You are on page 1of 118

Published by

National Curriculum and Textbook Board


69 - 70, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka - 1000
(All rights reserved by the publisher)

Trial Edition First Edition: November, 2012

Co-ordinator

Md. Mosle Uddin Sarkar


Graphics

Jahirul Islam Bhuiyan Shetu

Design

National Curriculum and Textbook Board, Dhaka

To be distributed at free of cost by the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh under the Third Primary Education Development Program

set Press, 38 B anglabazar, Dhaka. Printed by: Mousumi Of-

Preface
A child is a great wonder. There is no end to the thinking about his world of wonder. A child is a subject of contemplation for educationists, scientists, philosophers, child specialists, psychologists --- for all intellectuals. The fundamental principles of child education outlined in the National Education Policy 2010 have been defined in the light of these contemplations. The curriculum for primary education has been revised to develop a child on the potentials of his innate amazement, unbounded curiosity, endless joy and enthusiasm. Keeping in view the all round development of children's potentials, the aims and objectives of primary education were modified in the revised curriculum of 2011. Utmost considerations have been given to the total development of children in determining all aspects beginning from the terminal competencies of primary education to the subject wise terminal competencies, grade and subject based achievable competencies and finally to the learning outcomes. On this perspective each step of the curriculum has been carefully followed in the newly developed textbook. The society and environment of Bangladesh, tradition, culture, the history of liberation war, basic needs, children right, duties and responsibilities of children, sense of cooperation and compassion toward all walks of people of the society, attaining the qualities for becoming good citizens of the society, being respectful to the culture and occupation of others, proper use and maintenance of resources, social environment and disaster, population and human resources all these issues have been introduced in the book in the context of Bangladesh. Although revision of curriculum is a continuous process, bringing basic changes into the curriculum depends on some other matters as well. Especially teaching the learners a new topic is related to the acquiring knowledge on the topic by the teachers. Despite this challenge, issues like how children can manage unfavourable conditions or disasters have been introduced. Besides, a number of new topics have been included to create sense of acceptability and develop a sense of harmony in the minds of the children for the people of all walks of the society, professionals, rich-poor, and children with special ability. Keeping the security of the children in mind, relevant idea has been provided in this book so that awareness can be developed in the minds of the children in the respective issues. Exercises with planned activities along with colourful pictures have been designed in such a way so that through pleasure and without memorization children can grasp the topics very easily. It is noteworthy that the biography of the Father of the nation, the true history of the Liberation War and the related facts presented in the book comply with the constitution of the country. Constitution has been followed in the usage of the term 'ethnic minority' in this book. The improvement of curriculum is a constant process. The text books are composed on the basis of curriculum. It is worth mentioning that in 2009, Government of Bangladesh took a great step through the introduction of four colours in the text books which make the books more attractive and endurable helping the learners to be more keen, inquisitive and attentive. Consequently, this time too this text book has been published in a short time under the light of the revised curriculum using four colours/pictures along with improved papers. Special attention has been given to make the contents of the book, as far as possible, plain and lucid to our tender aged learners. Despite the relentless, careful efforts of the associated people, the book may not be completely error free. Therefore, for the further development and enhancement of the book, any constructive and rational advice will be taken into serious consideration. I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and thanks to those who have facilitated at various steps of writing, editing, evaluating and publishing of this book. We will consider all our efforts successful if the children for whom this book has been prepared are benefited.

Professor Md. Mostafa Kamaluddin


Chairman

National Curriculum and Textbook Board, Dhaka

Contents
Chapter Subject Page

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven

Our Environment and Society Togetherness and Cooperation in The Society Ethnic Groups of Bangladesh The Rights of Citizens Social and State Resources Dignity of Various Occupations Tolerance of Others Opinion Moral and Social Qualities Development activities in the locality Disaster and disaster management Population of Bangladesh

1 6 11 20 27 37 43 48 53 59 68 73 78 85 92 100

Twelve Asia Thirteen Our Liberation War Forteen Our History Fifteen Our Culture

Sixteen Our Bangladesh

Chapter One

Our Environment and Society


In the previous class, we have learnt about natural and social environment. We have also been introduced with some of the elements of natural and social environment. Soil, water, air, heat, light, plants and trees, oceans, rivers, canals, fens, animals, birds are the elements of natural environment. On the other hand, houses, schools, playgrounds, roads, haat-bazaars, vehicles are the elements of social environment. The elements of natural and social environment are interrelated. These elements influence human life in many ways.

Ice covered region

Desert region

The natural environment of different regions of the world has differences. Some of the regions are quite cold, some are quite hot. Some are covered with ice, some are deserts. There are differences among the social life of the people of these regions. Differences can be seen in houses, dresses, food, occupations, festivals, manners and customs of people of these regions. Different social environments have been created in different natural environments. Our country is small in size but there are differences of natural environment in different regions of the country. The land of northern region is a bit higher. Not too many rivers are there in the northern region. The weather is quite hot during summer while in winter it is too

Bangladesh and Global Studies

cold. On the other hand, the land of the southern region is pretty low where there are plenty of rivers and canals.

Environment in the northern region of Bangladesh

Environment in the southern region of Bangladesh

Houses, jobs, food, social programs, manners and customs of the people of the northern region are a bit different than that of southern region. Similarly there are differences between eastern and the western regions in terms of natural and social environment. Plenty of trees in an area cause heavy rainfall which yield good production of crops. We get our required food. If it rains a lot, rivers, canals are filled with rain water. We get plenty of fish. We also get water

Rainy environment

to irrigate the farmlands. Beside these we get wood, fruits and flowers from trees. We need wood to make our houses, furniture. We eat fruit. We use flowers for decorating joyful occasions and programs.
2

Our Environment and Society

The decrease of trees causes less rainfall for which the production of crops goes down. The production of fish declines as well for the lack of water in rivers, canals, fens. Lack of trees causes infertility of land. Soil erosion begins which damages crops. Rivers, canals, fens are gradually filled with soil. As a result, a number of problems surface in social life.

Dry environment

Birds and animals satisfy many of our needs. We get meat, milk, egg from birds and animals. Bulls, buffaloes, horses, donkeys are used for various purposes including agriculture, movement, transportation of goods. Different animals keep the environmental balance in many ways which does a lot of good to our society. There is oxygen in atmosphere. We need oxygen to live. We are affected by diseases if the atmosphere is polluted. When the society is overpopulated, plenty of houses are needed. Then we need more roads, vehicles which adversely affect the natural environment. As a result, soil, water, air get polluted in many ways. Plants, birds and animals are affected as well. Our social life is depended on nature in many ways. So we will not do anything that may harm the nature. We should not cut down trees unnecessarily. Once we cut trees for a reason, we will plant more trees. We will not kill animals and birds unnecessarily. We will not fill up canals, fens, rivers with soil. In this way, we will contribute to the betterment of the nature. We will be careful in maintaining the balance of natural and social environment.
3

Our Environment and Society

2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. The elements of natural and social environment are ____________ . b. The decrease of trees causes _________________ for which the production of crops goes down. c. Different _______________ keep the environmental balance in many ways. d. So we will not _____________ anything that may harm the nature. 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. If the number of trees goes down we are affected by diseases we will not cut down trees b. If the society is overpopulated causes difference in social life c. If air is polluted d. The difference in natural environment soil erosion begins many houses are needed 4. Answer to the following question briefly. a. Write the names of five elements of natural environment you have seen. b. Write the names of five elements of social environment around your home. c. Why does causes difference social life of human being in various regions of the world ? d. Mention differences between Natural and Social environment various regions of Bangladesh. 5. Answer to the following question. a. What are the benefits we get it there are plenty of trees ? b. What roles will we play to keep our environment sound and healthy ? c. How do birds and animals satisfy our needs ? d. How does natural environment influence our social life ?

Our Environment and Society

2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. The elements of natural and social environment are ____________ . b. The decrease of trees causes _________________ for which the production of crops goes down. c. Different _______________ keep the environmental balance in many ways. d. So we will not _____________ anything that may harm the nature. 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. If the number of trees goes down we are affected by diseases we will not cut down trees b. If the society is overpopulated causes difference in social life c. If air is polluted d. The difference in natural environment soil erosion begins many houses are needed 4. Answer to the following question briefly. a. Write the names of five elements of natural environment you have seen. b. Write the names of five elements of social environment around your home. c. Why does causes difference social life of human being in various regions of the world ? d. Mention differences between Natural and Social environment various regions of Bangladesh. 5. Answer to the following question. a. What are the benefits we get it there are plenty of trees ? b. What roles will we play to keep our environment sound and healthy ? c. How do birds and animals satisfy our needs ? d. How does natural environment influence our social life ?

Chapter Two

Togetherness and Cooperation in the Society


We all know that in a society people from different walks of life live together intimately. Among them some can be females, some males, some male children, some female children, some poor, some rich. Some of them can be even from different religions or races. Let's take a look at all of them in the picture.

Female

Male

Male children

Female children

Although we are different in many aspects, the society is so beautiful as we live together in harmony. Our family consists of parents, siblings, grandparents and other relatives. Some of them are females, some are males. Men together with women always try for the welfare of the family. We help each other and work together. Similarly men and women work together for the development of the society. The population of men and women are almost equal in Bangladesh. Men and women have equal contribution to the development of the country yet men and women are not treated equally in the society. For an example - there are families where from childhood male child is given more priority than female child. It is thought that females will not

Togetherness and Cooperation in the Society

be useful for the family. Females will only do household work while males will earn to run the family. However, this idea is changing slowly. Nowadays men and women are working in and outside. Therefore, male and female both need to work in the society. For an example - we, brother and sister work together at home. At the same time play and study together. In this way, if men and women can develop a habit of working together, there will be no discrimination between them. At the same time the dignity of women will be enhanced.

Female and male working together in their work place

Apart from discrimination between male and female, there are other reasons which create difference among men. May be a child is with special need. May be a child's mother tongue is not Bengali. For an example - the language of a child of a minority is not Bengali. Everybody's religion is not same. Similarly all the parents are not in the same occupation. Like - some parents are labourers, some are farmers, some are in service, some do business or other work. In one word, it can be said that children from different background come to school to study. On the other hand, there are also children in the society who cannot come to school for various reasons. After taking admission, some children cannot even continue their studies. Some of them cannot continue as they
7

Bangladesh and Global Studies

work at home or in the field. Some cannot continue as they have to work with their parents or their elders at their childhood. Normal, problematic, without problem all types of children are studying together. Besides, there is difference among people in the society. However without taking it as a problem, we need to help each other when it is needed. Society can move forward through the respect and love toward people of every walk of life. We have learned before that in society or school, everywhere there are children or people of special need. Now let's learn about the children with special need - there are children who can not see the writing on the board from a distance for eye problem, some find it difficult to hear, some are even physically disabled. Some cannot understand lesson easily. Like - Autistic children do not respond when they are called by their

A child is helping a child of special needs

names. They cannot use the language properly. They do not show strong emotion when they get a new thing. They keep on showing a special behaviour again and again. These children are extremely sensitive to sound, light and touch. These children can study with us. All we have to do is to take a special step by accepting their difference. Besides, there are learners of minority whose mother tongue is not Bengali. As a result, they find it difficult to understand Bengali. But we must remember they are our friends too. And friend should come forward to help a friend in
8

Togetherness and Cooperation in the Society

need. We will let a child sit in the front who can not see or hear properly. We will help them who have problem in walking. We will help those who have problem in reading so that they can do their work properly. Similarly, if anybody finds it difficult to understand the language, we will explain them the lesson after the class. In this way, we will stand by each other. We will never say anything bad to anybody which may offend him. If we offend anybody, he may lag behind and may not want to come to school regularly. Then he will not be able to contribute to the society.

Let's read again


1. The society is beautiful as in the society people from different walks of life live together in harmony. 2. Men and women have equal contribution to the development of the country. 3. Everywhere in the society, there can be people or children of special need. 4. If needed, we all will stand by everyone including people or children of special need.

Planned activites
1. To find out who are the children with special need and then prepare a list of these children. 2. To demonstrate through acting how we can help these children of special need. 3. To collect examples of togetherness of men and women in the society and their equal contribution. 4. To express living together intimately in the society, friendship and kindness through acting or story telling.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 How people from different walks of life live together in the society? a. separately b. alone c. live together intimately d. dividedly
9

Bangladesh and Global Studies

1.2 Apart from normal human being, who live in the society and in schools? a. children with special need b. service holders c. women d. men 1.3 How much contribution men and women have toward the development of the country? a. men have more b. women have more c. equal contribution d. no contribution 1.4 What type of occupation our parents have? a. they cultivate b. they do different work c. they do jobs d. they do business 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. Men, women, everyone of the society works for the ___________ of the society. b. In the society, different people have ______________ among them. c. Friend will come _________________ for a friend in need. d. As the society people from different walks of life live together in harmony, the society is ______________ . 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. there is people or children of b. Every where in society or school special need are equally important c. If anything bad is said to anybody we will let a child sit in the front d. In the society, the work of men he may get hurt and women everything is important a. Who can not see or hear properly 4. Answer to the following question briefly. a. Who are the children with special need ? b. Which types of people live in the society ? c. For which reasons children cannot come to school ? d. What can we do to take the society forward ? e. What is the importance of living together in the society in harmony ? f. Mention two characteristics of autistic children.

10

Chapter Three

Ethnic Groups of Bangladesh


Bangladesh abodes more than 45 ethnic groups. They are 1.13% of the total population of the country. Generally they live in different districts of north-east, north-west, mid-north and north Bengal including Chittagong Hill Tracts of the country. Most of these ethnic groups live in the rural areas of Bangladesh. They have their own language and culture. They are distinct from the Bengalis as far as social organizations, manners and customs, food habit and other social practices are concerned. Let us read the names of the major ethnic groups of Bangladesh.

Marma Monipuri Chakma Garo Saontal

Tripura

Boam

Hagong

Khiang

Mro

Pankho

Kumi

Lusai

Tonchainga

Chak

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Now let us learn about the culture of some of the ethnic groups.

Chakma
In terms of population, the Chakmas (They call themselves Changhma) are the largest ethnic group in Bangladesh. According to the census of 2007, there are 5 lakh 50 thousand Chakmas in Bangladesh. They live in Chittagong Hill Tracts (especially Rangamati, Khagrachari and Bandarban).

Life-style
Chakmas have their own alphabet and language. They have their own music, dance and literature. Nadeng Khara, Gudo Khara and Ghila Khara (played with seeds) are their favourite games. The chief of Chakma society is the king. The opinion of the king on any issue is given importance. Apart from this, there is a village chief for every village. They are called 'Karbari'. The Chakma houses alike platforms made of bamboo and wood constructed on a firm trees. There are wooden or bamboo stairs for going up to the house. Chakmas are mainly Buddhists. Chakmas living in rural areas mostly cultivate 'Jhum.' They are also involved with other agricultural activities. Jhum is a cultivation process where seeds are sowed by making holes in the slopes of the hills after burning the trees. At the same time, they grow various crops and vegetables. House of Chakmas Chakmas make a variety of baskets, fans, flutes, musical instruments from bamboo and cane. The staple food of Chakmas is rice.
12

Ethnic Groups of Bangladesh

Dress
Traditionally Chakmas weave fabric with various designs in their own looms. The dress of Chakma women is called 'pinon hadi.' Pinon extends from the waist to the feet while the upper part above the waist is called hadi. Nowadays the Chakma boys and men wear dresses like fatua and lungi.

Festivals
Chakmas celebrate a number of festivals. Their major festival is Buddha Purnima. Generally this festival is Man and woman in Chakma attire celebrated in the month of Baishakh. Besides they celebrate 'Maghi Purnima', 'Kothin Chibor Daan'. However the best festival of the Chakmas is called 'Biju' which is celebrated on the last two days of the Bengali year and on the first day of the new Bengali year. This festival lasts for three days. During festivals, they decorate their dwelling place with flowers and children respect the elders and get their blessing.

The celebration of festival by the Chakmas


13

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Mar ma
Life-style
In terms of population after the Chakmas, the Marmas are in the second position. Most of the Marmas live in Bandarban, Khagrachari and Rangamati. In Marma society, there is also a king. Furthermore the village chief is called 'Roaza' or 'Karbari'. Marmas building platforms on firm posts and live there. The Marmas cultivate 'Jhum', catch fish, weave fabrics and make pipes. Selling all these, they earn. The staple food of the Marmas is rice and boiled vegetables. However, their favourite food is called Marma boys and girls 'Nappi' or dried fish. In the past, they used to treat themselves by medicinal plant collected from the forest. However, nowadays they have started to take modern medical treatment.

Dress
The dress of Marma male and female are 'thami' and 'angi' respectively. Nowadays, Marma male and female wear modern dresses.

Festival
Marmas are the followers of Marma attire Buddhism. In each month, they celebrate a festival called 'Labrey'. In Burmese language, 'Labrey' means full moon. There is another festival they have which is called 'water
14

Ethnic Groups of Bangladesh

festival'. They also celebrate the second day of the Bengali New year called 'Shangrain'.

Saontal
Life-style
Saontals live in several districts of Bangladesh. Such as - Dinajpur, Rajshahi, Naogaon, Chapainawabganj and Nator district. Besides, the Saontals live in some other districts including Rangpur and Bogra. In Bangladesh, more Saontal than 20 lakh Saontals live. Although they have their own language, they do not have their own alphabet. The staple food of Saontals is fish, meat, vegetables etc. 'Nalita' or jute leaves is their special dish. The Saontal male and females can work very hard. Nowadays agriculture is their main occupation. Along with this, including fishing, working in tea gardens, cottage industry, they do a range of work. However, nowadays they are getting educated and interested to do all types of work.

Dress
Saontals women are used to wear a two part cloth. The upper part 'Panchi' and the lower part is 'Parhat'. Saontal women love to adorn their chignons (khopa) with flowers. The Saontal men used to wear dhuti but now they wear lungi, shirt, dhuti and other dresses if necessary.

Festival
Saontals are festival lover . Saontals start each month of the year with festival full of dance and music. They celebrate five special festivals
15

Bangladesh and Global Studies

which are Month Festival Poush Sohrai Festival - is celebrated during the harvest of the main crop. Magh The festival of collecting hay from the forest 'Magh sim' Falgun The festival of the spring in eclipse Ashar 'Er kongsim' - bringing one hen from each family as an offering to the god Vadro 'Hariar sim' - giving offering for crops by the bongas

Monipur i
Life-style
Monipuri is one of the ethnic groups of Bangladesh. Their original abode is in the Monipur state of Asam in India. After entering Bangladesh, initially they started to live in Kosba of Brahmanbaria, Durgapur of Mymensing and Tejgaon of Dhaka. However, nowadays they live in Sylhet, Moulovibazar, Habiganj district. Among these districts, most of the Monipuris live in Komolganj of Moulovibazar. The Monipuris are divided into two groups. 1. Bishnupriya Monipuri 2. Moi Toi Monipuri The name of the languages of these two groups is by the name of their groups. The culture of the Monipuris is much enriched. Dance is one of the parts of their culture. They are the followers of old religion. There is a Monipuri Muslim group named 'Moi Toi Pangn'. The staple food of Munipurs is rice, fish, dried fish, vegetables. However, since meat is socially prohibited, they do not eat it. They like eating a kind of salad called 'sincheda' made of leaves of vegetables. Agriculture is the occupation of most of the Monipuris. They cultivate different types of crops and vegetables. They have weaving industry at their homes. Nowadays they are entering in all the occupations. The houses of the Monipuris are made of bamboo. They also have brick built or tin shed
16

Ethnic Groups of Bangladesh

The Monipuri dance

houses. They keep their houses neat and clean.

Dress
Earlier the Monipuris used to make their own clothes. Women wear 'lahing' (a dress like ghagra), 'ahing' (blouse) and scarf. Men wear dhuti and punjabi.

Festival
The merriments of Monipuris go on round the year through festivities. They rejoice through dance, music, musical instruments. They celebrate Rathajatra, Doljatra, Holi festival, Chaitra Sangkranti, Rashpurnima etc.

Let's read again


1. Bangladesh abodes more than 45 ethnic groups. 2. Chakmas living in rural areas mostly cultivate 'Jhum.' 3. The name of New Year festival of the Marma is called 'Shangrain'. 4. The dance of the Monipuri is famous.
17

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Planned activity
The teacher will tell the learners to fill in the following chart. Ethnic groups Dress Food Festival Chakma Marma Saontal Monipuri

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 What is the number of ethnic groups in Bangladesh? a. 40 b. 44 c. 45 d. more than 45 1.2 Which one is the largest ethnic group in Bangladesh? a. Monipuri b. Chakma c. Saontal d. Garo 1.3 What is the name of the religion of the Marmas? a. Buddhism b. Hinduism c. Islam d. Christianity 1.4 What is one of the parts of Monipuri culture? a. music b. worship c. drama d. dance 1.4 Which Ethnic Group's festival is 'Hariar sim' ? a. Chakma b. Saontal c. Marma d. Garo
18

Ethnic Groups of Bangladesh

2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. In Bangladesh, the percentage of the ethnic groups of the total population is ____________ . b. The villages of the Chakma are called _____________ . c. The Saontals are divided into ______________ groups. d. Shangrain is a festival of ______________. e. Most of the Monipuris of Bangladesh live in____________ district. 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. The Monipuris b. The dress of Chakma women c. Generally the Saontals in a year d. The favourite food of the Marmas celebrate 5 festivals is Naspi are divided into 12 groups Pinon Hadi are divided into 2 groups

4. Answer to the following question briefly. a. What is Jhum cultivation ? b. What are the major festivals of Chakmas and Marmas ? c. How is the life-style of the Saontals ? d. Describe the culture of the Monipuris. e. What are the major occupations of various ethnic groups in Bangladesh ?

19

Chapter Four

The Rights of Citizens


Citizens
Generally the members of a state are called citizens. A citizen of a state lives there permanently. They remain loyal to the state and enjoy various privileges provided by the state. They also carry out some responsibilities for the state. We were born in Bangladesh. We enjoy various privileges from the state and perform our responsibilities for the state. That's why we are the citizens of Bangladesh. All over the world, citizens of their own countries enjoy some rights. Similarly, being a citizens of Bangladesh we have some rights as well. Now we will learn about the rights of citizens.

The r ights of citizens


All the citizens of the world enjoy some privileges from their respective countries. For an example - privilege of treatment, privilege of education etc. These are absolutely necessary for the citizens for sound, smooth and better living. Getting these privileges from the state are called the rights of a citizen. The responsibility of the state is to meet these rights for the citizens.

Our r ights as a citizen of Bangladesh


As a citizen of Bangladesh, generally we enjoy three types of rights from the state which are: 1. Social rights 2. Political rights 3. Economic rights

Social r ights
The rights which are essential for a healthy and better living are known as social rights. Let us learn about some of our major social rights in the following table.

The Rights of Citizens

Social r ights
The right to live The right to live is one of the most important of all rights. To stay alive, we need food, clothing, shelter, healthcare as well as safety. To survive citizens deserve these rights from the state. Access to education is the major right of a citizen. So the state tries to arrange education for its citizens.

The right to education The right to property The right to movement

Every citizen of a state has the right to acquire and enjoy property. Every citizen has the right to move freely inside his own country. For this reason, without any difficulty we can easily move from one place to another. Every citizen of a state has the right to express his opinion freely. So we will exprees our own opinion in the family, school and society.

The right to freedom of expresson The right to work

Every citizen has the right to work. As a result, we can support ourselves through working independently.
21

Bangladesh and Global Studies

The right to practice religion The right to language and culture The right to be treated equally the eye of law

Every citizen has the right to practice his religion. For that reason, all Bangladeshi citizens can perform their religious rituals freely. Speaking in mother tongue is a fundamental right of a citizen. In the same way, practicing their culture and observing their festivals are also included in this right. Every citizen is equal according to the law. There should not be any discrimination among the citizens. In terms of race, religion, complexion, rich, poor, high, low, profession, physical capacity, everyone deserves equal treatment in everything.

Political r ight
The right to participate in running the state and government is called political right.

Political r ight
The right to participate in the election Every citizen has the right to vote and participate in the election.

The right to live The right to government employment

All the citizens have the right to live anywhere in the state. All the citizens have the right to obtain employment according to there merit.
22

The Rights of Citizens

The right to receive security in abroad The right to protect individual freedom

While staying abroad if any citizen faces any problem or is in danger, he has every right to receive security from his own state. Every citizen has the right to practice anything they want. How ever special care has to be taken so that this right does not harm anybody.

Economic r ight
As a citizen we have some economic rights as well. The right to earn a living lawfully is called economic right. Economic rights are needed to earn a living properly. Let us study some of the economic rights in the following chart.

Economic r ight
The right to earn Every citizen of the state has the right to earn through a business or an employment. All the citizens have the right to receive fair wage for their labour.

The right to receive fair wage The right to enjoy leaves

Every citizen has the right to receive leaves irrespective of their work place.

23

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Impor tance of the r ights of citizens


The rights of citizens help us to lead an enhanced and quality life. For an example - social rights help us to receive education and to lead a sound life. It improves our life and makes it a better one. It gives us an opportunity to speak in our own language and to practice our own religion. It develops a relationship of warmth and harmony among the people of various religions and groups. Political rights give us the opportunity to participate in governing the state. As a result we get the opportunity to develop ourselves as good citizens. Economic rights give us the opportunity to earn. Therefore we can fulfil the needs for our living.

Let us respect the r ights of all


All sorts of rights are equally important to all of us. So we need to be well aware in claiming these rights. We need to develop ourselves well. We need to study. We need to do necessary work. Sometimes the government take various programs to ensure the right of all. We need to help the government so that these programs can be implemented successfully. We need to keep in mind that these rights are for all the citizens. We need to ensure that every one of our family, school, society and state can get the benefits of these rights. If necessary we have to help them. We should not do any thing that may violate other's right.

Let's read again


1. Generally the members of a state are called citizens. 2. Privileges received from the state by the citizens are called the rights of citizens. 3. As a citizen of a state, generally the citizens enjoy three types of rights from the state which are: social, political and economic rights. 4.Everyone has equal right irrespective of his race, religion, complexion, gender etc. 5. We will aware to establish our right. We also respect of other's right too.

24

The Rights of Citizens

Planned activities
1. To prepare a list of the rights of citizens. 2. Preparing a chart on the rights of citizens, deliver a group presentation in the class. 3. Perform miming on the basis of rights.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 Generally who are considered as citizens? a. woman c. child a. to live c. to get holiday leave a. washerman c. boatman b. member of the state d. male member b. to earn d. to get elected b. labourer d. domestic worker

1.2 Which one of the following is a social right?

1.3 What type of right is 'the right to participate in election'?

2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. The citizen abide by __________________ of the state. b. We have social, ______________ and economic rights to the state. c. Speaking in our own mother tongue is a __________________ social right. d. The right to __________________in governing the state is called political right. e. Social rights help us to lead an enhanced and ______________ life.
25

Bangladesh and Global Studies

3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. Live permanently in the state b. The right to practice religion c. The right to vote d. The right to receive fair wage social right economic right political right citizens foreigners

4. Answer to the following questions briefly. a. Who are the citizens? b. What is the right of citizens? c. Why are the social rights of citizens important? d. What is the benefit of economic right? e. What are responsibilities in ensuring others' rights?

26

Chapter five

Social and State Resources


We use a lot of things for leading our life. We live at home. We travel by vehicles. We walk along the roads. We cultivate lands to produce crops. We manufacture a variety of products in factories. In school, we study. Whatever meets our necessity is called resource. Resources are mainly of two types. They are 1. Social resources 2. State resources Now we will learn about these two types of resources.

Social resources
Human beings develop a number of resources to meet various needs of their social life. We have plenty of social resources such as - schools, libraries, hospitals, mosques, places of worship, roads, bamboo pathways (shako) / culverts. For our entertainment, we have playgrounds, parks, clubs etc. These are social resources too.

Schools
Education is one's social right. It is must for all of us. Man has built schools for education. We have plenty of schools in villages and in towns. A lot of children like us study in these schools.
A school

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Hospitals
We need to treat ourselves when we have diseases. For this reason, people have established hospitals. Here doctors treat the patients. Nurses take care of the patents.

Religious institutions
There are religious A hospital institutions for different religions of people in the society. Muslims pray at mosques. Hindus worship in temples. Buddhists pray at pagodas while Christians pray in churches. People of other religions practice their rituals at their respective places of worship.

Mosque

Temple

Pagoda 28

Church

Social and State Resources

Roads
Roads are needed to move from one place to another. There are paved , half-paved and earthen roads . People use these roads to move from one place to another.

A road

Br idges and bamboo pathways


There are bridges and bamboo pathways (shako) / culverts over various rivers, canals etc. People move along with these bridges and bamboo pathways.

Bridges

Bamboo pathway

29

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Playgrounds
There are playgrounds in villages and in towns. People of different ages play football, cricket, hockey, ha do do, kanamachi, bouchi, gollachut , dariabandha etc on these playgrounds.

Par k
Playground There are a variety types of trees as well as flower gardens in parks. In some parks, there are ponds or lakes. And some zigzag roads as well. People visit these parks to have pleasure. There are parks for children too which are called Children parks. These social resources are used in many ways. We will not do anything that may damage these resources. We will always take good care of these resources.

Children park 30

Social and State Resources

State resources
There are some resources which are directly supervised by the government. These resources are called state resources. The state is the owner of these resources. All the citizens of the state have the right to enjoy these resources. Now we will learn about the major resources of the state. The land of the state, ocean, water of the rivers, forest, natural gas, electricity, roads and highways, railroad, rail stations, government offices, courthouses, large bridges etc are our state resources.

Water
Water is extremely essential for every one. Everybody uses water in drinking, cooking, taking shower, washing clothes, farming etc. Besides it is used in many ways including industrial factories, A river trade and commerce etc. People journey by steamer, launch, boat etc on the waterways. They also transport various goods in the same way. Water is a very important state resource. We get water from oceans, rivers and big marsh lands. In towns water is supplied to the houses, offices, shops, industrial factories, everywhere through a mechanical system.

Forest
Many types of plants are grown in forests. A range of animals and birds live there too. Forest is essential for every country. The trees and the animals and birds of forests meet a lot of our needs.
31

Forest

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Natur al gas
We use natural gas for cooking. It is used in industrial factories and vehicles. It is also used in the production of electricity.

Electr icity
Electricity is used for many purposes. It gives us light at home, in offices, in industrial factories. With the aid Gas stove of electricity, we run fan, television, radio, computer etc. Electricity is used to run the machines in industrial factories too. It is also used for the irrigation of farmlands. Electricity is used in other purposes as well.

Power station

32

Social and State Resources

Road
There are hundreds of kilometres of roads and highways in our country. We journey to distant places by a variety of vehicles on these roads and highways. We also transport goods on these roads and highways.

Railways

Road

Like roads and highways, we have long railways as well. Numerous people travel by trains. Goods can easily be transported by trains.

Railroad 33

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Gover nment offices


There are government offices to carry out various activities of the state. Everyday countless people visit these offices for a number of reasons.

A Government Office

Lar ge br idges
In our country, we have big rivers. There are long bridges over plenty of rivers. Such Bangabandhu Bridge as - Bangabandhu Bridge, China Friendship Bridge, Lalon Shah Bridge. These bridges facilitate people to have better communication across the country. Like social resources, we will take good care of our state resources as well. We will use water, gas, electricity according to our necessity. We will never waste anything. We will never do anything that may damage the state resources like roads and highways, railroads, offices, bridges etc. We will maintain these resources. We will also participate in the development of these resources.
34

Social and State Resources

Let's read again


1. Whatever meets our necessity is called resource. 2. There are two types of resources. They are - (a) Social resources (b) State resources. 3. We will take good care of our social and state resources. We will not do anything that may damage our resources.

Planned activities
1. We will prepare a list of social resources around us. 2. Write in the following table the name of some the state resources that you have seen. 1. 3. 2. 4.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 Whatever meets our necessity is called? a. object b. resource c. thing d. property 1.2 Which one is a social resource? a. school b. water c. forest d. river 1.3 Which one is a state resource? a. school b. bridge c. electricity d. bamboo pathway 1.4 What type of resource is a railroad? a. personal b. social c. collective d. state
35

Bangladesh and Global Studies

2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. Schools, libraries, places of worship are _______________ resources. b. There are _____________ parks, clubs for our entertainment. c. People have established ________________ for their treatment if they have any disease. d. Forest is a _______________ resource. 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. For learning b. For transportation people c. Water d. Resources use roads and highways social resource we will take care of people have established schools is a state resource

4. Answer to the following question briefly. a. How many types of resources are there? What are they? b. Write the name of five social state resources. c. Write the name of five state resources. d. How does hospital help us? e. For which purposes do we use electricity? f. What are our duties toward various types of resources?

36

Chapter Six

Dignity of Var ious Occupations


There are people of many occupations in the society to meet various needs. People of every occupation have to render labour. In the previous class, we learnt about few occupations. Now we will learn more about people of other occupations.

J udge:
Every citizen has to abide by the law. Yet sometimes some people violate law. Some are involved with crime. They have to face the legal (judicial) system where a judge evaluates their action.
A Judge in Courthouse

Lawyer :
Lawyers play a very important role during trials. In a court of law, there are lawyers for both the sides. They help the court by explaining law.

A Lawyer in Courthouse

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Police:
Police protect the law and order of the country. Their major responsibility is to bring the criminal to the court. Besides, they play significant role in ensuring the orderly movement of the vehicles in the city. They also help the people to move safely on the road.

The Police Force

Engineer :
Engineers build new machinery. They also repair and maintain these devices. The expertise of engineers is needed to build roads, bridges, huge buildings etc.

An Engineer

Businessman:
Businessmen trade a range of goods. We buy essential things from them. Big businessmen import goods from abroad and export the local goods to foreign countries.
A businessman in his organization
38

Dignity of Various Occupations

J obholder :
Jobholders work in Government and private offices. People go there to gather in formation and for some other reasons.

An official in his office

Labourer :
Labourers work in industries and business organizations. They also work at bus terminal, rail station, quayside of a river, seaport and airport.

A garment worker

House attendant:
House attendants provide service at the houses of villages and towns. They render their services according to the need of the house.

A house attendant
39

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Washer man / laundr yman:


Washerman/ laundryman wash and clean clothes.

A laundryman

Boatman:
There are plenty of rivers, canals and fens in different parts of Bangladesh. Plenty of boats are used for the transportation of human as well as goods. Boatmen operate these boats.
A boatman

Cleaner s:
Cleaners keep the schools, colleges, hospitals, offices, courts, roads etc neat and clean.

A cleaner
40

Dignity of Various Occupations

No man can do all his work alone. In the society, people depend on each other for many reasons. People of different occupations meet each other's needs. That's why every occupation has importance in the society. Therefore all types of occupations or work deserve equal dignity. So we will not undermine any occupation no matter how insignificant it is. We will look at every work equally. We will respect labour. We will behave well with people of all occupations. We will try to do our own work ourselves. We will get pleasure by doing our own work ourselves. That's how we will be dignified.

Let's read again


1. People of many occupations are needed in the society for doing different work. 2. No man can do all his work alone. 3. People depend on each other for various needs. 4. Every occupation has importance in the society. 5. We should respect labour. 6. We will be dignified by doing our own work.

Planned activities
1. To make a list of all types of professionals around our house 2. To make a list of occupations of people in school 3. To participate individually and in group in cleaning the classrooms and premise and in gardening

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark beside the correct answer. 1.1 Who conducts trial in the court? a. judge b. lawyer c. police d. engineer
41

Bangladesh and Global Studies

1.2 Whose responsibility is to bring the criminal for facing the trial? a. lawyer's b. engineer's c. police's d. businessman's 1.3 Who work in farmlands, industrial factories and business organizations? a. washerman b. labourer c. boatman d. domestic worker 1.4 What will we get by doing our own work ourselves? a. money b. sorrow c. sufferings d. pleasure 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. There are _____________ for both plaintiff and defendant of a trial. b. Businessmen trade various types of __________________ . c. No man can __________________ all his work alone. d. We will _______________ labour. 3. Answer to the following questions briefly. a. What are functions of police? b. What do the engineers do? c. Where do the labourers work? d. Why do all the professions deserve dignity? e. Why should we respect all types of professionals?

42

Chapter Seven

Toler ance of Other s Opinion


We will express our opinions. We will allow others to express their opinions. We will respect the opinions of all. We will take the opinion of the majority.

Toler ance of other s opinion


In the above picture, we can see that some children are talking to each other. Let us read what they are saying and try to understand. We will patiently listen to the opinion of others and respect it. We will not impose our own opinion on others. Rather we will accept the better opinion. It means we will be tolerant to the opinions of others. Thus allowing others to express their opinions and showing respect to their opinions is called tolerance of others opinion. Tolerance of others opinion is a major social quality.

Necessity of toler ance of other s opinion


Let's read the following event. After the final exam all the students of a class insisted the teacher on going to a study tour. The teacher asked the learners to express their opinion about the place they wanted to visit. Some said that they wanted to go to the zoo. Some said Shishu Park. Others also wanted to go to other places. Nobody listened to the opinion of others properly. All of them created chaos for going to their preferred place. Disagreement surfaced among them. As a result, they could not go to the study tour.

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Now let's think about the following questions 1. Why did the learners fail to go to the study tour? 2. Did they listen to the opinion of others and respect it? 3. How should have they expressed their opinion? 4. What sort of problems can occur if there is no tolerance of others opinion? Tolerance of others opinion is a good quality. It brings peace and harmony to the members of the society. It helps people to live with intimacy. This quality gives a person an opportunity to express his opinion about any issue. Everyday we do a variety of activities at home, in school and at work place. While working, we need to take various types of decision. We can think about something in one angle while others can think differently on the same issue. Everybody's opinion is important. In the chapter, 'Our Rights,' we have learnt that everybody has his right to express his opinion independently. A better opinion can come out if everybody's opinion is taken into consideration. We all have to be tolerant to the opinion of others. If we do not show enough importance to the opinion of others, there might be plenty of problems. Their might be disagreement or quarrel with our classmates, friends, siblings and others. It may also cause difficulty in taking the right decision. As a result, we may find it difficult to work properly. It may also create problem to have a healthy relation with others. These are the obstacles to form a healthy society.

Allowing other s to express their opinion


Sometimes when others talk or express their opinion, instead of listening to them we also talk or make noise. We should not do things like this because this may hurt them. So we need to allow others to express their opinion. We have to listen to their opinion with patience and respect it. Sometimes we may not like somebody's opinion or his opinion may not be right yet we should not say anything that might hurt him. In this case we should explain it properly to him. Besides we have to thank him for his opinion. We have to express our opinion or explain things with modesty.
44

Tolerance of others Opinion

Expr ession of our opinion at home and in school


At home we need to do a variety of activities. Sometimes we need to take decisions on some issues. Such as - what should be done in someone's birthday or in a program, how to study, what to cook, which clothes to be bought and so on. In these cases we will express A child is saying something in the class and others are listening to her attentively our opinion as much as possible. At the same time we will also listen to the opinion of others in the family. Respecting all the opinions, we will accept the opinion that is good for all. Similarly in various activities of school (arrangement of various programs, development activities of school etc), we have to listen to the opinion of others and express our own opinion as well. Even on playgrounds and with the friends in the neighbourhood, we have to show the same degree of tolerance to their opinion. We will show importance to the opinion of all.

Let us take the opinion of the major ity


When we express our opinion on a particular matter, a number of opinions are formed. But all the opinions cannot be taken together. Among all these opinions, we have to take the opinion which is given by the majority and good for all. Sometimes our own opinion may not be A child is writing the ways to be tolerant of others opinion
45

Bangladesh and Global Studies

taken but for that we should not be sad. In fact respecting the opinion of the majority, we have to work with an open mind. We have learnt about the tolerance of others opinion. We will implement this quality at home, in school, on playground and wherever it is necessary. In this way we can build a healthy and a peaceful society. Let's do the following activity. I will write in my diary about how I can be tolerant to the opinion of others.

Let's read again


1. Allowing others to express their opinions and showing respect to their opinions is called tolerance of others opinion. 2. We will express our own opinion. We will also allow others to express their opinions. We will respect everybody's opinion. 3. It is a social quality which brings peace and harmony in the society.

Planned activities
1. The learners will practice tolerance of others opinion on various issues in the classroom. 2. Writing the ways of showing tolerance to the opinion of others on a poster paper, the learners will present it in the classroom.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 What is the main theme of tolerance of others opinion? a. tolerance to everybody's opinion b. expressing only my opinion c. do according to my own opinion d. imposing my opinion on others 1.2 What should we do when others express their opinion? a. to speak b. to make a noise c. to listen to the speaker patiently d. to do according to my own opinion
46

Tolerance of others Opinion

1.3 Whose opinion should we accept? a. opinion of my own b. opinion of the person whom I like c. opinion of one or two people d. opinion of the majority 1.4 Which of the following is the result of tolerance of others opinion? a. spoils peace b. creates disagreement c. quarrel d. helps to live with intimacy 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. Showing ___________ to others opinions is called tolerance of others opinion. b. Everybody should be given the opportunity to express his ___________ independently. c. Tolerance of other opinon is a _____________ virtue. d. The opinion given by the majority should be _____________ . e. We have to listen to and ______________ of the opinion of others. 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. Listen to patiently b. Social value is c. Which is good for all d. The obstacle of forming a healthy society is lack of tolerance of others opinion others opinion disagreement we will accept the opinion tolerance of others opinion

4. Answer the following questions briefly. a. What is tolerance of others opinion ? b. What are the benefits of being tolerant to the opinion of others ? c. What problems may arise if there is no tolerance among us ? d. What should we to be tolerant to the opinion of others ? e. How can we express our own opinions at home and in school ?

47

Chapter Eight

Mor al and Social Qualities


We live in a society. Society consists of our parents, siblings, neighbours, friends, teachers, classmates and others. Unity, cooperation and socialization are the foundations of society. These are good qualities of human beings. The members of the society must possess different moral and social qualities to lead their lives properly.

The impor tance of mor al and social qualities


There are some rules and regulations in the society regarding how we should get along with others and how we should behave with them. For example - respecting elders, loving young ones, getting along well with neighbours, helping others who are in trouble etc. Practising these bring welfare to the society. We learn how to behave well. These good behaviours of the members of the society are called social qualities. These qualities create unity, peace, harmony and sense of cooperation in the society and help us all to live together with intimacy. As a result, society runs well. Apart from social qualities, human beings have some moral qualities. As a human being, we all need to possess these qualities. Honesty, devotion, sense of justice, politeness, discipline, sense of duties and responsibilities, cooperation etc are some examples of moral qualities. These moral values facilitate human beings to become an ideal person. For an example - honesty helps us to lead our life honestly. Likewise, discipline enables us to conduct our life properly. Sense of justice stops us from doing evil deeds and encourages us to do good deeds. Politeness helps us to behave nicely with people. These moral qualities help us to become good humans. Social and moral qualities are very important for building an ideal society. We will follow these in our family, school and society of our everyday life.

Moral and Social Qualities

The pr actice of mor al and social qualities


Have a look at the following story. Then read how Ripa practices the moral and social qualities in her life and write it down in our copies.

The stor y of Ripa


Ripa's family consists of her parents, younger sister, grandfather and many more. Ripa is a very good girl. She not only respects the elders but also loves her younger sister. She gets along well with everybody. She helps her family members in doing various work. She carries out other responsibilities of the family as well. She helps her grandfather to take medicine. She studies, plays and does other work timely. She behaves very well with the house attendants. Not only that, she teaches them whenever she gets time. Ripa is helping her grandfather to take medicine Ripa goes to school in time. She honours and respects her teachers. She obeys their advice. She behaves well with her classmates and gets along quite well with them. She always speaks the truth and tries to do good deeds. She respects the guard, aya and other people of her school. She helps her classmates in their studies. She also helps them whenever they are in trouble. She never behaves rudely with anybody in her school. She never takes anything from anybody without their permission. She does not do anything or say anything that may offend Ripa is giving salam to her teacher
49

Bangladesh and Global Studies

anybody. If somebody does anything good, she appreciates him right away. If she makes any mistake, she apologises for it. Ripa and her family have a good relationship with the neighbours. She respects the elders of her neighbourhood. She plays with the friends of her age. She does not offend her neighbours. If any of her Ripa is going to neighbour's house with food neighbours faces any problem, she along with her parents helps them out. Ripa's family invites the neighbours if they have any program in their house. If any good food is cooked at their house, they send it to the neighbour's house. They also follow the rules and regulations of the neighbourhood. They neither say anything which may offend others nor do anything that may cause inconvenience for others. From Ripa's story, we have learnt a lot about different social and moral qualities. These are good deeds. Therefore we have to attain these qualities and practise them the way Ripa does. In that way, we all can lead a peaceful life.

Let's do good deeds and abstain from evil ones


Sometimes we do things intentionally or unintentionally which cause inconvenience for others. Such as: when somebody is sleeping, we make a loud noise or run radio or television at a very high volume. Sometimes we take things from somebody without their permission. Sometimes we do not do work timely. We scold others. Laugh at our classmates without any reason. Sometimes we misbehave with the house attendants. Do harm to others just for fun. These are simply evil actions. Sometimes this causes problem and does harm to a lot of people. As a result the harmony of the society is ruined. That is why we should not do these things. We should try to do good deeds.
50

Moral and Social Qualities

We have learnt about the good and evil deed. Now let's identify which deeds we should do and which we should not. We will put a tick beside the deed that we should do and a cross that we should not do. Misbehaving with house attendants Helping a classmate with a pencil if she forgets to bring it Helping all the members of the family as mush as possible Offending others Not helping a blind man while he crosses a road Doing our own work ourselves That's the way; we will identify good and bad deeds. Everyday we will perform some good deeds and say 'no' to a bad one.

Let's read again


1. As a member of the society, we have to attain a range of moral and social qualities. Besides, we have to know the difference between good and bad deeds. 2. Everyday we will have to do good deeds and abstain from bad ones.

Planned activities
1. To present a list of social qualities on the basis of the topic of the chapter and our own experience and present it in the class in group. 2. To act out an event or a story based on social and moral qualities.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 What is a good conduct of the members of the society called? a. sense of responsibility b. social quality c. sense of justice d. discipline
51

Bangladesh and Global Studies

1.2 Which one is a moral quality? a. helping others who are in trouble b. getting along well c. inviting others in a program d. truthfulness 1.3 Making a noise while somebody is sleeping is aa. good deed b. evil deed c. social quality d. moral quality 1.4 What is the usefulness of social qualities? a. brings peace in the society b. ruins harmony c. teaches us to be selfish d. encourages to do bad work 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. The good ____________ of the members of the society are called social qualities. b. As human beings, we all should have _________________ qualities. c. Social qualities retain peace and _________________ in the society. d. Taking somebody's things without their permission is a ___________ evil deed. 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. Getting along well with b. Refrains from evil deeds c. Members of the society d. Builds to be a good human moral qualities politeness sense of justice social qualities we all are

4. Answer to the following question briefly. a. What are social qualities ? Give examples of two social qualities. b. Why is it important for us to attain social qualities ? c. What is the importance of moral qualities ? d. According to Ripa's story, prepare a list of social and moral qualities. e. Why should we not do evil deeds ?

52

Chapter Nine

Development Activities in the Locality


Some of us live in villages while others live in cities. Our dwelling places and the places around it make a locality. The area where a person lives is called his own locality. In rural areas, our own locality means hamlet (para), village, ward and union whereas in the urban areas it means hamlet (para), moholla and ward. Own localities need to be developed for better living. Therefore, necessary facilities should be available in our own localities. A developed rural area needs to have the following facilities 1. Roads, bridges, bamboo pathways (shako) / culverts for transportation 2. Tube well for safe drinking water 3. Sanitary toilet in every house 4. Few particular places for throwing waste 5. Drainage and canal to get rid of water stagnation 6. Some ponds 7. Arrangement of water irrigation in croplands 8. Arrangement of electricity 9. Educational institute 10. Religious institute 11. Hatbazar 12. Playground etc.

A developed rural area

Bangladesh and Global Studies

For better living, urban areas need to have various facilities. Such as 1. Wide roads for movement 2. Drains for the removal of waste 3. Dustbin for throwing waste 4. Arrangement of supply for safe drinking water 5. Arrangement of electricity 6. Arrangement of gas 7. Street lights 8. Educational institute 9. Religious institute 10. Bazar 11. Park 12. Playground etc.

Bank

+RVSLWDO

A developed urban area

There are many localities where all the facilities are not available. Suppose there are localities where there are not enough roads, bridges and bamboo pathways (shako) / culverts which make the transportation difficult for the people. Due to the absence of safe drinking water, people are affected with diseases. Environment gets polluted if there is no sanitary toilet. This spreads germs. Lack of canals, water gets stagnated here and there which affects the production of crops. This also increases mosquitoes. Lack of dustbin and drain makes people's lives unhealthy. Lack of playgrounds, parks deprives people from entertainment.
54

Development Activities in the Locality

Now we will write the facilities we have in our locality in the following chart.

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

For the development of the localities, facilities need to be set up. To set up these facilities, we will tell the people of the localities. We will communicate with the Chairman of Union Parishad or Ward Commissioner.

Everybody is participating in the construction of a road

If roads, bridges, bamboo pathways (shako) / culverts etc are being made in our localities, we will participate in that. Apart from these, we will participate in other activities related to the development of our locality. There are some localities where broken roads, bridges, bamboo pathways (shako) / culverts are there. Other facilities get damaged day by day. Therefore these should be repaired and maintained properly.
55

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Now we will prepare a list of the facilities in the following chart which are being damaged in our locality.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

To sustain the development of our localities, these need to be repaired and maintained properly. We will build up awareness among the people of our localities on this issue. We will also participate in repairing the facilities which are being damaged.

Everybody is participating in repairing a bridge

We will use the available resources of our localities with utmost care. We will also emphasize on the maintenance of everything. We will also participate in cleaning the localities. We will plant trees to keep the localities beautiful. We will make gardens on the premises of our houses and schools. We will plant flower plants in flower pots. In this way, we will make our localities into developed ones.
56

Development Activities in the Locality

Let's read again


1. The locality where a person lives is called his own locality. 2. For better living, we need to have necessary facilities in our own locality. 3. There are many localities where some of the facilities are not available. We all can set up these facilities together. 4. Some roads, bridges, bamboo pathways (shako) etc may damage in our localities. We will take part to repair these. 5. We will build up awareness among the people to participate the development work of own locality. 6. We will plant trees and make flower garden to make beautiful our locality. 7. We will make our localities in to develop ours all together.

Planned activity
1. Prepare a list of development activities of your locality. Write how you will participate in these development activities.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1. What happens if there is no safe water in the locality? a. diseases are spread out b. problems occur in bathing c. hamper irrigation d. problems occur in washing cloths 1.2. What happens if there are no canals in the locality? a. crisis of fish b. communication problem occurs c. water stagnation is created d. crisis of drinking water 1.3. Which one is mostly needed for developed environment in towns? a. tree b. canal c. river d. drain 1.4. What is needed for safe water in the village areas? a. pond b. river c. canal d. tube well
57

Bangladesh and Global Studies

2. Fill in the blank with appropriate word. a. For better living, our own locality needs to be _________________. b. Men are deprived of getting _________________ for lack of play grounds, parks. c. We will _________________ in all development activities in our own locality. d. We all will make our own locality a _________________ one. 3. Match the words from left side with those of right side we will use with great care a. The place where a person lives we will participate b. If there is water stagnation c. All resources of a locality should be we will make flower garden is called his own locality. d. In cleanliness of the locality mosquitoes increase 4. Answer to the following questions. a. What is our own locality meant in rural area ? b. What is our own locality meant in urban area ? c. Mention five facilities that a developed area of a village should have. d. Mention five facilities that a developed area of a town should have. e. Mention three problems that may arise if adequate facilities are not available in a locality. f. What can we do to set up the facilities in our own locality ? g. What will we do to keep our own locality beautiful ?

58

Chapter Ten

Disaster and Disaster Management


We have learnt that a number of reasons are responsible for environmental pollution on earth. We have also discussed the reasons and impacts of environmental pollution in Bangladesh. There have been harmful effects all over the world due to environmental pollution. Quite often numerous disasters occur as a result of environmental pollution. So now we will learn about these disasters and their causes. In many countries including Bangladesh various disasters happen. Generally flood, cyclone, tidal wave, these sort of disasters take place for natural reasons. Besides man created environmental pollution may also enhance the possibility of these disasters. For an example-cutting down trees causes pollution in the environment. And if there are not enough trees, people are affected more during storm and flood. Therefore disasters can be divided into categories. Such as 1. Natur al 2. Man-made Let's write down the major disasters of Bangladesh in the following chart. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Now we will know about some of the disasters of Bangladesh.

Flood
A great overflow of water during the rainy season that causes harm to man, animals and buildings is called flood. Usually flood takes place from Ashar to Ashwin. Flood is a major disaster of Bangladesh. Since

Bangladesh and Global Studies

1987, Bangladesh has experienced quite a few devastating floods. These dreadful floods occurred in 1987, 1988, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2007 which caused a huge loss to the people of almost all the districts of the country. Crops, animals, fish, plants, roads, educational institutes everything was affected. People had to suffer a lot as the buildings were flooded. Then all the people had to go to higher places. Some were forced to take refuge in flood shelters, some were in the streets. Some were even in the schools. Flood affects the education of the children of many rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. As a lot of roads are under water, children cannot go to school. Besides, plenty of schools remain closed as people take shelter there. Books, khata of children are damaged when their homes are under water. As a result, they cannot study at all. During the flood, the children move with their families to other places.

A picture of flood

During the flood, it becomes quite difficult to find food or pure drinking water. People excrete here and there. Then people suffer from many diseases. After the flood, it takes almost a month or two to put things in order. That's why flood is harmful for us.
60

Disaster and Disaster Management

Causes of flood
Geographical location of Bangladesh, excessive rainfall and natural reasons cause floods. At the same time, man can also enhance the intensity of flood by cutting down trees or building roads, houses and dams here and there. Water body stagnation is formed when the level of rain water goes up. As a result of this, flood water cannot drain out easily.

Dealing with flood


In Bangladesh, flood occurs due to geographical, natural and man made reasons. Flood cannot be controlled always. But we can take some preparation so that we can deal with it. Such as We need to keep ourselves up to date regarding weather through radio, television and newspaper. We have to talk to our parents, teachers, friends and others about flood. We should dig a bamboo or a stick in the nearby river or lake so that we can identify if the water level has increased or not. If the water level increases very quickly, we should take preparation so that we can move to a flood shelter or in a safe place. Along with parents and family members, we will take pre and post flood preparation. We need to take care of our own books, usable things so that these do not soak in water. To deal with this disaster, we need to be brave as well as patient. Prior to flood, we will preserve dried food, pure drinking water. We shall always try to be in safety.

Cyclone
Cyclone is one of the major disasters in Bangladesh. Generally during the rainy season, low pressure is formed over the sea. Usually cyclones take place in the regions which are close to sea. The cyclone prone regions of Bangladesh are shown in the map.
61

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Wherever Cyclone occurs, it causes a lot of damage to our properties, dwellings, roads, trees. Strong wind of cyclone blows away or destroys
I n d i a (West Bengal)
Panchagarh
26 89 90

The cyclone pr one r egions of Bangladesh


10 5 0 10 20 30 Miles K.M.

Thakurgaon Nilphamari Lalmonirhat Dinajpur Rangpur Kurigram

India (Assam)

10 5 0 10 20 30 40

26

Symbols High cyclone prone area Low cyclone prone area Scarce cyclone prone area

Gaibandha Joypurhat
25

I n d i a (Meghalaya)
Sherpur Jamalpur Netrokona Mymensingh Maulvibazar Sunamganj Sylhet
25

Naogaon Nawabganj Rajshahi Natore

Bogra

India
(Assam)
Habiganj

Sirajganj Pabna

Kishoreganj Tangail Gazipur Manikganj Narsingdi Brahmanbaria


24

24

Kushtia Meherpur Chuadanga Jhinaidah

Rajbari Magura Narail Faridpur

Dhaka Narayanganj Munshiganj Cumilla Chandpur Lakshmipur

India (Tripura)
Khagrachari Feni

India (Mizoram)

23

t Bengal)

Jessore

Shariatpur Madaripur Gopalganj Barisal Perojpur Jhalakathi

23

Khulna Satkhira Bagerhat

Noakhali Bhola Chittagong

I n d i a (Wes

Rangamati

Patuakhali Barguna Bandarban


22

22

BAY
21

O F

BE NG L E

Cox's Bazar

Mya nma

Chittagong Division : Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Lakshmipur, Feni, Noakhali Khulna Division : Khulna, Satkhira and Bagerhat Barisal Division : Barisal, Bhola, Perojpur, Jhalakathi, Barguna and Patuakhali
89 90 91 92

everything. Just a year before the independence of Bangladesh in 1970, one of the deadliest cyclones took place. Afterwards two more devastating cyclones occurred in 1991 and 2007 respectively.
62

21

Disaster and Disaster Management

Cyclones are caused naturally. This causes us a lot of loss. If strong wind blows in an area crowded with plenty of trees, cyclone cannot damage

Picture of Cyclone

much to men and their dwelling as the trees block the wind to impact. But nowadays as the trees are cut down, whenever wind blows just a little stronger, it surges away the dwellings of men and thus causes a lot of casualty. If the Cyclone is a deadly one, the waves turn into massive ones and flood away the dwellings of men, animals and roads. This is called tidal wave. And this tidal wave can be up to 45 feet high.

Dealing with Cyclone


Those who live in cyclone prone regions, at times they are warned through signals. For example - local warning signal 1 to great danger signal 10. Signals of various numbers are used to warn people. Besides those who go to sea for fishing are also warned by these signals. These signals are announced on radio, television and a number of newspapers.
63

Bangladesh and Global Studies

In this way, everyone can be warned. Now we shall see what we can do to deal with cyclone We shall listen to signals regularly, inform others and prepare ourselves accordingly. We shall arrange our books and other useful things before moving to shelters or to any other safe places. We shall work together with our parents. We shall listen to our elders and stay in safe places.

Catching Fire
Catching fire is one of the disasters caused by man. A little carelessness may result in fire which may cause a complete destruction to houses, other properties, human beings. There can be fire accidents at any moment. However, in Bangladesh fire accidents generally occur frequently during dry seasons like - winter and spring. At this time, accidents happen in villages due to fire. Gradually the number of this sort accidents caused by fire is increasing. The accidents due to fire are happening frequently in slums, garment factories of cities or in the crowded places.

Picture of catching fire

64

Disaster and Disaster Management

Causes of Fire
A number of reasons may cause fire. Such as If the stove is not fully turned off From the flame of discarded cigarette, biri, hookah Moving fire from one house to another in the village If the lamp, hurricane, mosquito coils are left lighted in a room If there is malfunction in electricity line From the flammable materials (things which burn easily) of a factory If children play with fire or explode firework

Dealing with Fire


For these sorts of reasons fire can be ignited. The other disasters are not easy to deal with but we can easily prevent from catching fire by simply not doing those things which cause fire. And even if something is on fire, instead of getting scared, we should try to save ourselves. If any portion of the body is burnt, we should put water for 10 minutes and go to the doctor as soon as possible. We will never take any life risk to save any belongings.

Let's Read Again


1. There are various adverse effects all over the world due to environmental pollution. 2. Flood and cyclones occur frequently in Bangladesh. 3. There can be fire accidents at any moment for our carelessness. 4. We shall always be prepared to deal with disasters.

Planned Activity
1. Preparing a list of major disasters of Bangladesh 2. Describing the real life experiences of the students who have dealt with disasters 3. Listening to the announcements on disaster prevention on radio, television, newspaper 4. Acting out the strategies of disaster management to the children
65

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 How many ways disasters can be classified? a. one b. two c. three d. four 1.2 When does flood occur in Bangladesh? a. From Ashar to Ashwin b. From Baishakh to Ashwin c. From Jaishtha to Vadro d. From Ashwin to Poush 1.3 In which region of Bangladesh, cyclone takes place more often? a. near river b. near pond c. near large lake d. near sea 1.4 How many times did deadly cyclones occur in Bangladesh so far? a. four b. two c. three d. one 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. During the disaster, we will try to remain _______________ . b. Flood is a ________________ for our society. c. Tidal wave can be up to ________________ feet. d. In Bangladesh, usually the events of catching fire happens during _______________ . 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. Before the rainy season b. Sometimes our carelessness c. If flood comes d. If fire is ignited we will go to a higher place instead of getting scared, we will try to save ourselves warning is announced low pressure is created brings disasters

66

Disaster and Disaster Management

4. Answer to the following question briefly. a. Write the name of the major disasters of Bangladesh. b. How does flood affect our education ? c. How are people warned from cyclone ? d. Write the ways through which disasters can be dealt with ? e. How do we have fun with our friends in religious festivals ?

67

Population of Bangladesh
In class three, we learnt about the condition of population in Bangladesh along with male-female ratio. We have also learnt how over population affects our family and environment. Now we will know about the trend of population growth in Bangladesh as well as the difference between density of population and population growth rate in comparison to other countries. In the following chart, we can see the trend of population growth in Bangladesh from 1974 to 2011. Year Total population 1974 1981 1991 2001 2011 7 crore 64 lakh 8 crore 99 lakh 11 crore 14 lakh 12 crore 93 lakh 14 crore 97 lakh

Chapter Eleven

According to the chart, it can be noted that the population of Bangladesh has been doubled in last 37 years.

A densely populated place

Population of Bangladesh

Density of Population
The density of population in Bangladesh is too high. The number of people living in 1 square kilometre in a country is called density of population. We have already known that the area of Bangladesh is 1, 475, 70 (One lakh forty seven thousand five hundred 70) square kilometre. Currently 964 people are living in 1 square kilometre in the country. Here every year population increases at a rate of 1.34. The Density of population of our country is lot higher in comparison to the other countries of the world including our neighbouring countries.

Reasons of r apid population growth in Bangladesh


A number of reasons are responsible for rapid population growth in Bangladesh. Among them the notable reasons are
Social Reasons of rapid population growth in Bangladesh

Religious

Economic

Others reasons

Social Reasons
A number of social and cultural reasons are responsible for rapid population growth in Bangladesh. For an example: lack of education, child marriage, polygamy, superstition, expectation of male child etc. About half of our population is female yet most of them are not involved with money earning activities. Therefore they spend most of their time in raising their children.

Economic Reasons
The economy of Bangladesh is agro based. In agriculture, a lot of labourers are needed. When parents grow old, they tend to depend on their children especially male children as males earn money for the
69

Bangladesh and Global Studies

family. On the other hand, females cannot stay with their parents after their marriage. As a result, everybody expects male children which results in population growth. A lot of children of needy families join work with their parents in villages and towns.

Child working with his parents

Child working in a dirty environment of a hotel in a city

Child employed in breaking bricks with his parents

Religious Reasons
Due to religious reasons, a lot of people believe that since God has created us, he will arrange the food for all of us. Therefore they do not think of the adverse effect of giving birth of many children. As a result, population increases in families and in the country.

Other Reasons
Other reasons are contributing in the same way the above reasons are doing in population growth. For an example: high birth rate and low death rate due to natural and biological reasons. Frequent change in
70

Population of Bangladesh

planning and policy on population by the Government etc. Due to excessive population, plenty of problems occur in Bangladesh. The environment is being polluted. Everybody cannot study. All the people cannot go to doctors for treatment. Not only that, for population problem people cannot get employment. This leads to increase in crime in villages and in towns. All of us cannot get enough food. That is why population growth rate needs to be reduced. For this everybody needs to come forward. In this way, we can establish a healthy society for all.

Let's Read Again


1. The density of population of Bangladesh is lot higher in comparison to its area. 2. The population growth rate of Bangladesh is lot higher in comparison to the other countries of the world. 3. There are a number of reasons for population growth. Such as: social, economic, religious and other reasons.

Planned Activities
1. Prepare a graph or chart comparing the population growth of Bangladesh of different years. 2. Show pictures or video regarding the effects of population growth.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 What was the population of Bangladesh in 2011? a. 12 crore 93 lakh b. 14 crore 97 lakh c. 11 crore 14 lakh d. 14 crore 12 lakh 1.2 How many people in Bangladesh live in one square kilometre? a. 864 b. 963 c. 964 d. 965 1.3 On what the economy of Bangladesh depended? a. agriculture b. industry c. employment d. business
71

Bangladesh and Global Studies

1.4 What is the growth rate of population in Bangladesh? a. 1.32% b. 1.33% c. 1.24% d. 1.34% 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. The number of people living in 1 square kilometre in a country is called _______________. b. The population of Bangladesh has been almost ______________ in 37 years. c. Due to over population, plenty of ______________ occur in Bangladesh. d. About half of the population of Bangladesh is ________________ . 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. is increasing for many reasons a. The area of Bangladesh are not involved in money earning b. The density of population activities in Bangladesh 1 lakh 47 thousands 570 square c. The population of Bangladesh kilometre d. Most of the females very low of Bangladesh very high 4. Answer to the following questions briefly. a. What are the reasons of population growth in Bangladesh ? b. What problems occur due to population growth ? c. How is the population of Bangladesh in comparison to the population of other countries ? d. What is the definition of population density ? e. What can be done to reduce the population ?

72

Chapter Twelve

Asia

Location
Asia is the world's largest continent. It is located primarily in the northern hemisphere. It covers almost one third of the Earth's total surface area. It is not only the largest continent by size but also population. About 60% of the world's population live in this continent. Let's take a look at the location of Asia in world map. Ar ctic Ocean

The Wor ld Map

Nor th Amer ica

Nor th Atlantic Ocean

Eur ope

Asia Pacific Ocean

Afr ica

Pacific Ocean

South Amer ica

South Atlantic Ocean

Indian Australia Ocean

Antar ctica
Asia in the world map

Asia is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the east and Europe and Mediterranean Sea to the west. Bangladesh is positioned to the south of Asia.

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Major Countr ies of Asia


There are 47 countries in Asia. Among them the major countries are Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Philippines, Srilanka, North Korea, South Korea, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait etc.

The map of Asia


Scale 0
500 Km

Russia

Europe

Jorgia Mongolia Black Sea Azerbaijan Armenia North Turkey Korea Turkmenistan Tajikistan China South Lebanon Syria Korea Israel Iraq Iran Afghanistan Jordan Nepal Bahrain Pakistan Bhutan Kuwait United Arab Emirates Bangladesh India Myanmar Oman Thailand Vietnam Philippines Yemen Arab Sea Bay of Bengal Africa
Re dS ea

North Japan

Pacific Ocean

Srilanka Maldives

Brunei Malaysia Singapore Indonesia

Indian Ocean

The position of Bangladesh in world map

Task: Prepare a list of ten more countries of Asia by looking at their position on the map or globe.

Climate
Asia is a huge continent. That's why the climate is different in different regions of this continent. For an example - there is high temperature and heavy rainfall in Indonesia and Malaysia throughout the year.
74

Asia

In Bangladesh and its neighbouring countries, monsoon causes heavy rainfall in summer whereas in winter there is almost no rain in these countries. There is desert in the middle of Asia. The weather of the desert is extremely hot and almost without any rain. However, there are some regions (Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Israel etc) where there is rain in winter but not in summer. Siberia is situated to the north of Asia. Siberia along with its nearby regions is extremely cold. This severe cold causes snowfall in some of these regions.

River s
There are a lot of rivers in Asia among which Padma, Meghna, Jamuna of Bangladesh, Mekong, Hwang Ho, Yangtze of China, Indus of Pakistan, Ganges of India, Euphrates and Tigris of the Middle East are the major ones. Yangtze (Yang si kiang) of China is the longest river in Asia.

Animals
Tiger, elephant, deer, monkey, a variety of snakes and other type of animals are found in the forests of Asia. The Royal Bengal Tiger of Bangladesh is world famous.

Crops
The crops of Asia can be divided into two categories. Such as: a) grain crop b) cash crop.

Gr ain crop
The chief crops of Asia are rice, wheat, pop corn, coconut, spices etc. Asia is the largest producer of rice and wheat in the world. Rice and wheat are produced in most of the regions of Asia. There are also plenty of pop corn and spices produced in Asia. In fact Asia is famous for producing spices. In addition to that, plenty of coconuts are produced in the countries near seashore.

Cash crop
The main cash crops of Asia are jute, cotton, rubber, tea, tobacco etc. Besides these crops coffee, sugarcane and silk are also produced in plenty in Asia.
75

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Miner als
Asia has enormous reserves of minerals among which coal, mineral oil and natural gas are the major ones. In addition, bronze, gold, silver, mica, manganese etc are also found in plenty.

Industr y
Asia is quite developed in industry. There are plenty of industries in Japan, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand etc in Asia. Iron and steel, cotton, silk, paper and jute are the major industries of Asia.

Let's Read Again


1. Asia is the world's largest continent by size and by population. 2. Bangladesh is situated to the south east of Asia. 3. There are 47 countries in Asia. 4. The climate of different regions of Asia is different. 5. There are various types of animals, crops and minerals here. 6. Asia is also quite developed in industry.

Planned Activities
1. Preparing a chart on the characteristics of Asia, deliver a group presentation in the class. 2. Arrange a quiz competition with the learners where they will have to find out different countries of Asia on the map or in the globe.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 Which one is the world's largest continent by population? a. America b. Europe c. Asia d. Africa 1.2 In which country of Asia there is always high temperature and rainfall? a. Bangladesh b. Malaysia c. India d. Pakistan
76

Asia

1.3 In which country of Asia is the river Hwang Ho situated? a. Japan b. North Korea c. Indonesia d. China 1.4 In producing which crop Asia is the largest? a. rice b. cotton c. coffee d. rubber 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. Bangladesh is situated to the _______________ of Asia. b. The weather of desert in Asia is _________________. c. Yangtze (Yang si kiang) is the _________________ river of Asia. d. Bangladesh is situated to the ______________ of Asia. 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. Europe a. To the north of Asia Arctic Ocean b. To the south of Asia Indian Ocean c. To the east of Asia Pacific Ocean d. To the west of Asia Australia 4. Answer to the following questions brifly. a. Write down the location of Asia. b. In which ways, Asia is the largest continent in the world? c. How is the climate of Asia? d. Describe the crops produced in Asia. e. Describe the minerals of Asia.

77

Chapter Thir teen

Our Liber ation War


Our Liberation War took place in 1971. In the same year the people of this country fought against Pakistan. They fought to get rid of the exploitation of the Pakistanis. From 1947 to 1971, the land called Bangladesh was under the rule of Pakistan. Pakistan was divided into two parts - East Pakistan and West Pakistan. East Pakistan was previously known as East Bengal as Bengalis lived in this region. The inhabitants of West Pakistan were Non-Bengalis. The of that time East Bengal or East Pakistan of that time is today's Bangladesh. The capital of the country, Pakistan was in West Pakistan. Even the ruling power was in the hands of West Pakistani leaders. As a result, the West Pakistanis used to enjoy most of the benefits in all the sectors including education, employment, trade and commerce. Right from the beginning, the West Pakistanis used to exploit and oppress the Bengalis of East Pakistan in various ways. They used to plunder the resources of East Bengal. They did not respect the Bengali nation. Not only that, they did not even want to give us the right to speak in our mother tongue Bengali. The Bengalis started to protest against all the exploitations by the West Pakistanis. The journey of protest started with Language movement. We know for the demand of making Bengali the state language, a procession took place in the street of Dhaka on the 21st February of 1952. The police fired at that procession. As a result, many including Rafiq, Salam, Jabbar, Barkat were martyred. In memory of the language martyrs, the Central Shahid Minar was built in Dhaka. Every year 21st February is observed as 'Martyrs Day'. In fact the movement for Independence was fuelled by the spirit of Language Movement. That is why 21st February plays a significant role in our national life. In the context of Language movement, the Allied Front won the interstate election in 1954 of East Pakistan and formed government. But the Pakistani ruler group broke that government. In 1966, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman presented a six point demand. To claim regional

Our Liberation War

autonomy on the basis of six points demand, a case named 'Agartala' was filed against many including Bangabandhu and later they were

Picture of mass uprising of 69

imprisoned and put to jail. A movement started to surface by the students and mass people to free the prisoners including Bangabandhu. Later this movement turned into a mass uprising which is famously known as the Mass Uprising of 1969. During the movement, Sergeant Jahurul Huq was arrested in Agartala case in cantonment while Dr. Shamsuddoha, a teacher of Dhaka University, Asad, a student of the same university and Motiur a student of Nabakumar Institute were gunned down by the police which geared up the

Martyr Asad

Martyr Dr. Shamsuddoha Martyr Motiur Martyr Sergeant Jahurul Huq

79

Bangladesh and Global Studies

movement. As a result of this, the autocrat leader of Pakistan, President Ayub Khan was forced to resign. The power was handed over to Yahya Khan. In December of 1970, general election took place in Pakistan. In this election, Awami League won by huge margin by the leading of Bangabandhu. But Yahya Khan did not allow Awami League to form a new government which resulted in extreme agitation among the people of East Pakistan. Hartal and demonstration went on all over the country. On 7th March 1971, a huge public meeting was held in Racecourse Ground in Dhaka. In that meeting, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman called for independence. Bangabandhu said, "The struggle of this time is the struggle for our liberation, this struggle is for our independence."

Speech of Bangabandhu on 7th March 1971

The people of East Pakistan responded to this call spontaneously. Discussions between Bangabandhu and the leaders of Awami League and Yahya Khan and his government took place from 16th March to 25th March. But at the end of the day, all discussions failed. On 25 March, 1971 at night Pakistani Army attacked the innocent and unarmed people at different places including Dhaka by the order of Yahya Khan. Countless students, teachers, EPR and ordinary men and women were killed. That is why 25th March is familiar as the dark night
80

Our Liberation War

in the history of Bangladesh. At the same night, Bangabandhu was arrested. On 26th March at dawn, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared the independence of Bangladesh through a radio message. On the basis of this declaration, the struggle for independence started on the 26th March. The next day on 27th March, Major Dark night of 25th March 1971 Ziaur Rahman read the declaration of independence on behalf of Bangabandhu from Kalurghat Shadhin Bangla Radio Station of Chittagong. The liberation war continued for nine months from 26th March 1971 to 16th December 1971. On 10 April 1971, the first government of Bangladesh was formed in Baidwanathtala of Meherpur where Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was made the President. This Government was well-known as Mujibnagar Government. Under the

Participation of people of all walks of the society in the Liberation War


81

Bangladesh and Global Studies

leadership of this Government, a band of freedom fighters was formed. People of all walks of life joined there. Along with Bengalis, a number of ethnic groups of this country also participated in the liberation war. However, some of the people of this country went against the country and helped the Pakistanis. They are called rajakar, al badar. In this war, about 30 lakh people sacrificed their lives. One crore people became homeless and took shelter in the neighbouring country, India. The victory was at last earned at the cost of enormous sacrifice and courage of the general people of this country on the 16th December. An independent country named Bangladesh was finally emerged and we get a new map. At the same time, we get our national flag and anthem.

Let's read again


1. We fought in 1971 to get rid of the exploitation and deprivation of the Pakistanis. 2. In 1952 Language movement for the demand of making Bengali the state language. 3. During the mass uprising of 1969, plenty of people including Sergeant Jahurul Huq, Dr. Shamsuddoha, Asad, Motiur were martyred. 4. In the election held in December of 1970, Awami League led by Bangabandhu won by a huge margin. However, the Pakistani rulers did not allow them to form a new government. 5. On 7th March 1971, in Racecourse Ground in Dhaka, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman called for independence in the historical meeting. 6. On 25 March, 1971 at night Pakistani Army attacked the innocent and unarmed people. Through the declaration of 26th March by Bangabandhu, the liberation war began.

Planned Activities
1. Invite a freedom fighter from your own area in the classroom and hear about the incidents happened between 1969 and 25th March 1971. 2. Prepare an album of pictures of the martyrs who were martyred in the incidents happened between 1952 and 1971. Then give necessary caption under the pictures.
82

Our Liberation War

3. If possible, talk to the members of the martyr family about the martyr and then share the information about the martyr with the students in the classroom. 4. The learners will participate in the program on Shahid Day under the supervision of the teacher.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 In which year Language Movement took place ? a. 1947 b. 1950 c. 1952 d. 1954 1.2 Who was martyred in the mass uprising of 1969 ? a. Rafiq b. Jabbar c. Salam d. Asad 1.3 Which party won in the election of 1970? a. Awami League b. Muslim League c. NAP d. Pakistan People's Party 1.4 Where did Bangabandhu give his speech of 7th March ? a. In Ramna Park b. In Racecourse Ground c. In Lahore d. In Dhaka University 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. In January of 1969 'All Party Students Fighting Council' declared ______________ demand. b. During the mass uprising of 1969, school going student Motiur, labourer Rustam, Sergeant Jahurul Huq __________were martyred. c. The general election was held all over Pakistan in _____________ of 1970. d. On 25 March, 1971 at night Pakistani Army attacked the innocent and unarmed people at different places including Dhaka by the order of _____________ .
83

Bangladesh and Global Studies

3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. Eleven point demand of 'All Party Students Fighting Council' was declared b. "The struggle of this time is the struggle for our liberation, this struggle is for our independence." This speech was given by c. Motiur martyred in the mass uprising of 1969 d. Familiar as the dark night in the history of Bangladesh is 4. Answer to the following question briefly. a. Write about the mass uprising of 1969. b. Which party won in the election of 1979 ? c. What was the result of the election held in 1970 ? d. For what reason, 7th March of 1971 is famous ? e. What happened on the night of 25th March of 1971 ? was a school going student in January of 1969 25th March Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Sher - E- Bangla A. K. Fazlul Huq

84

Chapter Four teen

Our Histor y
Sometimes you have the curiosity how this country was long long ago. If you close your eyes and imagine about how our country was, how the life style of our countrymen at that time, a lot of things may come into your mind. Let us read about it and learn more.

Ancient per iod


We hear a lot of stories about kings and queens quite often. In ancient period, we also had a number of famous kings and their kingdom in this region. These rulers of ancient period were the followers of Hinduism and Buddhism. Let's learn the name of some of the renowned rulers: 1. King Shashanka 2. King Gopala 3. King Laksman Sen

King Shashanka
Shashanka was the first powerful king of Bengal. Karnasubarna was his capital. The way he tried to expand his kingdom beyond Bengal to North A king from Ancient Bengal India deserves a lot of credit. In fact, he was somewhat successful in that. In addition to that, even in the face of the attack of the enemy, he was successful to keep the sovereignty of Bengal.

King Gopala
King Gopala was the founder of Pal Dynasty. This dynasty ruled Bengal for about 400 years. There was quite an unrest going on in Bengal about 100 years before King Gopala came to throne. Small kingdoms were fighting with each other. There was no single or permanent leadership. Because of this disorder, people suffered a lot. It is assumed the chief

Bangladesh and Global Studies

credit of Gopala is he put an end to this disorder with the help of the local leaders and then came to the throne.

King Lakshman Sen


Lakshman Sen, King of the Sen Dynasty was the last eminent king of ancient Bengal. After the kings of Pal dynasty, the Sen Kings came to the throne. During the time of Pal dynasty a united independent kingdom was established for the first time in the entire Bengal. Lakshman Sen was not only a learned man but also a poet. Bakhtiyar Khilji initiated Muslim dynasty by defeating Lakshman Sen.

Social life
The key foundation of social life in ancient period was village. Life in village was plain and simple. People of different occupations including farmer, fisherman, weaver, blacksmith, potter, barber, washerman, cobbler etc lived in the village. At that time Hinduism and Buddhism were the major two religions. As a result most of the people were the followers of these religions. People did not have luxury in their attire. Females used to wear 'sari' and males 'dhuti'/loin cloth. The main vehicles were boat, bullock cart and palanquin. Rice has been the staple food of the Bengalis since ancient period. Apart from rice, there were other foods as well which included vegetables, pulses, fish etc. The main elements of entertainment were music, dance, dice and wrestling.

Wrestling
86

General Woman and Man of rural area

Our History

Economic life
Agriculture was the main occupation of the people of ancient Bengal. The fertile land as well as the climate both was favourable for cultivation which yielded abundance of crops. Rice was the main crop. At the same time, sugarcanes were produced in plenty as well. Bengal was famous for the sugar and molasses from the juice of sugarcane. Pulses, barley, cotton, mustard, betel leaf etc were also cultivated then. Fields were cultivated with plough. Apart from agriculture, cottage industry was also in practice at that time. The workmen of Bengal used to weave a variety of clothes with cotton and silk. These clothes were exported to foreign lands as well. The ancient Bengal was quite developed in trade and commerce. Merchants from different countries used to come to Bengal to do business while the Bengali merchants did business with other countries through sea. As a result of that, a number of sea ports were established at various regions of Bengal. Since then the Chittagong sea port has been famous.

Middle age

A commercial voyage by sea

In 1204, the Turkish soldier, Bakhtiyar Khilji first captured the throne of Bengal by defeating King Lakshman Sen. In fact, through him the Muslim Dynasty began for the first time in Bengal. One of the major characteristics of middle age is the attempts of independence against the rulers of Delhi of the Bengali rulers.
87

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Some of the well-known rulers of the middle age are -

1. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah 2. Baro Bhuiyan 3. Shayesta Khan Sultan Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah
Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah was the first Muslim ruler who brought the entire Bengal under his rule. He maintained the sovereignty of Bengal from the Sultans of Delhi established it very firmly. The term 'Bangalah' was first introduced during his time. He also founded the 'Ilyas Shahi' Dynasty. That was the time when local language, literature, learned people and poets started to prosper.

Baro Bhuiyan
The Mughal rule began in Bengal during the time of Emperor Akbar of Delhi. But a large number of Isa Khan landlords of Bengal did not want to surrender to the rule of Akbar. They maintained their respective sovereignty. They had their own army. These landlords are known as Baro Bhuiyan. Isa Khan of Sonargaon was the leader of these landlords. Other prominent leaders of Baro Bhuiyan were Musa Khan, Fateh Khan, Kedar Roy, Chand Roy and so on. The way these Baro Bhuiyan demonstrated their bravery in the face of frequent attacks by the Mughul has made them memorable in the history.

Shayesta Khan
Shayesta Khan was the first appointed Subadar in Bengal by the Mughul Emperor of Delhi. He was well-known for good governance. During his time the price of essentials was quite cheap. At that time eight mound rice could be bought by one taka. The pirates were driven away by him.
88

Shayesta Khan

Our History

Social Condition
During the Middle age, Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist and people of other communities lived in harmony. Apart from farmers, there were weavers, workmen, carpenters, day labourers, masons and other professionals in the society. The male Hindus used to were loin cloth (dhuti), chadar (wrapper) and wooden sandal in their feet whereas the female Hindus wore mainly sari. While the rich Muslims wore trousers (pajama), turban, shoes, the general Muslim males wore loin cloth (dhuti), lungi etc. However, the dress of general Hindu and Muslim females was sari. Rice, fish, vegetable, pulse were the main food of the Bengalis at that time. A tremendous development came about in Bengali language and literature for the patronization of the rulers in this age. Apart from Hinduism and Buddhism, Islam also spread in good number in the society at that time. People lived in harmony irrespective of their different religions. As a result, a united culture was developed in Bengal.

Economic condition
In the middle age, the economy of Bengal was agro based. Rice, jute, wheat, barley, chilli, spice, sugarcane, coconut, a variety of spring harvest and vegetable were produced then. The cotton of Bengal was quite famous. A range of muslin clothes were made from this cotton thread. Apart from agro based cotton industry, industries like boat, ship, carpet, paper etc were also established at this time. The artists of Bengal were quite expert in elephant tusk industry and wood work. At this age, trade and commerce flourished quite significantly. Not only that, export exceeded import at that time. The merchants of Bengal imported silk, luxury items, cotton and a variety of precious stones and exported rice, sugar, ginger, turmeric, muslin and various types of cloth. Chittagong was renowned as the centre of trade and commerce.

Let's r ead again


1. The renowned kings of middle age are: Shashanka, Gopala and Laksman Sen. 2. In the ancient period people of different occupations led a very plain and simple life in the village.
89

Bangladesh and Global Studies

3. In the ancient age, along with agro based economy there was cottage industry and trade and commerce. 4. Bakhtiyar Khilji founded the Muslim Dynasty in Bengal in 1204. Well-known rulers of the middle age are - Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, Baro Bhuiyan and Shayesta Khan. 5. Along with Hinduism and Buddhism, Islam spread in the society which resulted in the increase of Muslim population. 6. Along with agriculture, trade and commerce especially export expanded significantly.

Planned activities
1. Act out the roles of the kings of ancient and middle age. 2. Prepare a chart comparing the social and economic life in ancient and middle age. Ancient age Food Dress Crops Trade and Commerce 3. Write a story on a ruler from ancient or middle age. Middle age

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 Who is the ruler of ancient age? a. Bakhtiyar Khilji b. Isa Khan c. Ilyas Shah d. Gopala
90

Our History

1.2 which age Baro Bhuiyan are from? a. middle age b. ancient age c. modern age d. none 1.3 Which religion spread in the middle age? a. Hinduism b. Islam c. Buddhism d. Christianity 1.4 Who is the last renowned king of Sen Dynasty? a. Gopala b. Laksman Sen c. Shashanka d. Kedar Roy 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. Shashanka was ______________ powerful king of Bengal. b. The founder of Muslim Dynasty in Bengal was _______________ . c. The key foundation of the social life in ancient period was ______ . d. A _______________ culture was created in Bengal. 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. Leader of Baro Bhuiyan b. Ending the 100 year disorder of Bengal, came to the throne c. At the time of Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah d. Eight mound rice could be bought by one taka during the time of Shayesta Khan King Gopala Isa Khan the whole Bengal was united Bengal was divided

4.Answer to the following questions briefly. a. Who were Baro Bhuiyan and what did they do ? b. How was the economic condition of Bengal in ancient age ? c. Write about the social condition of Bengal in middle age. d. Why was the rule of Shayesta Khan famous ? e. Who was Shashanka and what did he do ?

91

Chapter Fifteen

Our Cultur e
Cultur e
Generally what we do and how we do is called culture. What we are is culture. In that sense, every single thing of our life is part of culture. Our lifestyle, dress, food, festival, program, language, music, accommodation, art, jewellery, vehicle, utensil, belief everything makes our culture. But with the course of time, these things can change. As a result, the shape of culture can change as well. Thus culture is changeable. However, everything of a culture does not change. Major parts of culture remain unchanged for a long time. Since Bangladesh is a country of various religion, complexion, race and ethnic groups, each of these has its own distinct culture. And all of these make us and our country. Now we will learn about some major attributes of the culture of Bangladesh which almost everybody follows irrespective of religion and ethnic groups.

Language
Language is the medium of expression of human mind. Most of the people of Bangladesh are Bengali. So Bengali is our main language. All the Bengalis' mother tongue is Bengali whether they are Hindus, Muslims, Christians or Buddhists. However, apart from Bengalis, there are other ethnic groups in the country as well. They have their own languages which are their mother tongue. We all speak, write and think in our own mother tongues.

Attir e
Female Attire: The main dress of Bengali women is sari. Bengali women commonly wear sari in their daily lives and in festivals. However, in course of time, salwar-kamiz has also been turned into the common dress of daily life of females. The trend of wearing salwar-kamiz is mainly

Our Culture

A girl with salwar-kamiz

A woman with sari

A girl with frock

seen among the young girls. However, in festivals or programs, generally females of all age wear sari. Young girls still wear frock, skirt etc. However, some of the young girls wear salwar-kamiz or sari on special occasion as fashion. Besides this, women adorn themselves with a variety of ornaments, bracelet, flower etc.

A man with lungi

A man with Punjabi-pajama

A man with shirt-pant

Male Attire: The males of this country mainly wear lungi in villages and at home. While going outside, to official work, office, school-college males wear shirt-pant. However, on special occasion, they wear Punjabipajama. Once aged Hindu males used to wear a dress called 'Dhuti'.
93

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Muslim males wear cap in religious programs. Young boys wear half pant. However, this trend is slowing down. Let us prepare a list of dresses of males and females. The dress of females 1. 2. 3. The dress of males

Our Food Daily Food


There is a saying, 'Fish and rice make a Bengali'. Rice is our staple food. With rice, we eat pulse, fish, vegetables and sometimes meat. Vegetables of various kinds are available as per season. But potato, cabbage, beans etc available in winter are delicious food. The use of various spices gives our dishes a unique taste and attribute.

Special Dish/Cuisine
Generally we eat polao with meat, biriani and Khichuri on special occasions. Taking Khichuri on rainy days has turned into a tradition of the Bengalis. However, there is a trend of eating panta, green chilli or various kinds of smashes and vegetables in summer in peasant families.
94

A variety of food

Our Culture

Sweet
Bangladesh is a country of sweets. Variety of sweets and dishes made of sweets are an inevitable part of our festivals and programs. Any kind of joyous programs or news of joy happiness is celebrated with sweets. Our sweet dishes are normally made of milk. Some of them are: card, payesh, rashagolla, chomchom, khir etc. The arrangements of sweet dishes differ according to the various natures of the programs. For an example: on Eid day, a dish called shemai is cooked while on shab-e-barat borfi is cooked. On the ceremony of Hindu festivals, payesh, naru, mowa, murki are made whereas on Christmas, Christians prepare cakes.

Pr ogr ams and Customs


Our social and religious life is full of various kinds of programs and customs. Among them mukhevaat, akika, musalmani, gaye-halud, birthday, panchini, grihoprobesh, hatekhari, halkhata etc are notable ones.

Today is the program of naming the younger sister of Raza; Akika. Grandfather gave her the name, 'Rani.'

Program of naming

Today is mukhevaat program of Roma's younger brother Ratan. From now he will start to eat rice.

Mukhevaat Program
95

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Today is my birthday.I am 9 years old. Today I will taste 'Payesh'

Birthday Program

Hurrah! Today is Rozi Apu's gaye-halud. Tomorrow is her Wedding.

Gaye-halud Program

Folk Music
The villages of Bengal have been hymned with the tunes of jari, shari, baul, vatiali, vawaiya, gamvira etc for a long time. These are the main folk songs of our country. Our farmars sing these songs while ploughing in the lands, boatmen also sing while plying boats. bauls sing these songs while moving from one village to another. stage shows are seen to take place specially in the village fair, Jattra, pala song, poet song, kriton and murshidi.
96

Our Culture

But it is really a matter of great grief that a major portion of our culture especially folk culture is on the verge of extinction. Modern life style, dance and music, influence of foreign culture all these things have affected us so much that our culture is not like before. Although we have come to know that culture is changeable yet to retain our originality we cannot give up our own culture. The way we will try to protect our culture, in the same way we will respect the culture of others. To give is to take and to match is to join will build a beautiful world.

Let's Read Again


1. Generally what we do and how we do is called culture. However, apart from Bengalis, ethnic groups have distinct cultural attributes. 2. Sari and salwar kameez are the main dresses of the females of our country whereas the main dresses of men are lungi, pajama-punjabi and shirt-pant. 3. The staple foods of our country are rice-fish-pulse and various types of sweet dishes. 4. Akika, mukhevaat, birthday etc are some of the social programs of our country. 5. Baul, vatiali, jari-shari, kabigaan, palagaan etc are part of our folk music. 6. We should be careful in practising the culture of our country.

Planned Activities
1. Under the supervision of a teacher, the learners will arrange a program, 'Dress up the way you like'. According to this, the learners will prepare a list of the dress of males, females and children of our country. 2. The learners will draw pictures of people with various types of dress or collecting the pictures of people wearing the local dresses, they will prepare album of those pictures. 3. They will observe who are studying what in classes or schools and then prepare a list according to the observation. 4. The learners will prepare a list of the customs and programs which they have experienced in their own family or in relatives, friends and
97

Bangladesh and Global Studies

neighbours and if possible describe those briefly in one or two lines in the list. 5. If possible the teacher will invite a folk musician in the class so that students can have an idea of real folk music. The teacher will encourage the learners to participate in the song with the folk musician.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 Which of the following is not a part of our culture ? a. payesh-roshogolla b. salwar-kameez c. vatiyali song d. hat 1.2 Which one is the female dress ? a. lungi b. pant c. punjabi d. sari 1.3 Which one is the food of our country ? a. bread b. noodles c. burger d. khichuri 1.4 Which one is not our folk music ? a. baul music b. kirton music c. jari music d. pop music 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. What we do and how we do is our ___________________ . b. The medium of expression of human mind is called ____________ . c. A major portion of our culture especially folk culture is on the verge of ___________________ . d. Jari, shari, baul, vatiali, vawaiya, gamvira etc are our main ______________ .

98

Our Culture

3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. rice program to keep child's name b. Our staple food c. Akika is a program of children's hatekhari mixed culture d. The program for initiating unchangeable culture children's education is called 4. Answer to the following question briefly. a. What is meant by culture ? b. Write one or two cultural elements of Bangladesh. c. Describe the dresses of males of this country. d. Describe the dresses of females of this country. e. What do we generally eat ? f. Write about one of our special customs. a. The culture of Bangladesh

99

Chapter Sixteen

Our Bangladesh
Bangladesh is one of the beautiful countries in this world. Here there is charming natural beauty which fascinates us all. In Class III, we learnt about various aspects of our country. In this lesson, we shall learn about the geography, climate and some naturally beautiful places.

The topogr aphy of Bangladesh:


Most of the regions of Bangladesh are plain. Besides, there are some hills in our country. There are plenty of rivers as well. In terms of the period of formation and condition of the land, the topography of Bangladesh can be divided into three 91 92 89 Bangladesh regions. The topogr aphic map North 1. Hilly region 26 26 a. hilly region b. plain high land formed on old alluvial soil 2. Plain high land c. plain land formed on new alluvial soil formed on old alluvial India soil 25 25 3. Plain land formed on new alluvial soil
Bar endr abh umi

Hilly Region
Most areas of our country are plain land. However there are some hills in the southeast and north-west regions of the country. The hills of south-east region are located in the districts of Khagrachari, Rangamati, Bandarban and Chittagong. Most

Madhupur Gar

24

India
La a lm ih ill

24

23

23

22 22

Bay of Bengal
Scale 0 21 89 90 91 92 50 Kilometre

Mya nma r
21

The Topographic map of Bangladesh

Our Bangladesh

of the hills of Bangladesh are located in the south-eastern region. These hills were formed in the `tertiary' are. The name of the highest peak of Bangladesh is Tajindong. This peak is 1231 metres high. The name of the second highest peak of the country is keokradong. It is 1230 meters high. Both the hills are situated in Bandarban. There is a forest in this hilly region. The hills of the north-eastern region are located in the districts of Sylhet, Moulavibazar, Habiganj and Sherpur. These hills are not too high. So they are called `hillocks'. Most of the tea gardens of Bangladesh are located in these hilly regions.

Plain high land for med on old alluvial soil


Some of the regions are little higher than the plain lands in Bangladesh. These plain high lands are formed of old alluvial soil. The high plain lands of Dinajpur, Rangpur, Bogra and Rajshahi are known as 'Barendrabhumi'. There are also similar high lands in Gazipur, Mymensingh and Tangail. The high land of Gazipur is called `Bhawalgar' and the high lands of Mymensingh and Tangail are called `Madhupur Gar'. There is a forest of 'Shal' trees in this area. There a small, low hill named Lalmai in the south of Comilla town.

Plain land for med on new alluvial soil


Most of the regions of Bangladesh are plain land formed on new alluvial soil except for hilly region and plain high land formed on old alluvial soil. This plain land slopes gradually from north to south. Many rivers are flowing through this plain land. Thus these rivers carrying have formed this land. That is why the land is so fertile here.

Climate
The monsoon flows over the country which causes plenty of rainfall in the country. In our country, neither too cold nor hot is felt throughout the year. Snow does not fall anywhere in the country. Although there are six seasons in Bangladesh, in terms of temperature and rainfall, the climate of Bangladesh is mainly divided into three seasons. (Summer, Rainy season and Winter).
101

Bangladesh and Global Studies

The Summer Season


In Bangladesh, the duration of summer is from March to May. During this time it gets quite hot. The temperature rises up to 35 degree Celsius in summer. Sometimes the temperature is even over 35 degree. April is the hottest month of the year. In The Summer the month of April and May, there is storm which is called `Kalbaishakhi'. The storm causes a lot of harm. However, cultivation is benefited by the rainfall.

The r ainy season


The rainy season begins right after the summer. It lasts from June to October. The monsoon carrying humidity from the Bay of Bengal blows over Bangladesh. This causes a lot of rain. The average rainfall of the country in this season is 203 centimetre.

The Rainy season

The winter season


After the rainy season, the temperature gradually goes down. Winter slowly sets in. It lasts from November to February. Sometimes there is too much cold. Northern region gets colder that other regions of the
102

Our Bangladesh

country during winter. The temperature is the lowest in January. The average temperature of winter is 18 degree Celsius. Sometimes the temperature goes way beyond that which causes a lot of sufferings to people.

Some beautiful landscapes of Bangladesh

The Winter

Bangladesh is land of scenic beauty. There are plenty of beautiful places which attract the tourists. Now we will learn about some of the beautiful places of the country.

The Sundar bans


The Sundarbans is a unique example of natural beauty of this world. In 1997, UNESCO recognized it as a world heritage site which is a matter of great pride for us. The Sundarbans, the largest forest of the country is situated to the south along the coast of Bay of Bengal. It is also the largest Mangrove forest in the world. The dominant plant here is Sundri (Heritiera fames) from which the Sundarbans takes its name. Apart from Sundri, there are a range of plants grown in this forest. The Sundarbans is also the habitat of world famous Royal Bengal Tiger. The forest is quite deep where there are deer, The Sundarbans
103

Bangladesh and Global Studies

birds, snake, crocodile, wild cat, hedgehog, wild boar etc. The chital deer are very beautiful. Countless canals and rivers are streaming through the forest. These canals are the abode of crocodiles and some other animals. The soil of the Sundarbans is very fertile. Plenty of wood, honey, wax, and fish are available in this forest. It protects the southern region of the country from storm and tidal wave.

The Sea Beach of Cox's Bazar


The Sea Beach of Cox's Bazar is the longest sea beach in the world. It is situated in Cox's Bazar of Chittagong Hill Tracts. This beach is located along the Bay of Bengal in the south of Bangladesh. It is the most popular tourist destination in Bangladesh. It is really nice to enjoy sunset on this sea beach. In addition to that, there are high waves of the sea, the stroll of snails on the sands of the beach and plenty of green palm trees. Besides, the sea beach of Cox's Bazar offers a number of beautiful places which are: Laboni Beach, Himchari, Inani Beach. Laboni Beach is the main beach of Cox's Bazar. Himchari is 18 km south of Cox's Bazar sea Beach. Himchari is surrounded with lush green hills with sea on one side. This place is famous for waterfalls. Another attraction of this place is Christmas tree. Inani Beach is 35 km south of Cox's Bazar sea Beach. This beach is famous for golden sand and clear water. Cox's Bazar Sea Beach is really a nice place for travelling and spending time with your f a m i l y members in vacation. The sea beach of Cox's Bazar
104

Our Bangladesh

Rangamati

The waterfall of Himchari

Rangamati is the Administrative Headquarter of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. It is located on the western bank of the Kaptai Lake. Rangamati is a lovely landmark surrounded with greenish hill, forest and lake which make it a popular holiday destination for the tourists. It offers a wide

The hills and lake of Rangamati

The hanging bridge of Rangamati

range of flora and fauna. Rangamati is the abode of Chakma, Marma and other ethnic minorities. There is an indigenous museum and a hanging bridge as well. A variety of dress and hand made ivory jewellery by the ethnic minorities are available here. The attractions of Rangamati are countless which includes indigenous life, fishing and speed boat cruising, bathing and skiing.
105

Bangladesh and Global Studies

Bandar ban
Bandarban is a hilly district of Chittagong situated in the north southern region of Bangladesh. It is one of the most beautiful landscapes of Bangladesh and South Asia. Covered with hills, forests and lush green plain land, Bandarban is a land of scenic beauty. The highest peak of Bangladesh Tazing Dong is located here. Chimbuk peak and Boga Lake are two notable places of the district. Bandarban is a combination of Buddhist temple of Bandarban tall peaks, hilly swamps, lakes and hilly waterfalls. The most beautiful Buddhist temple of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan is located in Bandarban which houses the second largest statue of Buddha in Bangladesh. Numerous Buddhist temples known as Kyang can be found all around the city. The waterfall named 'Shoilo Propat' at Milanchari is another example of natural beauty in Bandarban.

The natural beauty of Bandarban


106

Our Bangladesh

The Sea Beach of Kuakata


Another amazingly beautiful sea beach that Bangladesh has is Kuakata. It is located to the south of Bangladesh in Patuakhali district on the tip of Bay of Bengal. The name Kuakata originated from the word 'Kua'-the Bengali word for "Well". It is about 320 Kilometres south of Dhaka. The main inhabitants of Kuakata are Rakhines. It is said The sunrise of Kuakata sea beach that some hundred years ago, Rakhines dug well here in quest of collecting drinking water. From that, it is named Kuakata. Here the sea beach is full of natural beauty along with attractive dress and life style of Rakhines. In Bangladesh Kuakata is the only sea beach which offers a full view of the sunrise and sunset from the same white sandy beach. The oldest Buddhist Temple is also situated located in Kuakata which is 100 years old. Moreover, 200 year old wells are located on the sea shore of Kuakata. In winter migratory birds also visit Kuakata in huge number. For the alluring beauty, it is known as 'Shagor Kannya' (Daughter of the Sea).

Saint Mar tin


St. Martin is a small island which is situated about 48 Kilometres south of Teknaf at the mouth of the Naf River. This island is surrounded by Bay of Bengal. The local name of the island is Narikel Jinjira as coconuts and palm are found here in abundance. It is the only coral island in Bangladesh. The occupation of the most of the inhabitants here is fishing and
Coconut range of Saint Martin
107

Bangladesh and Global Studies

selling dried fish. Saint Martin is an attractive tourist spot. Animals of a variety of species can be found in the water. There are also Sundri (Heritiera fames), sea beach with clear water, quicksand etc in Saint Martin.

J aflong
Jaflong is situated in Sylhet Division. It is located in Gowainghat Upazila of Sylhet District at the border between Bangladesh and India at the bottom of the Himalayas. Jaflong is the home of Khashia tribe. So once you visit Jaflong, you can experience the diversity of the life style of Khashia tribe. Jaflong is famous for its stone collection. The Mari River flowing from the great Himalayas of India enters Bangladesh here with million tons of stone boulders with its tide. Stone collection is a means of living of the local people. The entire Jaflong surrounded by hills is an amazing land of natural beauty. These hills are covered with green forests. There are also a wide range of animals in these forests. There is another beautiful place called Tamabil near Jaflong. This is also a wonderful place.

The beautiful scenery of Jaflong

Apart from the places mentioned above, there are also a number of beautiful places in our country. These are our tradition, our pride. We need to lean more about these and it is our responsibility to protect these.
108

Our Bangladesh

Let's Read Again


1. Mainly Bangladesh is a plain land. However, there are some hills in our country as well. 2. It rains a lot here. However, neither too cold nor hot is felt throughout the year in the country. 3. There are a number of beautiful places in our country. These are our tradition.

Planned Activity
1. The teacher will tell the learners one attribute of different places of the country. The learners in group will find out the name of the place that matches the attribute. Thus a group contest of learners can be arranged. 2. Prepare a chart on the attributes of topology and climate of Bangladesh respectively.

Exercise
1. Put a tick mark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1.1 Where is the tallest hill of Bangladesh situated? a. Rangamati b. Bandarban c. Cox's Bazar d. Saint Martin 1.2 Of what the plain high land of Bangladeshis formed? a. hill b. old alluvial soil c. lime stone d. clay 1.3 Which organization recognized Sundarbans world heritage? a. UNESCO b. UNICEF c. SAARC d. United Nations 1.4 Where is the forest of 'shal' tree situated in Bangladesh? a. Bandarban b. Comilla c. Madhupur d. Rangamati
109

Bangladesh and Global Studies

2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate word. a. Most of the regions of Bangladesh are __________________ . b. The plain high land of Bangladesh is called ________________ . c. The storm which occur in the month of April and May is called ______________ . d. The Sundarbans is the largest __________________ of the world. 3. Match the words on the right with those on the left. a. Shagor Kannya b. World heritage c. Kaptai Lake d. High waves the Sundarbans Cox's Bazar Saint Martin Kuakata Rangamati

4. Answer to the following question briefly. a. Describe the hilly regions of Bangladesh briefly. b. How is the climate of Bangladesh during summer? c. Write the names of the ethnic minorities who live in Kuakata, Rangamati and Jaflong. d. Write two notable places of Bandarban district. 5. Answer to the following question. a. Describe the beauty of Rangamati. b. Write in five sentences about the feeling created in your mind through learning about the natural beauty of various places of Bangladesh.

The End

Academic Year 2013, BGS-4

Trees are Bosom Friend of Human

National Curriculum and Textbook Board, Dhaka


" For free distr ibution by the Gover nment of Bangladesh - Not For Sale"