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INTRODUCTION

The call centre industry in India refers to the services


outsourcing industry catering to mainly western operations of
MNC’s.

The sector witnessed considerable activity during 2005-


06, including a ramping up of operations by major Indians and
MNC players and stepped up hiring.

A leading UK-Based research agency indicates that 67-72%


of costs to call centres operating in the US/UK are directly
linked to man power costs. India on the other hand spends only
33-40% of costs on man power .this include training, benefits
and other incentives for labour.

Currently the Indian call centre industry employs in excess


of 245100 people and another 94,500 jobs are expected to be
added during the current fiscal year.

A call centre is a central place where customer and other


telephone calls are handled by an organization, usually with
some amount of computer automation. Typically, a call center
has the ability to handle a considerable volume of calls at the
same time, to screen calls and forward them to someone
qualified to handle them, and to log calls. One early definition
described a call centre as a place of doing business by phone
that combines a centralized database with an automatic call

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distribution system. This is close, but it is really much more
than that. Call centres can be any of the following,Huge
telemarketing centres,Fund-raising and collections
organizations, Help desks, both internal and
external,Outsourcers (better known as service bureaus) that
use their large capacity to serve lots of companies,Reservation
centres for airlines and hotels,Catalogue retailers,"E-tailing"
centres and e-commerce transaction centres that don't handle
calls so much as automated customer interactions.

Call centres are generally set up as large rooms, with


workstations that include a computer, a telephone set (or
headset) hooked into a large telecom switch and one or more
supervisor stations. It may stand by itself, or be linked with
other centres. It may also be linked to a corporate data
network, including mainframes, microcomputers and LANs.
Increasingly, the voice and data pathways into the centre are
linked through a set of new technologies called CTI, or
Computer Telephony Integration.

In other words a call centre is a unit that has adequate


telecom facilities, trained consultants, access to worldwide
databases and helps to provide information support to
customer. Typically a customer calls a number, which is toll free
and is assisted by the consultant. The operator can access the
databases and gives the response. This is a very useful feature
in airline reservations, hotel reservations, banking services,

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technology solutions, etc. The areas, which are addressed by
call centres, include sales support, airline/hotel reservations,
technical queries, bank accounts, client services, receivables,
tele-marketing, market research, etc.

The advances made in telecom ensure that the person


who is handling the call can be anywhere, provided that
communication and interaction dimensions are handled
properly. At times, call centres are set up for internal use also,
especially in conglomerates where the demand of internal
customers is very large.

The Background

Call centres were first recognized as such in their largest


incarnations: airline reservation centres, catalogue ordering
companies, consumer-oriented problem solvers. Until the early
1990s, only the largest centres across the globe could afford
the investment in technology that allowed them to handle huge
volumes. More recently, with the development of LAN-based
switches, internet-based transaction processing, client/server
software systems, and open phone systems, any call centre can
have an advanced call handling and customer management
system, even down to ten agents or less.

As companies have learned that service is the key to


attracting and maintaining customers (and hence, revenue),
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the common perception of the call centre has changed. In some
industries (catalogue retailing, financial services, hospitality) a
call centre is the difference between being in business and not
being in business. In other industries (cable television, utilities)
call centres have been the centrepiece of corporate attempts to
quickly overhaul service and improve their image. It's a
strategic asset that companies can use to improve their
customer relationships, and more importantly, to learn more
about their customers, and therefore serve them better. This
improves the bottom line. Call centres have evolved from cost
centres to profit centres.

Origins of the Call Centre Industry

Around 30 years ago in the USA, the travel and hospitality


industry began to centralize their reservation centres into what
we would recognize now as huge call centres. This happened at
around the time the first large-scale high-volume premise-
based telephone switches became available.

Banks have also used them since the 1970s at least, and
later in that decade, with the rise of the catalogue shopping
movement and outbound telemarketing, call centres became a
staple within many industries. Each industry, however, had its
own way of operating centres, its own standards for quality,
and its own preferred technologies. This trend persisted until
early in the 1990s, when call centre managers became more

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recognized as having a consistent set of skills and an
operational knowledge.

Technologically speaking, call centres have advanced in


the last ten years. Earlier, it was just a labour intensive
department trying to handle some customer queries. Now, it is
supposed to be a vital link in the entire process of marketing
and improving customer interaction. Unlike an airline
reservation where the queries are generally simple and easy to
handle, requirements of a technology customer support are
different and need technical knowledge. A pre requisite for any
call handling person is extremely good customer relationship
skills and command over language/ accent.

The Basic Components

The basic components of a call centre are computers,


interactive voice response systems, EPABX and an automatic
call router. The earlier adopters of call centres were able to
reduce the cost of sales, become more responsive to their
customer requirements and thus get a competitive edge.

Types of Call Centres

Call centres can be of different types. A regional call


centre implies that a centre in America to handle America,
Europe to handle Europe and a centre in South East Asia and
Australia to handle Asia. This enables some economies of scale
but duplication of efforts can minimize operational efficiency.
The other option is to have a global call centre where all calls
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across the globe are handled. This results in tremendous
economies of scale, which is really cost effective. Such a centre
cannot afford any downtime because of lack of back up.

The latest version of call centre is a global intelligent


network, a centralized database with advanced call handling
facilities, managing a typical end-to-end service. The network is
spread across the globe with local resources tapping it. This
requires technically qualified manpower to maintain the
backbone and telecom infrastructure management skills. This
global internal network allows access to worldwide staff and
ability to match languages, skills and resources. This is the first
step towards a global virtual call centre.

Interactive Voice Response (IVR) has been the most


significant productivity gain. 70 - 80% of calls can be handled
without agent intervention, which helps reduce operating costs.
In some extremely competitive markets like financial services,
airlines, etc., IVR systems is a necessity.

Inbound and Outbound Centres

An inbound centre is one that handles calls coming in from


outside, most often through toll free numbers. These calls are
primarily service and support calls, and inbound sales.

An outbound centre is one that does mainly outgoing


telemarketing.

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Inbound is the biggest component of call centre traffic these
days, though perversely, outbound represents the area of
largest projected growth in the next few years. In truth, the
majority of centres contain some element of both inbound and
outbound.

NEED FOR THE STUDY

Motivated work force is an asset of any organization.


Even minor discontentment of workforce can be attributed in
general science to dissatisfaction in work and the organization
where the work is done. Any problem connected with the
human resource assumes paramount significant and should be
treated and handled in a careful sense. Less job satisfaction
involve a considerable loss to the enterprises, because lack of
job satisfaction in an organization may show ugly symptoms

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such as production losses, reduced profits, and changes in work
schedule, under utilization of plant capacity, increase in wage
rate, loss of man power, financial losses etc.. The success of
management is managing manpower fully by making vital
steps to minimize employee’s dissatisfaction. The present
study is a humble attempt to analyze employee job satisfaction
in call centers.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Around 95,000 are expected to be added to the ever


increasing call center work force in India. The significance of
understanding the reasons for employee dissatisfaction is
increasing now a days as the attrition rate in voice call centres
stand at a staggering 35%.

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Thus there lies the need for us to evaluate the reasons or
factors which are causing dissatisfaction to these employees
and thereby increasing the labor turnover rate.

Also since lots of present day youth are being chased by


multi-national companies to employ them in their call centres.
The result or findings of this project will help the future
generation or batches of call centre job aspirants to understand
the satisfaction level of employees in this sector.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Primary objective:

To find out the employee job satisfaction in call centers

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Secondary objectives:

1. To identify the factors that influence job satisfaction in call


centers.

2. To find employees satisfaction towards salary.

3. To find if they are under stress.

4. To highlight some suggestion to improve job satisfaction.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 Research design
This topic comes under descriptive research as it includes
surveys and involves the description of the state of affairs
as it exists in the present.

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 Sampling design
The universe is somewhat finite with regard to call centre
employees’ population in the city chosen for the study i.e.
Bangalore. There are around 109,500 employees in
Bangalore working in call centres.

 Sampling technique
The sampling technique used for this study is convenience
sampling.

 Sampling size
The sample size chosen for this study is 100 respondents.

 Method of data collection


The secondary data for this data was collected from
various sources like internet and magazines or journals.

The primary data was collected with the help of a


questionnaire which was given to 100 respondents.

 Tools used for data analysis


The statistical tools used for analysis of data were
percentage analysis and Chi-Square Test.

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Limitations

• The study was restricted to Bangalore city due to time constraints and

hence the results cannot be generalized to all cities.

• Due to time constraints the sample size was restricted to 100.

• Many of the respondents were biased towards the respondents.


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High Attrition Rate: A Big Challenge

Defining attrition: "A reduction in the number of employees


through retirement, resignation or death"

Defining Attrition rate: "the rate of shrinkage in size or number"

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Introduction: In the best of worlds, employees would love their
jobs, like their coworkers, work hard for their employers, get
paid well for their work, have ample chances for advancement,
and flexible schedules so they could attend to personal or
family needs when necessary. And never leave.

But then there's the real world. And in the real world,
employees, do leave, either because they want more money,
hate the working conditions, hate their coworkers, want a
change, or because their spouse gets a dream job in another
state. So, what does all that turnover cost? And what
employees are likely to have the highest turnover? Who is likely
to stay the longest?

Background of article

The IT enabled services (BPO) industry is being looked upon as


the next big employment generator (Nasscom predicts 1.1
million job requirement by the year 2008). It is however no
easy task for an HR manager in this sector to bridge the ever
increasing demand and supply gap of professionals. Unlike his
software industry counterpart, the BPO HR manager is not only
required to fulfill this responsibility, but also find the right kind
of people who can keep pace with the unique work patterns in
this industry. Adding to this is the issue of maintaining
consistency in performance and keeping the motivation levels
high, despite the monotonous work. The toughest concern for
an HR manager is however the high attrition rate.

In India, the average attrition rate in the BPO sector is


approximately 30-35 percent. It is true that this is far less than
the prevalent attrition rate in the US market (around 70
percent), but the challenge continues to be greater considering
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the recent growth of the industry in the country. The US BPO
sector is estimated to be somewhere around three decades old.
Keeping low attrition levels is a major challenge as the demand
outstrips the supply of good agents by a big margin. Further,
the salary growth plan for each employee is not well defined.
All this only encourages poaching by other companies who can
offer a higher salary.

The much hyped "work for fun" tag normally associated with
the industry has in fact backfired, as many individuals (mostly
fresh graduates), take it as a pas-time job. Once they join the
sector and understand its requirements, they are taken aback
by the long working hours and later monotony of the job starts
setting in. This is the reason for the high attrition rate as many
individuals are not able to take the pressures of work.

The toughness of the job and timings is not adequately


conveyed. Besides the induction and project training, not much
investment has been done to evolve a "continuous training
program" for the agents. Motivational training is still to evolve
in this industry. But, in all this, it is the HR manager who is
expected to straighten things out and help individuals adjust to
the real world. I believe that the new entrant needs to be made
aware of the realistic situation from day-one itself, with the
training session conducted in the nights, so that they get
accustomed to things right at the beginning.

The high percentage of females in the workforce (constituting


30-35 percent of the total), adds to the high attrition rate. Most
women leave their job either after marriage or because of
social pressures caused by irregular working hours in the
industry. All this translates into huge losses for the company,
which invests a lot of money in training them.

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If a person leaves after the training it costs the company about
Rs 60,000. For a 300-seater call centre facing the normal 30
percent attrition, this translates into Rs 60 lakh per annum.
Many experts are of believe that all these challenges can turn
out to be a real dampener in the growth of this industry. This
only raises the responsibility of "finding the right candidate"
and building a "conducive work environment", which will be
beneficial for the organization. The need is for those individuals
who can make a career out of this.

All this has induced the companies to take necessary steps,


both internally and externally. Internally most HR managers are
busy putting in efforts on the development of their employees,
building innovative retention and motivational schemes (which
was more money oriented so far) and making the environment
livelier. Outside, the focus is on creating awareness through
seminars and going to campuses for recruitment.

Major Worries for the Industry

Poor Infrastructure- the industry has more to worry about than


just reckless start-ups. Primary among those is infrastructure.
While telecom networks are state of the art, getting a
connection still takes up to three months. Unreliable power
supply is forcing units to create their own back-ups. Roads are
bad and airports are in dire need of repairs and upgrades.

High Attrition-another major problem is the high attrition and


growth aspirations of the workforce. At least 60,000 of the
171,000 workforce change jobs every year. About 80% of them
look for better leaders. Team leaders want to upgrade to
supervisors, quality professionals or operations heads. The HR
problem threatens to soon become grave. Good agents are
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becoming hard to find and with tardy infrastructure, big moves
to the much talked about smaller towns will take longer. This
means costs will rise making it difficult for small VC-funded
companies to survive.

Attrition rates

US 42%

Australia 29%

Europe 24%

India 18%

Global Average 24%

* Source-Times News New York

Staff attrition (or turnover) and absenteeism represent


significant costs to most organizations. It is odd, therefore, that
many organizations neither measure such costs nor have
targets or plans to reduce them. Many organizations appear to
accept them as part of the cost of doing business - a sign of
increasing job mobility and decreasing staff loyalty perhaps, a
matter to be regretted but just 'one of those things.' They add a
sum in their budgets for 'temp staff' and 'recruitment' and
forget about it.

However, it seems to be one of the areas in which HR can make


a difference - and one that can be measured in quantifiable,
financial terms against targets.

An attrition rate in call (or contact) centres has become


legendary. Indeed, the attrition rates in some Indian call centers

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now reach 80%. This is an extreme figure but the average
attrition rates in Indian call centers are up around 30-40%.

However, it is interesting to note that the attrition rates in India


- and the costs associated - are so high that they can override
the benefits of lower wage costs. While wages in call centres in
Indian are less than one-eighth of those in Northern Europe, it
has been reported that Hewlett-Packard have found the cost
per 'ticket' (the cost of processing a query) has doubled "due to
the inability of the staff to resolve customer queries efficiently
because of language barriers and inexperience." It is said that
this increased cost has made HP's move from Ireland to India
"completely pointless," and that it can never recover the
(substantial) costs of the move. It is further reported that GE
Capital has moved a call centre back to Australia "after staff
attrition rates of 70% wiped away any potential cost savings."

The issue is not with the quality or education of the staff - and
still less with the investment in technology. It is simply attrition
- people do not stay long enough to be taught or to learn the
job. The staff may be cheaper but if they cannot do the job,
what's the point? Managing attrition is not just a 'nice thing to
do' in Indian call centres. It is the route to their survival.

Far from accepting attrition rates as part of the cost of doing


business, it is surely something that all organizations should
address, and equally surely it is an area in which HR can take a
lead - measure attrition, seek its causes, set out solutions and
target performance.

Components to be taken into consideration, while calculating


attrition rate

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I request HR professionals not to drive their own formulas to
calculate attrition rate. In terms of numbers, attrition rate
means:

Total Number of Resigns per month (Whether voluntary or


forced) divided by (Total Number of employees at the beginning
of the month plus total number of new joinees minus total
number of resignations) multiplied by 100.

If calculating in monetary terms, it includes the following:

Costs Due to a Person Leaving

Calculate the cost of the person(s) who fills in while the position
is vacant. Calculate the cost of lost productivity at a minimum
of 50% of the person's compensation and benefits cost for each
week the position is vacant, even if there are people performing
the work. Calculate the lost productivity at 100% if the position
is completely vacant for any period of time.

Calculate the cost of conducting an exit interview to include the


time of the person conducting the interview, the time of the
person leaving, the administrative costs of stopping payroll,
benefit deductions, benefit enrollments.

Calculate the cost of the manager who has to understand what


work remains, and how to cover that work until a replacement
is found.

Calculate the cost of training your company has invested in this


employee who is leaving.

Calculate the impact on departmental productivity because the


person is leaving. Who will pick up the work, whose work will
suffer, what departmental deadlines will not be met or
delivered late.
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Calculate the cost of lost knowledge, skills and contacts that
the person who is leaving is taking with them out of your door.
Use a formula of 50% of the

person's annual salary for one year of service, increasing each


year of service by 10%.

Subtract the cost of the person who is leaving for the amount of
time the position is vacant.

Recruitment Costs

The cost of advertisements; agency costs; employee referral


costs; internet posting costs.

The cost of the internal recruiter's time to understand the


position requirements, develop and implement a sourcing
strategy, review candidates backgrounds, prepare for
interviews, conduct interviews, prepare candidate assessments,
conduct reference checks, make the employment offer and
notify unsuccessful candidates. This can range from a minimum
of 30 hours to over 100 hours per position.
Calculate the cost of the various candidate pre-employment
tests to help assess a candidates' skills, abilities, aptitude,
attitude, values and behaviors.
Training Costs

Calculate the cost of orientation in terms of the new person's


salary and the cost of the person who conducts the orientation.
Also include the cost of orientation materials.

Calculate the cost of departmental training as the actual


development and delivery cost plus the cost of the salary of the
new employee. Note that the cost will be significantly higher for
some positions such as sales representatives and call center
agents who require 4 - 6 weeks or more of classroom training.

Calculate the cost of the person(s) who conduct the training.

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Calculate the cost of various training materials needed
including company or product manuals, computer or other
technology equipment used in the delivery of training.

Lost Productivity Costs

As the new employee is learning the new job, the company


policies and practices, etc. they are not fully productive. Use
the following guidelines to calculate the cost of this lost
productivity:

Upon completion of whatever training is provided, the


employee is contributing at a 25% productivity level for the first
2 - 4 weeks. The cost therefore is 75% of the new employees’
full salary during that time period.

During weeks 5 - 12, the employee is contributing at a 50%


productivity level. The cost is therefore 50% of full salary during
that time period.

During weeks 13 - 20, the employee is contributing at a 75%


productivity level. The cost is therefore 25% of full salary during
that time period.

Calculate the cost of mistakes the new employee makes during


this elongated indoctrination period.

New Hire Costs

Calculate the cost of bring the new person on board including


the cost to put the person on the payroll, establish computer
and security passwords and identification cards, telephone
hookups, cost of establishing email accounts, or leasing other
equipment such as cell phones, automobiles.

Calculate the cost of a manager's time spent developing trust


and building confidence in the new employee's work.

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Lost Sales Costs

Calculate the revenue per employee by dividing total company


revenue by the average number of employees in a given year.
Whether an employee contributes directly or indirectly to the
generation of revenue, their purpose is to provide some defined
set of responsibilities that are necessary to the generation of
revenue. Calculate the lost revenue by multiplying the number
of weeks the position is vacant by the average weekly revenue
per employee.

Conclusion: It is clear that there are massive costs associated


with attrition or turnover and, while some of these are not
visible to the management reporting or budget system, they
are none the less real. The 'rule of thumb' appears to be very
inaccurate indeed and, while it depends upon the category of
staff, it is probably better to estimate around 80% of salary as a
truer rule of thumb - and this will be on the conservative side.

What does this mean? Well it means that if a company has 100
people doing a certain job paid 25,000 and that turnover or
attrition is running at 10%, the cost of attrition is:

(Total staff x attrition rate %) x (annual salary x 80%)


100 staff at 10% attrition means 10 people leave and are
replaced each year.
A replacement cost of 80% of a salary of 25,000 means the cost
of each replacement is 20,000.
The cost of turnover is therefore 10 x 20,000 or 200,000 a year.
The oncost to the overall salary bill is 8%.
(Saving 8% of salary costs would make the average HR
manager a hero.)

By: Sanjeev Sharma

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Source: http://www.bpoindia.org/research/attrition-rate-big-
challenge.shtml

Table-01

Respondent’s gender
S No. Of Percentage of
.No. Respondents respondents
1. Male 83 83
2. Female 17 17
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that The maximum
number of respondents are male 83%

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Table-02

Respondent’s age group


S No. Of Percentage of
.No. Respondents respondents
1. Less than 22 41 41
2. More than 22 59 59
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 59% of
respondents were above or equal to 22 years of age and
49% were below 22 years

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Table-03
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Respondent’s Marital status
S No. Of Percentage of
.No. Respondents respondents
1. Single 89 89
2. Married 11 11
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 89% of
respondents marital status was single

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Table-04
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Respondents educational qualification
S No. Of Percentage of
.No. Respondents respondents
1. High School 2 2
2. UG 89 89
3. PG 9 9
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 89% of
respondents educational qualification was ug

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Table-05

Respondents annual income


S No. Of Percentage of
.No. Respondents respondents
1. Less than 1lakh 13 13
2. 1lakh to 2lakh 77 77
3. more than 2Lakh 10 10
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—

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 It is inferred from the above table that 77% of
respondents earn between 1-lakh to2-lakh

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Table-06

Respondent’s satisfaction towards salary


S No. Of Percentage of
.No. Respondents respondents
1. Highly Satisfied 34 34
2. Satisfied 42 42
3. Neutral 23 23
4. Dissatisfied 1 1
5. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 42% are
satisfied with their salary

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Table-07
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Respondents work experience
S No. Of Percentage of
.No. Respondents respondents
1. 0-6 Months 62 62
2. 6 Months - 1 Year 25 25
3. 1 - 2 Year 11 11
4. 2 - 3 Year 2 2
5. 3 Years and Above 0 0
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 62% of
respondents have work experience between 0-6months

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Table-08
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Respondents Feeling of security towards the current job
S No. Of Percentage of
.No. Respondents respondents
1. Very Secure 28 28
2. Secure 51 51
3. Neutral 15 15
4. Insecure 3 3
5. Very Insecure 3 3
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 51% fell
secure about the current job

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Table-09

Respondents Reasons for quitting from the job, if so

S.No. No. Of Percentage of


Respondents respondents

1. Work 12 12
Dissatisfaction
2. Less Salary 5 5
3. Work Culture 8 8
4. Stress 58 58
5. Work Load 17 17
100 100
Source: Primary data

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Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 58% of
respondents fe4ll t6hgat stress will be the factor if they
will be quitting now

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Table-10

Respondents whether salary is based on performance


S No. Of Percentage of
.No. Respondents respondents
1. Yes 76 76
2. No 21 21
3. Can't Say 3 3
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 76% feel that
their salary is based on their performance

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CHART 10

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Table-11

Respondents Agreeability level towards valuation of salary


S No. Of Percentage
.No Respondents of
. respondents
1. Strongly Agree 18 18
2. Agree 59 59
3. Neutral 16 16
4. Disagree 5 5
5. Strongly Disagree 2 2
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 59% agree
that their performance is being valued

CHART 11
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Table-12

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Respondents Agreeability level toward feeling relieved if
quitting from the current job now

S No. Of Percentage
.No Respondents of
. respondents
1. Strongly Agree 4 4
2. Agree 14 14
3. Neutral 60 60
4. Disagree 19 19
5. Strongly Disagree 3 3
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 60% are
neutral towards feeling relieved upon quitting from their
job now

CHART 12
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Table-13

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Respondents Agreeability level toward stress during work

S.No. No. Of Percentage of


Respondents respondents

1. Strongly 26 26
Agree
2. Agree 63 63
3. Neutral 9 9
4. Disagree 0 0
5. Strongly 2 2
Disagree
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 63% agree to
stress in the job

CHART 13

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Table-14

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Respondents Agreeability level toward the company being
only bothered about the output/results

S No. Of Percentage
.No Respondents of
. respondents
1. Strongly Agree 36 36
2. Agree 45 45
3. Neutral 14 14
4. Disagree 3 3
5. Strongly Disagree 2 2
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 45% agree
that company is bothered only about the employees
output/result.

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CHART 14

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Table-15

Respondents Agreeability level towards feeling unsecure in


the current job

S No. Of Percentage
.No Respondents of
. respondents
1. Strongly Agree 2 2
2. Agree 7 7
3. Neutral 59 59
4. Disagree 23 23
5. Strongly Disagree 9 9
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 59% are
neutral towards feeling unsecure working in the present
job

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CHART 15

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Table-16

Respondents whether getting enough rest

S No. Of Percentage
.No Respondents of
. respondents
1. Yes 7 7
2. No 82 82
3. Can't Say 11 11
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 82% say they
are not getting enough rest.

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Table-17
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Respondents Agreeability level toward the job being based on
qualification and skill

S No. Of Percentage
.No Respondents of
. respondents
1. Strongly Agree 2 2
2. Agree 7 7
3. Neutral 59 59
4. Disagree 23 23
5. Strongly Disagree 9 9
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 59% are
neutral towards the fact that job is based on qualification
and skill

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Table-18
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Respondents whether the work is recognized by the superiors

S No. Of Percentage
.No Respondents of
. respondents
1. Always 7 7
2. Often 0 0
3. Sometimes 11 11
4. Rare 0 0
5. Not at All 82 82
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 82% feel that
their work is

 not at all recognized by their superiors

55
Table-19

Respondents whether leave can be availed from the company

S No. Of Percentage
.No Respondents of
. respondents
1. Yes (Casual leave) 11 11
2. No (Casual Leave) 89 89

3. Yes (medical leave) 86 86


4. No (Medical leave) 14 14
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 89% do not
get casual leave and 86% get medical leave.

56
Table-20
57
Respondents whether will recommend the job to someone
else

S.No. No. Of Percentage of


Respondents respondents
1. Yes 84 84
2. No 16 16
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 84% say that
will recommend their job to someone else

58
59
Table-21

Respondents Overall satisfaction level towards the job

S No. Of Percentage
.No Respondents of
. respondents
1. Highly Satisfied 11 11
2. Satisfied 48 48
3. Neutral 36 36
4. Dissatisfied 4 4
5. Highly Dissatisfied 1 1
100 100
Source: Primary data

Interpretation—
 It is inferred from the above table that 48% are
overall satisfied towards the job

60
61
Comparison between Gender and
satisfaction towards Salary

Null hypothesis

Gender is not associated with satisfaction towards salary.

Alternate hypothesis

Gender is associated with satisfaction towards salary.

GENDER * SATISFACTION TOWARD SALARY

Count
Satisfaction towards salary

1 2 3 4 Total
GENDER 1 27 36 19 1 83
2 7 6 4 17
Total 34 42 23 1 100

Valu Expected D Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 0.208 5.991 2 Not
square significant

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship
between gender and satisfaction towards salary

62
Comparison between Gender and level
of Stress

Null hypothesis

Gender is not associated with stress

Alternate hypothesis

Gender is associated with stress

GENDER * STRESS

Count
Stress
1 2 3 5 Total
GENDER 1 18 57 7 1 83
2 8 6 2 1 17
Total 26 63 9 2 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 0.819 5.991 2 Not
square significant

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate
hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant
relationship between gender and stress

63
Comparison between Gender and
Overall job Satisfaction

Null hypothesis

Gender is associated with overall job satisfaction

Alternate hypothesis

Gender is not associated with overall job satisfaction

GENDER * OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION

Count
Overall job satisfaction
1 2 3 4 5 Total
GENDER 1 8 40 31 3 1 83
2 3 8 5 1 17
Total 11 48 36 4 1 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 0.392 5.991 2 Not
square significant

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate
hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant
relationship between gender and overall job satisfaction

64
Comparison between Age group and
Satisfaction towards Salary

Null hypothesis

Age group is not associated with satisfaction towards


salary

Alternate hypothesis

Age group is associated with satisfaction towards salary

AGE GROUP * SATISFACTION TOWARDS SALARY

Count
Satisfaction towards salary

1 2 3 4 Total
AGE `GROUP 1 15 18 8 41
2 19 24 15 1 59
Total 34 42 23 1 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 1.247 5.991 2 Not
square significant

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship
between age group and satisfaction towards salary

65
Comparison between Age Group and
Stress Level

Null hypothesis

Age group is not associated with stress level

Alternate hypothesis

Age group is associated with stress level

AGEGROUP * STRESS LEVEL

Count
Stress level
1 2 3 5 Total
AGEGROUP 1 13 24 4 41
2 13 39 5 2 59
Total 26 63 9 2 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 1.446 5.991 2 Not
square significant

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship
between age group and stress level

66
Comparison between Age Group and
Overall Work Satisfaction

Null hypothesis

Age group is not associated with overall work satisfaction

Alternate hypothesis

Is associated with overall work satisfaction

AGEGROUP * OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION

Count
Overall job satisfaction
1 2 3 4 5 Total
AGEGROUP 1 3 25 12 1 41
2 8 23 24 3 1 59
Total 11 48 36 4 1 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 2.803 5.991 2 Not
square significant

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate
hypothesis is rejected and indicates there is no significant
relationship between age group and overall work satisfaction

67
Comparison between Marital Status
and Satisfaction toward Salary

Null hypothesis

Marital status is not associated with satisfaction toward


salary

Alternate hypothesis

Marital status is associated with satisfaction toward salary

MARITAL * SATISFACTION TOWARDS SALARY

Count
Satisfaction towards salary
1 2 3 4 Total
MARITAL 1 31 35 22 1 89
2 3 7 1 11
Total 34 42 23 1 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 1.525 5.991 2 Not
square significant

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is
rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship
between marital status and satisfaction toward salary

68
Comparison between Marital Status
and Level of Stress

Null hypothesis

Marital status is not associated with level of stress

Alternate hypothesis

Marital status is associated with level of stress

MARITAL * LEVEL OF STRESS

Count
Level of stress
1 2 3 5 Total
MARITAL 1 23 60 5 1 89
2 3 3 4 1 11
Total 26 63 9 2 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 15.03 5.991 2 Significant
square 9

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship
between marital status and level of stress.

69
Comparison between Marital Status
and Overall Job Satisfaction

Null hypothesis

Marital status is not associated with overall job satisfaction

Alternate hypothesis

Marital status is associated with overall job satisfaction

MARITAL * OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION

Count
Overall job satisfaction
1 2 3 4 5 Total
MARITAL 1 11 45 31 1 1 89
2 3 5 3 11
Total 11 48 36 4 1 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 14.67 5.991 2 Significant
square 8

Result—
Alternate hypothesis is accepted and Null hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is significant relationship
between marital status and overall job satisfaction

70
Comparison between Educational Level
and Satisfaction towards Salary

Null hypothesis

Educational level is not associated with satisfaction


towards salary

Alternate hypothesis

Educational level is associated with satisfaction towards


salary

EDUCATIONAL LEVEL * SATISFACTION TOWARDS SALARY

Count
Satisfaction towards salary
1 2 3 4 Total
1 1 1 2
EDUCATIONAL
LEVEL 2 31 39 18 1 89
3 3 2 4 9
Total 34 42 23 1 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 3.61 9.49 4 Not
square significant

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship
between educational level and satisfaction towards salary

71
Comparison between Educational Level
and Level of Stress

Null hypothesis

Educational level is not associated with level of stress

Alternate hypothesis

Educational level is associated with level of stress

EDUCATIONAL * LEVEL OF STRESS

Count
Level Of Stress
1 2 3 5 Total
EDUCATIONAL 1 2 2
LEVEL 2 20 62 7 89
3 4 1 2 2 9
Total 26 63 9 2 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 25.53 9.49 4 Significant
square 4

Result—
Alternate hypothesis is accepted and Null hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is significant relationship
between educational level and level of stress

72
Comparison between Educational Level
and Overall Job Satisfaction

Null hypothesis

Educational level is not associated with overall job


satisfaction

Alternate hypothesis

Educational level is associated with overall job satisfaction

EDUCAT IONAL LEVEL* OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION

Count
Overall job satisfaction
1 2 3 4 5 Total
EDUCATIONAL 1 1 1 2
LEVEL 2 9 47 31 1 1 89
3 2 1 4 2 9
Total 11 48 36 4 1 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 17.52 9.49 4 Significant
square 6

Result—
Alternate hypothesis is accepted and Null hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is significant relationship
between educational level and overall job satisfaction

73
Comparison between Income and
Satisfaction towards Salary

Null hypothesis

Income is not associated with satisfaction towards salary

Alternate hypothesis

Income is associated with satisfaction towards salary

INCOME * SATISFACTION TOWARDS SALARY

Count
Satisfaction towards salary
1 2 3 4 Total
INCOME 1 3 5 5 13
2 26 36 14 1 77
3 5 1 4 10
Total 34 42 23 1 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 4.585 9.49 4 Not
square significant

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship
between income and satisfaction towards salary

74
Comparison between Income and Level
of Stress

Null hypothesis

Income is not associated with level of stress

Alternate hypothesis

Income is associated with level of stress

INCOME * LEVEL OF STRESS

Count
Level of stress
1 2 3 5 Total
INCOME 1 7 4 1 1 13
2 17 53 7 77
3 2 6 1 1 10
Total 26 63 9 2 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 7.033 9.49 4 Not
square significant

Result—
Null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship
between income and level of stress.

75
Comparison between Income and
Overall Job Satisfaction

Null hypothesis

Income is not associated with overall job satisfaction

Alternate hypothesis

Income is associated with overall job satisfaction

INCOME * OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION

Count
Overall job satisfaction
1 2 3 4 5 Total
INCOME 1 1 2 8 2 13
2 6 44 24 2 1 77
3 4 2 4 10
Total 11 48 36 4 1 100

Valu Expected d Significan


e value f ce
Chi- 9.695 9.49 4 Significant
square

Result—
Alternate hypothesis is accepted and Null hypothesis
is rejected and indicates there is no significant relationship
between income and overall job satisfaction

Findings
76
 The maximum number of respondents were male
83%

 59% of respondents were above or equal to 22


years of age and 49% were below 22 years

 89% of respondents marital status was single

 89% of respondents educational qualification was


UG

 77% of respondents earn between 1lakh to2lakh

 42% are satisfied with their salary

 62% of respondents have work experience


between 0-6months

 51% fell secure about the current job

 58% of respondents fell that stress will be the


factors if they will be quitting now

 76% feel that their salary is based on their


performance.

 59% agree that their performance is being valued.

 60% are neutral towards feeling relieved upon


quitting from their job now.

 63% agree to stress in the job.


77
 45% agree that company is bothered only about
the employees output/result.

 59% are neutral towards feeling unsecure working


in the present job

 82% say they are not getting enough rest.

 59% are neutral towards the fact that job is based


on qualification and skill

 82% feel that their work is not at all recognized by


their superiors

 89% do not get casual leave and 86% get medical


leave.

 84% say that will recommend their job to someone


else

 48% are overall satisfied towards the job

78
Suggestions

 The company should provide better canteen facilities.

 The company should see that all the employees should work as a

team.

 The company should give casual leave to the employees.

 The Superiors in the company should not harass the employees for

achieving targets.

 The company should set lenient targets for the employees to

achieve.

 There should be frequent rest intervals for the employees especially

in night shifts.

 There should be more convenient or better time shifts.


79
 There should be more financial and non-financial incentives.

 The company should provide facilities or for stress relief.

 Stress from superiors to reach customer satisfaction targets.

 The company should see that there are no constant changes in work

schedules and timings i.e. there should be fixed timings or the

schedules should change less frequently

Conclusion

The study was conducted to know the employees

satisfaction in call centres in Bangalore. The study revealed

that the employees faced some problems like stress and job

dissatisfaction mainly due to heavy work load and pressure

from supervisors to achieve targets. The call centers are

suggested to improve their HR practices and give a better work

environment to the employees to reduce the attrition rate.

80
Bibliography

 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Call_centre

 www.callcentersindia.com

 www.bpoindia.org

 www.callcentercafe.com

 www.go4callcenter.com

 www.bpoindia.org/research/attrition-rate-big-

challenge.shtml

81
 www.beagleresearch.typepad.com/beagle_research/2007/

06/call_center_att.html

 Relief for Call Center Stress Syndrome -Stephen Cosci

 Research methodology-C.R.Kothari

82