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C H A P T E R I I - A D M I N I ST RA Tl 0 N D E S I G N
Adn'11 '' l ' t r ..'t t ion
OOSiy n
APP EN DI X 11. 1
Slides Prepared by Roger Porter
•••
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l
Ill 11
,,
lbt M • Coonlloatln&ComQic,.;
• AI the wl JOOPO l)f goverrunttll tn.ve gJ:'9'Wn, to blve the roles
11nd ofttie White HOt1116S'Iil«to c:oordlnatc the bq,e
'1urnbcrof departu1ents and agen(ft.'t that be4.!:n and the
Ill rae ntlDlbflr of llntllit!l: in the &.ttudve O(fi.a: ori.M
l l tltl······
• Historically, presidents ba"' bed only modcotlhod slaffs.
• 1'he Brownlow Committee, comrnlssioned by Franklin D.
R()061\vell, began II$ rtp<>rl wilh the melllillabla words, 'The
needs help.."
• Its r.port k<lto lhe ertntion In 1939 of tbe El<eculive Ofli<:e ol
t.he Pt<Sident, 1 eollecllon of entitles to KM! tbe
l'reoident in pr<Mdin& leaderoh\p and diroclion to the
CJ(CC\Jti\'C bra.ocb r/ &M'emmeot.
• Bureau. or the Bodgct, etta ted In l92t by Congress to ha\•e
nspoO$ibUity (or M&"i$ting the Pt'OIJident in prt))GJ;u.ga unirted
fwtnl budget waS<>tigl!Uilly placed In the O.partment of !he
'l'loalllly. In 1939. it wasllon$kmd to tbe newl)'-<naled
E:....,b\'1! otllt8 oftbe Pre&ldent.
R
6
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• Ensure that the administration's policies 8!'1l
comp.......,oalve - that major issues an: not falling
between the ctacl<s.
• Ensure that the administration's policies are
coherent - that initiatives of one department are
not undercutting thooe of other departments.
• Ensure that the S)'lltem for 1dvising the preoiden.t
prodU<:eS i.nf'ormed. decioloDS.
._ ........
• Ensure that dedsiou are implemeated.
consistent with the intent of the President
L

R. 0 M N E Y READ I N E S S P R. 0 J E C T 123
ROMNEY READINESS PROJ ECT
( 1) I h< \\ hil• H "''' :-.t •II
( 9)
11
• The White House Staff is the entity most responsible
fo.- ensuring that tho admini.nration's policies are
oomprehensi..,and coherent, that decisions ano
infonned, and that those deeisions are successfully
implemented.

• Oli I ..... -

• a:t 1 o s
• A4<411"f
· s
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• Ml l!ll)' Al4flt
• 8.>19rlllt.o. Cled
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. _
---
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-
• Cam-'C»tiiiiW
• P\Jbllt

.....
. ....... -.
• The om .. of the White HoU$CChlcfofStnffhas
lnoreulngly token on the responolbilil,y for
the elements ofthe White House staff and coordin4ting
the White House staff and other eotities in the
Kxecut!VIl om.. of the President.
• Slnee the 199<)$. the Whlle.HOIISe Chief of swr l)111eally
has hod two deputies - one to ovorsee tho care and
feeding offices ond one to ooordlnntetho policy
formulation and pacluo&l"' officu.
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I h \\'I IIi illlll 11
1
Admmi sh ation
Design
The White House staff is similar to a holding
company with a !urge collection of offices, each of
which has Its own set of:
• R""J>Onsibilitles
• Constituents
• Work Plows
It is a boldlng company with three main divisions.


_• I • .- - • -.:. - .• - -.-
[)ep•t> Cltlcf
ofStalf
(()pcndona)
l
Deputy Chitf
urSh'ff
(PI>Iky)
124 J CHAPTER I I - ADMIN I ST RATION DE S I GN
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I .1 Putl I)
• Many White House staffs include individuals with
general portfolios wbo often have a special
rtiationsbip to the Pl'esident and are 001 associated
with any particular office.
• The Obama White House currenUy h..., three such
senior staff members:
eo...dcw to the l'lulolenl CP<ttt Roulo)
Se-olor .A.tMsor (Val4:u-i41 Jftn'C'tt)
Senior Advisor (!>ovid P!oulfe)
Q;ruOJclur
• Ntlu •a aii· OW'P'M poliey ud polllbled...;.llt

• &-.tilts u 1 1-"lfli'n: nqol»tot
• Sef\ft u ... IJfi'Oblltall
'Y . r " . .
I J>residenL'l since FOR hove one oft he
following organizational arransements. Four a
out as most viable for the modern presidency.
• Cellt.;n' l•tlefiletll:•
• Strong White Hoo!le Chlef of Staff
• Chief of Staff as Chief Operating Officer
• Chief of Staff as COO and Strategist
• Chief of Staff as COO and Strategist Plus
J
CHAPTER I I - A 0 M I N I STRATI 0 N 0 E S I G N
I I
Adrn1n1 c;t r 1011
0€'stqn
' { '
Some presidents have determined not to appoint a
While House Chief of Staff, to
undertake much of the necessary cool"dinalion ofthc
White House staff themselves. This was true of:
Franklin Roooevelt
Harry Truman
Jimmy Carter (early in his term)
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R.O MNEY RE ADIN ESS PROJ ECT I 125
R.OMNEY R. EAO I N ESS P R.O J EC T
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Se\-eral presideots relied on an informal or
fonnal arrangement among a small number of S<lnior
ad-risors to manage the Wbite House staff. Examples
include;
Jobn JC.onnedy
l.yudon Johnson
llrm•ldl!npn
Bill Clinton
- ----
• •
,......., ...... iwt ' atllookd to\Wr W'tale HWflt Qfef fli$taff
Wllioo ""'""·
• OvooiHemdent (unetionlua of White Houso•fAil
S.,t.t-11wPc , , _.WH...., ..
• Qan!y and res:ponsibrtldes
Sot\ 01111* on. W\1 .-It it • • t. w!I.C
· flaJhale ..tal coordartation am:M
• '
.... ,..__.... ....
f"..lllllft ................ ,. Ofl'lc:e .... (ill
·-....
.._. .... .., .......... t ....
111Jtcr •tl'dfmi UW C11M tfTonl.:
,,
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toudditlon .., preoiden10loolci"' to tbtit au.torswhs
111 COO & Stntesist ()!odels), tome presidents
haY$ also hoavl()' utillted tbelr Chit! of Staff to ser.-e u an
emissaly and De&Otiator lA odUMa&
• Serves a. the Prtsldcnt'.alter ego
rr :t rs .. · t ...,...,..u., ' Dhau.Qieofof!llff.._
............ -.ct..: '0 .. P4tlkiiM
• Se""" as o legl$lari\ie negotiator
PrtJif ltt-..r .......
ctspCHdbiitilW oo ...., tq pitt'tt ofttphti011
• Sel'IIU as on admlnbtnlion opokamon
Pt 1 I ,. '-'t ....... WWbt He.eewetol31d'.
1 • decWoft t!M!;yoft:en come to ITJf'd
120
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Admlnl '\tr.lt •On

Other presidents ba'-e delegated many of tbese
responsibilities to a strong Chief of Staff.
Dwight Eaenhower (Sherman Adams)
Richard Nixon (H.R. Haldeman, Alexander Hals)
Ronald Reagan (Donald Regan)
H. W. Bush (John Sununu)
- __._ - - -- - - - .._
In addition to presidents looking to their Chief of Staff
as an effe<:tive COO (Model 4), some presidents have
also relied on their Chief of Staff to oversee lhe
development of the adruinb"tratiun's .,...,..n stratezy.
This strategy invariably inYOives:
• Determining policy priorities •
• Building ond spending political capital
• Deploying legialati,..,, administrative, and
rhetorical means to achieve the President's
policief
White House- Department al
Relations
126 I CHAPTER. II - ADMINISTR.AT ION DESIGN
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C H A PTE R I I - A 0 M I N I S T RAT I 0 N D E S I G N
r
A.dlnif ll'ot t t'li iOil
De gn

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\\luit> 'lo • I' ' ' I' I II t r ,•
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• 8Yeoyodmln!wotion hasfor.edthebsueoffindiog lbe I I • 'lhololeoofW!>io•H....-Icdm...,_<lO\l,..,.WJl.!l•,..,"'ooto
appropriate rtla(oo!Uhip be'-• the \llh!te II owe and U.. J)O]jcy tluLOBof Fro D)! In D. • 1'be lint
eXtamve depa:mncn1S and agencies. oftline-establ!hcdbyattrtute.in •947 - wu lbc Nationa!S«ari'Y
• 1 • Toofewcankadto
eab1 . &QYO:mment in whieh they rely heavily Oil cabinet roran lndMil\ta) Too
1
narur oonl.ribute
secretarfes as tbc.lr principal Uc:u.ttunts. Tho effon Sn I 1
10
mntua-lou b responsible ror and diffieulty In
(C.rtcr --'-·""'·-• des.
Admlnlatratlon) yo ....... _
I
• Som.e ft])Uilntaltd wilb ..
• Otherpres,idente &.ravitate toward t1 domlnunt White IUU'abet. difft:rut c.btnct·lC\'t'l JlOlicy
Dou.x .UfT: leaYUll deputm.tnts and a&mcies feeling during bllfirilt tcml.
nesfecttd and sometimes ignored. (Nixon Adm.luinnttfoo) • baYea:ffielll on three - Natiol...t Socurity Dvnwstle
• Some presidents sedt a woridnl pa:rtnenh ip, enEadng the I PolJ\"Y,mtd F.coJ!.d'fe Policy. For a time. Geoqe w. Bush added •
rt.SOUJ"t'('$ artd in dCJK\ nments and Whne fourth eoutltil Q& wllh H.omebnd "nnil wu later
ooordlnatin& the devclopmenl of policy by Wrote HoUieolod fo1dcd Into U110 N'ntlonal Sect1rit)' Council.
coundh:. • 1'be thrt.or. model -=mt "> wctk wd1 tn
_ ---::::::::=:-======-====== l L m-ooble ouml>or on...,,. witlwut • •
----
\\hilt Hou <' l'tllin ( ut1ncils
/
- -- -- - -
"' _.... - ' . . - .
l'r< dUUil!\ { nifitd J'ohCil
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-- '
ltw \\ "* tf.c:lw
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lfirt"'nnttabMtld •
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• A central objective for every president is leading a
unified adminlstralioo In dealing with the Congress,
the press. and organized interest gronJIIl.
• Achieving this unity requires careful attention to five
key dimensioru of the relationship between the
While House and and agencies.
koplatM. deannce, and review
Policy (l)nnulatton
PcrsonneJ
L<;islat:ive \Woon
Press rtlatloos
c • H f:'
• The Office of Manngement nnd Budget (OMB) and
it8 predeeell$0r the Bureau of the Budget bnve had
re5J><>ll$ibility for producing a unified federal
budp that the president transmits to Congress,
• OMB also has responsibility for
clearance of testimony by adminiStnition officials
and lesislation sent by the adminiSI"ration to
Congr'""'.
• OMS's replatory review p<OCe$$, established by
e><ocotive order, approves major regulations issued
by departments and agencies,
RO MN EY READ I NES S PRO) ECT 127
R.OMNEY READINESS PROJECT
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• The principal vehicles for advising the president on
1 mi\Jor policy decirions are the National Security
I
Council, the National Economic Council, and the
Domestic Policy CouncU.
I
• Each cabinet department or agency is represented on
at least one of u.- coundls, providing them an
I' I ' !HI ·I
Admtnistr<lt;on
Design
• Presidential appointments are of intense interest to
the While House and to departments and agencies.
The apr.olntment of ambii.SS8dors Is a classic
examp e or a frequent conflict oftbese interests.
Some admlnlstf'ttiona ha•oe allowed cabintt I«J'etaries gut
_.,b!iCJ lheirdepanmtntal ..,..,.,.(Cotter

l
avenue for bringing issues to the president througb a
process that permits him to have tbe benefit of a full I
range of views and considerations in making an
Other admhtislftlloos """"•ouyut;pt Wbi,. Houoecoc>tld
in aub-elbtnet level appointments.
A lhlrd •PPfO"<h lm'>IY<S ..,.blbhln&a workina partUIOblp
lo wbleb tbe Wbbe House O!fice of Presidential Personnel and
the have a mutual veto. In pmcttoe, thls

,.. ...., ... ...u. -- ::J
33
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• Tbe White House Offiee of Legislative Affilirs l.• small
relative to its counterpart in many departments.
• Given the modest sit.e of tbe White House legislative
affairs staff, it is crucial that the departmental
legislative liaison offioos work closely with ft.
• This genenlly involves weekly reports and careful
monitoring by tbe White House so tbat the efforts by
department1\l personnel reflect presidential
priorities.
...,

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I • Given the Intense nature of media scrutiny, it l.s
essential that the White Honse Press Office and tbe
I
White House Communicatiora Office work closely
and efl'ectively with their oounterpnrts in
I 1 departments and agencies.
• This is reflected in a daily conference call led by the
1
1
I White House Press Office with counterparts in I
departments and agencies, communicating to them
the "line oftbe day" and ensuring that the 1
1
I administration does not"atep on· Its own stories.
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To be fully effective, an administration must be more
than merely the sum ofits parts.
Cablnel secretaries often find the reality ofthelr role
less than Ol(j)ected. Many feel infrequently consulted
and lacking the dlreellon nnd occountability that
wnuld belp them contribute more to achieving the
President's objecllves.
128 I C H APT E R 1 l - ADM l N I $T RAT I 0 N DESIGN
r
'Y n '1 ' ' '! h' \dm .,, ' I •r•
OM tbiJddidt 'll'l:lllilld't. tt tdll
1D the of &be DcptR)• Whit& Hout Q.id ol Qaff for Pdley.
I
Thia indM<Jual woul hll\<t.dl reo
Provklf. fweaW.net b)'
S)liittm•tiaiiY • the lf'frtj111 oftbdrde"P."rtment.ln
lo Pr'tlitde.nt'a ontl oldeciiYt!$;
Help tna'ltorc:.W.od. offkc:rs do 1M3' .. .._ t:lnk piCwiou
..,.,_.Mc:Ot """kactl and
• 8uUd lml)lro\'fd ft'iadoAJhlps bf IQokln.a out for the lntu'elb of
cab! ntt Ollktah •nd. MJP&ata them Ita part M

• kn•

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""'''"P
tth u N.1IIPII {,m
Adtnlnbtmtionl haw varied widely lo their td1tkl0$bipa
with the oadon,ll KO\WOOI'I. An Mllan<:ed White Houac: Offie4 of
Rclatlons can help buikt • oollfUUC:tiTe.
and productlYe rdalioo.Shlp.
• 'lbo of lhc Office of AJTol111 would be no
AN!ll3nl to the Ptaid.ent • (ORK'f'
--wbo..,;o,s p>d will> ""-'-both
p.n!eo.
• He ef'll,ll&e IO'VtfiiOt'l in rupoodb'll to and
1ttmti0o to tbd.r conan&
• He would 11erve a'la oondult for reprdlng poll.cy
Initiatives.
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R 0 M N E Y R E A D I N E S S P R 0) E C T 129

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