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TURBOMACHINES

Dr. M. Sreekanth
Associate Professor
SMBS
VIT University, Chennai Campus
Unit-I
Energy Transfer
Turbomachine-Definition
A Turbomachine is device in which energy is
transferred either to or from a continuously flowing
fluid by the dynamic action of one or more moving
blade rows
Turbo/Turbinis is a Latin word for something that
spins or whirls around
All turbomachines essentially have a rotating blade
row, known as a rotor or an impeller, changes the
stagnation enthalpy of the fluid by doing work-
positive or negative
3
Classification of Turbomachines
Turbomachines
Direction
of Power
Power
Producing
Power
Absorbing
Flow
Direction
Axial Radial Mixed
Pressure
Change
Impulse Reaction
Type of
Fluid
Compressible
In-
compressi
ble
4
Classification (Direction of Power)
Turbomachines produce (positive) power by
reducing the pressure (head) of the fluid (e.g.
Wind, hydraulic, steam and gas turbines)
Machines absorb (negative) power by
increasing the pressure of the fluid (e.g. Fans,
compressors and pumps)
5
Classification (Pressure Change)
Impulse Machine: The pressure change takes
place outside the rotor. Most often, the pressure
change takes place in the nozzles and the high
velocity jet is directed onto the rotor blades (e.g.
Pelton turbine)
Reaction Machine: The pressure change takes
place entirely in the rotor itself (e.g. Francis,
Kaplan turbines)
6
Classification (Direction of Flow)
Axial Flow: The direction of flow is entirely or
mostly parallel to the axis of rotation (e.g. Single
stage compressor, table fan, wind mill)
Radial Flow: The direction of flow is entirely or
mostly in a plane perpendicular to the axis of
rotation (e.g. Multistage centrifugal compressor,
steam turbine)
Mixed Flow: The flow components in the radial and
axial directions are in significant amounts (e.g.
Francis , Kaplan turbines)
7
Classification (Type of Fluid)
Incompressible Fluid: The fluid flowing is
incompressible (e.g. Water). In cases where the
pressure changes are low, the fluid is treated to be
incompressible (e.g. Hydraulic turbines, pumps, fans,
low pressure blowers, wind mills)

Compressible Fluid: The fluid flowing is compressible
(e.g.. Air, gas). The pressure and temperature changes
are high. The machines dealing with such fluids are
known as Compressible Flow or Thermal
Turbomachines (e.g. centrifugal compressors)
8
Examples
9
Applications
10
Simple Turbine
11
A Simple Turbine
Exploded View
Operation of a Turbomachine
The fluid flows directly into the device axially
The stator blades turn the flow so as to align
the flow into the rotor blades
The turbine blades turn the flow in the axial
direction and turn the output shaft
12
The power extraction
arises from turning the
flow
T-S and h-S Diagrams
For Ideal and Perfect gases, the enthalpy is
dependant on the temperature. Therefore, an
expansion process can be shown as below:
13
1
2S 2
Entropy, S





T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

o
r

E
n
t
h
a
l
p
y

(
T

o
r

h
)

P=P1
P=P2
1-2S: Isentropic Expansion Process
1-2: Actual Expansion Process
P: Pressure
Fundamental Laws Applicable to
Turbomachines
Continuity Equation
1
st
Law of Thermodynamics and the Steady
Flow Energy Equation (SFEE)
Momentum Equation and
2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics

These laws are general and are applicable to
compressible as well as incompressible fluids
14
Continuity Equation
For a fluid having a density and steadily
flowing at a velocity c across an infinitesimal
cross sectional area dA, the differential mass
flow rate dm is gives as:
dm=c dA
In cases where the density and velocity are
constant across two sections 1 and 2, the
continuity equation simplifies to
cA
1
= cA
2
15
1
st
Law of Thermodynamics
(Closed System)
If a system undergoes a cycle during which it has
heat (Q) and work (W) interactions, then

If the system undergoes a process between two
states 1 and 2, then


16
( )
}
= 0 dW dQ
( )
mgz
2
1
U
Energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Internal Energy Total E
2
1 2
+ + =
+ + = =
=
}
mc
where
dW dQ E E
1
st
Law of Thermodynamics
(Open System-SFEE)
When the 1
st
law of thermodynamics is applied
to a steady flow process, the flow work is
involved. In the resulting equation, on grouping
terms u and pV, the property enthalpy is
obtained
SFEE:

17
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
(

+ + =
+ + =
1 2
2
1
2
2 1 2
2
1
m
2 and 1 points between g integratin On
z z g c c -h h W - Q
PE d KE d h d W d Q d
s
s



SFEE (a special case)
In an adiabatic process, Heat Transferred = 0
If the fluid is brought to rest, Work Done = 0
(happens in stators)
In most turbomachines, especially in non-
hydraulic machines, the affect of change in
elevation would be negligible
In such a case, the SFEE becomes


18
2
1 1 2
2
1
c h h + =
Stagnation Enthalpy (h
0
)
Stagnation Enthalpy (h
0
) is the enthalpy of a gas
or vapour when it is adiabatically decelerated to
zero velocity
Mathematically,

Remember that for hydraulic machines, the
change in internal energy is negligible and hence
the enthalpy contains only the flow work (pV)


19
2
0
2
1
c h h + =
Stagnation Temperature (T
0
)
Stagnation enthalpy is given by


From definition, h=C
p
T
Therefore

20
2
0
2
1
c h h + =
2
0
2
0
2
1
or

2
1
c
C
T T
c T C T C
p
p p
+ =
+ =
Stagnation Pressure
The pressure of a fluid which is obtained by
decelerating it in a reversible adiabatic process
to zero velocity is known as the Stagnation
Pressure
It can be calculated using the relation for
isentropic processes

21

1
0 0

|
.
|

\
|
=
T
T
P
P
SFEE (re-written)
Neglecting the change in potential energy and
conveniently using the equation for stagnation
enthalpy, the SFEE can be written as

If there is no work or heat transfer involved, the
stagnation enthalpy remains constant
For machines operating adiabatically,



22
( )
01 02
h h m W Q
s
=


( )
01 02
h h m W
s
=

Momentum Equation
The Momentum Equation relates the sum of
external forces acting on it to its acceleration
In turbomachines, it is used to calculate the
force exerted on a blade by the deflection or
acceleration of fluid passing through
In a control volume, for a mass of fluid flowing
in x direction, the Momentum Equation is

23
( )

=
1 2 x x x
c c m F

2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics
The 2
nd
Law is useful in describing ideal processes
The Clausius inequality for a cycle is

If all the processes in the cycle are reversible,


For a reversible process between two states,
Entropy is defined as

24
}
s 0
T
dQ
}
= 0
T
dQ
r
}
=
2
1
1 2
T
dQ
S S
r
2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics
If the process is adiabatic, dQ=0, hence


If the process is reversible,

For a process that is reversible and adiabatic, the
entropy remains constant (isentropic)
Most turbomachinery operate close to adiabatic
and hence isentropic compression or expansion is
the best possible process that must be achieved


25
1 2
s s >
1 2
s s =
Entropy
Entropy is a useful property to analyze
turbomachines
Any creation of entropy in a flow process
implies loss of work and hence loss of
efficiency
Some useful relations obtained by combining
1
st
and 2
nd
laws are
Tds = du + pdV
Tds = dh-vdp
26
Turbine Efficiencies
Overall Efficiency


Isentropic Efficiency


Mechanical efficiency


27
Time in Unit Fluid for the Possible Difference Energy Maximum
Time in Unit Shaft Output the of Coupling at the Available Energy Mechanical
0
= q
Time in Unit Fluid for the Possible Difference Energy Maximum
Time in Unit Rotort the to Supplied Energy Mechanical
=
t
q
t
m
q
q
q
0
=
Turbine Efficiencies
Total to Total Efficiency (q
tt
)





Total to Static Efficiency (q
st
)

28
s
tt
h h
h h
02 01
02 01

= q
s
tt
h h
h h
2 01
02 01

= q
Hydraulic Turbine
For a Hydraulic Turbine, the efficiency is defined
as the ratio of Actual Work and Maximum
Possible Work


29
( )
(

=
=
2 1
2
2
2
1 2 1
2
m
Work Actual


Work Possible Maximum
Work Actual
z z g
c c P P
h

q
Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps
The Isentropic Efficiency of a Compressor (q
c
)
or Hydraulic Efficiency of a Pump (q
h
) is


Overall Efficiency of the Compressor or Pump
(q
o
) is


30
( )
rotor the input to Power
unit time in fluid input to energy mic) (hydrodyna Useful
=
h c
orq q
shaft the of coupling the input to Power
unit time in fluid input to energy mic) (hydrodyna Useful
=
o
q
Efficiencies of Compressors and
Pumps
Compressor Efficiency is
31
01 02
01 02

input work Actual
input work (minimum) Ideal
h h
h h
s
c

=
= q
Efficiencies of Compressors and
Pumps
For a pump, the hydraulic efficiency is

32
( )
Work Actual
2
P - P
m

Supplied Work Actual
Needed Work Minimum
1 2
2
1
2
2 1 2
(

+
=
=
z z g
c c
h

Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency


(q
p
)
Compressor Polytropic Efficiency is



Turbine Polytropic Efficiency is

33
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
01
02
01
02
ln
ln
1
T
T
P
P
p

q
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
01
02
01
02
ln
ln
1
P
P
T
T
p

q
Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency
Polytropic Efficiency is useful in fairly
comparing the performance of turbomachines
having different pressure ratios
For Compressors, q
c
< q
p
For Turbines, q
t
> q
p
34
Reheat Factor
The equations for compressors and gas
turbines basing on Perfect Gas relations
cannot be used for steam turbines as steam is
not a perfect gas
The Reheat Factor is used to determine the
Polytropic Efficiency of a Steam Turbine
35
Reheat Factor
The Reheat Factor is defined by the equation
36
( ) ( )
s
is
s
ys x xs
h
h h
h
h h
h h h h
R
2 1
2 1
1

...

A
=

+ +
=

Specific Work
Specific Work is the work capacity of a
turbomachine per unit mass of the fluid
For Hydraulic machines, W = W
pr
+ W
ke
+ W
pe
Specific work is the sum of the differences in the
static, kinetic and potential energy levels
between the suction and pressure sides of a
turbomachine
For Thermal Turbomachines, the internal energy
term will appear additionally
It is measured in J/kg
37
Equation of Energy Transfer
r
1
= Radius at inlet (m)
r
2
= Radius at outlet (m)
C

= Tangential velocity of
fluid (m/s)
()= Angular velocity of
the rotor (rad/s)
= Sum of all external
moments (N-m)
m = Mass flow rate (kg/s)
38
( )
1 1 2 2 u u
t c r c r m
A
=

Eulers Work Equation (also Eulers
Turbomachinery Equation)
For a pump or a compressor, running at an
angular velocity , the rate at which rotor
does work on the fluid is


Where the blade linear velocity is U = r
The work done per unit mass or the specific
work is
39
( )
1 1 2 2 u u
e t c U c U m
A
=

( )
1 1 2 2 u u
e t
c U c U
m m
W
A c
= =

Eulers Work Equation


The equation applies to all types of
turbomachinery, pump, turbine, compressor,
axial flow, radial flow, mixed flow, power
absorbing or power producing
The equation gives negative value for a turbine
and positive value for a compressor/pump
The amount of work done or consumed depends
on the amount of turning done by the fluid,
which is governed by the blade angles

40
Eulers Pump and Turbine Equation
Eulers Pump Equation is



Eulers Turbine Equation is


41
( )
1 1 2 2 u u
e t
c U c U
m m
W
A c
= =

( )
2 2 1 1 u u
e t
c U c U
m m
W
A c
= =

Problem
In a radial inward flow turbomachine, the radii
and the tangential velocity components at the
inlet and the outlet are 150 mm and 75 mm,
and 350 m/s and 60 m/s respectively. Find the
turning moment due to a mass flow rate of 1
kg/s.

Ans: 48 N-m
42
Losses in Turbomachines
Internal Losses: Those losses that occur in the
inner passages of the turbomachine and could
be attributed to the internal flow. They cause
a rise in fluid temperature
External Losses: Occur outside the main flow
passages and normally do not add heat to the
fluid
43
Internal Losses
Hydraulic Losses: Losses due to friction,
separation of the flow on the vane, diffusion,
eddies and mixing of different energy level fluids
are included
In the context of Thermal Turbomachinery, these
losses are called as aerodynamic losses
At off-design conditions, the flow enters the
blade passages with incidence resulting in shock
loss which too is included in Hydraulic Loss
44
Internal Losses
Leakage Losses: Leakage of the fluid results in the
machine consume more power in case of power
absorbing machines (fan, pump, compressor) and
a loss in power developed in the case of a power
producing machine (turbine)
Leakage occurs as tip leakage and along the
casing from the pressure side to the suction side
of the impeller between the casing and the
impeller
45
Internal Losses
46
Leakage Losses
Internal Losses
Disc Friction Losses: When a disc is rotated in an
enclosed chamber surrounded by fluid, a resistive
torque is set up and the power consumption in
the case of a fan or pump increases in order to
overcome this resistive torque
This loss is high when the hub to tip dia ratio
(axial m/c) or outer to inner dia ratio (radial m/c)
is high
The friction is dependent on the clearance
between the casing and disc, diameter of
impeller, roughness of the disc surfaces and
viscosity and density of the fluid
47
Internal Losses
48
Disc Friction Loss
Internal Losses
Return Flow Losses: In turbomachines of the
axial flow type and more particularly in pumps
and compressors, a return flow of the energy
added fluid takes place under off design
conditions
This is severe at lesser discharges
49
Internal Losses
50
Return Flow Losses
External Losses
External losses, also known as mechanical
losses are external to medium
Mostly occur in bearings, sealings, couplings
that may be directly connected to the shaft of
the turbomachine
51
Aerofoil Blade
Aerofoil blade is a streamlined body having a
thick rounded leading edge and a thin trailing
edge
When suitably shaped and properly oriented
in the flow, the force acting normal to the flow
direction is larger than that resisting it
Aerofoil shapes are used in the blades (vanes)
of various turbomachines
52
Aerofoil Section
53
Chord: The straight line joining the centres of the curvature of the
leading and trailing edges
Camber Line: The meridian line of the section passing midway
between the upper and lower surfaces
Camber: Maximum height of the camber line above the chord line
Angle of Attack (or Incidence): The angle between the chord line and
the fluid flow
Forces on an Aerofoil
The aerodynamic force on an aerofoil can be
resolved into Lift (perpendicular to the
direction of flow) and Drag forces (in the
direction of the flow)
54
Lift and Drag Coefficients
The lift and drag forces are non-dimensionally
represented by the respective coefficients:



The lift and drag coefficients are functions of
Reynolds number and angle of attack

55
A c
D
C
A c
L
C
d l
2 2
2
1
and
2
1

= =
Variation of C
l
and C
d
with Angle of
Attack ()
When is zero, the lift will be
low
As increases, the lift
increases, upto an optimum
value
Along with lift, the drag also
increases
Beyond the optimum value of
, the drag increases rapidly
and the lift decreases
The drag is maximum when
is 90
0
56
Cascade
A cascade is a construction of an assembly of a
number of blades of a given shape and size at
the required pitch and staggering
57
Isolated Aerofoil and a Cascade
58
Isolated Aerofoil Cascade
Cascading of Turbine Blades
59
References for Unit-I
Turbines, Compressors and Fans, S.M. Yahya,
Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Ltd., 4
th

Edition, 2011
Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of
Turbomachinery, S.L. Dixon and C.A. Hall,
Butterworth-Heinemann, 6
th
Edition, 2010
Basic Concepts in Turbomachinery, Grant
Ingram, Grant Ingram & Ventus Publishing
ApS, free ebook from Bookboon.com, 2009
60
Projects in Turbomachines
Types of Projects
Make animations to demonstrate the working of
turbomachines
Make Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Calculations using software packages
Make simple working models
Develop software to carryout design and/or
performance calculations and simulations
Dismantle an existing turbomachine, explain the
function of various components and reassemble

62
Unit-2
Fans, Blowers and Compressors
Definitions
Fan: A machine imparting only a small amount of
pressure rise to a flowing gas. The gas is
practically considered to be incompressible
Blower: Similar to a fan except the flow is radial.
Slightly higher pressures compared to fan
Compressor: A substantial amount of pressure
rise occurs. For a compressor, the density ratio
across the machine is above 1.05 and pressure
ratios above 2

64
Application of Centrifugal (Radial)
Compressors
Early supercharged aircraft reciprocating
engines
Smaller Gas Turbines
Large refrigeration units
Petrochemical plants
In small turbo-prop engines
Auxiliary Power Units and Air Conditioning
Systems of air crafts
65
Centrifugal Compressor-Schematic
66
Working of a Centrifugal Compressor
The flow approaches the machine in the axial
direction
It is then turned through 90
0
and enters the impeller
The rotor increases the angular momentum of the
fluid and it exits in the radial direction into the volute
casing
In the volute casing, the cross sectional area
gradually increases, thus slowing down the fluid and
increasing the pressure
For large pressure rises, a stator is needed between
the rotor and the volute 67
Radial Compressor Impeller
68
Centrifugal Impeller
69
Detailed Schematic of a Centrifugal
Compressor
70
Detailed View
71
Function of Various Parts
Impeller: Increases the energy level of the fluid
by whirling it outwards, thereby rises the static
pressure and velocity
Diffuser: Converts the kinetic energy of the fluid
exiting the impeller to pressure energy
Scroll or Volute: Collects the flow from the
diffuser and delivers it to the outlet
In low speed compressors and where cost
matters, the volute casing follows immediately
after the impeller

72
Function of Various Parts
Hub: It is the curved surface of revolution of the
impeller a-b. It divides the flow smoothly over
the impeller surface
Shroud: It is a curved surface c-d forming the
outer boundary to the fluid. It prevents leakage
losses
Inducer: Acts as a guide vane in directing the
approaching flow (which is in axial direction) into
the impeller. It is an integral part of the impeller

73
Inlet and Exit Velocity Triangles
Backward Swept Blades
Radial Blades
Forward Swept Blades

Remember that the linear blade velocity (u) at
inlet and exit will be different due to radial
flow of the fluid
74
Velocity Triangles (No Whirl
Component)
75
In the above diagram, the tangential component (C
1
) is absent
due to no inducer
Velocity Triangles at Exit
76
Backward Swept Blade Radial Blade
Forward Swept Blade
C
2
W
2
U
2

2
C
2
=U
2
C
2
C
r2
=
W
2
W
2
U
2
C
2

2
2
C
r2
C
2
Velocity Triangles
77
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
| o o
| o
| o o
| o
u
u
Cot c u Cot c Cos c c
Sin w Sin c c
Cot c u Cot c Cos c c
Sin w Sin c c
r r
r
r r
r
= = =
= =
= = =
= =
The following Trigonometric relations can be written from the velocity
triangles at inlet and exit:
Specific Work for a Centrifugal
Compressor (General Case)
78
( )
( )
2
le, ity triang exit veloc the from Similarly
2
2
Also
gle, city trian inlet velo the From
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
w u c
u c
w u c
u c
u c u c w c u w c c
c u w c
c c c
r
r
+
=
+
=
+ = =
=
=
u
u
u u u u
u
u
Specific Work for a Centrifugal
Compressor (General Case)
79
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) s coordinate of frame relative in the fluid the of KE in the Change
2
1
and machine in the fluid the of energy l centrifuga in Change
2
1
s coordinate of frame absolute in fluid the of KE in Change
2
1
w'. ' in decrease a and u' ' and c' ' in increase of up made is work total The
2
1
2
1
2
1

2 2
: Work Specific
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1 2 2
=
=
=
+ + =
+

+
= =
w w
u u
c c
w w u u c c
w u c w u c
c u c u w
u u
Specific Work for a Centrifugal
Compressor (Special Case)
80
( )
( )
sizes. various of impellers of ability building pressure the of measure a is t Coefficien Pressure
t, Coefficien essure Pr
90 blades, Radial For
exit, at t Coefficien Flow Where,
1
1
u with above the divide and Multiply
w
0 inducers), called also vanes, guide inlet of absence (in the entry radial For
equation, s Euler' From
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
1 1 2 2
u
w
u w
u
c
Cot u
Cot
u
c
u w
Cot c u u c u
c
c u c u w
r
r
r

=
=
=
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
=
=

|
|
| |
|
|
u
u u
Pressure Coefficient Vs. Flow
Coefficient
81
( )
equation. above by the given are impeller an of
stics characteri e performanc al theoretic The
1
1
1
Also,
t, Coefficien Pressure
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
| |
| |
| |

u u
Cot
Cot
u
Cot u
u
w
u
c
u
c u
u
w
=
=

= =
= = =


>90
0

=90
0

<90
0

Stage Pressure Rise
Pressure rise in a centrifugal compressor takes
place in the Impeller, Diffuser and Volute
In the Impeller, Energy Transfer and Energy
Transformation take place
In the Diffuser and Volute, the pressure rise is
due to Energy Transformation and
deceleration of flow
82
Pressure Rise in Isentropic Process
(Case of Incompressible Fluid)
83
( )

|
| |

2
2 0
2 2
2 2
2
2 0
0
1 But
1
P
outlet, and inlet at the states stagnation For the
Constant
1
0 Process, Isentropic an For
: Relation TdS
u P
Cot -
Cot u w h
dp
vdP dh

, v dS
vdP dh TdS
= A
=
= = A =
A
= =
= = =
=
Pressure Rise in Isentropic Process
(Case of Compressible Fluid)
84
( )
(
(

=
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

= = A =

1 1
1
gas, perfect a be to fluid the Assuming
1
0 01
1
01
02
01
01
02
01 01 02 0

r p p
s
p s p
P T C
P
P
T C
T
T
T C T T C h w
Using the property relation for an Isentropic Process
Pressure Rise in Isentropic Process
(Case of Compressible Fluid)
85
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
01
2
2
0
2 2
1
01
2
2
2 2
01
02
0
2 2
2
2
1
0 01
2 2
2
2
1
1 But
1 1
1 1
1
geometry, blade and equation s Euler' from But

(
(

+ =
=
(
(

+ = =
=
(
(

| |
| |
| |
| |
T C
u
P
Cot
T C
u
Cot
P
P
P
Cot u P T C
Cot u w
p
r
p
r
r p
Enthalpy-Entropy/
Temperature-Entropy Diagram
The flow in a centrifugal compressor takes
place from the Inducer-Impeller (1-2)-Diffuser
(2-3)-Volute (3-4)
Process 1-2: Impeller: Energy transfer as well
as transformation takes place

86
( )
w h h
h h c c h h
ke h w
=
= + =
A + A =
01 02
01 02
2
1
2
2 1 2
2
1

Enthalpy-Entropy/
Temperature-Entropy Diagram
Process 2-3: Diffuser: No energy transfer takes
place




Similarly, for the volute casing (Process 3-4), no
work transfer takes place and hence h
03
=h
04
Also, P
02
>P
03
>P
04
while P
2
<P
3
<P
4
87
( )
03 02
02 03
2
2
2
3 2 3
0
2
1
0
0
h h
h h
c c h h
ke h
=
=
+ =
A + A =
Actual Energy Transfer
88
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1 01
2
2 02
2
2 2 02
2
1 1 01
2
1
2
1 1
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 01
2
2 02
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2 01 02
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
system relative in the inlet at enthalpy Stagnation
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
terms, grouping On
2
1
2
1
2
1
u h u h
w h h
w h h
u w h u w h
u u w w c h c h
w w u u c c h h w
rel rel
rel
rel
a
=
+ =
+ = =
+ = +
= +
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

+ + = =
Stage Efficiency
89
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
(

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
= =
=
=
= =
=
=

1
1 work, Ideal
1 gas, Perfect a For
entry radial for , 1
But
work Actual
work Ideal
1
0 01
01
04
01 01 04 01 04
2 2
2
2 01 04
2 2
2
2
01 04
04 03 02
01 02

| |
| |
q
r p
s
p s p s s
p a
a
a
a
s
st
P T C
T
T
T C T T C h h w
Cot u T T C w
Cot u
h h w
h h h
h h w
w
w
Stage Efficiency
90
( )
( )
( )
1
01
2
2
2 2 r0
2 2
2
2
1
0 01
01 04
01 04
01
04
01
04
0
1 1 P
, Efficiency Stage for equation above the From
1
1

(
(

+ =

= =
~ =

| | q
| |
q
T C
u
Cot
Cot u
P T C
h h
h h
w
w
P
P
P
P
P
p
st
r p
s
a
s
st
s
r
Degree of Reaction (R)
It is a measure of the fraction of the pressure rise in the
impeller and that in the stator

91
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2 2 01 02
1
1 1 2 2 01 02
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2 1 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2 01 02
01 02
1 2
2
2
1
2
1
0 inlet, at swirl no For
Also,
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
stage in the enthalpy stagnation in Change
impeller in the enthalpy static in Change
u u
u
u u
c u
u w w u
c u
w w u u
R
c u h h
c
c u c u h h w
w w u u h h
w w u u c c h h w
h h
h h
R

a
a
+
=
+
=
=
=
= =
+ =
+ + = =

= =
Inlet Velocity Triangle (for no swirl)
92
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
constant, remains velocity radial the If
r r
r
c c
c c u w
=
= =
u
1
w
1
c
1
=c
r1
=c
r2
Exit Velocity Triangle
93
C
2
W
2

2
C
r2
C
2
u
2
( )
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
r
r
r
c c c u w u
c c u - u c
c u c w
=
+ + =
+ =
u
u
u
Degree of Reaction
94
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1

2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
But
2
1
2
2
| |
|
|
|
| |
|
u
u
u
u u
Cot
u
Cot c
R
u
Cot c
u
Cot c
u
Cot c u u
u
Cot c u
R
Cot c u c
u
c
c u
c c c c u
R
r
r
r
r r
r
r r
+ = + =
+ =
+ =
+
=

=
=
=
+
=
Slip Factor
The actual relative velocity at which the fluid
leaves the vane is different from the
theoretical relative velocity, due to eddies
This difference is more for larger blade pitch
or smaller impeller blades
This results in a reduction of whirl component
(tangential) at exit which results in reduction
of energy transfer
95
Slip Factor
96
c
s
Vane
w'
2
c'
2
u
c
2
w
2
c
2
c'
2
( )
2
'
2 2
2
'
2
1 velocity, Slip
Factor, Slip
u u u
u
u

c c c c
c
c
s
= =
=
Influence of Slip Factor
97
( )
2 2
2
2 2 2
1 | |
u
Cot u c u w = =
( )
( )
( )
1
01
2
2
2 2 r0
2 2
2
2
1
0 01
1 1 P
1
1

(
(

+ =

| | q
| |
q
T C
u
Cot
Cot u
P T C
p
st
r p
st
Problem-1
Determine the pressure ratio developed and the
power required to drive a centrifugal
compressor (impeller dia=45 cm) running at
7200 rpm. Take zero swirl at the entry and
T
01
=288 K. Assume isentropic flow and radially
tipped impeller.
Repeat the problem for a stage efficiency of 0.82
and a slip factor of 0.8.
98
Problem-2
Air at a stagnation temperature of 22
0
C enters the
impeller of a centrifugal compressor in the radial
direction. The rotor, which has 17 radial vanes,
rotates at 15,000 rpm. The stagnation pressure
ratio between the diffuser outlet and impeller inlet
is 4.2 and the overall efficiency is 83%. Determine
the impeller tip radius and power required to drive
the compressor when the mass flow rate is 2 kg/s
and the mechanical efficiency is 97%. The slip factor
is given as =1-1/Z where Z is the number of vanes.
99
Axial Compressor-Applications
Suitable for multiple stage compression due to
better control of pressure rise per stage
Industrial applications
Gas turbine applications in power plants and
aircrafts

100
Blade Arrangement and Pressure and
Velocity Variation
101
Shaft Axis
Pressure
Velocity
Velocity Triangles
102
x: Axial Direction
y: Tangential Direction
Note that u
1
=u
2
=u
Trigonometric Relations from the
Velocity Triangles
103
( )
1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
tan tan
sin sin
tan sin
tan sin
cos cos
| o
| o
| |
o o
| o
+ =
+ =
+ =
= =
= =
= =
x
y y
x y
x y
x
c u
w c u
w c u
c w w
c c c
w c c
( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
tan tan
sin sin
tan sin
tan sin
cos cos
| o
| o
| |
o o
| o
+ =
+ =
+ =
= =
= =
= =
x
y y
x y
x y
x
c u
w c u
w c u
c w w
c c c
w c c
Inlet Triangle Outlet Triangle
Trigonometric Relations from the
Triangles
104
( ) ( )
row blade rotor across component swirl in change
the to al proportion is equation above The
tan tan tan tan
tan tan tan tan
1
stage, hrough the constant t remains velocity axial the If
2 1 1 2
2 1 1 2
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
3 2 1
| | o o
| o | o
|
=
=
+ = = +
+ = + = =
= = =
x x
y y y y
y y y y
x
x x x x
c c
w w c c
w c u w c
c
u
c c c c
Specific Work
105
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2 1 1 2
1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
2
1
2
1
But
2
1
2
1
2
1
have we Also,
tan tan tan tan
, triangles the of ratios tric trigonome the From
w w c c w
u u
w w u u c c w
uc uc w
c c u c u c u c u c u w
x x
y y y y
+ =
=
+ + =
= =
= = =
| | o o
u u
Blade Loading and Flow Coefficients
106
( ) ( )
2 1 1 2
1 2
2
tan - tan tan - tan
ratios, tric trigonome and equation s Euler' the Using
t Coefficien Flow
t), Coefficien (Pressure t Coefficien Loading Blade
| | | o o |

= =
=
=
=
u
c
u
c
u
c
u
w
y y
x
Stage Pressure Rise
107
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
W - Also,
s) assumption usual (with the KE h -W
PE KE h W - Q
law, 1st the From
1
c) (Isentropi 0
flow. ible Incompress
and Velocity Axial Constant , Isentropic : s Assumption
: 2) - (1 Rotor the across Rise Pressure
w w u u c c
dP vdP dh
dS
dh-vdP TdS
+ + =
A + A =
A + A + A =
= =
=
=

Stage Pressure Rise


108
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1 2
2
2
2
1
2 1
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
x x y y y x y x
rotor
c c w w w c w c w w
w w P
P P
w w
u u u
c c
P P
w w u u c c
KE h w w u u c c
= = + =
= A

=
= =
+

= + +
A + A = + +

Stage Pressure Rise


109
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
2
2
1 1
1
1
1
1
tan tan
2
1
tan tan tan tan
tan tan Also
tan tan
| |
| | | |
| |
| |
= A
= =
= = =
= = =
x rotor
x x x
x y
x
y
x
y
x y
x
y
x
y
c P
c c c w w
c w
c
w
c
w
c w
c
w
c
w
Stage Pressure Rise
110
( )
( )
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2 3
2
1
2
1
0
But
0 reasons, standard to Due
: law 1st The
: 3) - (2 Diffuser in the Rise Pressure
c c P
c c
P P
KE

P

P
h

dP
dh
KE h
PE KE h Q-W
diffuser
= A
=

= +
= =
= A +
A + A + =

Stage Pressure Rise


111
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
2 2
3 1
3
2
2
2 2
3
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
3 2
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
tan tan
2
1
If
tan tan
2
1
tan and But tan
2
1
But
and
triangles, velocity the From
o o
o o
o o
o o

= A
=
= A
= =
= A
=
= =
+ = + =
x diffuser
x diffuser
x
y
x
y
y y diffuser
y y
x x x
y x y x
c P
c P
c
c
c
c
c c P
c c c c
c c c
c c c c c c
Stage Pressure Rise
112
( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )
1 2
2 1
1 2 2 1 2 1
2 1 1 2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2 2
tan tan
tan tan
equations, previous using on manipulati On
tan tan tan tan tan tan
2
1
equations previous from tan tan tan tan But
tan tan tan tan
2
1

- u c P
Also
u c P
c c c P
- -
c
P P P
x stage
x stage
x x x stage
x
diffuser rotor stage

| |
o o | | | |
| |
o o | |
= A
= A
+ + + = A
=
+ =
A + A = A
Enthalpy-Entropy Diagram
Process 1-2s-3s is the isentropic process
Process 1-2-3 is the actual process
Process 1-2 takes place in the rotor
Process 2-3 takes place in the diffuser
h
02
=h
03
113
Efficiencies
114
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
Yahya. Refer velocity. axial
constant and flow ible incompress like cases special for also and
equations known using by rise pressure and efficiency
t, coefficien loading between obtained be can relations More
2
1
2
1
Also,
tan tan tan tan
triangles, velocity From
Work Actual equation, s Euler' From
h h and h h
done. work no is there diffuser) (in the 3 and 2 states Between
Work Actual
Work Ideal
, Efficiency Total to Total
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2 01 03
2 1 1 2 1 2 01 03
1 2 01 03
01 03
01 03
01 03
01 03
01 03
01 03
tt
03 02 03s 02s
01 02
01 02
tt
w w c c -h h
uc uc c c u -h h
c c u -h h
T T
T T
T T c
T T c
h h
h h
h h
h h
x x y y
y y
s
p
s p
s
s
+ =
= = =
= =

=
= =

= =
| | o o
q
q
Degree of Reaction
115
( )
2 1
3 1
1 3
1 2
1 3
1 2
1 3
1 2
tan tan
2
1
2
1
R
velocity axial constant
and ) c (c outlet and inlet at s velocitie absolute equal For
stage in change enthalpy Actual
rotor in change enthalpy Actual
R process, actual For
changes pressure small for
stage in change enthalpy Isentropic
rotor in change enthalpy Isentropic
R process, reversible For
| o
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

= =

=
=
u
c
h h
h h
P P
P P
h h
h h
x
s
s
Low Reaction
A low reaction stage has a lesser pressure rise
in the rotor compared to the diffuser
This happens when
1
>
2
w
y1
<c
y2

In a low reaction stage, the diffuser is
burdened by a large pressure rise and hence
not desirable for higher efficiencies
116
Fifty Per Cent Reaction
To reduce the burden of pressure rise in a blade
row, the reaction is equally divided between the
rotor and diffuser
h
2
-h
1
=h
3
-h
2
=0.5(h
3
-h
1
)
R=0.5,
1
=
2

This results in symmetric velocity triangles at the
inlet and outlet of the rotor
c
1
=w
2
; c
2
=w
1
c
y1
=w
y2
; c
y2
=w
y1
117
High Reaction
The pressure rise in the rotor is greater than in
the diffuser
R>0.5

1
<
2

w
y1
>c
y2

118
Work Done Factor
As the flow progresses through the axial
compressor, the boundary layer becomes
thicker
This means larger variation between the
maximum and mean velocity



If
1
,
1
and u are fixed, the work depends
only on c
x
119
( )
( ) ( ) | |
( )
( ) | |
2 1
1 1
2 1 1 1
2 1
tan tan
tan tan But
tan tan tan tan
tan tan
c u u w
c u
c c u
uc w
x
x
x x
x
+ =
+ =
+ + =
= | |
Workdone Factor
120
Variation of Velocity Profile in an Axial Compressor
Work Done Factor
The work capacity reduces in the central
region and increases in the hub and tip region
Due to losses, the net result is a reduction of
work than that given by Eulers equation
121
( )
1 2
01 03
Work s Euler'
Work Actual
Factor, Workdone
y y
c c u
h h

= = O
Stall
It is a local disruption of flow within a
compressor
The effectiveness of the compressor
diminishes
It is caused by flow separation on the rotor
blade due to change in the angle of attack
The resultant stagnant pockets of air rotate
around the circumference of the compressor
rather than move in the axial direction
122
Formation of Stall
123
Surge
Surge is the complete breakdown of
compression resulting in reversal of flow
It is due to the compressors inability to
continue working against already compressed
air
The situation will get rectified when the
engine pressure ratio reduces to a
manageable level
124
References for Unit-2
Turbines, Compressors and Fans, S.M. Yahya,
Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Ltd., 4
th

Edition, 2011
Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of
Turbomachinery, S.L. Dixon and C.A. Hall,
Butterworth-Heinemann, 6
th
Edition, 2010
125
Unit-3
Steam and Gas Turbines
Turbines
Work producing machine
Axial/Radial/Impulse/Reaction turbines
Works under a favourable pressure gradient
Has to handle hot fluids unlike compressors
Axial Turbines are used extensively in power
generation involving steam and gas turbines
Radial Turbines are used in turbochargers,
auxiliary power units of air crafts and small scale
power generation in space

127
Axial Turbine
128
Axial Turbine Stage
An axial turbine stage comprises of a row of
nozzles (stator) and a row of moving blades
(rotor)
The nozzle receives the fluid and accelerates it
towards the rotor blades
After transferring a part of its energy to the
rotor, the fluid leaves the rotor blades towards
the next stage
129
Axial Turbine Stage
130
Axis
Net flow
direction
Velocity Triangles
131
Note: All angles
measured from
the axial direction
Trigonometric Relations
132
u w u w c c
w c c
y y
x
+ = + = =
= =
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
sin sin
cos cos
| o
| o
u w u w c c
w c c
y y
x
= = =
= =
3 3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3
sin sin
cos cos
| o
| o
Inlet Triangle Outlet Triangle
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
cos
sin
cos 90 sin sin
ngle, inlet tria the From
|
| o
| | | o

=
=
+
=

c
u
c c u
( ) ( )
3 2
3 3 2 2
3 3 2 2
3 3 2 2 3 2

sin sin
sin sin
sin sin
y y
y y
w w
w w
u w u w
c c c c
+ =
+ =
+ + =
+ = + o o
Case of Constant Axial Velocity
133
3 2 3 2
3 2
3 3 3 3 2 2
2 2 1 1
3 2 1
tan tan tan tan
since Also,
cos cos cos
cos cos
equal, are s velocitie axial the If
| | o o + = +
=
= = =
= =
= = =
u u
w c w
c c c
c c c c
x
x x x x
Work
134
( ) | | ( )
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ = =
=
u
c
u
u
c
u w
c
u
c
u
c
u
c c u c c u w
y
c
y
y y
y y y y
y
2 sin
0 discharge, axial For
w Also,
2
2
2
2
0
3
3 2
2
3 2 3 2
3
o
Blade Loading and Flow Coefficients
135
( )
( ) ( )
3 2 3 2
3 2
3 2
2
3 2
2
2
tan tan tan tan
tan tan
t, Coefficien Flow
t, Coefficien Loading
| | | o o |
o o
|
+ = + =
+ =
+ =
+
= =
=
=
u
c
u
c
u
c
u
c
u
c c u
u
w

u
c
u
w

x x
y y y y
x
Blade Efficiency (q
b
)or
Blade Utilization Factor (c)
136
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
3 2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2 3 3 2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
blades the to Supplied Energy
Work Blade Rotor
w w c
w w c c
u u u
w w u u c
w w u u c c
w w u u c e
w w u u c c c u c u w
e
w
b
b
i
y y
i
b
+
+
= =
= =
+ +
+ +
= =
+ + =
+ + = =
= = =
c q
c q
c q

Remember that blade efficiency is different from stage efficiency


Single Impulse Stage
137
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
3 2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
3 2
3 2 3 2
3 2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2 3 3 2 2
2
1
and With
friction, of absence In the
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
blades the to Supplied Energy
Work Blade Rotor
c
c c u
w w c
w w c c
w w c c c
w w
w w c
w w c c
w w u u c e
w w u u c c c u c u w
e
w
y y
x x x
i
y y
i
b
+
=
+
+
=
=
= = =
=
+
+
=
+ + =
+ + = =
= = =
c
| |
c
c q
Single Impulse Stage
138
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2 2
3 2 3 2
3 3 2 2 3 2
sin 4
ratio speed gas to Blade
sin 4
sin sin But
sin 4

sin sin But
o o o c
o
o
c
o |
|
c
| |
| |
=
= =

=
=
=
= =
+ = +
c
u
c
u c u
u c w
c
uw
and w w
w w c c
y y

Optimum Blade to Gas Speed Ratio


(o
opt
)
139
( ) | |
angle exit nozzle by the fixed are angles blade rotor
the factor, n utilizatio blade maximum For
tan
2
1
tan tan
get can we Also,
sin
, for equation in the on substituti On
2
sin
0 2 sin
0 sin 4
d
d
0
d
d
, maximum For
2 3 2
2
2
max
2
2
2
2
2

= =
=
= =
=
=
=
o | |
o c
c
o
o
o o
o o o
o
o
c
c
c
u
opt
2
opt
y3
2u w Also,
0. c shown that be can it
condition, optimum obtained for the Also,
=
=
Compounding of Turbines
Necessary when there is high pressure drop
available
To avoid high peripheral rotor speed which
could cause high rotational stresses
Done in two ways-Velocity Compounding and
Pressure Compounding
140
Velocity Compounding
141
Nozzle Rotor-1 Fixed blade Rotor-2
Velocity
Pressure
Velocity Triangles-Velocity Compounding
142
Work Done
143
( ) | |
2
2
max
2 opt
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
t
max
2 2
t
2
i
th
'
3
'
2 2 3 3 2
'
3
'
2
'
2 3 3 2
sin
sin
2
1
stages, n For
4 4
2
1
w
Factor, on Utilizati Blade
2 w stages, n in work Total
1 2 2 w stage, i in done Work
;
blades over the flow ss Frictionle 2.
; ;
blades guide and rotor through flow r Equiangula 1. : s Assumption
n stages of Number
o c
o o
o c
| | o o | |
=
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
=
+ =
= = =
= = =
=
n
n
c
u
n
c
u n
u i n
w w c ; c w w
'
Pressure Compounding
144
Nozzle-1 Rotor-1 Nozzle-2 Rotor-2
Velocity
Pressure
Velocity Triangles-Pressure Compounding
145
Reaction Stages
146
Fixed-1 Rotor-1 Fixed-2 Rotor-2
Velocity
Pressure
Enthalpy-Entropy Diagram
Process 1-2: Nozzle
Process 2-3: Turbine
h
01
=h
02
w
s
=h
01
-h
03s
=C
p
(T
01
-T
03s
)
w
a
=h
01
-h
03
=C
p
(T
01
-T
03
)
147
Degree of Reaction
148
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 3
2 3
2 3 2 3
3 2
2
2
2
3
3 1
3 2
3 1
3 2
3 1
3 2
tan tan
2
1
tan tan
2 2
1

tan tan
2
tan tan
2
2 stage in change enthalpy Actual
rotor in change enthalpy Actual
stage in change enthalpy Isentropic
rotor in change enthalpy Isentropic
o o
o |
| |
|
| |
+ =
+ =
= =
+

= =

= =
u
c
u
c
u
c
R
c c u
w w
h h
h h
R
P P
P P
h h
h h
R
x
x
x
y y
s
s s
s
Zero Degree Reaction Stages
No useful pressure drop in the rotor
This is the case for an impulse turbine
149
50% Reaction Stages
R=0.5
h
1
-h
2
=h
2
-h
3
=0.5(h
1
-h
3
)
The inlet and outlet velocity triangles at the
rotor will be symmetric

150
3 2
2 3
3 2
c w
c w
=
=
=o |
100% Reaction Stages
Entire enthalpy drop in the rotor
R=1
h
1
=h
2
c
2
=c
3

2
=
3
Rotor blades are highly staggered
151
Negative Reaction
Undesirable, implies that there is diffusion in
the rotor
h
3
>h
2
w
3
<w
2

2
>
3
152
Problem-1
One stage of an impulse turbine consists of a ring of
converging nozzles and one ring of moving blades. The
nozzles are inclined at 22
0
to the direction of blade
movement, whose tip angles are both 35
0
. (i) If steam
velocity from exit of nozzle is 660 m/s, find blade
speed which ensures steam inlet without shock. (ii)
Find the blade efficiency. (iii) If the relative velocity of
steam with respect to blade at the outlet is reduced by
15%, find the blade efficiency. (iv) If power developed
is 1700 kW, what is the steam flow rate? All angles are
measured with respect to blade speed.
153
Problem-2
A velocity compounded turbine has two rows of
symmetrical moving and guide vanes. There is
no friction. The nozzle issues steam at a velocity
of 750 m/s, at an angle of 15
0
to the whirl
direction. The blade speed is 150 m/s. find the
specific work transfer and velocity of steam
leaving the turbine.
154
Inward Flow Radial Turbine (IFR)
Commonly used in hydraulic turbines (Francis
Turbine) for large power generation
Also used in closed cycle gas turbines for low
power generation in space
They can employ high pressure ratio (~4) per
stage with low flow rates
Variable nozzle angles can give higher stage
efficiencies even at off design conditions

155
Radial Turbine Stage
High pressure fluid on entering the turbine
through a duct, a volute casing distributes it
around the nozzle ring or rotor blades
In some cases, the nozzles may be absent and
hence the flow acceleration is carried out in the
volute itself
The rotor transfers the energy in the fluid to the
shaft
If the energy of the exiting fluid is high, the fluid
is passed through an exhaust diffuser to recover
some energy

156
Types of IFR Turbines
Radial turbines are designed in order to provide
a large amount of tangential component of fluid
velocity at the entry and almost nothing at the
outlet (work=u
1
c
1
-u
2
c
2
)

Cantilever Turbine
90
0
IFR Turbine
157
Cantilever Turbine
The blades are limited to the rotor tip
extending in the axial direction
The flow leaving the rotor blades has to turn
in the axial direction to exit from the turbine
158
Cantilever Turbine
159
90
0
IFR Turbine
Preferred to cantilever turbine due to better
structural strength
The thin blades extend from a purely radial
direction at the entry to the axial section of the
rotor
The rotor vanes extend radially inward and turn
the flow into axial direction
The exit part of the vanes, called exducer is used
to remove the tangential component of the
velocity

160
90
0
IFR Turbine
161
Enthalpy-Entropy Diagram
162
( ) ( ) ( )
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
03 02
02 01
2
1
2
1
2
1

work, Actual
u u w w c c w
h h w
h h
a
a
+ + =
=
=
Degree of Reaction
163
( )
( ) ( )
loaded) (uniformly 1 0.5 R stage, reaction 50% For
loaded) (highly 2 0 R stage, impulse an For
2
1
2
1
cot 1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
velocity, radial constant For
2
1
stage in the drop enthalpy stagnation
rotor in the drop enthalpy Static
R Reaction, of Degree
2 2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2 2
2
2
3 2
2 2
2
3
2
2
03 01
3 2
03 01
3 2
= =
= =
+
=
= = =
=

=
=

| |
u
u
u
c u
w w u u
R
u
c
R
c c
c u
c c
T T
T T
h h
h h
R
r r
Steam Turbine Governing
Governing is necessary to maintain a constant
speed of the turbine irrespective of the load.

Power=mAh

Throttle Governing
Nozzle Governing and
By-Pass Governing
164
Throttle Governing
The pressure of steam is decreased by
throttling it to a lower pressure but at the
same enthalpy
165
Nozzle Governing
Mass flow rate of steam is controlled by this
method
166
By-Pass Governing
Steam necessary for normal loads passes
through the main throttle valve
Additional steam when needed for extra load
is sent through By-Pass valve
167
By-Pass Governing
168
Gas vs Steam Turbines
Gas Turbine
Weight per unit power
low
Short start up time
Compact
Low initial and
maintenance cost
Lower Efficiency
Simple operation
Suitable for peak loads
Steam Turbine
Weight per unit power
high
Longer startup time
Large space needed
Higher initial and
maintenance cost
Higher efficiency
Complex operation
Suitable for base load
169
References for Unit-3
Turbines, Compressors and Fans, S.M. Yahya,
Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Ltd., 4
th

Edition, 2011
Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of
Turbomachinery, S.L. Dixon and C.A. Hall,
Butterworth-Heinemann, 6
th
Edition, 2010
170
Unit-4
Hydraulic Pumps
Types of Pumps
Rotodynamic Pumps: Impart momentum to
the fluid by a rotating impeller
Reciprocating Positive Displacement Pumps:
They trap the liquid in a cylinder by suction
and push it against pressure
Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps:
Principle same as reciprocating pump but
carried out by rotating elements
172
Features of Various Pumps
Reciprocating pumps have low speeds, handle
low volumes and have high delivery pressures
Rotary positive displacement pumps have low
speeds, handle low volumes and have low
delivery pressures. Used where reciprocating
motion needs to be avoided
Rotodynamic pumps can handle large volumes of
flow and operate at high speeds and have low
delivery pressures. They can handle corrosive
fluids and also slurries. They are most commonly
used
173
Centrifugal Pumps
174
Volute Casing
Impeller
Vane
Major Components of a Centrifugal
Pump
Impeller: This is the rotating part which raises
liquids from a lower level to a higher level by
imparting the required pressure by the help of
centrifugal action
Casing: It is an air tight chamber surrounding
the pump impeller. It guides the liquid to and
from the impeller and partially converts the
kinetic energy into pressure energy at the exit
of impeller

175
Major Components of a Centrifugal
Pump
Suction Pipe: This pipe connects the eye of
the impeller to the water in the sump. At its
lower end, the pipe is provided with a strainer
to prevent the entry of any debris and a foot
valve
Delivery Pipe: Connects the outlet of the
pump to the height where the liquid needs to
be discharged
176
Types of Casings
Volute Casing: The area of the flow gradually
increases from the impeller outlet to the delivery
pipe thereby reducing the velocity of flow and
increasing the discharge pressure
Vortex Casing: An annular space is provided
between the impeller and the volute chamber. It
is used to arrest the formation of eddies
Casing with Guide Vanes: The impeller is
surrounded by stationary guide vanes mounted
on a ring called as a diffuser. The diffuser
increases the delivery pressure
177
Work Done in a Centrifugal Pump
178
2 2
1
1 1 2 2
0
radial. is entry the
sfer, work tran maximum For
: Equation s Euler'


c u w
c
c -u c u w
=
=
=
Various Heads in a Centrifugal Pump
Suction Head (h
s
): It is the vertical height
between the central axis of the pump and the
water surface in the sump
Delivery Head (h
d
): The vertical distance
between the centre axis of the pump and
point of discharge
Static Head (H
s
): The sum of suction and
delivery head (H
s
=h
s
+h
d
)
179
Various Heads in a Centrifugal Pump
Manometric Head (H
m
): It is the head against
which the pump has to work to deliver the
liquid
180
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
=
+ + + = + + =
=
1
2
1 1
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
Head Friction
pump in head of loss
z
g
c
g
P
z
g
c
g
P
H
h
h h h h h h h H
g
c u
H
m
f
fd fs d s f d s m
m

u
Efficiencies in a Centrifugal Pump
181
Shaft
Impeller
Delivery
q
mechanical
q
mamometric
q
overall
Efficiencies in a Centrifugal Pump
Manometric Efficiency (q
man
): It is the ratio of
the manometric head to the ideal head (head
imparted to water by the impeller)
182
2 2
2 2
m
c u
g
c u
H

water o impeller t by imparted Head
Head Manometric
u
u
q
m
man
gH
= =
=
Efficiencies in a Centrifugal Pump
Mechanical Efficiency (q
m
): It is the ratio of
the power available at the impeller to the
power at the shaft of the pump
183
rate flow Mass
shaft at the Power

shaft at the Power
impeller at the Power
2 2
=
=
=
m
c u m

m

q
Efficiencies in a Centrifugal Pump
Overall Efficiency (q
o
): It is the ratio of the
power output of the pump to the power input
to the pump
184
m man
m
o
gH m
q q
q
=
=
=

Power Shaft

Power Shaft
lifted water of Weight

Priming of Centrifugal Pump


Priming is an operation in which the suction
pipe, pump casing and part of the delivery
pipe are filled with the liquid to be pumped
This is done to remove air
Presence of air decreases the suction head
developed by the impeller and the liquid may
not rise
185
Minimum Starting Speed
A centrifugal pump will start delivering liquid
only if the head developed by the impeller is
greater than the manometric head (H
m
)
If the head is less than H
m
, no discharge takes
place even if the impeller is rotating
When the impeller is rotating, the liquid in
contact with the impeller also rotates causing
a forced vortex, where the head rises
186
Minimum Starting Speed
187
( )
2
1
2
2
2 2 m
2 2
m
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
120
speed, starting minimum The
and
60
u ,
60
u
ng Substituti
2g 2g
u
place take to discharge For
2g 2g
u
2g
r
2g
r
head impeller in Increase
D D
D c
N
c u
gH N D N D
H
u
u
m
m

=
= = =
>
= =
t
q
q
t t
e e
u
u
Specific Speed (N
s
)
The specific speed of a centrifugal pump is
defined as the speed of a geometrically similar
pump which delivers a discharge of 1 m
3
per
second against a head of 1m
Specific speed is used to compare the
performance of similar pumps having different
sizes
To choose among different pumps, the one with
highest specific speed is a good choice as it works
at high speed and has compact size
188
4 / 3
m
s
H
Q N
N =
Multistage Centrifugal Pumps
A multistage centrifugal pump has two or
more identical impellers mounted on the
same shaft or different shafts
It is used to produce greater heads with
constant discharge (series) or greater
discharges with a constant head (parallel)
189
Cavitation
It is a phenomenon of formation of vapour
bubbles where the liquid pressure drops
below the vapour pressure
These bubbles travel along with the fluid and
in regions of high pressure, they collapse
Collapsing bubbles cause rise in pressure and
metal surfaces close to this undergo pitting
Also, there could be noise and vibration due to
collapsing bubbles
190
Prevention of Cavitation
Cavitation can occur at the inlet of the impeller of
the pump or on the suction side
To prevent cavitation, the pressure of the liquid in
any part of the pump system must not fall below
its vapour pressure
For water, the pressure must not drop below 2.5
m of water column (0.25 bar)
Certain metals such as steel, bronze and
aluminium are more resistant to pitting action
and such coatings are used in pump manufacture
191
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
NPSH is the minimum head required at the
inlet to the pump to prevent occurrence of
cavitation

192
g
c
h h
g
p
g
p
NPSH
g
c
h h
g
p
g
p
g
p
g
p
NPSH
i
fs s
v a
i
fs s
a i
v i
2
2
2
2
=
=
=



Centrifugal Pump Characteristics
The performance of a centrifugal pump is
studied using
Main Characteristic Curves
Operating Characteristic Curves and
Constant Efficiency Curves (Muschel Curves)
193
Main Characteristic Curves

These curves consist of variation of delivery
head, power and discharge with speed

194
Discharge
Speed
Power
Head
P, H, Q
Operating Characteristic Curves
They are obtained by plotting variation of
manometric head, power and efficiency with
respect to discharge at a constant speed
195
Observations
Input power curve does not pass through
origin even for zero discharge as some power
is needed to overcome losses
The maximum value of head (called shut-off
head) is obtained when discharge is zero
The efficiency is zero when discharge is zero
The output is zero when the discharge is zero
196
Constant Efficiency Curves
They are obtained from the operating
characteristic curves (q vs. Q and h vs. Q)
They depict the operation of the pump over
its entire range of operation
197
Axial Flow Pumps
Axial pumps are used where the head to be
developed is low and the flow rate large
Commonly used to handle sewage from
commercial, municipal and industrial sources
Used in power plants to pump water from
reservoir to a refrigeration line
Used in chemical industry to circulate large
masses of liquid in evaporators and crystallizers
Also used in sewage treatment
198
Schematic of Axial Flow Pump
199
Features of an Axial Flow Pump
Flow is purely axial and the axial velocity is
constant
Guide vanes are placed behind the impeller to
guide the flow in axial direction without whirl
Twisted blades or aerofoil sections are used
for blades
In some models, the pitch of the blades can be
varied to operate at high efficiency even at
off-design conditions
200
Velocity Triangles
201
( ) ( )
g
w w
g
c c
2 2 g
c u
Developed Head
c u d Transferre Work
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2 2 2
2 2

= =
=
u
u
Vibration and Noise in pumps
Vibration and noise during pump operation
could be due to:
Cavitation
Misalignment of pump shaft
Worn out bearings
Improper foundation

202
Problem-1
A centrifugal pump is running at 900 rpm. The
internal and external diameters of the impeller
are 25 cm and 50 cm and the vane angles at
inlet and outlet are 30
0
and 40
0
respectively. The
water enters the impeller radially and velocity of
flow is constant. Find the work done by the
impeller per kg of water.
203
Problem-2
The inlet and outlet diameters of the impeller of
a centrifugal pump are 25 cm and 50 cm
respectively. The velocity of flow at outlet is 2.5
m/s and the vanes are set back at an angle of
45
0
at the outlet. Find the minimum starting
speed of the pump if the manometric efficiency
is 0.8.
204
Problem-3
A single stage centrifugal pump with impeller
diameter of 25 cm rotates at 2000 rpm and lifts
2.5 m
3
/s to a height of 25 m. The manometric
efficiency is 75%. Find the number of stages of a
similar multistage pump to lift 5 m
3
/s to a height
of 200 m while rotating at 1500 rpm.
205
Problem-4
A centrifugal pump draws water through a 15 m
long and 150 mm dia suction pipe. The
maximum pumping capacity is 75 l/s. Determine
the static suction. Assume the maximum
vacuum as 5.5 m of water. Take loss in bend as 8
cm of water and coefficient of friction f=0.006.
206
Problem-5
A four stage centrifugal pump in series has
impellers of diameter 30 cm and width 2 cm at
the outlet. The vanes are curved back at the
outlet at 45
0
. The overall efficiency is 80% and
the manometric efficiency is 90%. What is the
head generated by the pump when the speed is
800 rpm and discharge is 50 l/s. Find the shaft
power. Assume equal pressure rise distribution
in each impeller.
207
References for Unit-4
Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, B.C.S. Rao,
Mc. Graw Hill, 2
nd
Edition
Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power Engineering,
D.S. Kumar, S.K. Kataria and Sons, 7
th
Edition
208
Unit-5
Hydraulic Turbines
Hydraulic Turbines
Turbines which convert the power stored in the water
of a reservoir to shaft power are known as Hydraulic
Turbines
Hydraulic turbine is a part of hydro electric power plant
which comprises of
A dam constructed across a river
A conveyance system to carry water to a temporary
storage system called Forebay
Large diameter high pressure pipes called Penstocks to
convey water from the Forebay to the turbine
A power house that houses the turbine and a
generator and
A tail race to collect water exiting the turbine
210
Schematic of a Hydro-Electric
Power Plant
211
Classification of Hydraulic Turbines
Based on location of pressure drop:
Impulse Turbine: Entire pressure drops outside
the turbine
Reaction Turbine: Entire Pressure drops in the
turbine
Based on Gross Head available:
High Head (H>250 m)
Medium Head (60m<H<250 m)
Low Head (H<60 m)
212
Classification of Hydraulic Turbines
Based on the Direction of Flow:
Axial flow
Radial Flow
Tangential Flow
Mixed Flow
Based on Specific Speed:
Low Specific Speed (N
s
: 8.5-50)
Medium Specific Speed (N
s
: 51-255)
High Specific Speed (N
s
: 255-860)

213
Heads Involved
Gross Head: The difference in water levels
between the reservoir on the upstream and
the tail race is known as the Gross Head
Net Head: The head actually available at the
inlet to the turbines is known as the Net Head
The difference between gross and net heads is
the loss due to friction and other fittings
214
Efficiencies
215
turbine the of inlet at the supplied Power
turbine the of shaft at the Power
, Efficiency Overall
turbine the to supplied water of Volume
turbine the striking actually water of Volume
, Efficiency Volumetric
turbine the to delivered Power
turbine the of shaft at the Power
, efficiency Mechanical
turbine inlet to at available Power
turbine the to delivered Power
, Efficiency Hydraulic
o
v
m
h
=
=
=
=
q
q
q
q
Pelton Wheel
In a Pelton wheel the water from upstream
reservoir flows through the penstock at the
end of which a nozzle is fitted
Water in the form of high velocity jet strikes
the buckets on the runner along a tangent to
the circumference of the runner
The inlet and outlet pressures of the runner
are atmospheric
216
Schematic of a Pelton Wheel
217
Major Components:
Nozzle with a spear and needle
Runner and buckets
Casing
Breaking Jet
Deflector
Features of a Pelton Wheel
The nozzle with spear controls the quantity of
flow striking the blade depending on the load
The runner consists of a circular disc on the
periphery of which a number of evenly spaced
buckets are placed
Each bucket is divided into two symmetrical
parts by a dividing wall called the splitter
The buckets are of double hemispherical or
double ellipsoidal shape
218
Features of a Pelton Wheel
The runner and nozzle are enclosed in a steel
casing to prevent splashing of water and to
discharge water into the tail race
The deflector is used to direct the jet away
from the blades during low loads
A small breaking jet is used to bring the
turbine to rest after shutting down
219
Bucket
220
Velocity Triangles of a Pelton Wheel
221
u
1
=u
2
=u
c
1
=c
1
=c
f1
Work Done and Efficiency
222
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2
1
2 1
2
1
2 1 1
h
2 1 2 2 2
1 2
2 1
1 1 1 1
2
1
2 1
h
2 1 2 2 1 1
cos 1 2 cos 2
cos cos Also,
w w absent, is friction If
and triangles, velocity the From
2
1
Efficiency Hydraulic
c
-u c u
c
u -u c c u
u -u c u w c
u c w
-u c w c c
c
c c u
c c u c u c u w

+
=
+
=
= =
=
=
= =
+
= =
+ = =
q
q
u
u u
u u u u
Maximum Hydraulic Efficiency
223
( )
( )( )
( )
2
cos 1
on, substituti On
2
0 2
0
du
d
0
cos 1 2
du
d
0
du
d
when maximum be will efficiency , c given a For
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2 1
1
max
|
q
|
q
+
=
= =
=
(

=
(

+
=
h
h
c
u u c
c
u c u
c
u c u
Francis Turbine
Francis turbine is a reaction turbine where the
pressure drop continuously takes place in the
impeller
224
Schematic of a Francis Turbine
225
Main Components of a Francis Turbine
Casing: The impeller (runner) is completely
surrounded by a casing made of concrete or steel.
The water from the penstock enters the casing
which is of spiral shape and whose area of cross
section keeps decreasing gradually
Guide Vanes (Wicket Gates): The guide vanes are
fixed on a stationary circular wheel around the
runner. They direct the water to strike the runner
vanes without shock at inlet. They also regulate
the flow rate
226
Flow Control by Guide Vanes
227
Main Components of a Francis
Turbine
Runner: It is a circular wheel on which a series of
curved vanes are mounted. The vanes are so
designed that the water enters and leaves the
runner without shock. They are made of cast or
stainless steel
Draft Tube: It is used to recover the kinetic
energy of water leaving the runner and to guide
the same water to the tail race. It is a tube having
increasing cross sectional area and it also enables
the location of the turbine above the tail race
228
Velocity Triangles of a Francis Triangle
229
Kaplan Turbine
Kaplan turbine is a reaction turbine where the
flow direction is predominantly axial
It is suitable for low available heads (4-80 m)
but high flow rates
A Kaplan turbine in which the rotor blades are
fixed and not adjustable is called a Propeller
Turbine
230
Schematic of a Kaplan Turbine
231
Construction of a Kaplan Turbine
The shaft is vertical and the lower end of the
shaft is made larger which is known as the hub
or boss
The vanes are mounted on the hub which acts
as a runner
The number of blades are few (3-10) and
hence the frictional losses are low
The runner is enclosed in a cylindrical casing
which joins the draft tube
232
Working of a Kaplan Turbine
The water from the supplies enters the spiral
casing
The guide vanes direct the water into a chamber
above the runner at a proper direction and
quantity
The blade angles too are changed depending on
the load
The controls are executed by speed governors
The water exiting the runner enters the tail race
through the draft tube


233
Velocity Triangles
234
Specific Speed (N
s
)
Specific Speed is defined as the speed of a
geometrically similar turbine while working
under a unit head develops unit power or has
unit discharge


For the same power, the specific speed
increases for lower heads
235
4 / 5 4 / 3
H
P N
H
Q N
N
s
= =
Specific Speed for Different Turbines
236
Draft Tube Theory
The water leaving the reaction turbine has
considerable amount of kinetic energy
This energy is recovered by employing a draft
tube
A draft tube is a pipe with a gradually increasing
area connecting the turbine to the tail race
It also enables the setting of the turbine above
the tail race so that the turbine can be emptied
completely for inspection purposes
237
Types of Draft Tubes
238
Elbow type draft tube is
used when the head is
low
Divergence angle must
be less than 10
0
to avoid
separation losses
Head Recovered and Efficiency of a
Draft Tube
239
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
g
c
h
g
c c
h
g
c c
H H
f
f s g
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
q
H
g
=Head recovered
H
s
=Height of draft tube inlet above the tail race
h
f
=Head lost due to friction in the draft tube
c
1
=Velocity at draft tube inlet
c
2
=Velocity at exit of draft tube
Problem-1
A conical draft tube has a diameter of 2.5 m at
the inlet and the pressure is 7m of water
(vacuum). The discharge is 20 m
3
/s and the
velocity at the outlet is 1.1 m/s. The frictional
losses in the tube are 0.15 m. The total length of
the tube is 8m. (a) Find the depth of immersion
of the tube in the tail race and (b) Find the
efficiency of the draft tube.
Take P
atm
= 10.3 m of water column.
240
Problem-2
A Francis turbine develops 365 kW at an overall
efficiency of 80% when working under a net
head of 5 m. The draft tube is cylindrical and has
a diameter of 2.5 m. What increase in power
and efficiency of the turbine would you expect if
a tapered draft tube having an outlet diameter
of 4 m is substituted for the cylindrical one. It
may be presumed that head, inlet velocity and
discharge remain constant in both cases. Also
assume no loss due to friction.
241
Problem-3
A Kaplan turbine operating under a head of 7.5
m develops 1835 kW with an overall efficiency
of 87%. The turbine is set 2.5 m above the tail
water level and vacuum gauge inserted at
turbine outlet records a suction head of 3.15 m.
Calculate the efficiency of the draft tube if it has
an inlet dia of 3 m and the loss of head due to
friction in the draft tube equals 25% of the
kinetic head at outlet.
242
Governing of Hydraulic Turbines
Purpose of Governing:
To maintain a constant speed of the turbine
irrespective of the load
To cut off water supply when the electric circuits
trip
The governor must be sensitive to small changes
and should act fast
It must not cut off water supply abruptly in order
to avoid pen stock damage
Governing is mostly done by controlling the
amount of water flow

243
Governing System for Pelton Wheel
244
Deflector and Nozzle Opening Control
245
Governing System for a Reaction
Turbine
246
Performance of Pelton Wheel
247 Runner Efficiency = Hydraulic Efficiency
Performance of Francis turbine
248
Comparative Performance
249
Selection of Turbines
Factors affecting the choice of turbines are:
Head available
Variation in head
Fluctuations in load and
Speed
250
Problem-1
A Pelton wheel works under a gross head of 300
m and the frictional losses in the penstock
upstream of the turbine are 100 m. The rate of
flow of water through the nozzle at the end of
the penstock is 2 m
3
/s. The angle of deflection
of the jet is 160
0
. Find the power delivered by
the water to the runner and the hydraulic
efficiency. Given the blade speed to jet velocity
ratio is 0.45.
251
Problem-2
A reaction turbine works at 450 rpm under a
head of 120 m. The diameter at inlet is 120 cm
and the flow area is 0.4 m
2
. The angles made by
absolute and relative velocities at inlet are 20
0

and 60
0
respectively with the tangential velocity.
Find (a) the volume flow rate, (b) the power
developed and (c) the hydraulic efficiency.
Assume whirl at outlet is zero.
252
Problem-3
A reaction turbine works under a head of 200 m
while running at a speed of 250 rpm. The flow
rate through the turbine is 4.5 m
3
/s. The internal
and external diameters of the runner are 2 m
and 2.75 m respectively. The width of the runner
at inlet is 200 mm and is the same at outlet and
neglecting thickness of vanes, find (a) velocity of
flow at inlet and outlet and (b) vane angles at
inlet and outlet.
253
References for Unit-5
Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, B.C.S. Rao,
Mc. Graw Hill, 2
nd
Edition
Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power Engineering,
D.S. Kumar, S.K. Kataria and Sons, 7
th
Edition
254