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4.

1 Rerating Piping and Pressure Vessels


Overview Guidelines Minimum Required Thickness Determination Regulatory Requirements

Major Piping Inspection Codes


API 570 Piping Inspection Code
Underlying Design Standards New Construction
ASMEB16.34 Valves - Flanged Threaded and Welding ends

Corrosion Mitigation Standards


API 651 Cathodic Protection of Aboveground Storage Tanks NACE RP0169 Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems

Quality

Safety

Other Inspection Codes / Documents

ASME BPVC Sec IX, "Welding and Brazing Qualifications"

API RP 750 Management of Process Hazards Of Materials NFPA 704 Identification of the Fire Hazards of Materials

API 510 Pressure Vessel Inspection Code

ASME BPVC Sec VIII, Division 1 & 2 Pressure Vessels

ASME B31.3 Process Piping

R:0170 Protection of Austenitic Stainless Steels from Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking During Sh d Shutdown of f Refinery Equipment

NACE RP0274 High-Voltage Electrical Inspection of Pipeline Coatings Prior to Installation

CP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel

API RP 574 Inspection of Piping System Components

SNT-TC-1A

API 598 Valve Inspection and Testing

Application of Organic Coatings to the External Surface of Steel Pipe for Underground Piping

Notes: 1. The source of this data is from API Standard 570 "Piping Inspection Code", Second Edition October 1998, Section2 "References"; 2. API 570 references directly all of the standards shown on this diagram and they are applicable and mandatory under the appropriate conditions as indicated in API 570. 3. API Standards are revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn at least every 5 years. 4. API Standards, revision or addenda are effective 6 months after the date of issuance

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

Piping System Management Cycle


Monitoring Techniques Data Gathering Methods Inspection Techniques Inspection And data Gathering Prioritize Pipes For Analysis Repair Rehabilitate Replace

Failure Mechanisms

Condition Assessment Probability Of Failure

Decision Making

C t of Cost f Renewal Available Funds

Deterioration Rates

Consequences Of Failure

Rerating
Rerate. A change in either or both the d i temperature design t t or the th maximum i allowable working pressure. Existing piping systems or pressure equipment might require rerating to accommodate new operational needs (or to accommodate deterioration that cannot or will not be repaired).

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

Rerating - 2
Frequently when debottlenecking process plant equipment, i t the th possibility ibilit of f increasing i i the th equipment's design temperature, design pressure, or both comes up. This process of reevaluating the equipment for more severe design conditions is usually referred to as uprating.

Rerating - 3
In other cases, after a piece of equipment or piping i i system t has h been b in-service i i for f a number b of years and corrosion has taken its toll, it may be necessary to re-evaluate whether the equipment has sufficient corrosion allowance until the next inspection or whether the equipment should be retired from service.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

Rerating - 4
Rather than assuming that the piece of equipment must be replaced when its corrosion allowance is used up, it may be worthwhile to investigate derating the equipment to allow its continued use although at somewhat less severe design conditions. In some cases the term rerating of the equipment may also be used to cover changing the throughput or service of the equipment.

Rerating of Piping Systems


API 570 Piping inspection code: Inspection, repair, alteration and rerating of in alteration, in-service service piping systems covers the inspection, repair, alteration and re-rating procedures for in-service metallic piping systems. The code establishes the requirements and guidelines that allow the owners and users of piping systems to maintain the safety and mechanical integrity of systems after they have been placed into service

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

Rerating Definition
Section 3 of API 570 - Definitions states the definitions that apply to this code code. They include the following definitions that pertain to rerating: Rerating [3.39]: A change in either or both the design temperature or the maximum allowable working pressure of a piping system. A rerating may consist of an increase increase, a decrease decrease, or a combination of both. Derating below original design conditions is a means to provide increased corrosion allowance.

MAWP Determination - 1
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure: (MAWP) [3 21]: The maximum internal pressure permitted in [3.21]: the piping system for continued operation at the most severe condition of coincident internal or external pressure and temperature (minimum or maximum) expected during service. It is the same as the design pressure, as defined in ASME B31.3 B31 3 and other code sections sections, and is subject to the same rules relating to allowances for variations of pressure or temperature or both

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

MAWP Determination - 2
MAWP for the continued use of piping systems shall b established be bli h d using i the h applicable li bl code d . Computations may be made for known materials if all the following essential details are known to comply with the principles of the applicable code:
a. Upper and/or lower temperature limits for specific materials. b. Q Quality y of materials and workmanship. p c. Inspection requirements. d. Reinforcement of openings. e. Any cyclical service requirements.

MAWP Determination - 3
For unknown materials, computations may be made assuming the lowest grade material and joint efficiency in the applicable code.
When the MAWP is recalculated, the wall thickness used in these computations shall be the actual thickness as determined by inspection (see 5.6 for definition) minus twice the estimated corrosion loss before the date of the next inspection (see 6.3).

Allowance shall be made for the other loadings in accordance with the applicable code.
The applicable code allowances for pressure and temperature variations from the MAWP are permitted provided all of the associated code criteria are satisfied.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

Retirement Thickness Determination - 1


The minimum required q pipe p p wall retirement thickness shall be equal to or greater than the minimum required thickness, or retirement thickness, and shall be based on pressure, mechanical, and structural considerations using the appropriate design formulae and code d allowable ll bl stress. Consideration of both general and localized corrosion shall be included

Retirement Thickness Determination - 2


For services with high potential consequences if failure were to occur, the piping engineer should consider increasing the required minimum thickness above the calculated minimum thickness to provide for unanticipated or unknown loadings, undiscovered metal loss, or resistance to normal abuse. In this case, , the retirement thickness shall be used in lieu of the minimum required thickness in 7.1.1 for remaining life calculations

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

Rerating Requirements API 570 - Sub-Section 8.3


Rerating piping systems by changing the temperature rating or the MAWP may be done only after all of the following requirements have been met:
a. Calculations are performed by the piping engineer or the inspector. b. All reratings shall be established in accordance with the requirements q of the code to which the p piping p g system y was built or by computation using the appropriate methods in the latest edition of the applicable code. c. Current inspection records verify that the piping system is satisfactory for the proposed service conditions and that the appropriate corrosion allowance is provided.

Rerating Requirements API 570 - Sub-Section 8.3


d. Rerated piping systems shall be leak tested in accordance d with i h the h code d to which hi h the h piping i i system was built or the latest edition of the applicable code for the new service conditions, unless documented records indicate a previous leak test was performed at greater than or equal to the test pressure for the new condition. An increase in the rating temperature that does not affect allowable tensile stress does not require a leak test. test The piping system is checked to affirm that the required pressure relieving devices are present, are set at the appropriate pressure, and have the appropriate capacity at set pressure.

e.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

Rerating Requirements API 570 - Sub-Section 8.3


f. g. The piping system rerating is acceptable to the inspector or p piping p g engineer. g All piping components in the system (such as valves, flanges, bolts, gaskets, packing, and expansion joints) are adequate for the new combination of pressure and temperature. Piping flexibility is adequate for design temperature changes. A Appropriate i engineering i i records d are updated. d d A decrease in minimum operating temperature is justified by impact test results, if required by the applicable code.

h. i. i j.

Use of API 579 Procedure For Rerating


For rerating pressure vessels and piping, the following expressions apply: MAWPr = MAWP (RSF/RSFa) for RSF < RSFa MAWPr = MAWP for RSF RSFa
RSF is the remaining strength factor , which is defined as:

RSF = LDC/LUC
LDC is the limit or p plastic collapse p load of the damaged g component, and LUC is the limit or plastic collapse load of the undamaged component.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

Use of API 579 Procedure For Rerating


MAWPr is the reduced maximum allowable working pressure,

MAWP the original maximum allowable working pressure, and RSFa is the allowable remaining strength factor (typically 0.9). 0 9)

Evaluation of Inspection Data


MAWP Calculations Using Corrosion Half-life Concept

Example 1:
Design g Pressure: 500 p psig g Design Temperature: 400F Pipe Material A 106 Gr. B Pipe Size: NPS 16 Allowable Stress: 20,000 psi (from B31.3) Longitudinal Weld Efficiency: 1.0 (A 106 Gr. B is seamless pipe) Thickness Measured During Inspection: 0.32 in. Observed Corrosion Rate: 0.01 in./year Next Planned Inspection: 5 years

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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MAWP Calculations Using Corrosion Half-life Concept


Estimated thinning until next inspection = 5 x 0.01 = 0.05in. (5 x 0.254 = 1.27mm)

Evaluation of Inspection Data

MAWP = 2SEt/D (From ASME B31.3) = 2 x 20,000 x 1 x (0.32 2 x 0.05) /16 = 550 psig (3747 kPa ) Since the MAWP > 500 (system design pressure), the system may remain in service at the design pressure without repairs, replacements, or rerating.

Evaluation of Inspection Data


MAWP Calculations Using Corrosion Half-life Concept Example 2:
Ne t planned Next p a ed inspection spect o 7 yrs. y s. Estimated corrosion loss by date of next inspection = 7 X 0.01 = 0.07 in. (7 x 0.254 = 1.78mm)

MAWP = 2SEt/D = (2 x 20,000 x 1 x (0.32 2 x 0.07) /16) MAWP = 450 psig i (3104 kPa) kP ) Conclusion: Must reduce inspection interval or determine that normal operating pressure will not exceed this new MAWP during the 7th year, or renew the piping before the 7th year.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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Rerating a Piping System


Operators may reduce the maximum allowable operating pressure of defective pipe to a safe level instead of permanently repairing the pipe. pipe This is conditional on demonstrating that a safe operating pressure can be calculated under accepted engineering guidelines based on the remaining strength of the corroded pipe (e.g., ASME B31.G) Rerating can be used both to increase design pressure and d temperature, and d also l to decrease d design pressure and temperature to increase the available wall thickness for corrosion/erosion allowance.

Rerating a Piping System - 2


Inspection, repair, alteration, and rerating of inservice p piping p g systems y are normal activities that must be dealt with in process plants. Requirements and procedures are necessary in carrying out these activities to ensure that piping system integrity is maintained. 7 is s the e industry dus y s standard d d that is s used to o API 570 form the basis for more detailed procedures that must be developed by process plant owners.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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Rerating a Piping System


Rerating an existing piping system is essentially ti ll redesigning d i i the th system t for f new design/service conditions. The new design and service conditions must be specified. The anticipated new corrosion rate must be determined.

Fluid Properties and Characteristics


The following information must be specified: Chemical composition, material safety data sheet (MSDS), chemical formula. formula Chemical reaction. If the fluid involves a reaction, note whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. Moisture content in the fluid. Design value and normal range. g
Characteristics of the feed. Viscosity, cohesion, flowability, reactivity, change in composition, toxicity, flammability.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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Service and Design Conditions


Design pressure - As defined in ASME 31.3 para. 301 2: The design pressure of each component in a 301.2: piping system shall be not less than the pressure at the most severe condition of coincident internal or external pressure and temperature (minimum or maximum) expected during service, except as provided in ASME B31.3 para. p p 302.2.4. See also ASME B31.3 para. 301.2.1 and para. 301.2.2.

Service and Design Conditions - 2


Design temperature - As defined in ASME B31.3 para. 301.3: The design temperature of each component in a piping p p g system y is the temperature p at which, , under the coincident pressure, the greatest thickness or highest component rating is required in accordance with para. 301.2. (To satisfy the requirements of para. 301.2 different components in the same piping system may have different design temperatures.). In establishing design temperatures, consider at least the fluid temperatures, temperatures ambient temperatures, temperatures heating or cooling medium temperatures, and the applicable provisions of ASME B31.3 paras. 301.3.2, 301.3.3 and 301.3.4. See also ASME B31.3 para. 301.3.1.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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Use of API 579 Procedure For Rerating


For rerating pressure vessels and piping, the following expressions apply: MAWPr = MAWP (RSF/RSFa) for RSF < RSFa MAWPr = MAWP for RSF RSFa
RSF is the remaining strength factor , which is defined as:

RSF = LDC/LUC
LDC is the limit or p plastic collapse p load of the damaged g component, and LUC is the limit or plastic collapse load of the undamaged component.

Use of API 579 Procedure For Rerating


MAWPr is the reduced maximum allowable working pressure,

MAWP the original maximum allowable working pressure, and RSFa is the allowable remaining strength factor (typically 0.9). 0 9)

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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Piping Stress Analysis


Performing a piping stress analysis is not normally a part of inspection and maintenance. However, stress t analysis l i considerations id ti must t still till be b kept k t in i mind.
The pipe must be adequately supported to carry its weight. Locations where supports have become damaged or are otherwise ineffective should be identified for further evaluation or repair. Adequate flexibility to accommodate thermal displacements must be provided. Identify situations where thermal expansion might be restricted (e.g., due to interference by adjacent items).

Piping Stress Analysis - 2


The pipe must not vibrate excessively, since this could cause leakage at flanged joints and threaded connections, or cause a fatigue failure. A new stress analysis may be required if the design conditions are changed (e.g., due to equipment rerate) or if the system is modified (e.g., adding a new equipment item with associated piping to the system).

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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Pressure Testing
Except where local jurisdictions require it, pressure tests are not normally done as part of a routine inspection. When pressure tests are done (e.g., after alterations) they should be based on the following:
Must meet (e.g. ASME B31.3) requirements. Test fluid must be water unless this would have adverse consequences (e.g., (e g freezing, freezing process contamination, contamination water disposal problem). Stainless steel piping requires special attention (e.g., potable water and blown dry).

Requirements for Rerating


The following requirements must be met to permit rerating a piping system to a new design temperature or MAWP:
Design evaluations must be done by the piping engineer or inspector to verify the system for the new conditions. The Th rerating ti must t meet t the th requirements i t of f either the original construction code or the latest edition of that code.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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Requirements for Rerating - 2


Current inspection data must verify that the system is adequate for the proposed conditions and has sufficient remaining corrosion allowance. The system must be pressure tested for the new conditions, unless records indicate that a previous test was done at a pressure that was greater than or equal to that required for the new conditions. conditions

Requirements for Rerating - 3


The safety valves must be reset for the new design pressure and confirmed to have adequate relieving capacity. The rerating must be acceptable to the inspector or piping engineer. All components in the system (e.g., valves, flanges bolts, flanges, bolts gaskets gaskets, etc etc.) ) must be checked and found to be acceptable for the new design conditions.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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Requirements for Rerating - 4


Piping flexibility is adequate for the new design temperature New calculations may be required to temperature. confirm this. The engineering records for the system must be updated. A decrease in the minimum operating temperature is justified by impact test results (or exemptions) if required by the code.

Temperature Uprating Considerations


The flange pressure-ratings may decrease too much as the temperature increases. The higher temperature may cause problems with:
thermal expansion of the piping and related stresses. Corrosion rates may also go up as the temperature is increased. In some cases temperature limits on various types of construction should also be considered, such as temperature limits for slip-on flanges, gasket type, bolting, painting, and insulation.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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Rerating Documentation
The old and new design conditions The Code used for the rerate The allowable stresses and joint efficiencies The minimum required thicknesses vs. the existing thicknesses for each component affected ff t d by b the th rerate t

Rerating Documentation - 2
The remaining life of each component The required inspection interval determined Any physical modifications required Any requirements for pressure testing, such as test pressure and temperature

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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TSSA Guidelines for Registration of Piping


Anyone, or any company, intending to design, fabricate and/or install a piping assembly in fabricate, Ontario should first refer to the Ontario Regulations made under the Technical Standards and Safety Act, 2000, which govern such actions. The Act and Regulations require compliance with the applicable CSA Standards, ASME and ANSI Codes and reference should also be made to these standards. Modification or alteration (rerating) to an existing system that include a change in design pressure and temperature requires re-registration.

TSSA Guidelines for Registration of Piping - 2


Submissions: Drawings (flow diagrams, piping and installation drawings) shall be submitted in triplicate, together with one copy of the system specifications and a letter of application requesting registration.

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TSSA Guidelines for Registration of Piping - 3


General Inromation: Construction Code Information latest Edition and Addenda (i.e. ANSI B31.1, B31.3 or B31.5) (excludes B31.9 Building Services Piping); Design Pressure; Design Temperature; Test Pressure and Type yp of Test; ; Service Fluid Information (e.g. Air, Water, Steam or specific Gas or Liquid); Safety/Relief Valve Setting and Location; or Statement regarding overpressure protection

TSSA Guidelines for Registration of Piping - 4


Specifications:
Pipe specification shall indicate, as a minimum, the following: Pipe line identification; Pipe size and schedule; p material ( (in accordance with ASME or ASTM Pipe material specification);

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TSSA Guidelines for Registration of Piping- 5


Fitting(s) classification, identification and rating (for details see TSSAs Guidelines for the Registration g of Non-Nuclear Fittings in the Province of Ontario, also note Appendix E of this Guideline, for the requirements for flexible hose assemblies); Statement attesting that only registered fittings are used; Pipe joining methods and details (welding, brazing, or others); Non-destructive examination (NDE); Statement describing maximum support spacing and type, and anchor location.

N. Al-Khirdaji, AZTech Sr. Consultant

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