– CFD Basics
Introduction CAD to Solution overview Governing Equations Initial and Boundary Conditions Turbulence Modeling Solution of Governing Equations Convergence Monitoring Errors in CFD Analysis NonDimensional Numbers Mesh Generation » PostProcessing Divergence
– Ensuring Quality of a CFD analysis – CDadapco solvers
» Which Solver Do I Choose for my Application
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CFD Basics  1
•

Introduction to CFD

•

Governing equations of fluid flow and heat transfer

•

Boundary Conditions

•

Meshing Guidelines

•

Solution best practices

•

STAR Workflow overview

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CFD Basics  2
What is CFD? CFD is Computational Fluid Dynamics
– Computational numerical methods
» PC, workstation, cluster
– Fluid
» gas or liquid: Material that deforms continuously under application of a shear stress
– Dynamics
_{»} Moving (as opposed to static)
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CFD Basics  3
CFD Basics – Need For CFD
Why do we need CFD?
Very few fluid mechanics problems have analytical solutions (e.g. Laminar flow between parallel plates, laminar flow between rotating cylinders).
Most real world problems do not have a closed form solution, and require a numerical solution.
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CFD Basics – Applications where CFD is used
What are some of the areas in which CFD is used?

 Aerospace

 Automotive

 Biomedical

 Building

 Civil Engineering

 Chemical Process

 Environmental

 Marine

 Power Generation

 Sport Equipment

 Turbomachinery
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CFD Basics  5
CFD Basics  ELEMENTS OF 3D CFD SIMULATION
turbulence
combustion
finite volume
solution
moving
post
model
model
discretisation
controls*
mesh*
processing*
conservation
mathematical
CFD cpde
finite volume
computer
RESULTS
equations
model
STARCD
model
(differential)
wall film
solution
initial/boundary
operating
optimisation
spray model
model
algorithm
conditions*
conditions*
CAD
geometry*
*via STARCD or STARCCM+
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CFD Basics  6
Meshing
Pre/Post/Solution
CFD Basics – CAD to Solution Overview
CAD
CAD
CFD
CFD
^{F}^{U}^{N}^{C}^{T}^{I}^{O}^{N}
•Geometry Building
•Geometry Import and Mesh Generation
•Physics and Boundary Conditions
•Run Analysis
•Solution Revealed to User
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CFD Basics  7
CFD Basics – CAD to Solution
4 h
CAD Geometry
1 h
1 h
Surface Meshing
Surface Cleanup
2 h
Volume Meshing
Postprocessing
•
••
8 h
CFD Solution
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CFD Basics  8
CFD Basics – Governing Equations – Conservation Laws
The following equations are fundamental to CFD:
Conservation of Mass (continuity) Conservation of Momentum (F=ma) – Conservation of Energy (1 ^{s}^{t} Law of Thermodynamics)
In addition, depending on complexity of the problem (e.g. if turbulent), additional transport equations are solved.
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CFD Basics  9
CFD Basics – Governing Equations – Constitutive Relationships
In order to close the system of equations (laws of conservation), we need the response of materials to external effects (i.e. surface forces, heat or mass fluxes). These are described by constitutive relationships.
Stoke’s Law
Expresses relationship between stresses and rate of deformation for fluids:
τ
=
2
µ
D
−
2µ
∇
.(VI)
r r
−
r
PI
D =
1
2
r
V
(
+ ∇
r
V
)
]
µ is the dynamic viscosity, P is the pressure, V is the velocity vector and I is the identity tensor.
Fourier’s Law
Expresses relationship between heat flux and temperature gradient
q =  k ∇ T
Where k is the thermal conductivity
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CFD Basics – Governing Equations – Equation of State
Additional requirement for closure of governing equations.
The equation of state links density and internal energy to the basic thermodynamic variables p (pressure) and T (temperature)
ρ = ρ (p,T);
e = e(p,T)
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CFD Basics – Governing Equations – General Form
CONSERVATION:

φ=1


mass

» φ=u,v,w


momentum


φ= e


energy

» A is the surface area

V is the volume


S is the source term

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CFD Basics  12
CFD Basics – Governing Equations
•
∂∂∂∂/∂∂∂∂t ∫∫∫
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ρρρρ φφφφ dV + ∫∫∫∫∫∫∫∫ ρρρρ φφφφ u dA = ∫∫∫∫∫∫∫∫ ΓΓΓΓ ∇φφφφ dA + ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ _{∫}_{∫}_{∫} S _{φ}_{φ}_{φ}_{φ} dV
Convective Flux
S
V
Rate of change of quantity in Control Volume
Diffusion Flux
Volumetric Source
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CFD Basics – Convection and Diffusion
u
CONVECTION
_{∫}_{∫} ρ φ u dA
DIFFUSION
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CFD Basics  14
CFD Basics – Initial and Boundary Conditions
To complete our mathematical model, conditions on the
solution domain boundaries have to be specified.
Conditions related to start time are called Initial
Conditions.
Conditions related to space are called Boundary
Conditions.
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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions  Types
Dirichlet Boundary Conditions are BCs where value of
the dependent variable at the boundary is given (e.g. inlet
velocity of fluid).
Neumann Boundary Conditions are BCs where gradient
of the dependent variable at the boundary is specified.
It is possible that for the same boundary, Dirichlet BCs are
applied for some dependent variables, and Neumann BCs
are applied for other dependent variables.
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CFD Basics  16
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions (External flow)
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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – External Flow
Examples
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CFD Basics  18
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions (External Flow)
Free Stream
Free Stream
Free Stream
Free
Stream
No slip Wall
No
No slip
No slip Wall
slip Wall
Wall
Outlet
Outlet
Outlet
Outlet
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CFD Basics  19
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Free Stream
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CFD Basics  20
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions
Inlet Boundaries can be specified at portions of boundary where the
fluid enters the solution domain, and where the velocity and scalar
(temperature, species concentration, turbulence quantities)
distributions is known.
Outlet Boundaries can be specified at that portion of the solution
domain, where flow leaves the domain. It assumes zero gradient of all
dependent variables in the flow direction.
NoSlip Wall requires prescription of velocity at the wall (e.g. zero
velocity for a stationary wall).
Free Stream boundary represents the conditions at a farfield location
(i.e. At the periphery of a bubble of fluid surrounding a moving object)
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CFD Basics  21
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Pressure
Boundaries
Pressure boundary conditions can be specified at boundaries
where the pressure distribution is known.
Boundary velocities are obtained from Neumann Boundary condition
for velocity.
All dependent variables are either specified or extrapolated from the
inside using zero gradient assumption. At outflow, all variables are
extrapolated.
Note: The velocity at the pressure boundary where the flow comes in
has to be subsonic, or else the upstream velocity needs to be
specified, thus violating the Neumann boundary condition.
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Day 1 : CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions  Internal
Flow
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CFD Basics  23
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Internal Flow 
Examples

 Flow inside ducts

 Flow inside Intake/Exhaust manifolds

 Flow inside coolant jackets

 Flow inside human blood vessels

 InCylinder flow of IC engines
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CFD Basics  24
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Internal Flow
Inlet
Inlet
Inlet
_{I}_{n}_{l}_{e}_{t}
Outlet
Outlet
Outlet
Outlet
No slip wall (u(u(u(u ==== 0)
No slip wall
No slip
No
slip wall
wall
0) 0)
0)
Adiabatic, fixed
Adiabatic, fixed
Adiabatic, fixed
Adiabatic,
fixed
temperature, or
temperature, or
temperature, or
or
temperature,
fixed heat flux.
fixed heat flux.
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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions  Inlets
Velocity and Scalars can be specified for an inlet.
v
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CFD Basics  26
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions  Outlet

n is the unit normal.









Gradients of all variables


along flow direction is taken



n



to be zero.



Mass flow is fixed from





overall continuity.
FLOW SPLIT
or
MASS FLOW RATE
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CFD Basics  27
CFD Basics  Outlet Boundary Conditions
Zone of
Zone
of
Recirculation: Recirculation:
Area is
inaccurate
Developing
Developing
Zone:
Zone:
Area has little
accuracy
Developed
Developed
Zone:
Zone:
Area is
accurate
Flow direction
L
≈≈≈≈3L8L
≈≈≈≈10L
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CFD Basics  28
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions  Symmetry
Symmetry
Symmetry
Symmetry
Symmetry plane
plane
plane
plane indicates
indicates
indicates
indicates aaaa surface
surface
surface
surface where
where
where
where normal
normal
normal
normal vel
vel
vel
velocity
ocity
ocity
ocity and
and
and
and normal
nor
nor
normal
mal
mal
velocity
velocity
velocity
velocity gradients
gradients
gradients
gradients are
are
are
are all
all
all
all zero.
zero.
zero.
zero. (n(n(n(n indicates
indicates
indicates
indicates the
the
the
the uuuunit
nit
nit
nit normal)
normal)
normal)
normal)
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CFD Basics  29
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions  Periodic



AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair
periodic boundary condition refers
periodic boundary
periodic
boundary condition
pair pair
pair
condition refers
refers

of boundaries where the flow repeats itself.
of boundaries where the flow repeats itself.
boundaries where
where the
of boundaries
of
the flow
flow repeats
repeats itself.
itself.
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CFD Basics  30
CFD Basics – Gallery of Turbulence
CFD Basics  31
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Most of the commonly occurring flows are turbulent in
nature (e.g. Jet streams, combustion, boundary layers on
wings of aircraft etc.). Turbulence by itself is difficult to
define, but typically has the following characteristics:

 Irregular (hence requires statistical methods)

 Diffusive (causes rapid mixing)

 Large Reynolds numbers

 Three dimensional vorticity fluctuations

 Dissipative (exhibits viscous losses, and needs a
continuous supply of energy to make up for losses)
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CFD Basics  32
CFD Basics  Why do we need turbulence models?
Turbulence is influenced by structures having large length
scales, and small length scales (down to the molecular
level). To resolve all scales, the number of computational
cells is approximately (Re ^{3} ), which is beyond the
computing resources currently available.
In order to model scales smaller than the computational
cell size, turbulence models are required.
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CFD Basics  33
u(t)
U
u'(t)
High Reynolds Number
•
t
u(t) = U + u’(t)




1


∆∆∆∆t



ϕ = Φ =

∫∫∫∫
0

ϕ(t) dt



∆∆∆∆t




ϕ(t)=Φ+ ϕ’(t)




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CFD Basics  34
CFD Basics  TURBULENCE MODELLING OPTIONS
Eddy Viscosity Models

2. V2F model

3. Nonlinear models: quadratic and cubic kε, several variants • low and highRe • Suga • Speziale quadratic

4. Other • kω: standard and SST, low and highRe • SpalartAlmaras
Reynolds Stress Transport models
Reynolds Stress Transport models
Reynolds
Transport models
models
Reynolds Stress
Stress Transport
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CFD Basics  35
CFD Basics  TURBULENCE MODELING OPTIONS
Detached Eddy Simulation

 In regions of irrotational flow, RANS is used

 In regions of detached eddies, LES is used

 Accurate for capturing eddies created by bluff bodies

 Excellent compromise between RANS and LES
Large Eddy Simulation

 Resolves the large scale eddies

 Uses a subgrid scale model for small eddies

 Requires very fine mesh
DNS
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CFD Basics  36
CFD Basics – Inlet Turbulence
•

Turbulence conditions at inlet are seldom known.

•

If inlet is sufficiently upstream of region of interest, results

are insensitive to inlet turbulence.

•

If inlet is close to region of interest, need to perform a

sensitivity study of inlet turbulence on results.
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CFD Basics  37
CFD Basics – Inlet Turbulence
Estimation of Inlet Turbulence:

Intensity of turbulence I


Length of turbulence scale L


Common Practice

k =




2


I ≈ 0.03  0.10

L ≈ D _{h} /10

C

k


D _{h} is hydraulic diameter C _{µ} = 0.09

ε =

µ

L

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CFD Basics  38
CFD Basics – Turbulence Wall Treatment
Near wall treatment for turbulence models is typically chosen
based on the local nondimensional distance of the cell centroid
of the near wall cell from the wall (y+).
y
+
=
C
1/4
µ
k
ρ
1/2
y/
µ
Where y is the distance of the near wall cell centroid from the wall, k is
the local turbulence kinetic energy, and C _{µ} is a constant having a value of
0.09.
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CFD Basics  39
CFD Basics – Turbulence Wall Treatment
Wall Functions



Computationally efficient


Uses logarithmic law of the wall


Requires y+ to be in the 30 – 200 range


Applies only to attached flows and fails in recirculating flows

Low Reynold’s number approach



Computationally expensive


Integrates down to the wall and uses noslip


Requires near wall y+ less than 5

Hybrid Treatment


If y+ < 5, use Low Re approach


If y+ > 30 use Wall Function approach


If 5 < y+ < 30 blend smoothly between two approaches

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CFD Basics  40
CFD Basics  Estimation of Near Wall Cell Thickness
How can I get an approximate estimate of the near
wall cell thickness?
y ^{+} = C _{µ} ^{1}^{/}^{4} ρ k ^{1}^{/}^{2} y / µ
turbulence intensity (1.5 * I ^{2} U ^{2} )
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CFD Basics  41
CFD Basics  Choosing a turbulence Model
Spallart Almaras Turbulence Model
Recommended when flow is primarily attached with no separation, or
mild separation. e.g. For flow over a wing or a fueslage.
kε or kω Turbulence Model
Common industrial applications, with flow separation and recirculation.
Reynolds Stress Model
When the turbulence is highly anisotropic. e.g. In a Cyclone separator.
Detached Eddy Simulation
Recommended for aeroacoustic applications
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CFD Basics  42
CFD Basics  Choosing a Turbulence Model
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CFD Basics  43
CFD Basics  Choosing a Turbulence Model
What is our recommendation on choosing a turbulence model?
Choose the simplest model which gives acceptable engineering results
for your application. Typically start with the kε turbulence model. If wall
effects are important, use either the hybrid wall functions, or a low
Reynolds number turbulence model, making sure to have a fine mesh
resolution in the wall region. If anisotropic effects are important, then
use Reynolds Stress Models.
What factors other than a turbulence model affect accuracy of a
simulation?
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CFD Basics  44
CFD Basics  Discretization
In order to obtain a solution for the governing equations, the
mathematical model (equations and constitutive relationships) is
transformed into a system of algebraic equations.
Special techniques are used for the transient, convection,
diffusion and source terms in this process.
The discretized equations have the form expressed in the
equation below. C denotes cell center value, and k denotes
values in neighboring cells.
A φ
c
c
+
∑
k
A φ
k
k
=
Q
c
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CFD Basics  45
CFD Basics – Solution of Discretized Equations
The discretized equations are coupled and nonlinear. The
discretized equations are then solved using iterative
methods.
Steady State problems typically use the SIMPLE algorithm,
and transient problems either use SIMPLE or PISO
algorithms.
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CFD Basics  46
CFD Basics – SIMPLE Algorithm
What does SIMPLE stand for?
SemiImplicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations
A variation of the SIMPLE algorithm is used in all CD
adapco solvers for solving the equations of fluid flow and
heat transfer. (Note that STAR V3.26 uses the PISO
algorithm (Pressure Implicit Split Operator) for transient
analysis)
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CFD Basics  47
CFD Basics – SIMPLE Algorithm
Main Steps in SIMPLE:

1. Variables are assigned initial values at startup, and time is advanced by dt (time step).

2. With the initially guessed pressure field, the momentum equations are solved, to obtain an approximate velocity field.

3. The velocity field computed in step 2 along with the prevailing density is used to compute new mass fluxes, and then solve the mass conservation (pressure correction equation). This results in corrections for velocities, density and pressure being computed and applied.

4. If applicable, additional transport equations (turbulence, energy, species
concentration) are solved.

5. If necessary, fluid properties (e.g. density, viscosity, Prandtl number are updated).

6. Steps 2 through 5 constitute an outer iteration. These steps are repeated until the residual level before the first inner iteration in each equation becomes sufficiently small.

7. When the nonlinear coupled equations are satisfied to a desired tolerance, time is advanced by dt, and the process is repeated.
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CFD Basics  48
CFD Basics – Underrelaxation
In order to promote stability of the solution method, an under
relaxation is done for all variables (other than the pressure
correction).
In the equations below, k+1 refers to the most recent iteration or
time step, and k refers to the prior iteration or time step. Omega is
the underrelaxation factor, having a value between 0 and 1.
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CFD Basics  49
CFD Basics – Convergence Monitoring
There are two main criteria for convergence monitoring:

1. Make sure that the global residuals reduce by 23 orders of magnitude (applies only if starting with a zero solution in the domain, or a simple initial guess).

2. Monitor of engineering quantities of interest (e.g. drag
coefficient, pressure rise across a fan, pressure drop
across a heat exchanger) and make sure that they do not
change with iteration.
We need to make sure that both of the above criteria are
met before we declare our solution to be converged.
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CFD Basics  50
CFD Basics – Convergence Monitoring
Residuals
Residuals
Residuals
Residuals
Outlet Temperature
Outlet Temperature
Temperature
_{T}_{e}_{m}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e}
Outlet
Outlet
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CFD Basics  51
CFD Basics – Errors in CFD
The following are the main types of errors in a CFD analysis:
Modeling Errors – This is the difference between the actual flow and
the exact solution of the model equations (Navier stokes or RANS
equations)
Discretization Errors – This is the difference between the exact
solution of the differential equation, and the exact solution of the
algebraic system of equations obtained by discretizing them.
Iteration Errors – This is the difference between the iterative and
exact solution of the algebraic equation systems.
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CFD Basics  52
CFD Basics – Modeling Errors
In case of turbulent flows in complex geometries, modeling
errors are mainly due to imperfections in the turbulence
model and to simplifications in the geometry or boundary
conditions.
How can modeling errors be estimated?
Compare solutions in which discretization and iteration
errors are negligible, with accurate experimental data, or
data obtained by more accurate models (e.g. Direct
Numerical Simulation).
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CFD Basics  53
CFD Basics – Discretization Errors
Discretization errors can be estimated by performing a
systematic grid refinement and comparing the solutions
obtained on a sequence of grids. The errors are
proportional to the difference in solution obtained on
consecutive grids.
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CFD Basics  54
CFD Basics – Iterative Errors
The level of iterative errors can be reliably controlled by
monitoring the residual norms (either sum of absolute
values, or the square root of the sum of squares of
residuals in all Control Volumes).
It is not the level of the residual itself, but the amount of
reduction compared to initial levels that is important.
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CFD Basics  55
CFD Basics – Non Dimensional Numbers
Next we briefly overview some important nondimensional
numbers that are used in CFD.
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CFD Basics  56
CFD Basics – Laminar vs Turbulent
Reynolds Number = Inertia Force / Viscous force
Reynolds Number =
(ρ * U * L)/ µ
(ρ is the density, U is a characteristic velocity, L is a characteristic
length scale, and µ is the laminar viscosity)
If Reynolds number is low, flow is laminar (viscous forces dominate)
If Reynolds number is high, flow is turbulent
e.g.
For pipe flows: Re > 2300 implies turbulent flow
For flat plate: Re > 5e5 implies turbulent flow
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CFD Basics  57
CFD Basics – Compressible vs Incompressible
Mach Number = speed of flow / speed of sound
If Mach Number is above 0.3, need to model as
compressible.
In low speed flows, if temperature change causes a
change in density, then flow should be modeled as
compressible.
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CFD Basics – Natural vs Force Convection
Gr/Re ^{2} = Buoyancy Force / Inertia Force
Grashof Number / Reynolds Number ^{2} = g * β * ∆ T / (U ^{2} )
Where g is gravity, β is the coefficient of volume
expansion, ∆ T is the difference in temperature between
the surface and the free stream, U is the free stream
velocity.
If Gr/Re ^{2} >> 1, then effect of buoyancy is important
If Gr/Re ^{2} << 1 buoyancy effects are unimportant
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CFD Basics  59
CFD Basics – Conduction vs Convection
Biot Number = Resistance of conduction / Resistance
of convection
Biot Number = (L/k) / (1/h)
Where L is the thickness of the body, k is the thermal
conductivity, and h is the heat transfer coefficient.
If Bi >> 1, wall side resistance is large, and wall conduction
should be included
If Bi << 1, wall side resistance is small and wall can be
treated as a constant temperature boundary condition.
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CFD Basics  60
CFD Basics – Mesh Generation
Solid
...
of
the Surface
Meshing: ...
CAD
MESHER
...
of
the Volume
(calculation)
Fluid
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CFD Basics  61
CFD Basics – Mesh Generation
The quality of a CFD solution is dependent on the quality of
the underlying volume mesh.
Hence it is important to ensure a good quality volume
mesh (which requires a good quality surface mesh)
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CFD Basics  Elements of Surface Meshing
Arbitrary Polygon
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CFD Basics  63
CFD Basics  Surface Mesh Quality
_{L}_{O}_{W} _{Q}_{U}_{A}_{L}_{I}_{T}_{Y}
HIGH QUALITY
Equilateral triangles imply good quality.
Equilateral triangles imply good quality
Equilateral triangles
Equilateral
triangles imply
imply good
good quality
quality
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CFD Basics  64
CFD Basics  Surface Mesh Quality
_{L}_{O}_{W} _{Q}_{U}_{A}_{L}_{I}_{T}_{Y}
HIGH QUALITY
IfIfIfIf the angle between the face normal and the vector joining adja
angle between
between the
the face
face normal
normal and
and the
the vector
vector joining
adja
the angle between the face normal and the vector joining adjacent
cent
joining adjacent
cent cell
cell cell _{c}_{e}_{l}_{l}
centroids isisisis small, the
centroids
centroids
centroids
small,
small,
_{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} triangle
the the triangle quality
triangle
_{t}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y}
quality quality isisisis high.
high.
high.
_{h}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{.}
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CFD Basics  65
CFD Basics – Surface Mesh
What are the requirements of a surface mesh, in order
to get a valid volume mesh using CDadapco auto
mesh tools?

 Surface is closed (water tight)

 Triangles are connected one to one

 Surface is manifold (Only two cells connected to an edge)
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CFD Basics  66
CFD Basics – Basic Volume Mesh Elements
Prismatic
Pyramid
Arbitrary
Polyhedral
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CFD Basics  67
Day 1 – CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types
Generally mesh generation is done either using manual
techniques (e.g. in proSTAR) or using an automesher
(e.g. ammbatch)
When do we need manual meshing?
 If we need a structured mesh (for cell layer addition and
deletion)
 If we have very tight gaps (e.g. nominal cell size is 2mm,
but gaps are of the order of 0.05 mm)
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CFD Basics  68
CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types
What are the mesh types that can be generated by CD
adapco auto meshers?
•

Trim Mesh



Least demanding on surface quality

•

Polyhedral Mesh


As automated as a tetrahedral mesher


Numerically more stable, less diffusive, and more accurate than an equivalent tetrahedral mesh

•

Hybrid Mesh

•

Tetrahedral mesh

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CFD Basics  69
CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types
Trim Mesh
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CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types
When is a trim mesh recommended?
turbo machinery applications, a basic bodyfitted
structured mesh can be used as a template for creating a
volume mesh with additional details.)
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CFD Basics  71
CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types
Polyhedral Mesh
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CFD Basics  72
CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types
When is a polyhedral mesh recommended?
automated (as automated as a tetrahedral mesh).
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CFD Basics  73
CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types
Tetrahedral Mesh
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CFD Basics  74
CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types
When is a tetrahedral mesh recommended?
The only scenario where a tetrahedral mesh is
recommended is when comparisons have to be made with
legacy tetrahedral models.
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CFD Basics  75
CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh
CFD Basics  76

Mesh dependency performed

by successively halving

surface triangulation size from

20mm to 0.625mm


Convergence judged from

pressure drop across jacket
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CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh
39,587
39,587
39,587
39,587
TETS
TETS
TETS
TETS
21,872
21,872
21,872
21,872
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
TETS
TETS
TETS
TETS
593,888
593,888
593,888
593,888
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
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CFD Basics  77
CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh
Contours of Static
Contours of Static
Pressure
Pressure
Pressure
Pressure
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
TETS
TETS
TETS
TETS
593,888
593,888
593,888
593,888
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
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CFD Basics  78
CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh
MESH
MESH
MESH
MESH DEPENDENCY
DEPENDENCY
DEPENDENCY
DEPENDENCY
7
TET
TET
TET
TET
POLY
POLY
POLY
POLY
6
5
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
hours
hours
hours
hours
4
> 5% error
> 5% error
> 5% error
> 5% error
43.25
43.25
43.25 hours
43.25
hours
hours
hours
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6 hours
hours
hours
hours
10101010 hours
hours
hours
hours
< 3% error
< 3% error
< 3% error
< 3% error
3
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
Delta P (kPa)
Run on a 3Ghz
Dual Processor
workstation with
2GB RAM
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CFD Basics  79
CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Quality
Accuracy of Convection
lines connecting neighboring faces should pass through
the center of the common face.
Accuracy of Diffusion
cell face, and also passes through the center of the
common face.
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CFD Basics  81
CFD Basics – Grid Generation Guidelines
General Guidelines on Grid Generation
•

~5 control volumes across a shear layer

•

~5 control volumes across a separated region

•

At Least 4 control volumes across a flow passage

•

Vary grid spacing gradually

•

Keep aspect ratio reasonable (Less than 1:10 whenever

possible)
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CFD Basics  82
CFD Basics  PostProcessing
Reporting



Drag / Lift Coefficients


Heat Rejection by heat exchanger


Pressure rise across a fan or compressor


Pressure drop in a duct


Swirl, tumble, burn rate in an IC engine

Flow Visualization


Visualization of Fields

» Scalar Quantities

» Vector Quantities


Streamlines


IsoSurfaces


Animation

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CFD Basics  84
CFD Basics – Reporting and Monitoring
Residual Convergence
Residual Convergence
Residual Convergence
Residual
Convergence
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Centerline Cp
Centerline Cp
Centerline Cp
Centerline
Cp
Drag/Lift Monitoring
Drag/Lift Monitoring
Drag/Lift Monitoring
Drag/Lift
Monitoring
Field Values
Field Values
Field Values
Field
Values
CFD Basics  85
CFD Basics – Post Processing – Scalars and Vectors
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CFD Basics  86
CFD Basics – Postprocessing – Surface Plot –
Coefficient of Pressure
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CFD Basics  87
CFD Basics : PostProcessing Capabilities: Streamlines
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CFD Basics  88
CFD Basics : PostProcessing  Isosurfaces
Total Pressure = 0, Isosurface
plot.
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CFD Basics  89
What do I do if my solution diverges?

 Check physical models chosen, and boundary conditions applied.

 Check and make sure dimensions of the problem are setup correctly.

 Check and make sure mesh quality is good, and sufficient mesh density is available for resolving the flow features.

 Reduce underrelaxation factors.

 Simplify the physics
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CFD Basics  90
CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality in CFD Analysis
Ensuring quality of CFD analysis is an important process.
The next few slides briefly outline practices used within
CDadapco.
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CFD Basics  91
CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality in CFD Analysis
Main Phases:
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CFD Basics  92
CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality of CFD Analysis
Initial Project Review

 Define scope of project and cross check with customer

 Define time frame and resources for project

 Check with customer and make sure all cad data is
available and consistent
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CFD Basics  93
CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality of CFD Analysis
Pre Analysis Review

 Does the generated mesh match CAD supplied?

 Have the boundary conditions been correctly applied?

 Is the mesh density sufficient to answer objectives of
analysis?

 Have correct material properties been defined?

 Have the correct physics models been applied?

 What post processing is required?

 Do results from running a few iterations / time steps look
reasonable?
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CFD Basics  94
CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality of CFD Analysis
Final Analysis Review

 Has the solution fully converged?

 Double check, initial and boundary conditions

 Double check material properties

 Do results make physical sense? (compare with prior
analysis if possible)
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CFD Basics  95
CFD Basics: CDadapco Solvers
CDadapco offers two CFD Solvers:
STARCD



20 Years of Development




Rewrite of STAR V3.2x as a face based solver.



Uses an upgraded pre/post Processor of V3.2x

STARCCM+
under one GUI.
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CFD Basics  96
CFD Basics – Comparison of CDadapco Solvers
The next few slides compare the available features (for
mesh generation, physics, and coupling) in STAR V3.26,
STAR V4.06 and STARCCM+ V3.02
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CFD Basics  97
CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Mesh Topology
Mesh Type

STARCD V3.26

STARCD V4.06

STARCCM+

V3.02

Hexahedral

Yes

Yes

Yes

Hexahedral / Trim

Yes

Yes

Yes

Hex / Tet (Hybrid)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Arbirtrary

No

Yes

Yes

Polyhedra

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CFD Basics  98
CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Mesh Motion
Mesh Motion

STARCD

STARCD

STARCCM+

V3.26

V4.06

V3.02

Rotating Reference

Yes

Yes

Yes

Frames

Arbitrary Sliding Meshes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Parallel Partition across

No

No

Yes

interfaces

Cell layer addition /

Yes

Yes

No

removal

Conditional Cell

Yes

Yes

No

attachment / detachment

General Mesh Motion

Yes

Yes

No

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CFD Basics  99
CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Solution
Algorithms
Algorithm

STARCD V3.26

STARCD V4.06

STARCCM+

V3.02

SIMPLE

Yes*

Yes

Yes

AMG

Yes

Yes

Yes

PISO

Yes

Yes

No

Coupled Solver

No

No

Yes

_{N}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{:} STAR V3.26 has SIMPLE for Steady State Only.
Note:
Note:
Note:
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CFD Basics  100
CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Heat Transfer
Heat Transfer

STARCD

STARCD

STARCCM+

V3.26

V4.06

V3.02

Conjugate Heat Transfer

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surface Exchange

Yes

Yes

Yes

Radiation

Participating Media

Yes

Yes

Yes

Radiation

Solar Radiation

Yes

Yes

Yes

Transparent Solids

Yes

Yes

Yes

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CFD Basics  101
CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – General
Combustion Models
Mesh Type

STARCD

STARCD

STARCCM+

V3.26

V4.06

V3.02

Solid (e.g. Coal)

Yes

Yes

No

Liquid

Yes

Yes

No

Gaseous

Yes

Yes

Yes

EBU

Yes

Yes

Yes

CFM

Yes

Yes

Yes

Hybrid (kinetic / EBU)

Yes

Yes

No

PPDF

Yes

Yes

Yes

Ignition

Yes

Yes

Yes

NOx and SOOT Models

Yes

Yes

No

Complex Chemistry

Yes

Yes

No

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CFD Basics  102
CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – IC Engine
Combustion Models
IC Engine Combustion

STARCD

STARCD

STARCCM+

V3.26

V4.06

V3.02

Premixed SI

Yes

Yes

No

Partially Premixed SI

Yes

Yes

No

Diesel Combustion Models

Yes

Yes

No

Diesel Ignition Models

Yes

Yes

No

EGR

Yes

Yes

No

NOx

Yes

Yes

No

SOOT

Yes

Yes

No

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CFD Basics  103
CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – MultiPhase
Flows
Feature

STARCD V3.26

STARCD V4.06

STARCCM+

V3.02

Free Surface

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cavitation

Yes

Yes

Yes

Dispersed Multiphase

Yes

Yes

Yes ^{*}

(Lagrangian)

Interpenetrating

Yes

Yes

No

Phases (Eulerian)

Liquid Film

Yes

Yes

No

Note: ^{*} Currently L2P in STARCCM+ does not include evaporation.
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CFD Basics  104
CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Multiphysics
Feature

STARCD V3.26

STARCD V4.06

STARCCM+

V3.02

Aeroacoustics

Yes

Yes

Yes

Fluid Structure

Yes

No

No

Interaction

Stress

No

Yes* (Beta)

No

Melting and

No

Yes* (Beta)

No

Solidification

Electromagnetics

No

Yes* (Beta)

No

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CFD Basics  105
CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Coupling to Other
Codes
CODE

STARCD V3.26

STARCD V4.06

STARCCM+

V3.02

GTPower

Yes

Yes

No

Wave

Yes

Yes

No

FlowMaster

Yes

Yes

No

SYSNOISE and

Yes

Yes

No

ACTRAN

CHEMKIN

Yes

No

No

DARS

Yes* (V3.27)

Yes

Yes

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CFD Basics  106
Lecture – STARCCM+  Basics
This lecture introduces the basics of STARCCM+ to a new user.
Topics Covered
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STARCCM+ Basics 1
Lecture  STARCCM+ Basics  Introduction
STARCCM+ is a stateoftheart CFD solver from CD
adapco that uses a Client Server approach.
 Java front end (light on memory) and a C++ server
Client
Client
Client
Client
Server
Server
Server
Server
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STARCCM+ Basics 2
Lecture  STARCCM+ Basics  Introduction
What is a client?
Client is the part through which you launch a simulation
and work with, typically through the STARCCM+
workspace.
What is a server?
Server is the part of the architecture that implements
commands in a simulation (e.g. import data, run the solver)
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STARCCM+ Basics 3
Lecture  STARCCM+  Basics – Unique Environment
What is unique about the STARCCM+ environment?

State of the art objectbased GUI


Simulation database:


Fast, loaded on demand


Binary


Platform and Parallel independent


User Programming


Java language scripting


User defined boundary conditions, source terms and postprocessing


Scalable, seamless parallel operation


Client Server Architecture


Operable on Windows, LINUX, and several UNIX platforms


Documentation


Via online browser


Context Sensitive help with F1 Key


pdf document

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STARCCM+ Basics 4
Lecture  STARCCM+ Basics – Novel Concepts

1. MultiPhysics, continuum based modeling.

2. Separation of Physics and Mesh.

3. Generalized interfaces (allow communication between different regions in the solution domain).
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STARCCM+ Basics 5
Lecture  STARCCM+ Basics – Ports Supported
STARCCM+ is currently ported to:
Windows 2000 / XP (32 bit and 64 bit)
Linux 32 bit
Linux 64 bit
IBM AIX
HPUX PaRisc
HP Itanium
SGI Altix
Sun Solaris
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STARCCM+ Basics 6
Lecture  STARCCM+ Basics – Mesh
•
Surface Mesh Formats

.dbs – proSTAR surface database


.inp – proSTAR cell / vertex shell input file


.nas – NASTRAN shell file


.pat – PATRAN shell file


.stl – Stereolithography file


.fro – FELISA front surface file


Jt – JT Open Surface file

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STARCCM+ Basics 7
Lecture – STARCCM+ Basics  Mesh
CAD Import Formats

 x_t, x_b – Parasolid Transmit File

 .stp, .step – Standardized Exchange of Product File

 .igs, .iges – International Graphics Exchange Standard File
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STARCCM+ Basics 8
Lecture  STARCCM+  Basics  Mesh
Surface Meshing

Surface Remesher


Surface Wrapper (automated method for closing surfaces)


Hole Filling


Rough Patcher


Edge Zipper


Edge split, swap (techniques for improving triangle quality)


Automatic repair of surface errors


Automatic / Manual extraction of feature curves

Surface Creation and Manipulation
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STARCCM+ Basics 9
Lecture – STARCCM+ Basics  Mesh
Volume Meshing

Core Mesh

» Tetrahedral mesh

» Polyhedral mesh

» Advanced Hexahedral (Trim) mesh


Boundary Layer mesh with prism layer


Local / global parameter setting for mesh generation


Volume sources (shapes like box, cone, cylinder, sphere for

declaring regions in the cfd domain that need refinement)


Extruder (For extending domains, building a solid layer)

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STARCCM+ Basics 10
Lecture  STARCCM+ Basics  Mesh
•
Mesh Manipulation
Transform – scale, translate, rotate, and reflect meshes Split and combine boundaries and regions Create, delete and fuse interfaces Convert 3D mesh to 2D mesh – Create Cell Sets
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STARCCM+ Basics 11
Lecture  STARCCM+  Basics  Mesh
•
Import of Volume Mesh
– proSTAR Gridgen (via .cas file) Fluent (.cas, .msh) – Gambit ICEM