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VERBAL ANALOGIES: AN INTRODUCTION Verbal analogies provide excellent training in seeing relationships between concepts.

From a practical standpoint, verbal analogies always appear on standardized tests (like the SAT, the GRE, and other professional exams). Increasingly, too, employers may use these word comparisons on personnel and screening tests to determine an applicants quickness and verbal acuity. So it is worth your while to master this skill, and besides, theyre fun to do. How to "Read" Analogies The symbol ( : ) means "is to" and the symbol ( : : ) means "as." Thus, the analogy, "aspirin : headache : : nap : fatigue," should be read "aspirin is to headache as nap is to fatigue." Stated another way, the relationship between aspirin and headache is the same as the relationship between nap and fatigue. Tips for Doing Analogies

entomologist : insects : : philosopher : ideas 6. Part and Whole eraser : pencil : : tooth : comb 7. Steps in a Process cooking : serving : : word processing : printing 8. Cause and Effect (or Typical Result) fire : scorch : : blizzard : freeze 9. Thing and Its Function scissors : cut : : pen : write 10. Qualities or Characteristics aluminum : lightweight : : thread : fragile 11. Substance Related to End Product silk : scarf : : wool : sweater 12. Implied Relationships light : knowledge cow : milk gold : valuable shovel : dig poison : death birth : life : death wheels : bicycle

Try to determine the relationship between the first pair of words. Eliminate any pairs in your answer choices that dont have the same relationship. Try putting the first pair into a sentence: "Aspirin relieves a headache." Therefore, a nap relieves fatigue. Sometimes paying attention to the words parts of speech helps. For example "knife" (noun) : "cut" (verb) : : "pen" (also a noun) : "write" (also a verb).

clouds : sun : : hypocrisy : truth 13. Thing and What It Lacks atheist : belief : : indigent : money 14. Symbol and What It Represents Uncle Sam : U. S. spinster : husband

Common Relationships Between Word Pairs boring : monotonous

1. Sameness (synonyms) wealthy : affluent : : indigent : poverty-stricken 2. Oppositeness (antonyms) zenith : nadir : : pinnacle : valley 3. Classification Order (general specific) orange : fruit : : beet : vegetable 4. Difference of Degree (or Connotative Values) slender : skinny clever : crafty : : modest : prim 5.

genuine : phony

food : fruit : peach

cool : cold : frozen

Person Related to Tool, Major Trait, writer : novel Skill, or Interest