. q otiq, c. q, otiqv

b. q otiq d. oi otiov

4. Which of the following forms would you expect as the lexical form of a
feminine noun belonging to the first declension?

a. oq c. |opio

b. opo d. all of the above

5. Which of the following cases of first declension feminine nouns are
identical with each other?

a. nominative and vocative c. genitive and nominative

b. accusative and nominative d. genitive and dative

6. The lexical form exhibits what important information?

a. nominative singular c. genitive singular

b. lexical gender d. all of the above
Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-28
Feminine nouns
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7. What determines a first declension nouns function?

a. sentence order c. case endings and context

b. lexical form d. grammatical concord

8. In which case does monophthongization occur?

a. nominative plural c. genitive plural

b. dative singular d. accusative singular

9. Which vowel or vowels typify the stem vowel for first declension
feminine nouns?

a. omkron c. mega

b. ta and alpha d. alpha and epslon

10. Which gender of nouns is not found in the first declension?

a. masculine c. neuter

b. feminine d. masculine and neuter

11. The first declension is often called the ______-declension?

a. omkron c. mega

b. ta d. alpha

12. The proper declension-paradigm notation for ovq is

a. n-1a c. n-1c

b. n-1b d. none of the above




Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-29
Feminine nouns
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Exercise Three: Fill in the blanks.

1. Supply the appropriate article and case endings for the following words.

a. |opi o (heart)

Singular Plural
n-1a
Article Noun Article Noun
Nominative |opio |opio__
Genitive |opio__ |opi__
Dative |opio |opio__
Accusative |opio__ |opio__
C
a
s
e
s

Vocative |opio |opio__

b. oyoq (love)

Singular Plural
n-1b
Article Noun Article Noun
Nominative oyoq oyoo__
Genitive oyoq__ oyo__
Dative oyoq oyoo__
Accusative oyoq__ oyoo__
C
a
s
e
s

Vocative oyoq oyoo__

c. oo (glory) (the final alpha in the nominative singular is short)

Singular Plural
n-1c
Article Noun Article Noun
Nominative oo oo__
Genitive oq__ o__
Dative oq oo__
Accusative oo__ oo__
C
a
s
e
s

Vocative oo oo__
Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-30
Feminine nouns
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2. Grammatical Parsing. Parse the following forms.

D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n

h
o
u
r


L
e
x
i
c
a
l

F
o
r
m

o
p
o


D
e
c
l

n
-
1
a


N
u
m

s
i
n
g
u
l
a
r


G
e
n
d
e
r

f
e
m
i
n
i
n
e


C
a
s
e

n
o
m
/
v
o
c


W
o
r
d

o
p
o

o
v
q
,

|
o
p

i
o
v

u
_
o
i
,

o
u
v
o
y
o
y
q

o
p
o

o
i
o
,

|
t

o
i
o
i

t
i
p
q
v
q
v

t
v

o
i
o
i
,

y
p
o

q
,

q

t
p
o
,

l
o
i
i
i
o
i
o

|
o
p

i
o

t

o
u
o
i
o

o
o

i
o
v

o
i
q

t
i
o

o

o
p

i
o
i

o
o
i
i
t
i
o
,

Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-31
Feminine nouns
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3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the Greek article.

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative


4. Supply the correct Greek article before each of the following nouns.

Article Noun Article Noun
1.
loiiioiov
16.
piq
2.
oooou
17.
opov
3.
opov
18.
oiqtioi,
4.
uvo,
19.
oupovoi,
5.
|upio
20.
|opi ov
6.
oiqtio
21.
ooi o
7.
touoio,
22.
ooiitio
8.
tvoiq
23.
oo ,
9.
|toiqv
24.
tpyov
10.
oou,
25.
lttvvov
11.
oov
26.
o iooooi
12.
oiqtiov
27.
tuoyytiio
13.
ooi
28.
i ioi,
14.
|upioi,
29.
opo
15.
qpiov
30.
Xpioiovoi



Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
Lesson 8: First Declension Nouns (Module A) 8-32
Feminine nouns
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Dr. William D. Ramey Morphology: The Nominal System (Part 3) NTGreek In Session
5. Supply the correct lexical form for the following inflected words.

Inflected
Form
Lexical
Form
Inflected
Form
Lexical
Form
1.
toi
16.
ioyov
2.
u_ov
17.
ouio
3.
uio
18.
_opo,
4.
oi|o,
19.
povov
5.
_opo
20.
ooioi
6.
|toiq,
21.
tipqvqv
7.
oyoq
22.
oyoqv
8.
oiqtiov
23.
ovoi,
9.
opooiq
24.
oou,
10.
ovpoou,
25.
tuoyytiio
11.
opto
26.
|opiov
12.
oiqtio,
27.
ooio
13.
qtpoi
28.
opo,
14.
otioi,
29.
tvoiq
15.
lttvvq,
30.
oioooo,