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Application of PLC in Factory Automation 
& Computer Integrated Manufacturing 
 

Under  the  guidance  of    Submitted By
                                                                                 

Mr. J S Dhaka Rajat Gupta


Sr. Manager –Operations Bachelor of Technology
& H.O.D (Jewel Box Section) Electronics Engg.
Moser Baer India Limited HBTI Kanpur
Greater Noida
 
 

 
 

Acknowledgement 
 

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to MOSER BAER INDIA LIMITED on


successful completion of my Summer Internship Program. It was a pleasure to work with an
organization of such a stature.

Firstly I would like to thank the Department of Training for organizing the Induction
program giving insight not only to the company , it’s operations , its values and visions but
also to the technology ,its scope and the future. I would like to thank Mr. Manoj Shekhawat
(AGM-Training), Mr. Sanjay Negi and Mr. Kamal for their supervision and care during my
entire stay with MBIL.

I am deeply indebted to Mr. Omveer Singh (Dy. Manager) and Mr. J S Dhaka (Sr. Manager &
H.O.D) of the Jewel Box section for their guidance and their support and for helping me with
my problems and doubts. I would not have been able to complete this project without their
valuable efforts and guidance.

 
 

About Moser Baer  
 

Moser Baer, headquartered in New Delhi, is one of India's leading technology companies.
Established in 1983 as a Time Recorder unit in technical collaboration with Maruzen
Corporation, Japan and Moser Baer Sumiswald, Switzerland, the company successfully
developed cutting edge technologies to become the world's second largest manufacturer of
Optical Storage media like CDs and DVDs. The company also emerged as the first to market
the next-generation of storage formats like Blu-ray Discs and HD DVD. Recently, the
company has transformed itself from a single business into a multi-technology organisation,
diversifying into exciting areas of Solar Energy, Home Entertainment and IT Peripherals &
Consumer Electronics.

Moser Baer has a presence in over 82 countries, serviced through six marketing offices in
India, the US, Europe and Japan, and has strong tie-ups with all major global technology
players.

Moser Baer has the distinction of being preferred supplier to all top global OEM brands.

Moser Baer stands committed to supplying highest quality fully licensed media to its
customers.

Moser Baer's products are manufactured at its three state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities.
It has over 6,000 full-time employees and multiple manufacturing facilities in the suburbs of
New Delhi.

 
 

Moser Baer milestones  
1983 ƒ Established

1985 ƒ Production of 8.0"/5.25" Disks

1987 ƒ Production of 3.5" Disks

1998 ƒ ISO 9002 Certification

1999 ƒ Production of CD-R

2000 ƒ Production of CD-RW

2002 ƒ Completely Integrated Manufacturing

2003 ƒ Production of DVD-R


ƒ Production of DVD-RW
ƒ ISO Certification for all Facilities
ƒ Launch of 'Moserbaer' Brand in Indian Market
ƒ Signed one of Largest Outsourcing Deals in Indian Manufacturing

2004 ƒ 'Lightscribe' Deal with HP


ƒ HP Deal for India and SAARC Region
ƒ Contributing Member of Blu-Ray Disk Association

2005 ƒ ISO 14001 & OHSAS 18001 certification for Moser Baer plants.
ƒ Commencement of Phase III of Greater Noida Plant
ƒ Announced Moser Baer Photovoltaic Ltd as it's wholly owned subsidiary
ƒ Received status of SEZ developer from Govt. of India
ƒ Announced a wholly owned subsidiary-Moser Baer SEZ
 

Signed MoU with IIT, Delhi

2006 ƒ The first company in the world to start volume shipments of HD DVD-R
ƒ Signed Technology MoU with IT BHU
ƒ Patented technology approved by the Blu-ray Disc Association
ƒ In-house R&D Centre approved by Ministry of Science and Technology
ƒ Launched USB Flash drives
ƒ Forayed into entertainment space, enters Home Video market

2007 ƒ Acquired OM&T BV - a Philips' optical technology and R&D subsidiary


ƒ Announced start of trial run of solar photovoltaic cell production facility
ƒ Set up the world's largest Thin Film Solar Fab
ƒ Launched US$150 mn FCCBs
ƒ Moser Baer Photo Voltaic announced commercial shipment of solar
photovoltaic cells
ƒ Moser Baer Photo Voltaic announced US$880 million strategic sourcing tie-up
with REC Group
ƒ Forayed into PC peripherals market: Launches Optical Disk Drives (ODDs),
Headphones, Keyboards, Optical Mouse etc.
ƒ Launched Branded DVD Player

2008 ƒ Moser Baer plans 600 MW Thin Film PV capacity with an estimated investment
of over $ 1.5 bn
ƒ Moser Baer Photo Voltaic announces strategic sourcing tie-up with LDK Solar
ƒ Moser Baer announces successful trials of first Gen 8.5 Thin Film plant
 

Introduction to PLC’s 
 

General-purpose sequencers (programmable logic controllers) have, in the 1990s, come into
widespread use as critically important elements in many areas of factory automation (FA) and
computer integrated manufacturing (CIM). Thanks to an increasingly sophisticated range of
functions that include calculation, information processing and networking support, they can
be found throughout industry controlling manufacturing processes, assembly, inspection and
transportation.

Day by day PLC manufacturers are configuring and optimizing to attain total FA systems
imposing additional demands upon these sequencers for more functional operation and the
extension of their application to the control of electric power distribution, building
supervision and management, and simple instrumentation installations.The result is that
present day PLC’s are more functional,more performaning, smaller , having networking
capabilities and better built-in intelligence. These days software control and dual CPU’s are
being used to achieve high reliability, ease of maintenance, and to provide diagnostic
functions.

A PLC (i.e. Programmable Logic Controller) is a device that was invented to replace the
necessary sequential relay circuits for machine control. The PLC works by looking at its
inputs and depending upon their state, turning on/off its outputs. The user enters a program,
usually via software, that gives the desired results.

PLCs are used in many real world applications. If an industry’s processes involve machining,
packaging, material handling, automated assembly or countless other facilities , they find a
PLC application. Almost any application that needs some type of electrical control has a need
for a plc.

 
 

PLC History 
 

In the late 1960's PLCs were first introduced. The primary reason for designing such a device
was eliminating the large cost involved in replacing the complicated relay based machine control
systems. Bedford Associates (Bedford, MA) proposed something called a Modular Digital
Controller (MODICON) to a major US car manufacturer. Other companies at the time
proposed computer based schemes, one of which was based upon the PDP-8. The MODICON
084 brought the world's first PLC into commercial production.

These "new controllers" also had to be easily programmed by maintenance and plant engineers.
The lifetime had to be long and programming changes easily performed. They also had to survive
the harsh industrial environment.The answers were to use a programming technique most
people were already familiar with and replace mechanical parts with solid-state ones.

In the mid70's the dominant PLC technologies were sequencer state-machines and the bit-slice
based CPU. The AMD 2901 and 2903 were quite popular in Modicon and A-B PLCs.
Conventional microprocessors lacked the power to quickly solve PLC logic in all but the smallest
PLCs. As conventional microprocessors evolved, larger and larger PLCs were being based upon
them. However, even today some are still based upon the 2903.(ref A-B's PLC-3) Modicon has
yet to build a faster PLC than their 984A/B/X which was based upon the 2901.

The 80's saw an attempt to standardize communications with General Motor's manufacturing
automation protocol(MAP). It was also a time for reducing the size of the PLC and making them
software programmable through symbolic programming on personal computers instead of
dedicated programming terminals or handheld programmers. Today the world's smallest PLC is
about the size of a single control relay.
 

 
 

PLC Internal Structure 
The PLC mainly consists of a CPU, memory areas, and appropriate circuits to receive
input/output data. We can actually consider the PLC to be a box full of hundreds or thousands
of separate relays, counters, timers and data storage locations. The counters, timers, etc. don't
"physically" exist but rather they are simulated and can be considered software counters, timers,
etc. These internal relays are simulated through bit locations in registers.
 

ROLE OF EACH PART: 
 

• INPUT RELAYS­ (contacts)These are connected to the outside world. They physically exist
and receive signals from switches, sensors, etc. Typically they are not relays but rather they are
transistors. 

• INTERNAL UTILITY RELAYS-(contacts) These do not receive signals from the outside


world nor do they physically exist. They are simulated relays and are what enables a PLC to
eliminate external relays. There are also some special relays that are dedicated to performing
only one task. Some are always on while some are always off. Some are on only once during
power-on and are typically used for initializing data that was stored.

• COUNTERS­These again do not physically exist. They are simulated counters and they can be
programmed to count pulses. Typically these counters can count up, down or both up and
down. Since they are simulated they are limited in their counting speed. Some manufacturers
also include high-speed counters that are hardware based. We can think of these as physically
existing. Most times these counters can count up, down or up and down.  

• TIMERS­These also do not physically exist. They come in many varieties and increments.
The most common type is an on-delay type. Others include off-delay and both retentive and
non-retentive types. Increments vary from 1ms through 1s.

 
 

• OUTPUT RELAYS(coils)These are connected to the outside world. They physically exist and
send on/off signals to solenoids, lights, etc. They can be transistors, relays, or triacs
depending upon the model chosen.

• DATA  STORAGE­Typically there are registers assigned to simply store data. They are usually
used as temporary storage for math or data manipulation. They can also typically be used to store
data when power is removed from the PLC. Upon power-up they will still have the same contents
as before power was removed.
 

 
 

PLC Operation 

A PLC works by continually scanning a program. We can think of this scan cycle as consisting
of 3 important steps. There are typically more than 3 steps but these there encapsulate the
essence of the operation . Typically the others are checking the system and updating the
current internal counter and timer values.
 

                                                   

Step 1-CHECK INPUT STATUS-First the PLC takes a look at each input to determine if it is
on or off. In other words, is the sensor connected to the first input on? Then the second input?
Then the third and so on…. It records this data into its memory to be used during the next step.

Step 2-EXECUTE PROGRAM-Next the PLC executes your program one instruction at a
time. Maybe the program says that if the first input was on then it should turn on the first
output. Since it already knows which inputs are on/off from the previous step it will be able to
decide whether the first output should be turned on based on the state of the first input. It
will store the execution results for use later during the next step.
 

Step 3-UPDATE OUTPUT STATUS-Finally the PLC updates the status of the outputs. It
updates the outputs based on which inputs were on during the first step and the results of
executing your program during the second step. Based on the example in step 2 it would now
turn on the first output because the first input was on and your program said to turn on the first
output when this condition is true.
After the third step the PLC goes back to step one and repeats the steps continuously. One scan
time is defined as the time it takes to execute the 3 steps listed above.
 

PLC Programming 
Programmable controllers are generally programmed in ladder diagram (or "relay diagram")
which is nothing but a symbolic representation of electric circuits. Symbols were selected that
actually looked similar to schematic symbols of electric devices.

There are several languages designed for user communication with a PLC, among which
ladder diagram is the most popular. Ladder diagram consists of one vertical line found on the
left hand side, and lines which branch off to the right. Line on the left is called a "bus bar",
and lines that branch off to the right are instruction lines.

At Moser Baer Jewel Box section Mitsubishi’s MELSEC-A series controllers and AD-75
positioning systems are used. Mitsubishi provides sequence control instructions and
microcomputer basic programs which can be had from A1SD75M1/M2/M3 ,
AD75M1/M2/M3 positioning module User manual and programming manual. Due to the
company’s policy against disclosure the instruction set and working programmes of the
 

implemented systems cannot be included in this report. However , the basic classification and
application has been laid out.

The function and device use ranges and determine by parameter values. Parameters of CPU
are set by default values. If the default can be used for the purpose and it is not necessary to set
the parameter.

INSTRUCTIONS:- The instructions of MELSEC-A series are largely classified into


sequence instruction, and application instruction. However instructional programming is
now seldom done at Moser Baer as implementation is by modular programming using library
and software package provided by Mitsubishi. Only when a new assembly is being
implemented which finds a new routine of events , does instructional programming takes
place which can also be saved as a new module and hence can be used later on with new
programs.

The PLC softwares nowadays have drag and drop features in which modules can be dragged
and dropped in plans. It is just like Proteus and MATLAB where we can use standard
electronics components and connect them thru wires. Here, we can use library or self made
modules and can interconnect them as in diagram. This feature is very much useful in high
level assemblies where otherwise the manhours required will be high.
 
 

PLC  application  at  Jewel  Box  Assembly 


Lines : Positioning Module 
 

While PLC’s are controller devices , positioning module is the actual device that does the
mechanical action .It basically controls mechanical movement of servo motors under
guidelines laid by PLC. It can be understood by CPU-Printer head relationship. CPU
converts Text Data to be printed into postscript which basically outlines the data and at what
place of page it is to be printed. Accordingly the printer guides the head precisely to that
position and prints the characters sequentially. While the CPU is analogous to PLC , the
printer is analogous to POSITIONING MODULE.

The positioning module used by Moser Baer’s Jewel Box section is AD-75 . The basic
positioning mechanism using AD-75 is given below. Positioning control using the AD75 is
carried out with "SSCNET". In the positioning system using the AD75, various software and
devices are used for the following roles. The AD75 realizes complicated positioning control
when it reads in various signals, parameters and data and is controlled with the PLC CPU.
Because of the SSCNET connection type, the AD75 outputs to the servo amplifier the data
(position/speed commands) resultant from conversion of pulse trains into numerical values.)
In numerical data-based commands and pulse train-based commands, the concepts of the
movement amount and speed are the same.

FUNCTIONS OF

1.) GPP function software package : Creates control order and conditions as a sequence
program.
2.) PLC CPU : Stores the created program. The AD75 outputs the start signal and stop signal
following the stored program. AD75 errors, etc., are detected.
 

3.) AD75 software package : Sets the parameters and positioning data for control. Outputs
the start command for test operation with the test mode. Monitors the positioning operation.

4.) External signal : Inputs signals such as the start signal, stop signal, limit signal and control
changeover signal to the AD75.

5.) Manual pulse generator : Issues commands by outputting pulses.


 

6.) AD75 positioning Module : Stores the parameter and data. Outputs position/speed
command to the servo according to the instructions from the PLC CPU, AD75 software
package, external signals and manual pulse generator

7.) Servo amplifier : Receives commands from AD75, and drives the servomotor. Outputs the
monitor data that indicates the servo amplifier status.

8.) Servomotor & Workpiece : Carries out the actual work according to commands from the
servo amplifier.

In positioning accuracy is a very important feature. While high precision position control is
required for applications which are miniature, having nuances and fineness, high precision
speed control is essential for mass production. Beyond one point we can tradeoff one for the
other but this itself has an upper ceiling. AD -75 does speed control and position control in
the following manner

ф Position control
The total number of pulses in a pulse train required to move the designated distance is
obtained in the following manner.
 

When this total number of pulses in a pulse train is issued from the AD75 to the servo
amplifier, control to move the designated distance can be executed.
The machine side movement amount when one pulse is issued to the servo amplifier is called
the "movement amount per pulse". This value is the min. value for the workpiece to move,
and is also the electrical positioning precision.

ф Speed control
The above "total number of pulses in a pulse train" is an element required for movement
distance control, but when carrying out positioning control or speed control, the speed must
also be controlled. This "speed" is controlled by the "pulse train frequency".

The outline of the positioning system operation and design, using the AD75, is shown below.
 

Purpose and applications of positioning  
 

"Positioning" refers to moving a moving body, such as a workpiece or tool at a designated


speed, and accurately stopping it at the target position. The main application examples are
shown below.

1.) PUNCH PRESS (X, Y feed positioning)

• To punch insulation material or leather, etc., as the same shape at a high yield, positioning
is carried out with the X axis and Y axis servos.
• After positioning the table with the X axis servo, the press head is positioned with the Y
axis servo, and is then punched with the press.
• When the material type or shape changes, the press head die is changed, and the positioning
pattern is changed.
 

2.) Palletizer

• Using the servo for one axis, the palletizer is positioned at a high accuracy.
• The amount to lower the palletizer according to the material thickness is saved.
 

3.) Compact machining center (ATC magazine positioning)


• The ATC tool magazine for a compact machining center is positioned.
• The relation of the magazine's current value and target value is calculated, and positioning is
carried out with forward run or reverse run to achieve the shortest access time.
 

4.) Lifter (Storage of Braun tubes onto aging rack)


• During the aging process of braun tubes, storage onto the rack is carried out by positioning
with the servo.
• The up/down positioning of the lifter is carried out with the 1-axis servo, and the horizontal
position of the aging rack is positioned with the 2-axis servo
 

5.) Index table (High-accuracy indexing of angle)


• The index table is positioned at a high accuracy using the 1-axis servo.
 

6.) Inner surface grinder


• The grinding of the workpiece's inner surface is controlled with the servo and inverter.
• The rotation of the workpiece is controlled with the 1-axis inverter, and the rotation of the
grinding stone is controlled with the 2-axis inverter. The workpiece is fed and ground with
the 3-axis servo.