You are on page 1of 3

Appendix A Design values for a robust design

Table A.1 specifies the tying forces required to produce a robust timber structure when using Method i) as described in Section 5.11. The values shown are to be included in a revision of BS 5268-23, and are considered adequate to satisfy the Building Regulations in England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. NDPs for EC1-1-7 are not yet available. Once tying forces appropriate to a timber structure have been published as NDPs in the NA to EC1-1-7 the latter should be used instead. Tables A.2 and A.3 give fastener spacings required to provide a distributed tie force of 0.5kN/m. For other values the spacings may be adjusted proportionately (but see Table 12.1 for maximum recommended values). Finally Table A.4 gives nail capacities for use with steel anchor straps to tie timber floors and ceilings to masonry walls.
Table A.1 Required tying forces for internal ties for robust detailing of a timber building or a building with timber floorsa Horizontal design tie force, Ft,hor,db
Distributed ties (kN/m)d Concentrated ties (kN)e

Vertical design tie force, Ft,vert,dc


Distributed ties (kN/m) or concentrated ties (kN) A tensile force equal to the maximum vertical characteristic load from any one storey normally supported by the wall or column

max . *

3.5

0.5 ^ gk + q k h l

10 max . * 0.5 ^ gk + q k h s t l

Notes
a For peripheral ties use half the tabulated values. The values shown have been taken
from draft recommendations for BS 5268-2, because the values recommended in Informative Annex A of BS EN 1991-1-7 are not appropriate for a timber structure.

b gk = characteristic dead weight of floor or roof per unit area (kN/m)

qk = full characteristic imposed load on floor or roof per unit area (kN/m) l = full length of tied area of floor or roof (m) st = mean spacing of ties (m).
the lowest to the highest level. There should be an effective connection between vertical and horizontal ties at each level.

c Each column or wall supporting vertical load should be tied continuously from

d Provision for a horizontal tie force in a platform frame timber construction is required
at the connection between the head of the supporting external wall and the supported floor joist construction, between the floor joist and the floor decking horizontal diaphragm, and between the floor diaphragm/floor joists and the external wall above.

e Ties for use in post and beam type structures.

IStructE/trada Manual for the design of timber building structures to Eurocode 5

255

Table A.2 Nail spacings required to achieve 5kN/m lateral design capacity in C16 softwood under accidental instantaneous loadinga
Headside member Min. length (mm) Application Service class Smooth hand driven nailb Machine driven nailc Smooth Diameter (mm) 3.0 9mm OSB/3 11mm OSB/3 18mm OSB/3 22mm particleboardd 50 50 50 50 63 Floor perimeter 1 or 2 1 or 2 1 1 1 120 130 160 140 185 3.35 140 145 170 155 220 3.1 130 140 165 150 210 3.1 140 145 175 155 220 Maximum spacing (mm) Timber frame wall Threaded

Smooth hand driven nailb 3.35 38mm C16 38mm C16 75 90 Wall panel to top binder Wall panel to floor header joist 1 or 2 1 or 2 185 255 4.0

Machine driven ringed shank nailc 3.1 180 180 3.1

Diameter (mm)

Notes
a b c d
May be adjusted pro-rata for other required tying forces. Assumed minimum tensile strength = 600N/mm. Assumed minimum tensile strength = 700N/mm. The values for particleboard are for any structural grade.

256

IStructE/trada Manual for the design of timber building structures to Eurocode 5

Table A.3 Wood screw spacings required to achieve 5kN/m lateral design capacity in C16 softwood under accidental instantaneous loading no predrillinga
Headside member Lengthb (mm) Application Service class Nominal diameter of wood screwc No. 6 No. 8 Metric sizes 4mm 165 175 225 215

3.45mm 4.17mm 3.5mm 9mm OSB/3 11mm OSB/3 18mm OSB/3 22mm particleboardd 50 50 60 60 Floor perimeter 1 or 2 1 or 2 1 1 140 150 175 175 175 180 235 230 140 150 180 180

Maximum spacing (mm) Timber frame wall

Nominal diameter of wood screwc No. 8 Wall panel to C16 top binder Wall panel to C16 floor header joist No 10 Metric sizes 4mm 135 190 200 5mm 4.17mm 4.88mm 38mm C16 38mm C16 80 100 1 or 2 1 or 2 145

Notes

a May be adjusted pro-rata for other required tying forces. b The pointside penetration must be at least 6d. Penetrations less than 8d will give
reduced load capacities.

c Thread root diameter assumed to be 60% of nominal diameter, giving an effective


diameter of def = 0.6 x 1.1d. Assumed minimum tensile strength = 540N/mm.

d The values for particleboard are for any structural grade. Table A.4 Lateral design capacity per nail in C16 softwood under accidental loading through 5mm steel anchor straps no predrilling
Type Square twisted Smooth round Smooth round Machine driven round smooth or threaded Diameter (mm) 3.75 3.75 4.00 3.10 Length (mm) 32 75 75 75 Design load (kN) 1.09 1.58 1.76 1.24

IStructE/trada Manual for the design of timber building structures to Eurocode 5

257