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CFD Basics - Outline

CFD Basics

Introduction CAD to Solution overview Governing Equations Initial and Boundary Conditions Turbulence Modeling Solution of Governing Equations Convergence Monitoring Errors in CFD Analysis Non-Dimensional Numbers Mesh Generation » Post-Processing Divergence

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Ensuring Quality of a CFD analysis CD-adapco solvers

» Which Solver Do I Choose for my Application

CFD Basics - Outline – CFD Basics Introduction CAD to Solution overview Governing Equations Initial and

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CFD Basics

Introduction to CFD

Governing equations of fluid flow and heat transfer

Boundary Conditions

Meshing Guidelines

Solution best practices

STAR Workflow overview

CFD Basics • Introduction to CFD • Governing equations of fluid flow and heat transfer •

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CFD Basics

What is CFD? CFD is Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational numerical methods

» PC, workstation, cluster

Fluid

» gas or liquid: Material that deforms continuously under application of a shear stress

Dynamics

» Moving (as opposed to static)

CFD Basics What is CFD? CFD is Computational Fluid Dynamics – Computational numerical methods » PC,

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CFD Basics – Need For CFD

Why do we need CFD?

Very few fluid mechanics problems have analytical solutions (e.g. Laminar flow between parallel plates, laminar flow between rotating cylinders).

Most real world problems do not have a closed form solution, and require a numerical solution.

CFD Basics – Need For CFD Why do we need CFD? Very few fluid mechanics problems

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CFD Basics – Applications where CFD is used

What are some of the areas in which CFD is used?

  • - Aerospace

  • - Automotive

  • - Biomedical

  • - Building

  • - Civil Engineering

  • - Chemical Process

  • - Environmental

  • - Marine

  • - Power Generation

  • - Sport Equipment

  • - Turbomachinery

CFD Basics – Applications where CFD is used What are some of the areas in which

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CFD Basics - ELEMENTS OF 3D CFD SIMULATION

turbulence combustion finite volume solution moving post- model model discretisation controls* mesh* processing* conservation mathematical CFD
turbulence
combustion
finite volume
solution
moving
post-
model
model
discretisation
controls*
mesh*
processing*
conservation
mathematical
CFD cpde
finite volume
computer
RESULTS
equations
model
STAR-CD
model
(differential)
wall film
solution
initial/boundary
operating
optimisation
spray model
model
algorithm
conditions*
conditions*
CAD
geometry*
CFD Basics - ELEMENTS OF 3D CFD SIMULATION turbulence combustion finite volume solution moving post- model

*via STAR-CD or STAR-CCM+

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Meshing

Pre/Post/Solution

CFD Basics – CAD to Solution Overview

Discipline

CAD

CAD

CFD

SOFTWARE

CFD

CFD

COMPONENT

FUNCTION

  • 1. CAD Modeler

Geometry Building

  • 2. CAD Importer

Geometry Import and Mesh Generation

  • 3. Pre-Processor

Physics and Boundary Conditions

Meshing Pre/Post/Solution CFD Basics – CAD to Solution Overview Discipline CAD CAD CFD SOFTWARE CFD CFD
  • 4. Solver

Run Analysis

  • 5. Post-Processor

Solution Revealed to User

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CFD Basics – CAD to Solution

4 h CAD Geometry 1 h 1 h Surface Meshing Surface Clean-up 2 h Volume Meshing
4 h
CAD Geometry
1 h
1 h
Surface Meshing
Surface Clean-up
2 h
Volume Meshing
Post-processing
••
8 h
CFD Solution
CFD Basics – CAD to Solution 4 h CAD Geometry 1 h 1 h Surface Meshing

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CFD Basics – Governing Equations – Conservation Laws

The following equations are fundamental to CFD:

Conservation of Mass (continuity) Conservation of Momentum (F=ma) Conservation of Energy (1 st Law of Thermodynamics)

In addition, depending on complexity of the problem (e.g. if turbulent), additional transport equations are solved.

CFD Basics – Governing Equations – Conservation Laws The following equations are fundamental to CFD: Conservation

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CFD Basics – Governing Equations – Constitutive Relationships

In order to close the system of equations (laws of conservation), we need the response of materials to external effects (i.e. surface forces, heat or mass fluxes). These are described by constitutive relationships.

Stoke’s Law

Expresses relationship between stresses and rate of deformation for fluids:

τ

=

2

µ

D

2µ

.(VI)

r r

r

PI

D =

1

2

[ ∇
[

r

V

(

+ ∇

r

V

)

T

]

µ is the dynamic viscosity, P is the pressure, V is the velocity vector and I is the identity tensor.

Fourier’s Law

Expresses relationship between heat flux and temperature gradient

q = - k T

Where k is the thermal conductivity

CFD Basics – Governing Equations – Constitutive Relationships In order to close the system of equations

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CFD Basics – Governing Equations – Equation of State

Additional requirement for closure of governing equations.

The equation of state links density and internal energy to the basic thermodynamic variables p (pressure) and T (temperature)

ρ = ρ (p,T);

e = e(p,T)

CFD Basics – Governing Equations – Equation of State Additional requirement for closure of governing equations.

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CFD Basics – Governing Equations – General Form

CFD Basics – Governing Equations – General Form V S S CONSERVATION: V » φ =1
  • V S

S

CONSERVATION:

V

»

φ=1

mass

» φ=u,v,w

momentum

»

φ= e

energy

CFD Basics – Governing Equations – General Form V S S CONSERVATION: V » φ =1

» A is the surface area

»

V is the volume

»

S is the source term

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CFD Basics – Governing Equations

∂∂∂∂/∂∂∂∂t ∫∫∫

∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ρρρρ φφφφ dV + ∫∫∫∫∫∫∫∫ ρρρρ φφφφ u dA = ∫∫∫∫∫∫∫∫ ΓΓΓΓ ∇φφφφ dA + ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ S φφφφ dV

  • V S

Convective Flux

S

V

Rate of change of quantity in Control Volume

Diffusion Flux

Volumetric Source

CFD Basics – Governing Equations • ∂∂∂∂ / ∂∂∂∂ t ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ρρρρ φφφφ

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CFD Basics – Convection and Diffusion

u

CFD Basics – Convection and Diffusion u CONVECTION ρ φ u d A DIFFUSION ∇∇φ ∇∇

CONVECTION

ρ φ u dA

DIFFUSION

∇∇φ ∇∇ ∫∫ Γ ∇∇φ ∇∇ dA
∇∇φ ∇∇
∫∫
Γ ∇∇φ
∇∇
dA
CFD Basics – Convection and Diffusion u CONVECTION ρ φ u d A DIFFUSION ∇∇φ ∇∇

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CFD Basics – Initial and Boundary Conditions

To complete our mathematical model, conditions on the

solution domain boundaries have to be specified.

Conditions related to start time are called Initial

Conditions.

Conditions related to space are called Boundary

Conditions.

CFD Basics – Initial and Boundary Conditions To complete our mathematical model, conditions on the solution

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Types

Dirichlet Boundary Conditions are BCs where value of

the dependent variable at the boundary is given (e.g. inlet

velocity of fluid).

Neumann Boundary Conditions are BCs where gradient

of the dependent variable at the boundary is specified.

It is possible that for the same boundary, Dirichlet BCs are

applied for some dependent variables, and Neumann BCs

are applied for other dependent variables.

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Types Dirichlet Boundary Conditions are BCs where value of the

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions (External flow)

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions (External flow) CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics -

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – External Flow

Examples

  • - Flow over an aircraft or automobile

  • - Flow over a cylinder

  • - Flow around buildings

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – External Flow Examples - Flow over an aircraft or automobile

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions (External Flow)

Free Stream

Free Stream

Free Stream

Free

Stream

No slip Wall No No slip No slip Wall slip Wall Wall
No slip Wall
No
No slip
No slip Wall
slip Wall
Wall
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions (External Flow) Free Stream Free Stream Free Stream Free Stream No

Inlet

Inlet

Inlet

Inlet

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions (External Flow) Free Stream Free Stream Free Stream Free Stream No

Outlet

Outlet

Outlet

Outlet

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions (External Flow) Free Stream Free Stream Free Stream Free Stream No
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions (External Flow) Free Stream Free Stream Free Stream Free Stream No

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Free Stream

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Free Stream CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics
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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions

Inlet Boundaries can be specified at portions of boundary where the

fluid enters the solution domain, and where the velocity and scalar

(temperature, species concentration, turbulence quantities)

distributions is known.

Outlet Boundaries can be specified at that portion of the solution

domain, where flow leaves the domain. It assumes zero gradient of all

dependent variables in the flow direction.

No-Slip Wall requires prescription of velocity at the wall (e.g. zero

velocity for a stationary wall).

Free Stream boundary represents the conditions at a far-field location

(i.e. At the periphery of a bubble of fluid surrounding a moving object)

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions Inlet Boundaries can be specified at portions of boundary where the

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Pressure

Boundaries

Pressure boundary conditions can be specified at boundaries

where the pressure distribution is known.

Boundary velocities are obtained from Neumann Boundary condition

for velocity.

All dependent variables are either specified or extrapolated from the

inside using zero gradient assumption. At outflow, all variables are

extrapolated.

Note: The velocity at the pressure boundary where the flow comes in

has to be sub-sonic, or else the upstream velocity needs to be

specified, thus violating the Neumann boundary condition.

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Pressure Boundaries Pressure boundary conditions can be specified at boundaries

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Day 1 : CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Internal

Flow

Day 1 : CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Internal Flow CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training
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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Internal Flow -

Examples

  • - Flow inside ducts

  • - Flow inside Intake/Exhaust manifolds

  • - Flow inside coolant jackets

  • - Flow inside human blood vessels

  • - In-Cylinder flow of IC engines

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Internal Flow - Examples - Flow inside ducts - Flow

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Internal Flow

Inlet

Inlet

Inlet

Inlet

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Internal Flow Inlet Inlet Inlet Outlet Outlet Outlet Outlet No

Outlet

Outlet

Outlet

Outlet

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions – Internal Flow Inlet Inlet Inlet Outlet Outlet Outlet Outlet No

No slip wall (u(u(u(u ==== 0)

No slip wall

No slip

No

slip wall

wall

0) 0)

0)

Adiabatic, fixed

Adiabatic, fixed

Adiabatic, fixed

Adiabatic,

fixed

temperature, or

temperature, or

temperature, or

or

temperature,

fixed heat flux.

fixed heat flux.

fixed heat

fixed

heat flux.

flux.

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Inlets

Velocity and Scalars can be specified for an inlet.

w u
w
u
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Inlets Velocity and Scalars can be specified for an inlet.

v

y

x
x
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Inlets Velocity and Scalars can be specified for an inlet.

y

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Inlets Velocity and Scalars can be specified for an inlet.

x

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Inlets Velocity and Scalars can be specified for an inlet.
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Inlets Velocity and Scalars can be specified for an inlet.

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of
 

n is the unit normal.

n is the unit normal.
n is the unit normal.

 
 
n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of all variables along flow direction is taken
n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of all variables along flow direction is taken

Gradients of all variables

• Gradients of all variables

along flow direction is taken

along flow direction is taken n
along flow direction is taken n

n

n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of all variables along flow direction is taken
n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of all variables along flow direction is taken

to be zero.

to be zero.
to be zero.

Mass flow is fixed from

   

 

overall continuity.

FLOW SPLIT

or

MASS FLOW RATE

     
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of
 
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Outlet n is the unit normal. • • Gradients of

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CFD Basics - Outlet Boundary Conditions

Zone of

Zone

of

Recirculation: Recirculation:

Area is

inaccurate

Developing

Developing

Zone:

Zone:

Area has little

accuracy

Developed

Developed

Zone:

Zone:

Area is

accurate

Flow direction L ≈≈≈≈3L-8L ≈≈≈≈10L CD-adapco, Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics - 28
Flow direction
L
≈≈≈≈3L-8L
≈≈≈≈10L
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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Symmetry

Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry plane plane plane plane indicates indicates indicates indicates aaaa surface surface surface
Symmetry
Symmetry
Symmetry
Symmetry plane
plane
plane
plane indicates
indicates
indicates
indicates aaaa surface
surface
surface
surface where
where
where
where normal
normal
normal
normal vel
vel
vel
velocity
ocity
ocity
ocity and
and
and
and normal
nor
nor
normal
mal
mal
velocity
velocity
velocity
velocity gradients
gradients
gradients
gradients are
are
are
are all
all
all
all zero.
zero.
zero.
zero. (n(n(n(n indicates
indicates
indicates
indicates the
the
the
the uuuunit
nit
nit
nit normal)
normal)
normal)
normal)
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry plane plane plane plane indicates
n
n
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry plane plane plane plane indicates
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry Symmetry plane plane plane plane indicates

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CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Periodic

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Periodic AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic
CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Periodic AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic
 
AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic boundary condition refers periodic boundary periodic boundary
AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic boundary condition refers periodic boundary periodic boundary
AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic boundary condition refers periodic boundary periodic boundary
AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic boundary condition refers periodic boundary periodic boundary
AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic boundary condition refers periodic boundary periodic boundary
 
AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic boundary condition refers periodic boundary periodic boundary
AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic boundary condition refers periodic boundary periodic boundary
AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic boundary condition refers periodic boundary periodic boundary
AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic boundary condition refers periodic boundary periodic boundary
AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic boundary condition refers periodic boundary periodic boundary

AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair

periodic boundary condition refers

periodic boundary

periodic

boundary condition

pair pair

pair

condition refers

refers

of boundaries where the flow repeats itself.

of boundaries where the flow repeats itself.

boundaries where

where the

of boundaries

of

the flow

flow repeats

repeats itself.

itself.

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Periodic AAAA periodic boundary condition refers totototo aaaa pair periodic

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CFD Basics – Gallery of Turbulence

CFD Basics – Gallery of Turbulence CFD Basics - 31 CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document
CFD Basics – Gallery of Turbulence CFD Basics - 31 CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document

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CFD Basics – Gallery of Turbulence CFD Basics - 31 CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document

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CFD Basics - Turbulence

Most of the commonly occurring flows are turbulent in

nature (e.g. Jet streams, combustion, boundary layers on

wings of aircraft etc.). Turbulence by itself is difficult to

define, but typically has the following characteristics:

  • - Irregular (hence requires statistical methods)

  • - Diffusive (causes rapid mixing)

  • - Large Reynolds numbers

  • - Three dimensional vorticity fluctuations

  • - Dissipative (exhibits viscous losses, and needs a

continuous supply of energy to make up for losses)

CFD Basics - Turbulence Most of the commonly occurring flows are turbulent in nature (e.g. Jet

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CFD Basics - Why do we need turbulence models?

Turbulence is influenced by structures having large length

scales, and small length scales (down to the molecular

level). To resolve all scales, the number of computational

cells is approximately (Re 3 ), which is beyond the

computing resources currently available.

In order to model scales smaller than the computational

cell size, turbulence models are required.

CFD Basics - Why do we need turbulence models? Turbulence is influenced by structures having large

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u

CFD Basics - Turbulence

u(t) U u'(t) High Reynolds Number • t
u(t)
U
u'(t)
High Reynolds Number
t

u(t) = U + u’(t)

   
   

1

 

∆∆∆∆t

 

ϕ = Φ =

∫∫∫∫

0

ϕ(t) dt

1 ∆∆∆∆ t • ϕ = Φ = ∫∫∫∫ 0 ϕ (t) dt ∆∆∆∆ t •
 

∆∆∆∆t

 
 

ϕ(t)=Φ+ ϕ’(t)

 
   
u CFD Basics - Turbulence u(t) U u'(t) High Reynolds Number • t • u(t) =
u CFD Basics - Turbulence u(t) U u'(t) High Reynolds Number • t • u(t) =

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CFD Basics - TURBULENCE MODELLING OPTIONS

Eddy Viscosity Models

  • 1. Linear k-ε models: standard, RNG, Chen • low- and high-Re variants of k-ε

  • 2. V2F model

  • 3. Non-linear models: quadratic and cubic k-ε, several variants • low- and high-Re • Suga • Speziale quadratic

  • 4. Other • k-ω: standard and SST, low- and high-Re • Spalart-Almaras

Reynolds Stress Transport models

Reynolds Stress Transport models

Reynolds

Transport models

models

Reynolds Stress

Stress Transport

  • 1. Gibson and Launder

  • 2. Craft

  • 3. Speziale, Sarker and Gatski

CFD Basics - TURBULENCE MODELLING OPTIONS Eddy Viscosity Models 1. Linear k- ε models: standard, RNG,

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CFD Basics - TURBULENCE MODELING OPTIONS

Detached Eddy Simulation

  • - In regions of irrotational flow, RANS is used

  • - In regions of detached eddies, LES is used

  • - Accurate for capturing eddies created by bluff bodies

  • - Excellent compromise between RANS and LES

Large Eddy Simulation

  • - Resolves the large scale eddies

  • - Uses a sub-grid scale model for small eddies

  • - Requires very fine mesh

DNS

  • - Models all eddies from large scale to small scale

  • - Not practical for industrial applications

CFD Basics - TURBULENCE MODELING OPTIONS Detached Eddy Simulation - In regions of irrotational flow, RANS

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CFD Basics – Inlet Turbulence

Turbulence conditions at inlet are seldom known.

If inlet is sufficiently upstream of region of interest, results

are insensitive to inlet turbulence.

If inlet is close to region of interest, need to perform a

sensitivity study of inlet turbulence on results.

CFD Basics – Inlet Turbulence • Turbulence conditions at inlet are seldom known. • If inlet

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CFD Basics – Inlet Turbulence

Estimation of Inlet Turbulence:

Intensity of turbulence I

Length of turbulence scale L

Common Practice

k =

  • 3 I V

2

2

 

2

 

»

»

I 0.03 - 0.10

L D h /10

C

3/4

k

3/2

D h is hydraulic diameter C µ = 0.09

ε =

µ

L

CFD Basics – Inlet Turbulence • Estimation of Inlet Turbulence : – Intensity of turbulence I

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CFD Basics – Turbulence Wall Treatment

Near wall treatment for turbulence models is typically chosen

based on the local non-dimensional distance of the cell centroid

of the near wall cell from the wall (y+).

y

+

=

C

1/4

µ

k

ρ

1/2

y/

µ

Where y is the distance of the near wall cell centroid from the wall, k is

the local turbulence kinetic energy, and C µ is a constant having a value of

0.09.

CFD Basics – Turbulence Wall Treatment Near wall treatment for turbulence models is typically chosen based

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CFD Basics – Turbulence Wall Treatment

Wall Functions

 

Computationally efficient

Uses logarithmic law of the wall

Requires y+ to be in the 30 – 200 range

Applies only to attached flows and fails in recirculating flows

Low Reynold’s number approach

 

Computationally expensive

Integrates down to the wall and uses no-slip

Requires near wall y+ less than 5

Hybrid Treatment

If y+ < 5, use Low Re approach

If y+ > 30 use Wall Function approach

If 5 < y+ < 30 blend smoothly between two approaches

CFD Basics – Turbulence Wall Treatment • Wall Functions – Computationally efficient – Uses logarithmic law

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CFD Basics - Estimation of Near Wall Cell Thickness

How can I get an approximate estimate of the near

wall cell thickness?

y + = C µ 1/4 ρ k 1/2 y / µ

  • 1. Estimate k from free stream velocity and an assumed

turbulence intensity (1.5 * I 2 U 2 )

  • 2. Substitute the required y + value in the equation, and get an estimate of y. Note: C µ =0.09

CFD Basics - Estimation of Near Wall Cell Thickness How can I get an approximate estimate

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CFD Basics - Choosing a turbulence Model

Spallart Almaras Turbulence Model

Recommended when flow is primarily attached with no separation, or

mild separation. e.g. For flow over a wing or a fueslage.

k-ε or k-ω Turbulence Model

Common industrial applications, with flow separation and recirculation.

Reynolds Stress Model

When the turbulence is highly anisotropic. e.g. In a Cyclone separator.

Detached Eddy Simulation

Recommended for aeroacoustic applications

CFD Basics - Choosing a turbulence Model Spallart Almaras Turbulence Model Recommended when flow is primarily

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CFD Basics - Choosing a Turbulence Model

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CFD Basics - Choosing a Turbulence Model

What is our recommendation on choosing a turbulence model?

Choose the simplest model which gives acceptable engineering results

for your application. Typically start with the k-ε turbulence model. If wall

effects are important, use either the hybrid wall functions, or a low

Reynolds number turbulence model, making sure to have a fine mesh

resolution in the wall region. If anisotropic effects are important, then

use Reynolds Stress Models.

What factors other than a turbulence model affect accuracy of a

simulation?

  • - Inlet values of turbulence chosen

  • - Size and quality of the computational grid

CFD Basics - Choosing a Turbulence Model What is our recommendation on choosing a turbulence model?

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CFD Basics - Discretization

In order to obtain a solution for the governing equations, the

mathematical model (equations and constitutive relationships) is

transformed into a system of algebraic equations.

Special techniques are used for the transient, convection,

diffusion and source terms in this process.

The discretized equations have the form expressed in the

equation below. C denotes cell center value, and k denotes

values in neighboring cells.

A φ

c

c

+

k

A φ

k

k

=

Q

c

CFD Basics - Discretization In order to obtain a solution for the governing equations, the mathematical

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CFD Basics – Solution of Discretized Equations

The discretized equations are coupled and non-linear. The

discretized equations are then solved using iterative

methods.

Steady State problems typically use the SIMPLE algorithm,

and transient problems either use SIMPLE or PISO

algorithms.

CFD Basics – Solution of Discretized Equations The discretized equations are coupled and non-linear. The discretized

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CFD Basics – SIMPLE Algorithm

What does SIMPLE stand for?

Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations

A variation of the SIMPLE algorithm is used in all CD-

adapco solvers for solving the equations of fluid flow and

heat transfer. (Note that STAR V3.26 uses the PISO

algorithm (Pressure Implicit Split Operator) for transient

analysis)

CFD Basics – SIMPLE Algorithm What does SIMPLE stand for? Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations

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CFD Basics – SIMPLE Algorithm

Main Steps in SIMPLE:

  • 1. Variables are assigned initial values at startup, and time is advanced by dt (time step).

  • 2. With the initially guessed pressure field, the momentum equations are solved, to obtain an approximate velocity field.

  • 3. The velocity field computed in step 2 along with the prevailing density is used to compute new mass fluxes, and then solve the mass conservation (pressure correction equation). This results in corrections for velocities, density and pressure being computed and applied.

  • 4. If applicable, additional transport equations (turbulence, energy, species

concentration) are solved.

  • 5. If necessary, fluid properties (e.g. density, viscosity, Prandtl number are updated).

  • 6. Steps 2 through 5 constitute an outer iteration. These steps are repeated until the residual level before the first inner iteration in each equation becomes sufficiently small.

  • 7. When the non-linear coupled equations are satisfied to a desired tolerance, time is advanced by dt, and the process is repeated.

CFD Basics – SIMPLE Algorithm Main Steps in SIMPLE: 1. Variables are assigned initial values at

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CFD Basics – Under-relaxation

In order to promote stability of the solution method, an under-

relaxation is done for all variables (other than the pressure

correction).

In the equations below, k+1 refers to the most recent iteration or

time step, and k refers to the prior iteration or time step. Omega is

the under-relaxation factor, having a value between 0 and 1.

CFD Basics – Under-relaxation In order to promote stability of the solution method, an under- relaxation
CFD Basics – Under-relaxation In order to promote stability of the solution method, an under- relaxation
CFD Basics – Under-relaxation In order to promote stability of the solution method, an under- relaxation

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CFD Basics – Convergence Monitoring

There are two main criteria for convergence monitoring:

  • 1. Make sure that the global residuals reduce by 2-3 orders of magnitude (applies only if starting with a zero solution in the domain, or a simple initial guess).

  • 2. Monitor of engineering quantities of interest (e.g. drag

coefficient, pressure rise across a fan, pressure drop

across a heat exchanger) and make sure that they do not

change with iteration.

We need to make sure that both of the above criteria are

met before we declare our solution to be converged.

CFD Basics – Convergence Monitoring There are two main criteria for convergence monitoring: 1. Make sure

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CFD Basics – Convergence Monitoring

Residuals

Residuals

Residuals

Residuals

Outlet Temperature

Outlet Temperature

Temperature

Temperature

Outlet

Outlet

CFD Basics – Convergence Monitoring Residuals Residuals Residuals Residuals Outlet Temperature Outlet Temperature Temperature Outlet Outlet
CFD Basics – Convergence Monitoring Residuals Residuals Residuals Residuals Outlet Temperature Outlet Temperature Temperature Outlet Outlet

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CFD Basics – Errors in CFD

The following are the main types of errors in a CFD analysis:

Modeling Errors – This is the difference between the actual flow and

the exact solution of the model equations (Navier stokes or RANS

equations)

Discretization Errors – This is the difference between the exact

solution of the differential equation, and the exact solution of the

algebraic system of equations obtained by discretizing them.

Iteration Errors – This is the difference between the iterative and

exact solution of the algebraic equation systems.

CFD Basics – Errors in CFD The following are the main types of errors in a

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CFD Basics – Modeling Errors

In case of turbulent flows in complex geometries, modeling

errors are mainly due to imperfections in the turbulence

model and to simplifications in the geometry or boundary

conditions.

How can modeling errors be estimated?

Compare solutions in which discretization and iteration

errors are negligible, with accurate experimental data, or

data obtained by more accurate models (e.g. Direct

Numerical Simulation).

CFD Basics – Modeling Errors In case of turbulent flows in complex geometries, modeling errors are

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CFD Basics – Discretization Errors

Discretization errors can be estimated by performing a

systematic grid refinement and comparing the solutions

obtained on a sequence of grids. The errors are

proportional to the difference in solution obtained on

consecutive grids.

CFD Basics – Discretization Errors Discretization errors can be estimated by performing a systematic grid refinement

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CFD Basics – Iterative Errors

The level of iterative errors can be reliably controlled by

monitoring the residual norms (either sum of absolute

values, or the square root of the sum of squares of

residuals in all Control Volumes).

It is not the level of the residual itself, but the amount of

reduction compared to initial levels that is important.

CFD Basics – Iterative Errors The level of iterative errors can be reliably controlled by monitoring

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CFD Basics – Non Dimensional Numbers

Next we briefly overview some important non-dimensional

numbers that are used in CFD.

CFD Basics – Non Dimensional Numbers Next we briefly overview some important non-dimensional numbers that are

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CFD Basics – Laminar vs Turbulent

Reynolds Number = Inertia Force / Viscous force

Reynolds Number =

(ρ * U * L)/ µ

(ρ is the density, U is a characteristic velocity, L is a characteristic

length scale, and µ is the laminar viscosity)

If Reynolds number is low, flow is laminar (viscous forces dominate)

If Reynolds number is high, flow is turbulent

e.g.

For pipe flows: Re > 2300 implies turbulent flow

For flat plate: Re > 5e5 implies turbulent flow

CFD Basics – Laminar vs Turbulent Reynolds Number = Inertia Force / Viscous force Reynolds Number

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CFD Basics – Compressible vs Incompressible

Mach Number = speed of flow / speed of sound

If Mach Number is above 0.3, need to model as

compressible.

In low speed flows, if temperature change causes a

change in density, then flow should be modeled as

compressible.

CFD Basics – Compressible vs Incompressible Mach Number = speed of flow / speed of sound

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CFD Basics – Natural vs Force Convection

Gr/Re 2 = Buoyancy Force / Inertia Force

Grashof Number / Reynolds Number 2 = g * β * T / (U 2 )

Where g is gravity, β is the coefficient of volume

expansion, T is the difference in temperature between

the surface and the free stream, U is the free stream

velocity.

If Gr/Re 2 >> 1, then effect of buoyancy is important

If Gr/Re 2 << 1 buoyancy effects are unimportant

CFD Basics – Natural vs Force Convection Gr / Re = Buoyancy Force / Inertia Force

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CFD Basics – Conduction vs Convection

Biot Number = Resistance of conduction / Resistance

of convection

Biot Number = (L/k) / (1/h)

Where L is the thickness of the body, k is the thermal

conductivity, and h is the heat transfer coefficient.

If Bi >> 1, wall side resistance is large, and wall conduction

should be included

If Bi << 1, wall side resistance is small and wall can be

treated as a constant temperature boundary condition.

CFD Basics – Conduction vs Convection Biot Number = Resistance of conduction / Resistance of convection

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CFD Basics – Mesh Generation

Solid

... of the Surface Meshing: ... CAD MESHER ... of the Volume (calculation) Fluid
...
of
the Surface
Meshing: ...
CAD
MESHER
...
of
the Volume
(calculation)
Fluid
CFD Basics – Mesh Generation Solid ... of the Surface Meshing: ... CAD MESHER ... of

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CFD Basics – Mesh Generation

The quality of a CFD solution is dependent on the quality of

the underlying volume mesh.

Hence it is important to ensure a good quality volume

mesh (which requires a good quality surface mesh)

CFD Basics – Mesh Generation The quality of a CFD solution is dependent on the quality

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CFD Basics - Elements of Surface Meshing

quad triangle
quad
triangle
CFD Basics - Elements of Surface Meshing quad triangle Arbitrary Polygon CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training

Arbitrary Polygon

CFD Basics - Elements of Surface Meshing quad triangle Arbitrary Polygon CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training

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CFD Basics - Surface Mesh Quality

CFD Basics - Surface Mesh Quality HIGH QUALITY Equilateral triangles imply good quality . Equilateral triangles
CFD Basics - Surface Mesh Quality HIGH QUALITY Equilateral triangles imply good quality . Equilateral triangles

LOW QUALITY

HIGH QUALITY

Equilateral triangles imply good quality.

Equilateral triangles imply good quality

Equilateral triangles

Equilateral

triangles imply

imply good

good quality

quality

CFD Basics - Surface Mesh Quality HIGH QUALITY Equilateral triangles imply good quality . Equilateral triangles

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CFD Basics - Surface Mesh Quality

CFD Basics - Surface Mesh Quality HIGH QUALITY IfIfIfIf the angle between the face normal and

LOW QUALITY

CFD Basics - Surface Mesh Quality HIGH QUALITY IfIfIfIf the angle between the face normal and

HIGH QUALITY

IfIfIfIf the angle between the face normal and the vector joining adja

the angle

the

angle between

between the

the face

face normal

normal and

and the

the vector

vector joining

adja

the angle between the face normal and the vector joining adjacent

cent

joining adjacent

cent cell

cell cell cell

centroids isisisis small, the

centroids

centroids

centroids

small,

small,

small, the triangle

the the triangle quality

triangle

triangle quality

quality quality isisisis high.

high.

high.

high.

CFD Basics - Surface Mesh Quality HIGH QUALITY IfIfIfIf the angle between the face normal and

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CFD Basics – Surface Mesh

What are the requirements of a surface mesh, in order

to get a valid volume mesh using CD-adapco auto

mesh tools?

  • - Surface is closed (water tight)

  • - Triangles are connected one to one

  • - Surface is manifold (Only two cells connected to an edge)

CFD Basics – Surface Mesh What are the requirements of a surface mesh, in order to

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CFD Basics – Basic Volume Mesh Elements

Hexahedral Tetrahedral
Hexahedral
Tetrahedral
CFD Basics – Basic Volume Mesh Elements Hexahedral Tetrahedral Prismatic Pyramid Arbitrary Polyhedral CD-adapco , Americas

Prismatic

CFD Basics – Basic Volume Mesh Elements Hexahedral Tetrahedral Prismatic Pyramid Arbitrary Polyhedral CD-adapco , Americas
CFD Basics – Basic Volume Mesh Elements Hexahedral Tetrahedral Prismatic Pyramid Arbitrary Polyhedral CD-adapco , Americas
CFD Basics – Basic Volume Mesh Elements Hexahedral Tetrahedral Prismatic Pyramid Arbitrary Polyhedral CD-adapco , Americas

Pyramid

Arbitrary

Polyhedral

CFD Basics – Basic Volume Mesh Elements Hexahedral Tetrahedral Prismatic Pyramid Arbitrary Polyhedral CD-adapco , Americas

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Day 1 – CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types

Generally mesh generation is done either using manual

techniques (e.g. in pro-STAR) or using an auto-mesher

(e.g. ammbatch)

When do we need manual meshing?

- If we need a structured mesh (for cell layer addition and

deletion)

- If we have very tight gaps (e.g. nominal cell size is 2mm,

but gaps are of the order of 0.05 mm)

Day 1 – CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types Generally mesh generation is done either using

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CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types

What are the mesh types that can be generated by CD-

adapco auto meshers?

Trim Mesh

 

Least demanding on surface quality

Polyhedral Mesh

As automated as a tetrahedral mesher

Numerically more stable, less diffusive, and more accurate than an equivalent tetrahedral mesh

Hybrid Mesh

Tetrahedral mesh

CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types What are the mesh types that can be generated by

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CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types

Trim Mesh

CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types Trim Mesh CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics
CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types Trim Mesh CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics

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CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types

When is a trim mesh recommended?

  • 1. If an underlying custom mesh needs to be used (e.g. for

turbo machinery applications, a basic bodyfitted

structured mesh can be used as a template for creating a

volume mesh with additional details.)

  • 2. If surface quality is not good enough for a polyhedral mesh.

CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types When is a trim mesh recommended? 1. If an underlying

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CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types

Polyhedral Mesh

CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types Polyhedral Mesh CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics
CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types Polyhedral Mesh CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics

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CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types

When is a polyhedral mesh recommended?

  • 1. If the quality of surface mesh is excellent.

  • 2. If process of mesh generation needs to be highly

automated (as automated as a tetrahedral mesh).

CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types When is a polyhedral mesh recommended? 1. If the quality

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CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types

Tetrahedral Mesh

CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types Tetrahedral Mesh CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics
CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types Tetrahedral Mesh CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics

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CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types

When is a tetrahedral mesh recommended?

The only scenario where a tetrahedral mesh is

recommended is when comparisons have to be made with

legacy tetrahedral models.

CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Types When is a tetrahedral mesh recommended? The only scenario where

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CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh CFD Basics - 76 • Mesh

CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh

CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh CFD Basics - 76 • Mesh

CFD Basics - 76

Mesh dependency performed

by successively halving

surface triangulation size from

20mm to 0.625mm

Convergence judged from

pressure drop across jacket

CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh CFD Basics - 76 • Mesh
CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh CFD Basics - 76 • Mesh

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CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh

39,587 39,587 39,587 39,587 TETS TETS TETS TETS
39,587
39,587
39,587
39,587
TETS
TETS
TETS
TETS
21,872 21,872 21,872 21,872 POLYS POLYS POLYS POLYS
21,872
21,872
21,872
21,872
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
2,322,106 2,322,106 2,322,106 2,322,106 TETS TETS TETS TETS
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
TETS
TETS
TETS
TETS
CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh 39,587 39,587 39,587 39,587 TETS TETS
593,888 593,888 593,888 593,888 POLYS POLYS POLYS POLYS
593,888
593,888
593,888
593,888
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS

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CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh

Contours of Static

Contours of Static

Contours of

Contours

of Static

Static

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh Contours of Static Contours of Static
CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh Contours of Static Contours of Static
CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh Contours of Static Contours of Static
2,322,106 2,322,106 2,322,106 2,322,106 TETS TETS TETS TETS
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
TETS
TETS
TETS
TETS
593,888 593,888 593,888 593,888 POLYS POLYS POLYS POLYS
593,888
593,888
593,888
593,888
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS

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CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh

CFD Basics – Advantages of Polyhedral Mesh over Tetrahedral Mesh MESH MESH MESH MESH DEPENDENCY DEPENDENCY
MESH MESH MESH MESH DEPENDENCY DEPENDENCY DEPENDENCY DEPENDENCY 7 TET TET TET TET POLY POLY POLY
MESH
MESH
MESH
MESH DEPENDENCY
DEPENDENCY
DEPENDENCY
DEPENDENCY
7
TET
TET
TET
TET
POLY
POLY
POLY
POLY
6
5
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
hours
hours
hours
hours
4
> 5% error
> 5% error
> 5% error
> 5% error
43.25
43.25
43.25 hours
43.25
hours
hours
hours
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6 hours
hours
hours
hours
10101010 hours
hours
hours
hours
< 3% error
< 3% error
< 3% error
< 3% error
3
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
Delta P (kPa)

Run on a 3Ghz

Dual Processor

workstation with

2GB RAM

Number of Cells

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CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Quality

Low Quality High Quality CD-adapco, Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics - 80 Convection Diffusion
Low Quality
High Quality
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CFD Basics - 80
Convection
Diffusion

CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Quality

Accuracy of Convection

  • - When using linear interpolation for convective fluxes, the

lines connecting neighboring faces should pass through

the center of the common face.

Accuracy of Diffusion

  • - Maximum accuracy of diffusive fluxes is achieved when the line connecting neighbor cell centers is orthogonal to the

cell face, and also passes through the center of the

common face.

CFD Basics – Volume Mesh Quality Accuracy of Convection - When using linear interpolation for convective

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CFD Basics – Grid Generation Guidelines

General Guidelines on Grid Generation

~5 control volumes across a shear layer

~5 control volumes across a separated region

At Least 4 control volumes across a flow passage

Vary grid spacing gradually

Keep aspect ratio reasonable (Less than 1:10 whenever

possible)

CFD Basics – Grid Generation Guidelines General Guidelines on Grid Generation • ~5 control volumes across

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CFD Basics – Grid Generation Guidelines

Insufficient Insufficient mesh Insufficient mesh Insufficient mesh mesh resolution resolution resolution resolution totototo resolve resolve resolve
Insufficient
Insufficient mesh
Insufficient mesh
Insufficient mesh
mesh
resolution resolution
resolution
resolution totototo resolve
resolve resolve
resolve
flow.
flow.
flow.
flow.
Refinement
Refinement enables better
Refinement enables
Refinement enables better
enables better
better
resolution of the flow.
resolution
resolution of
resolution of the flow.
of the
the flow.
flow.
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CFD Basics - Post-Processing

Reporting

 

Drag / Lift Coefficients

Heat Rejection by heat exchanger

Pressure rise across a fan or compressor

Pressure drop in a duct

Swirl, tumble, burn rate in an IC engine

Flow Visualization

Visualization of Fields

» Scalar Quantities

» Vector Quantities

Streamlines

Iso-Surfaces

Animation

CFD Basics - Post-Processing • Reporting – Drag / Lift Coefficients – Heat Rejection by heat

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CFD Basics – Reporting and Monitoring

CFD Basics – Reporting and Monitoring Residual Convergence Residual Convergence Residual Convergence Residual Convergence CD-adapco ,
CFD Basics – Reporting and Monitoring Residual Convergence Residual Convergence Residual Convergence Residual Convergence CD-adapco ,

Residual Convergence

Residual Convergence

Residual Convergence

Residual

Convergence

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Centerline Cp

Centerline Cp

Centerline Cp

Centerline

Cp

Drag/Lift Monitoring

Drag/Lift Monitoring

Drag/Lift Monitoring

Drag/Lift

Monitoring

Field Values

Field Values

Field Values

Field

Values

CFD Basics – Reporting and Monitoring Residual Convergence Residual Convergence Residual Convergence Residual Convergence CD-adapco ,

CFD Basics - 85

CFD Basics – Post Processing – Scalars and Vectors

CFD Basics – Post Processing – Scalars and Vectors CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD
CFD Basics – Post Processing – Scalars and Vectors CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD

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CFD Basics – Post-processing – Surface Plot –

Coefficient of Pressure

CFD Basics – Post-processing – Surface Plot – Coefficient of Pressure CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training
CFD Basics – Post-processing – Surface Plot – Coefficient of Pressure CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training

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CFD Basics : Post-Processing Capabilities: Streamlines

CFD Basics : Post-Processing Capabilities: Streamlines CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics - 88
CFD Basics : Post-Processing Capabilities: Streamlines CD-adapco , Americas Agency Training Document CFD Basics - 88

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CFD Basics : Post-Processing - Isosurfaces

CFD Basics : Post-Processing - Isosurfaces Total Pressure = 0, Isosurface plot. CD-adapco , Americas Agency

Total Pressure = 0, Isosurface

plot.

CFD Basics : Post-Processing - Isosurfaces Total Pressure = 0, Isosurface plot. CD-adapco , Americas Agency

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CFD Basics - Divergence

What do I do if my solution diverges?

  • - Check physical models chosen, and boundary conditions applied.

  • - Check and make sure dimensions of the problem are setup correctly.

  • - Check and make sure mesh quality is good, and sufficient mesh density is available for resolving the flow features.

  • - Reduce under-relaxation factors.

  • - Simplify the physics

CFD Basics - Divergence What do I do if my solution diverges? - Check physical models

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CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality in CFD Analysis

Ensuring quality of CFD analysis is an important process.

The next few slides briefly outline practices used within

CD-adapco.

CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality in CFD Analysis Ensuring quality of CFD analysis is an important

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CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality in CFD Analysis

Main Phases:

  • 1. Initial Project Review

  • 2. Pre-Analysis Review

  • 3. Final Analysis Review

CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality in CFD Analysis Main Phases: 1. Initial Project Review 2. Pre-Analysis

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CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality of CFD Analysis

Initial Project Review

  • - Define scope of project and cross check with customer

  • - Define time frame and resources for project

  • - Check with customer and make sure all cad data is

available and consistent

CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality of CFD Analysis Initial Project Review - Define scope of project

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CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality of CFD Analysis

Pre Analysis Review

  • - Does the generated mesh match CAD supplied?

  • - Have the boundary conditions been correctly applied?

  • - Is the mesh density sufficient to answer objectives of

analysis?

  • - Have correct material properties been defined?

  • - Have the correct physics models been applied?

  • - What post processing is required?

  • - Do results from running a few iterations / time steps look

reasonable?

CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality of CFD Analysis Pre Analysis Review - Does the generated mesh

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CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality of CFD Analysis

Final Analysis Review

  • - Has the solution fully converged?

  • - Double check, initial and boundary conditions

  • - Double check material properties

  • - Do results make physical sense? (compare with prior

analysis if possible)

  • - Have all the questions of the customer been answered?

CFD Basics – Ensuring Quality of CFD Analysis Final Analysis Review - Has the solution fully

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CFD Basics: CD-adapco Solvers

CD-adapco offers two CFD Solvers:

STAR-CD

  • - V3.2x

-

20 Years of Development

  • - V4.x

-

Rewrite of STAR V3.2x as a face based solver.

-

Uses an upgraded pre/post Processor of V3.2x

STAR-CCM+

  • - New Integrated Meshing / Pre-Processor / Solver / Post Processor, all

under one GUI.

  • - Developed with novel concepts, keeping in mind of very large models.

CFD Basics: CD-adapco Solvers CD-adapco offers two CFD Solvers: STAR-CD - V3.2x - 20 Years of

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CFD Basics – Comparison of CD-adapco Solvers

The next few slides compare the available features (for

mesh generation, physics, and coupling) in STAR V3.26,

STAR V4.06 and STAR-CCM+ V3.02

CFD Basics – Comparison of CD-adapco Solvers The next few slides compare the available features (for

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CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Mesh Topology

Mesh Type

STAR-CD V3.26

STAR-CD V4.06

STAR-CCM+

V3.02

Hexahedral

Yes

Yes

Yes

Hexahedral / Trim

Yes

Yes

Yes

Hex / Tet (Hybrid)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Arbirtrary

No

Yes

Yes

Polyhedra

CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Mesh Topology Mesh Type STAR-CD V3.26 STAR-CD V4.06 STAR-CCM+

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CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Mesh Motion

Mesh Motion

STAR-CD

STAR-CD

STAR-CCM+

V3.26

V4.06

V3.02

Rotating Reference

Yes

Yes

Yes

Frames

Arbitrary Sliding Meshes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Parallel Partition across

No

No

Yes

interfaces

Cell layer addition /

Yes

Yes

No

removal

Conditional Cell

Yes

Yes

No

attachment / detachment

General Mesh Motion

Yes

Yes

No

CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Mesh Motion Mesh Motion STAR-CD STAR-CD STAR-CCM+ V3.26 V4.06

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CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Solution

Algorithms

Algorithm

STAR-CD V3.26

STAR-CD V4.06

STAR-CCM+

V3.02

SIMPLE

Yes*

Yes

Yes

AMG

Yes

Yes

Yes

PISO

Yes

Yes

No

Coupled Solver

No

No

Yes

Note: STAR V3.26 has SIMPLE for Steady State Only.

Note:

Note:

Note:

CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Solution Algorithms Algorithm STAR-CD V3.26 STAR-CD V4.06 STAR-CCM+ V3.02

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CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer

STAR-CD

STAR-CD

STAR-CCM+

V3.26

V4.06

V3.02

Conjugate Heat Transfer

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surface Exchange

Yes

Yes

Yes

Radiation

Participating Media

Yes

Yes

Yes

Radiation

Solar Radiation

Yes

Yes

Yes

Transparent Solids

Yes

Yes

Yes

CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Heat Transfer Heat Transfer STAR-CD STAR-CD STAR-CCM+ V3.26 V4.06

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CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – General

Combustion Models

Mesh Type

STAR-CD

STAR-CD

STAR-CCM+

V3.26

V4.06

V3.02

Solid (e.g. Coal)

Yes

Yes

No

Liquid

Yes

Yes

No

Gaseous

Yes

Yes

Yes

EBU

Yes

Yes

Yes

CFM

Yes

Yes

Yes

Hybrid (kinetic / EBU)

Yes

Yes

No

PPDF

Yes

Yes

Yes

Ignition

Yes

Yes

Yes

NOx and SOOT Models

Yes

Yes

No

Complex Chemistry

Yes

Yes

No

CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – General Combustion Models Mesh Type STAR-CD STAR-CD STAR-CCM+ V3.26

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CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – IC Engine

Combustion Models

IC Engine Combustion

STAR-CD

STAR-CD

STAR-CCM+

V3.26

V4.06

V3.02

Premixed SI

Yes

Yes

No

Partially Premixed SI

Yes

Yes

No

Diesel Combustion Models

Yes

Yes

No

Diesel Ignition Models

Yes

Yes

No

EGR

Yes

Yes

No

NOx

Yes

Yes

No

SOOT

Yes

Yes

No

CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – IC Engine Combustion Models IC Engine Combustion STAR-CD STAR-CD

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CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Multi-Phase

Flows

Feature

STAR-CD V3.26

STAR-CD V4.06

STAR-CCM+

V3.02

Free Surface

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cavitation

Yes

Yes

Yes

Dispersed Multiphase

Yes

Yes

Yes *

(Lagrangian)

Interpenetrating

Yes

Yes

No

Phases (Eulerian)

Liquid Film

Yes

Yes

No

Note: * Currently L2P in STAR-CCM+ does not include evaporation.

CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Multi-Phase Flows Feature STAR-CD V3.26 STAR-CD V4.06 STAR-CCM+ V3.02

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CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Multiphysics

Feature

STAR-CD V3.26

STAR-CD V4.06

STAR-CCM+

V3.02

Aeroacoustics

Yes

Yes

Yes

Fluid Structure

Yes

No

No

Interaction

Stress

No

Yes* (Beta)

No

Melting and

No

Yes* (Beta)

No

Solidification

Electromagnetics

No

Yes* (Beta)

No

CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Multiphysics Feature STAR-CD V3.26 STAR-CD V4.06 STAR-CCM+ V3.02 Aeroacoustics

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CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Coupling to Other

Codes

CODE

STAR-CD V3.26

STAR-CD V4.06

STAR-CCM+

V3.02

GT-Power

Yes

Yes

No

Wave

Yes

Yes

No

FlowMaster

Yes

Yes

No

SYSNOISE and

Yes

Yes

No

ACTRAN

CHEMKIN

Yes

No

No

DARS

Yes* (V3.27)

Yes

Yes

CFD Basics – Comparison of Solvers – Coupling to Other Codes CODE STAR-CD V3.26 STAR-CD V4.06

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Lecture – STAR-CCM+ - Basics

This lecture introduces the basics of STAR-CCM+ to a new user.

Topics Covered

  • 1. Introduction to the client server architecture

  • 2. Unique features

  • 3. Meshing capabilities

  • 4. Physics Models

  • 5. Boundary conditions and Post-Processing

  • 6. GUI layout

  • 7. Simulation File

  • 8. Workflow

  • 9. Accessing Help

Lecture – STAR-CCM+ - Basics This lecture introduces the basics of STAR-CCM+ to a new user.

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Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics - Introduction

STAR-CCM+ is a state-of-the-art CFD solver from CD-

adapco that uses a Client Server approach.

- Java front end (light on memory) and a C++ server

Client Client Client Client Server Server Server Server
Client
Client
Client
Client
Server
Server
Server
Server
Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics - Introduction STAR-CCM+ is a state-of-the-art CFD solver from CD- adapco that

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Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics - Introduction

What is a client?

Client is the part through which you launch a simulation

and work with, typically through the STAR-CCM+

workspace.

What is a server?

Server is the part of the architecture that implements

commands in a simulation (e.g. import data, run the solver)

Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics - Introduction What is a client? Client is the part through which

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Lecture - STAR-CCM+ - Basics – Unique Environment

What is unique about the STAR-CCM+ environment?

State of the art object-based GUI

Simulation database:

Fast, loaded on demand

Binary

Platform and Parallel independent

User Programming

Java language scripting

User defined boundary conditions, source terms and post-processing

Scalable, seamless parallel operation

Client Server Architecture

Operable on Windows, LINUX, and several UNIX platforms

Documentation

Via online browser

Context Sensitive help with F1 Key

pdf document

Lecture - STAR-CCM+ - Basics – Unique Environment What is unique about the STAR-CCM+ environment? •

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Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics – Novel Concepts

  • 1. Multi-Physics, continuum based modeling.

  • 2. Separation of Physics and Mesh.

  • 3. Generalized interfaces (allow communication between different regions in the solution domain).

Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics – Novel Concepts 1. Multi-Physics, continuum based modeling. 2. Separation of Physics

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Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics – Ports Supported

STAR-CCM+ is currently ported to:

Windows 2000 / XP (32 bit and 64 bit)

Linux 32 bit

Linux 64 bit

IBM AIX

HPUX PaRisc

HP Itanium

SGI Altix

Sun Solaris

Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics – Ports Supported STAR-CCM+ is currently ported to: Windows 2000 / XP

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Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics – Mesh

Surface Mesh Formats

.dbs – pro-STAR surface database

.inp – pro-STAR cell / vertex shell input file

.nas – NASTRAN shell file

.pat – PATRAN shell file

.stl – Stereolithography file

.fro – FELISA front surface file

Jt – JT Open Surface file

Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics – Mesh • Surface Mesh Formats – .dbs – pro-STAR surface database

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Lecture – STAR-CCM+ Basics - Mesh

CAD Import Formats

  • - x_t, x_b – Parasolid Transmit File

  • - .stp, .step – Standardized Exchange of Product File

  • - .igs, .iges – International Graphics Exchange Standard File

Lecture – STAR-CCM+ Basics - Mesh CAD Import Formats - x_t, x_b – Parasolid Transmit File

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Lecture - STAR-CCM+ - Basics - Mesh

Surface Meshing

Surface Remesher

Surface Wrapper (automated method for closing surfaces)

Hole Filling

Rough Patcher

Edge Zipper

Edge split, swap (techniques for improving triangle quality)

Automatic repair of surface errors

Automatic / Manual extraction of feature curves

Surface Creation and Manipulation

  • - Creation of simple shapes

  • - Boolean Unite, Subtract and Intersect

Lecture - STAR-CCM+ - Basics - Mesh Surface Meshing – Surface Remesher – Surface Wrapper (automated

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Lecture – STAR-CCM+ Basics - Mesh

Volume Meshing

Core Mesh

» Tetrahedral mesh

» Polyhedral mesh

» Advanced Hexahedral (Trim) mesh

Boundary Layer mesh with prism layer

Local / global parameter setting for mesh generation

Volume sources (shapes like box, cone, cylinder, sphere for

declaring regions in the cfd domain that need refinement)

Extruder (For extending domains, building a solid layer)

Lecture – STAR-CCM+ Basics - Mesh • Volume Meshing – Core Mesh » Tetrahedral mesh »

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Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics - Mesh

Mesh Manipulation

Transform – scale, translate, rotate, and reflect meshes Split and combine boundaries and regions Create, delete and fuse interfaces Convert 3D mesh to 2D mesh Create Cell Sets

Lecture - STAR-CCM+ Basics - Mesh • Mesh Manipulation Transform – scale, translate, rotate, and reflect

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Lecture - STAR-CCM+ - Basics - Mesh

Import of Volume Mesh

pro-STAR Gridgen (via .cas file) Fluent (.cas, .msh) Gambit ICEM