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CRANFIELD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

COLLEGE OF AERONAUTICS

Ph. D Thesis

Academic Year 1991-1992

S. H. M. Macci -,

Structural and Mechanical Feasibility Study of a Variable Camber Wing (VCW) for a transport Aircraft

Supervisor:

Dr J. P. Fielding

August 1992

ABSTRACT
Aerodynamicinvestigationshave shown' that variable camber wings (VCW) for transport aircraft haveconsiderable potentialin termsof improvingaircraft performance and enhancingtheir operationalflexibility. In order to justify thesebenefits it is feasible. that the cambervarying systemis structurallyand mechanically essential
This researchexamined the feasibility of providing variable camber to two supercritical aerofoil sections of different'characteristics. The unique method of camber vaTiation was applied by rotating the forward and aft regions of the aerofoil on a circular arc and keeping the surface continuous and matching at their attachmentto the main wing box. The change in camber thus increased the chord due to translational motion of the aforementioned regions. The geometries required for varying the forward camber by this method presented formidable design difficulties and no immediate solutions could be found. As a result, devised by drooping the nose accepts camber simply was which geometry alternative an region. A novel idea was developed for aft camber variation, which is considered to be for all supercritical aerofoil sections. The system utilises a tracking universal mechanism which guides a trailing edge element on a continuous arc. Surface is by flexible provided a skin on the upper side and a spring loaded hinged continuity flexible The the skin remains attachedto the trailing edge element side. under panel on through a series of roller link arrangement which locate the skin in a separateguide increased large The therefore the torsional loads created due to moment arm and rail. the translational motion of the trailing edge element necessitated investigation of alternative deployment geometries. As a result two additional geometries were schemed. One had reduced radius of rotation and therefore reduced extension, while the other changed camber by drooping the aft region without any chordal extension. Since there was no aerodynamic evidence on the possible benefits offered by these information decide it to them postpone such was until was available. geometries

for aft cambervariationwereconsidered Somedetailedaspects concept of the proposed by applyingthe systemto a modemtransportaircraft wing. This resultedin a design is feasible. Justification practically of this conceptwas madeby designing which and testinga half scalestructuralmodelof one trailing edgesegment. Three dimensional (3-D) geometric investigationshowed that the camber-varyingelementsride on a

frustum of a cone and therefore their deployment is skewed to the line of flight. The 3-D geometric implications of variable camber clearly suggested that the camber variation by rotation on a circular arc, on a taperedwing can be possible if the rotating element is made to flex and twist or it utilises a pin jointed arrangement. To provide the necessaryflexibility to the trailing edge element, its structural box best be made from fibre reinforced plastic material. The deployment of the trailing edge element on the structural m(;del was made possible by designing it in laminated wood. Comparison of the proposed variable camber systemwith a conventional single slotted flap arrangement suggests that the two systems could be equally complex but the variable camber could be slightly heavier., Further systemsinvestigations are required to quantify overall aerodynamic, mass, and VCW implications the of on transport aircraft. use of cost

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This project would not have been possible without the help of many people. I would like to express my sincere thanks to all of them including: Dr. John Fielding for his supervision of the project and for providing me with the much neededguidance. Professor John Spillman the originator of the variable camber concept for his advice and for taking a keen interest in this project. His enthusiasmand conviction provided the source of inspiration. Alex Mackinnon who worked on the aerodynamic aspect of the concept. His thoughts and ideas together with our 'round the clock' discussionswere of immense value. Maurice Crook of the composite laboratory at the College of Aeronautics for helping with the manufacture of the composite skin and assembling of the structural for his sane conversationsregarding philosophical matters in life. also model and Malcolm Goodridge and the College of Aeronautics workshop boys for manufacturing the various componentsof the structural model. Ian Stockman for proof reading the manuscript and improving my English in doing so. My brother Mushtaque for his support and encouragement during the past years. My dear wife Shillu for her understandingover the last twelve months and for giving me confidence to complete this work. Mengg Omboko from Cameroon for the words of wisdom from the back of the pavi ion. All my Filends from Cranfield for providing Many Magical Moments. Finally I would like to thank the Department of Trade and Industry and British Aerospace (Commercial Aircraft) Limited for awarding a joint contract to Cranfield Institute of Technology to carry out the variable camber wing research. It provided a unique opportunity to blend the extensive design experience of British Aerospace and Cranfield's research and testing facilities to produce a workable design solution.

TO SOPHIA MARIAM

CONTENTS FRONT PAGE ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DEDICATION LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES NOTATION ABBREVIATIONS CHAPTER ONE:
1.1 GENERAL

INTRODUCTION

..........................
I

1.2

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF VARIABLE CAMBER WING (VCW) MECHANICAL FEATURES ................... 1.2.1 Variable Camber by Drooping the Aerofoil ............... 1.2.2 Variable Camber by Drooping the Aerofbil and Extending the Chord .............................

2 4 6 7 8

1.3 BACKGROUND TO THIS RESEARCH

....................... ................

1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE AND THESIS OUTLINE

Figures for ChapterOne ................................

10-20

CHAPTER TWO:

TWO DIMENSIONAL (2-D) VARIABLE CAMBER (VC) SYSTEMS .................... .................................. .......

21 21 21 21 24 27
27 28

2.1 2.2

INTRODUCTION

VARIABLE CAMBER (VC) GEOMETRIES AND DESIGNS 2.2.1 Leading Edge Camber Variation ..................... 2.2.2 Trailing Edge Camber Variation .....................

2.3

VARIABLE CAMBER WrrH HIGH LIFr DEVICES


2.3.1 2.3.2 Leading Edge I-ligh Lift Devices Trailing Edge High Lift Devices

............

..................... ......................

2.4

DISCUSSIONS AND DESIGN EVALUATION

................

28

2.4.1 GeneralMechanical and PracticalConsiderations ........... 2.4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Variable Camber(VC) Schemes ...........................
Figures for Chapter Two ................................ CHAPTER THREE: THREE DIMENSIONAL (3-D) VARIABLE CAMBER WING (VCW) ............................ 3.1 3.2 INTRODUCTION .................................. .............

28 30
36-56

57 57 57 57 59

GEOMETRIC AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 3.2.1 Sweep and Tapering Effects ........................ 3.2.2 Negative Deployment ............................

Figures for ChapterThree

...............................

60-68

CHAPTER FOUR:

THE APPLICATION AND SOME DETAILED DESIGN ASPECTS OF THE VARIABLE CAMBER WING (VCW) ..................... 69 69

4.1 4.2

INTRODUCTION

...................................

APPLICATION OF THE VARIABLE CAMBER WING (VCW) SYSTEM 4.2.1 .............................. ............................. 69 70 71 72

Design Philosophies

4.2.2 Aircraft Selection ............................... 4.2.3 Conceptual Design Study and the Base Line Configuration ........................ 4.3 THE FLA WING INSTALLED WITH THE PROPOSED VC CONCEPT ............................ 4.3.1 4.3.2 Segment Sizes and Track Positions Detailed Design Considerations ....................

73 73 75 78-88

......................

Figures for Chapter Four CHAPTER FIVE:

...............................

THREE DIMENSIONAL (3-D) MODEL OF THE TRAILING EDGE (TE) CONCEPT

........

89 89 89 89 90 91 91 91 91 94

5.1 5.2

INTRODUCTION

.................................. .......................

REASONS AND REQUIREMENTS 5.2.1 5.2.2 Reasons

.................................... Requirementsand Aims .......................... ................................

5.3

DESIGN APPROACH 5.3.1 General

.................................... 5.3.2 Design Criteria ................................ 5.3.3 Loading ..................................... 5.3.4 Structural and Finite Element Analysis

.................

5.4

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

............................

95 95 97 97 98 98 101 105-117

5.4.1 Upper Surface Skin ............................. 5.4.2 Under Surface ................................ 5.4.3 Trailing Edge (TE) Device .......................... 5.4.4 Actuating Track System .......................... 5.5 D DESCRIPTION OF THE FINAL DESIGN 5.6 MANUFACTURING ...................

...............................

Figures for Chapter Five CHAPTER SIX:

..............................

TESTING OF THE THREE DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURAL MODEL

.........

118 118 118 119 119 121 122 123 133- 142 143 143 143
143

6.1 6.2 6.3

INTRODUCTION

................................. .......

REASONS, REQUIREMENTS AND AIMS FOR TESTING TEST SET UP, PROCEDURE AND RESULTS 6.3.1 PhaseI Testing ............................... 6.3.2 PhaseIl Testing .............................. 6.3.3 PhaseIII Testing ..............................

...............

6.4

CONCLUSIONS

.................................. .............................. ..........................

Figures for Chapter Six

CHAPTER SEVEN: DISCUSSIONS 7.1 7.2 INTRODUCTION

................................. ......................

THE FOCUS OF THIS RESEARCH


7.2.1 7.2.2

The Variable Camber (VC) Geometries

................ Application of the Variable Camber Wing (VCW)

.........

148

7.2.3 Comparison of the Proposed VC System to a Conventional Single Slotted Flap Arrangement ............................. 7.2.4 Design and Testing of a Trailing Edge (TE) Variable Camber (VC) Structural Model ...............

150 152

Figuresfor ChapterSeven

.............................
......

155- 164
165 165 166 169

CHAPTER EIGHT: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 8.1 8.2 CONCLUSIONS

.................................. ..............

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

REFERENCES APPENDIX A

....................................... PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF THE FUTURE LARGE AIRCRAFT (BASELINE CONFIGURATION) .......................

173

APPENDIX B

AERODYNAMIC LOADS AND LOADING ANALYSIS FOR THE FLA WING ............. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND STRESS CALCULATIONS FOR THE FLA VARIABLE CAMBER TE SEGMENT

194

APPENDIX C

...........

210

APPENDIX D

STRUCTURAL MODEL - TRACK LOADS AND STRESSING ........................ MANUFACTURING DRAWINGS FOR THE STRUCTURAL MODEL .................... PAPER PRESENTED AT THE 18' ICAS CONFERENCE 1992 ......................

220

APPENDIX E

224

APPENDIX F

233

LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER ONE Figure 1.1: Typical low speedhigh lift camber setting with leading edge slat and trailing edge flap ......................... 1.2: Variable camber leading edge Kruger flap ............... 1.3: Royal Aircraft Variable camber Mechanism (RAEVAM) ...... 1.4: Advanced Technology Variable Camber Wing (ATVCW) ...... 1.5: Mission Adaptive Wing (MAW) ..................... 1.6: Discrete camber variation on the X-29 - Advanced Technology Demonstrator .................................
1.7: Variable camber for transport aircraft by drooping the forward and aft regions of the aerofoil ....................... Patents of aft camber variation by chordal extension ......... Two dimensional variable camber concept developed at MBB Variable camber wing for transport aircraft by MBB ......... Two dimensional wing tunnel model for low speed testing in reference [24] ..........................

10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 ... 18 19 20

1.8: 1.9: 1.10: 1.11:

CHAPTER TWO Figure 2.1: Details of the two aerofbil sections used in this research ...... 2.2a: 2-D variable camber geometry proposed for Section A ....... 2.2b: Ideal 2-D variable camber profile for Section B ............ 2.3a: Leading edge variable camber profile for Section A- LESAI Design schemefor LESAI - LESA2 ................... 2.3c: Track details for LESA1 - LESM .................... Leading edge variable camber profiles for Section B: 2.4: (a) Large extension less droop - LESB1 ............ (b) Less extension more droop - LESB2 ............ 2.5: Variable camber design schemeone for LESB2 - LESB3 ...... 2.6: Variable camber design schemetwo for LESB2 - LESB4 ...... 2.7: Trailing edge variable camber geometries: (a) Section A- TESAI ...................... (b) Section B- TESBI ....................... 2.8a: Variable camber trailing edge design schemeone for TESA I- TESA2 ............................ 2.8b: Demonstration model of TESA2 ..................... 2.3b:

36 37 37 ... 38 39 40 41 41 42 43 44 44 45 46

2.8c: Variable camber trailing edge design schemeone for TESBI - TESB2 ............................. 2.9: Trailing edge design schemeproposed in reference [25] ....... 2.10a: Variable camber trailing edge design schemetwo for TESAI - TESA3 ............................. 2.10b: Demonstration model of TESA3 ..................... 2.11a: Variable camber trailing edge design schemethree
for TESBI-TESB3 ..............................

47 48 49 50
51

2.1 lb: Demonstration model of TESB3 ..................... 2.12: Leading edge slat combined with schemeLESA2 and LESA3-LESA4 ............................. 2.13: Demonstration model of the trailing edge design schemeTESA3 installed with a 10 % flap TESM extending .......................... 2.14a: Variable camber leading edge geometry for drooping the LESB5 BSection of nose ........................ 2.14b: Variable camber schemeLESB5 installed with a Kruger flap - LESB6 .................................
CHAPTER THREE Figure 3.1: 3.2: Swept and tapered wing planform with trailing edge into split several segments ...................... span Ideal in-line of flight deployment of the trailing edge segments

52 53

54 55 56

60 61 62

3.3a&b: Deployment of the streamwise segments on a conical hinge-line ...................................

3.4a: Streamwise segmentsdeployed on an un-swept hinge-line ...... 3.4b: Chordwise profiles at the inboard, mid-span and outboard hinge-line deployed an unswept on a segment of stations ...... 3.5: Wing planform with deployment on an unswept hinge-line have leading that and trailing unswept edge segments of trailing edges ................................. Trailing edge segmentsskewed to the line of flight and deployed on a conical hinge-line ..................... Track attachmentdue to 'True' and 'Near' conical deployment Skewed trailing edge segmentsdeployed on a conical hinge-line without lateral movement ...................

63 64

65 66 67 68

3.6: 3.7: 3.8:

CHAPTER FOUR Figure 4.1: 4.2: 4.3a: 4.3b: 4.4: 4.5a: 4.5b: 4.6: 4.7a: 4.7b: 4.8: Varying CL requirement for the FLA Planform. geometry of the FLA wing .................. ......... ............ 78 79 80 81 82

.................. Wing planform split into six trailing edge segments Chordwise profile of the aft region of the aerofoil

External dimensions of segment five ................... Overall design of the inboard rib, extending track, upper surface skin conforming track and roller arrangement ........ Details of the inboard rib, extending track and conforming .......................... Details of the extending track and the upper surface conforming track ............................... Details of the outboard roller link arrangement to conform the upper surface skin ...................... Possible solution for roller link arrangement to conform the upper surface skin at the intermediate span position Details of the upper surface flexible carbon skin ........... track/roller arrangement

83 84 85 86 87 .88

.......

CHAPTER FIVE Figure 5.1: 5.2: 5.3: 5.4: 5.5a: 5.5b: 5.6: 5.7: Overall dimensions of the structural model .............. Finite element (FE) model of the upper surface flexible skin ... Upper surface skin stiffened along the span ............. Track cross-section with PTFE providing the sliding and bearing properties ............................. Illustration of the structural model ................... Detailed arrangement of the components within the structural model .............................. Deflection geometry of the upper surface carbon skin due to applied pressure .......................... Solution for conforming the upper surface skin 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 .. ... 115 116 117

........... 5.8a-c: Details of the track roller system, support structure flap the surface and under ........................ 5.9: Hydraulic system and actuation ..................... 5.10a&b: Wooden plug used for manufacturing the composite tooling 5.11: 5.12: Curing procedure for the flexible upper surface skin ........ Carbon skin manufactured to the form of composite tooling

CHAPTER SIX Figure 6.1a: Apparatus for PhaseI testing ...................... 6. lb: Further details of the set-up for PhaseI testing ........... 6-2: Deflection vs load curve for eight dial gauge positions ....... 6.3: Comparison of measureddeflection with the FE predictions 6.4: 6.5: 6.6: 6.7: 6.8: 6.9: Structural model actuatedwithout any loads (Phase11testing) Lateral movement of the trailing edge device due to conical deployment ................................. Set-up for PhaseIII testing ....................... Structural model actuated with loads (PhaseIII testing) ...... Further evidence of deployment under loaded conditions ..... Outboard track deflections due to applied loads ...........

133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142

CHAPTER SEVEN Figure 7. la: 7. lb: 7.2: 7.3: 7.4: 7.5: 7.6: 7.7: 7.8: 7.9: Trailing edge variable camber geometry on Section B with reduced extension - TESB4 ....................... Double slotted flap system for B767 .................. Trailing edge variable camber on Section B by drooping the aerofoil - TESB5 .............................. Variation Of CL with incidence for different camber settings at high speed cruise conditions ..................... Variation of UD radon with incidence for different camber settings at high speed cruise conditions ................ Unit airload distribution due to wing incidence ........... Unit airload distribution due to spanwise variation of camber 155 156 157 158 159 160 161

... 162 Track design for a conventional single slotted flap arrangement . 163 Conical deployment with pin jointed arrangement .......... Method suggested for continuously applying loads to the its during model operation .................. structural 164

APPENDIX A Figure A. 1: Artists impression of the FLA ...................... A. 2: FLA performance: Thrust variation with wing loading ....... A. 3: General arrangementdrawing of the FLA .............. A. 4: Standard mission profile for maximum payload range .......

191 192 193 194

APPENDIX B Figure B. 1: Speedvariation with altitude ....................... B. 2: Examples of n-V diagrams ......................... B. 3: Spanwise lift distribution aft of 64.5 % chord line

207 208 ......... 209

APPENDIX C Figure C. 1: Figure C. 2: Finite element model of the upper surface skin ........... Deflection geometry for high speedloading ............. 218 219

LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1: Coordinates of the reduced under side of the trailing edge device for Section B............................. Chordwise pressure distribution across the upper surface flexible sIdn ................................. Material properties ............................ Material properties for the chosen carbon reinforced plastic laminate ................................... Applied load to the upper surface skin in five increments ..... due to Upper surface skin deflection measurements applied load ................................. Comparison of measureddeflections with the FE predicdons ............................... Track deflection and actuator loads due to applied load (PhaseIII testing) .......................... Parametric data of aircraft used for military and commercial airlift application .............................. Initial specification targets for the FLA ................ Mass breakdown ..............................

35

Table 5.1: 5.2: 5.3:

102 103 104 125 126 130 132

Table 6.1: 6.2: 6.3: 6.4:

Table A. 1: A. 2: A. 3:

187 189 190 204 205 206

Table B. 1: Preliminary symmetric design cases .................. B. 2a: Symmetric wing body loads due to pitching manoeuvres ...... B. 2b: Symmetric wing body loads due to vertical gust ...........

NOTATION

The notation used in this thesis is as defined in the main text.

ABBREVIATIONS

ATVCW BAe BM CFRP cofg DOC FE FEA FLA FRP GLA H/L I/D LE L/D MAW MBB MLC O/B PTFE RAEVAM SF TE VC VCW WRBM 2-D 3-1)
[901021s

Advanced Technology Variable Camber Wing British Aerospace Bending moment Carbon fibre reinforced plastics Centre of gravity Direct operating cost Finite element Finite element analysis Future large aircraft Fibre reinforced plastics Gust load alleviation Hinge-line Inboard Leading edge Lift to drag ratio Mission adaptive wing Messerschmitt-]3olkow-Blokom Manoeuvre load control Outboard PolyTetro Floro Ethylene Royal Aircraft Variable camber Mechanism Shear force Trailing edge Variable camber Variable camber wing Wing root bending moment Two dimensional Three dimensional Orientation, No. and lay-up of carbon fibres. Subscript's' refers to symmetric lay

described in Chapter Two and Sevenare The two dimensional geometriesand schemes labelled as follows: -

Label Name LESAI. LESA2 LESA3 LESBI LESB2 LESB3 LESB4 TESAI TESBI TESA2 TESB2 TESM TESB3 LESM TESM LESB5 LESB6 TESB4 TESB5

Figure No. 2.3a 2.3b 2.3c 2.4a 2.4b 2.5 2.6 2.7a 2.7b 2.8a 2.8c 2.10a 2.11a 2.12 2.13 2.14a 2.14b 7. la 7.2

Details

LE VC geometry of Section A LE VC design schemefor Section A VC LE track details for Section A First LE VC geometry for Section B SecondLE VC geometry for Section B LE VC design schemeone for Section B LE VC design schemetwo for Section B TE VC geometry one for Section A TE VC geometry one for Section B TE VC schemeone for Section A TE VC schemeone for Section B TE VC schemetwo for Section A TE VC schemethree for Section B LE VC schemeone with slat on Section A TE VC schemeone with flap on Section A LE VC drooped nose geometry on Section B LE VC with Kruieger flap on Section B TE VC geometry two on Section B TE VC geometry three on Section B

-1-

CHAVrER ONE INTRODUCTION


1.1 GENERAL The mission profile of a transport aircraft consists of take-off, climb, cruise, descent, hold, and approach to touch down. During thesephasesthe wing experiencesa change in camber when it is configured from a low camberedhigh speedsetting to low speed, take off and landing settings. This results in aerofoil sections which could only be optimum for one flight conditiont'l. The change in wing profile is primarily made at the leading edges (LE) and trailing edges (TE) by deploying slat and flap systems increments in large In these away from the main systems move general respectively. wing section, creating undesirable sudden changesto the curvature of the camber line (Figure 1.1). In service the aircraft often operatesaway from the design point, for example at cruise initiated by the pilot, or during different manoeuvres undergoing altitudes, when at Conventional 'discrete' camber changing wings with conditions. gust atmospheric described designed have lift to to the above one are not optimum systems similar in during This these conditions. operations under results a non optimum characteristics flight which has a marked effect on the performance and therefore on the fuel efficiency. Variable camber (VQ implies changing the profile of the wing throughout the flight, line keeping the the of continuous, such that the aircraft curvature camber while in it is By the this wing conditions. varying camber manner optimum near at operates lift drag (L/D) improve the to therefore to ratio and optimise continuously possible increasing (DOC) by direct the the fuel cost operating reduce and performance, efficiency. The economic success of a transport aircraft depends highly on its operational flexibility, the ability to operate over a wide and varying range of flight missions. For instance, during the lifespan of a commercial aircraft frequent requirements arise for increasing the payload or range to suit the market needs. In case of, say, the military for have long the the to call varying mission requirement aircraft air-lifters range With it VC is tactical the and short airlift capabilities. range system strategic possible to give such a flexibility in operation by improving the UD which would assist in either increasing the fuel range or the payload mass.

Becauseof flexural deformation of wings under load, the LE and TE devices have to be divided into several spanwisesections. It follows that if each section is individually controlled, the camber can be varied acrossthe spanto suit the spanwiselift distribution required for different flight conditions, both in steady level flight and whilst manoeuvring. The ability to alter the spanwiselift distribution assistsin reducing wing structural weight by reducing wing root bending moments(WRBM) associatedwith the gust and manoeuvre loads. A smooth VC system therefore promises to contribute towards:1) Increasing fuel efficiency and reducing DOC, 2) Improving operational flexibility, and 3) Reducing WRBM, These are the major goals in wing design for future transport aircraft. The aerodynamic benefits listed above can only be justified if the variable camber wing (VCW) system representsa practically (structurally and mechanically) viable solution. This research explores the practical possibilities of achieving continuous camber by transport wings examining:aircraft variation on implications on both the two dimensional (2-D) aerofoil sections, Geometric and the three dimensional (3-D) swept and tapered wings, design for Idnematic The the the of system camber, achieving involved in design The the complexities of mechanicaland structural possible components, in structural weight as a result of thesecomplexities, and increase The in design The the the changes of wing. structural possible 1.2 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF VCW MECHANICAL FEATURES The ability to optimise the aircraft wing so that it would suit all flight conditions has been a problem for aircraft designers since the early days of aviation. In order to it is light design flight to the necessary structure, achieve near perfect with a relatively in its be that a manner similar to birds. continuously, altered profile can wing, such Such variations could be realised if the wing is made from a skin that can flex and is time the sufficiently stiff to operateefficiently under aerodynamic and at same warp, loads.

Indeed, one may view the Wright Brother's attempt to alter the lift characteristicsof their wing as a possible step towards achieving camber variation. A cable connected to the wing was hooked to a truss around the pilots hips, and when the hips moved the wing warped out of shape. This was a rudimentary form of camber control for banking the aircraft.

A number hadin-flight camber in oneform or the of aircraft thereafter varyingdevices technologies other. Lack of material and mechanical preventeddesignersfrom developing flexing wings. Thereforethe cambercontrolling deviceson automatically these aircraft (although and controlled)werelimited in their applications automatically to operate at certainflight conditions. An exampleof one suchdesign weredesigned is the 1914SopwithBabyt",which incorporates "Patent theFaireyAviation Company's flaps full-span hinged (TE) This trailing that couldbe edge consisted of camber gear". increase devices lift. in The to as symmetrically ailerons or opposition as either used flap deflections chords,to provide werecontrolleddirectly by the pilot throughbungee increase in camberfor low speeds. It was not until the emergence of graphitebasedand fibre reinforcedplastic (FRP) industry it in becamepossibleto (some 25 the that aerospace materials yearsago), implementflexible skin technologyin high performanceaircraft wing. Aircraft had designers that could be tailoredto havevariablestiffness now materials structural of flexible skin usingFRP materials andflexibility. An importantpracticalapplication flap design for leading (VC) Krueger (LE) the the of on the was edge variablecamber Boeing747PI. The term 'VC' is usedto describe that occursto the the camberchange from its relatively flat shape,when stowedas part of the flap panelas it is extended wing lower surface,to its fully camberedshapein the extendedhigh lift position. diagramof the conceptis shownin Figure 1.2. The flexible panelprovides Schematic cambervariation. a smooth,graduallycurvedLE devicewith spanwise
The successfuluse of flexible skin VC takeoff and landing flaps on the Boeing 747 was a breakthrough for the advancementof flexible skin concept to devices that could 9continuously' change the wing profile. In addition to the flexible skin systems, development in the areas of variable geometry mechanismsand actuation and drive has helped to progress researchinto the VC systems. systems The referenceswhich describe the above schemesalso include mechanicalaspectssuch linkage systems, variable geometry trusseswith variable length members, cam and as follower concepts, hinged multiple section devices, reinforced rubber extensible skins,

fibreglass skins, carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) skins, graphite epoxy skins, conventional hydraulic actuators,power hinges, rotary planetary gear units, pinion gear jacks. and screw units 1.2.1 Variable Camber by Drooping the Aerofbil

The most commonmethodof achievingvariablecamberhasbeenby 'drooping' the forward andaft regionsof the aerofoil. Indeed,this methodis so widely accepted that it hasbecome the designnorm. The first conceptaccepting this type of variationwas an invention of a simple mechanicalsystem for a LE geometry by Pierce and Treadgold"'. An illustrationof this ideais given in Figure 1.3a. The 'Royal Aircraft Variable CamberMechanism'or RAEVAM as it is known consistsof Establishment by a seriesof swinginglinks attached to a rigid a flexible plate which is constrained in fashion LE Drooping fixed this the the to nose reducesthe effective spar. plate length the In to chord severalvariation to the basic scheme are chord. order retain in is illustrated 1.3b. in Figure The One rigid plate sits method a track such possible. jack. Moss, HainesandJordan"Ireport on the by is translate to a separate and made for improving by high RAEVAM benefits type the system of gained using aerodynamic of an aerofoil. speedstalling characteristics
Since the RAEVAM concept, several inventors have filed patents for systems that by both. drooping Some (TE) LE the trailing either or changes or edge provide profile include ideas inventions by: the of most significant 1) RowarthIll (For achieving a VC at the TE), 2) Brown and Statkus"I (a VC wing tip by a power hinge actuator), and 3) Cole"' (a VC LE device having a movable nose section and an upper flexible panel).

Military aircraft havebeenthe prime targetfor developing practicalapplicationof VC technology. Th first extensivestudy of conformly varying-camberwas madeon a fighter aircraftI911101. A new advanced technology variablecamberwing (ATVCW) was flexible derived from the designed F-8 technology the the skin which utilized around Boeing747 camberKruegerflap. Figure 1.4 illustratesthe detailsof the system. The by droopingthe LE and the TE of the aerofoil. Oneedge cambervariationis obtained front by beam is flexible by the the spar or real or nose panel supported or the each of by transverse TE assembly at the otheredge. The flexible skin of the TE is supported stringersand links to provide rigidity.

f-

Davicel"I produced a report describing several possibilities of camber variation on a supercritical aerofoil section by drooping the LE and TE elementsin a similar way to the ATVCW. Current flying examples of continuous cambering systems are the FIll, Mission Adaptive Wing (MAW)1121 and the X-29 Advanced Technology Demonstrator"". An illustration of the MAW is given in Figure 1.5. It has the ability to changeboth the chordwise and spanwisecamber, while maintaining a continuous aerofoil shape. The LE systemconsistsof a two bay link systemsupporting a rigid aluminium nosecap and upper and lower flexible skins. The fibreglass skins are designed to permit a continuous contour at the LE without sliding joints or gaps at the nose and upper surface, while a faired sliding joint exists on the lower surfacein front of the spar. The TE mechanism has a three-bay variable geometry. The upper and lower skins are continuous (root to tip) glass reinforced plastic with no sliding joints at the upper or lower contours. A slip joint is provided at the TE. The skins are supported on spanwise beams. The steel-constructedlinkages are moved by a rotary actuator gear box. Each flexible section is assignedits own torque tube, which is driven by a pair [141 of high-speed hydraulic motors. Glass fibre material for flexible skins is used becauseit has a good modulus and fatigue properties. The system on the X-29 is a discrete VC system, as opposed to a smooth type, consisting of the 25% chord, full-span, double-hinged flaperon/lead. tab-flap in depicted Figure 1.6. arrangement The development and application of VCW on commercial transport aircraft has been very limited. Boeing Aircraft Col"I carried out investigations to examine the potential attractiveness of varying the camber of a transport aircraft wing during flight, to continuously optimize the lift to drag (UD) ratio and thereby reduce the fuel usageand operating costs. The VC concept,developed in this study incorporated sharp altering devices to deflect and smoothly re-contour the LE and the TE of the wing. The mechanical devices to provide the wing with the capability for variable geometry are shown in Figure 1.7. At the LE, an 'A' frame is actuated to provide the required deflection. As the LE moves down, the upper surface becomeslonger while the lower becomes shorter. The overall length of the skin remains the same without surface breakup. A basic mechanismof a four-bar linkage driven by a rotary actuator is used fibre The TE. the skins are attached to the linkages with spanwise stringers, and at links. short

1.2.2 Variable Camber by Drooping the Aerofoil and Extending the Chord An alternative to simply drooping the LE and TE regions, VC is possible by increasing the chord through translational motion of theseareas. This feature is considered to be very useful for providing extra lift to the wing while the aircraft is operating at optimum lift coefficient (CL) and equivalent air speed.

Amongstthe patented ideas: 1) Hill"I inventeda mechanism in profile acrossan untapered that provideda change and unsweptwing. 2) Sharrock"'Iachieved by carryingan aft flap and an intermediate chordalextension wing portion on a tilting arm, depictedin Figure 1.8a. The upper surfaceis made to the main wing box and the continuousby an inextensible skin which is anchored intermediate the uppersurfaceskin to draw the wing. The tilting of the arm causes intermediate wing awayfrom the flap element.The skineffectivelyslidesover the flap the main wing and the surfacebetween elementand definesa smoothand continuous flap element. 3) Halliday and Sharrock"81 suggest a way to anchorthe flexible VC uppersurfaceskin to a fixed wing box (Figure 1.8b) by pushingthe skin on the flap body using a cam includesa lower surfacepanelwhich is pulled track arrangement.This arrangement towardsthe upper surfacethus remainingattached to the flap body on small camber deflections.
Assessmentsof VC through increment in chord were carried out by MesserschmittBolkow-Blokom (MBB) in Germany to study VCW for commercial transport aircraft Details include aerodynamic implications, performance (A330/340 type). improvements, mechanical realisation and engine/airframe integration. As a result, a concept was developed"'If"Ir"If"031 which relied on the use of existing high lift devices to provide camber variation. The design principle of the system is shown in Figure 1.9. At the LE a partially flexible auxiliary flap at the lower surface prevents a slot opening during low lift, high speedslat settings. At the TE the correspondingoperation of the flaps and spoilers/air-brakes provide the necessarycamber variation. The TE track system is designed such that after the maximum camber position, any further deflection results in a Fowler motion suitable for low speedsetting. The shapeof the have flap the track the to be such that there are minor of surface and control upper discontinuities during VC operationsr"'. The system is projected across a typical transport aircraft wing by segmentising it in-to four sections, as depicted in Figure 1.1Oa. If a spanwisevariation is required, the two neighbouring flap supports have to

--7-

be driven by individual flap drive units, the principle systemsuggested is depictedin Figure 1.10b. The independent input commands would result in the flap beingtwisted between the two supportstationsI211.
1.3 BACKGROUND TO THIS RESEARCH

In his questto assess benefitsof VC, Spillmanr"suggested the aerodynamic a method of increasingcamberby increasingthe aerofoil chord. In view of the objective to the cruiseand field performance enhance of a transportaircraft, Raor"I furtheredthe work of SpillmanM by carrying out low speed computational(theoretical) and experimental investigations. These studies showed improvements in aerofoil in WRBM from 2-D cambervariationsand suggested possiblereductions performance by varying the camberacrossthe span.
41 LunnMI used the preliminary 2-D experimentalresults by Raor, to estimatethe possible weight savingsby reducing WRBM, and reported that the overall wing weight for a 150 be by 10%. transport reduced could seat airliner These preliminary investigations indicated that the VCW had considerable potential, however the feasibility of applying the concept to a transport aircraft wing required further research in the areas of high speed' aerodynamics, and detailed Cranfield Institute design. A to contract was awarded research structural/mechanical Industry in 1989 (reference by Trade Department [26]) Technology the of and of (United Kingdom) and British Aerospace (Commercial Aircraft Division) to continue this work. Mackinnod") explored the aerodynamic avenues by carrying out computational and experimental studies.

here concentrates The researchpresented the on the investigationsmade to assess of VC on a transportaircraft wing. aspects practical, structuraland mechanical

-8-

1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND THESIS OUTLINE

The objectivesfor this research were to:


1) Examine the practical possibilities of achieving the VC by rotating the forward and aft regions of the aerofoil section on a circular arc while keeping the upper surface continuous, which as far as could be ascertainedhas not previously been attempted. The method of deflection adaptedby Raor"I necessitated translation as well as rotation of the moving elements, thus increasing the overall chord. Mackinnon" designedan in for VC and achieved chordal extension a application aerofoil section specifically similar way. This method is considered to be novel in that both the forward and aft sections of the aerofoil are rotated on a circular arc, which provides a continuous [241 distribution for ideal drag in pressure minimum roof-top change profile giving an 12 is given In Illustration of the design devised for the wind tunnel model usedby Rao 41 Figure 1.11. The upper surface is kept continuous by sliding the solid LE and TE devices on top of solid sections which are part of the wing box, while on the lower is keep believed It flexible the unbroken. underside provided which are plates surface, that such a change in camber can be used to an advantage by implementing large for low None (high lift the take settings. of speed off) extensions of chord suitable ideas disclosed in the literature search provided this benefit. The objective was to design schemesaround the aerofoil sectionsand the deployment by Rao'141 macldnnonr'71. developed and profiles 2) Explore the possibility of changing the deployment geometry. The majority of the ideas reviewed in the literature search obtained camber variation by drooping the front and rear parts of the aerofoil without increasing the chord. The forward in VC to aft a similar way provide and geometries which scheme objective was for (commonly transport aircraft thick section used aerofoil supercritical. around a wings).

3) Considerthe geometricimplicationsof spanwise variation of camberon a typical to a real 3-D wing. transportaircraft wing and extendthe 2-D concepts
on a 3-D wing, ideal aerodynamic requirements (reference [24] and [27]) called for the camber controlling devices to be split in-to several spanwise segments,similar to the

high lift deviceson a conventional wing of high aspectratio, high sweepand high taper. The objective was to assess the possibilities of achieving the required camber variation across the wing span. 4) Design and develop a 3-D structural/mechanicalmodel and carry-out tests for design verification, and thereby establish the practical feasibility of the concept at a level commensuratewith a real aircraft. 5) Consider the application of the VCW systemto a transport aircraft and compare its performance with a conventional wing. The objective was to consider the overall aspectof applying VC systemsto a transport aircraft wing and compareits gains and losseswith a wing that has conventional control

systems.
1.1.4 Thesis Outline

is described in Chapters Two. The work towardsmeeting the first andsecond objectives 2-D geometricand aerodynamic considerations and practicalideasare presented and implications implementation. The for their geometric of spanwise camber evaluated variationare coveredin ChapterThree.
Chapter Four discusses the application of the VC systemto a transport aircraft. Details design study made to establish a base line aircraft conceptual are given of a Geometric details for VC dimensions operation. and wing planform are configuration for is The scheme aft proposed camber variation extended to a 3-D outlined. investigations Calculations to these made carry out are presented mechanical solution. in Appendix A, B and C. Chapter Five contains the design, manufacturing and assemblingdetails of the structural Six discusses Chapter the test the test results. Stress outlines and procedure model. calculations made to size the major components are contained in Appendix D. Appendix E includes the drawings made to manufacture the structural model. Chapter Seven draws together the ideas and results discussedin previous chapters. An attempt is made to compare the proposed VC concept with a typical conventional high lift device concept. Conclusions drawn from this researchand recommendationsfor further work are given in Chapter Eight.

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CHAllyrER TWO TWO DIMENSIONAL (2-D) VARIABLE CAMBER (VC) SYSTEMS

2.1 INTRODUCTION The prime objective of this researchwas to study the practical feasibility of varying the wing camber for the type of deployment geometries developed in reference [24] and [27]. This chapter gives the details of thesegeometries and describesthe appropriate aerofoil sections used by the two authors. To justify the application of the variable, camber (VC) system to a real aircraft the design must be suitably practical, light in structural weight and mechanically simple. This chapter discusses these aspects by examining two dimensional (2-D) design schemesfor the leading edge (LE) and trailing edge (TE) regions. 2.2 VARIABLE CAMBER (VC) GEOMETRIES AND DESIGN SCHEMES The investigations carried out in this research centred around two aerofoil sections. These are depicted in Figure 2.1. The first of the two sections is labelled Section A while the secondis labelled Section B. Modem transport aircraft wings are, in general, designedto operate in transonic flight be by The angles associated such sweep with operations may wing reduced regimes. demonstrate In to the applicability of the sections. order aerofoil supercritical using (VC) principles to transport aircraft, RaoI241 carried out aerodynamic tests on a (Section A). designed This by the Aeronautical section was aerofoil supercritical ResearchAssociation (A. R. A). 7be characteristicsand the basic features of which are

as follows: -

fairly LE LE to the generous radius reduce suction peaks, -A flattened upper surface, -A blunt TE TE a small with angle and -A (t/c)mAxof 11.85%. thickness to chord ratio, maximum -

Mackinnonrrn appreciatedthe requirement to have a supercritical aerofoil for a transport He developed a section specifically to accept the VC principles adapted wing. aircraft in reference [24]. This section, (Section B) was designedwith the assistance of British Aerospace (Commercial Aircraft) using their aerodynamic computer codes. The basic

22 -

features of the section are given bellow: larger Section A, than radius -A A flat top surface, (the emphases was to have a section with very little initial camber which could be increasedto suite a particular condition), maximum thickness to chord ration, (t/c)mAx,of 14 A TE thickness of I% and A TE angle of 5*. Further details of the above two aerofoils can be found in the appropriate references. The VC geometries and the design schemesdeveloped around these aerofoil are all labelled in accordancewith the systemdescribedin the notation at the beginning of this thesis. The variation in aerofoil camber was appliedr"Ir'7'beyond the unchangedwing structural box, therefore the changein profile was limited to the LE and TE regions only. These regions (the LE and TE elements)were rotated and translated on circular arcs to give increments in chord. Such variations give continuity in curvature at the junctions between the moving elements and the wing centre section. The VC geometry for Section A is depicted in Figure 2.2a, while Figure 2.2b shows the same principle applied to Section B. 2.2.1 Leading Edge (LE) Camber Variation In order to reduce the LE velocity (suction) peaks"caused by the variation in TE introduce 'droop' (reference is it [1], the to the a at nose of aerofoil necessary camber, [24], [27] and [28]). Aerodynamic investigations suggestthat the transition from one be to the must smooth and continuous. This continuity helps to next camber setting distribution desired helps delay to the surface roof-top pressure upper and so maintain the wave drag.

2.2.1.1 Variablecamber(VQ on SectionA


Figure 2.3a (LESAI) describes the deployment programme which gives the required junction Section A. A between the LE element Point the on marks variation camber is This the centre section. point rotated on a circular arc and has sufficiently wing and large local curvature to eliminate any localised suction peaks during LE deployment (reference [241). The LE element is therefore separatedfrom the main wing body by an arc (A-B) drawn forward from point A, which lies within the original aerofoil lower It the strikes surface at point B. This arc represents the defection section. for LE The the element. radius of curvature for A-B is considered to be small profile

23 -

for is high (which TE droop large the to camber nose necessary at give a enough settings).

In order to retain continuityon the underside, the LE noseextends to point C on the in Figures2.3b (LESA2)and2.3c (LESA3). The continuity lower surface, as depicted by clampinga flexible plateat the front sparposition. on the undersideis maintained This plate runs in a rail by means of a setof roller and link arrangement.The rail is in order to allow the undersurface part of the deployingLE devicewhich is so shaped plate to slide aboveit.
The deployment of the LE element is by meansof track roller system, shown in Figure 2.3c (LESA3). This has a similar profile to the arc A-B. The track being part of the LE element and the rollers fixed to the solid body. 2.2.1.2 Variable camber (VQ on Section B The point of rotation on -the upper surface for Section B was initially taken at 17% in 2.4a Problems (LESBI). A Figure is Point This associatedwith as shown chord. this centred around the position of the axis of rotation for the LE and the length of the in 2.4a, Figure depicted therefore the As the R. and centre of rotation radius radius, is higher than keep the the notably to on surface continuity upper necessary required that for LESAL Such a large radius gives an insignificant droop of only 4Pof rotation (arc AW). This setting proved to be insufficient to relieve the LE suction pressures (reference Furthermore, AW [27]). large TE the arc camber settings associatedwith design the the aerofoil section and caused such main profile of projects outside difficulties that no solution was possible for this geometry. In order to achieve a reasonabledegree of droop, Point A was moved further forward in steps from 17% to 6% chord, as shown in Figure 2.4b (LESB2). Continuity is 15' LESBI, is A'. In to A through, comparison with say rotated maintained when is AW lies droop larger Although the degree arc possible. and of rotation greater is the there the of aerofoil a possibility of maintaining smooth original contours outside 2.5 for lower (LESB3) flexible Figure the and surfaces. and skins upper profile with 2.6 (LESB4) display two alternative solutions. The flexible upper surface skin for schemeLESB3 (Figure 2.5) is stretched between two solid LE pieces (forward and aft). It is similar in principle to a roller top desk. One end of the skin is fixed to the main wing body (at 6% chord) while the other end is pulled toward the front spar by a compressionspring. The aft LE device is curved during it drags that side such the the upper surface skin on camber upper variation on

24 -

to it self, which helps to control the continuity. With schemeLESB4 (Figure 2.6), the flexible upper surface skin is fixed to the nose piece at A. The skin sits on top of a support structure and extendsup to 17% chord. This support structure is part of the wing box section. A seriesof compressionsprings provide the necessaryload to hold the skin down, first on to the support structure and then on to the nose piece (during VC operation). The nose piece pulls the skin out while extending and therefore helps to maintain the continuity of curvature at A. The profile changes and the deployment of the LE device is by means of a track roller system. The under surface is kept continuous by a flexible plate which can be controlled with a link roller arrangement similar to the design presentedfor LESA2 (Figure 2.3b). 2.2.2 Trailing Edge (TE) Camber Variation Ideally the change in section profile aft of the rear spar should not causeseparationof 1241. drag to the - To overcome the profile airflow, which would otherwise give rise problem of separation, the radii of local curvature must be greater than half the 1211. A smooth profile is achieved by sliding the TE backwards and downwards, chord. which effectively extendsthe basic chord. To obtain favourable pressurecharacteristics behind the 50% chord position and to operate at high subsonic cruise speeds, the aft camber must be varied by keeping the curvature constant, continuous and matching at the junctions between the TE element and the main wing section. An illustration of the TE camber variation by'this method is given in Figure 2.7a for The requirement is to Section A (MAI) and in Figure 2.7b for Section B (MBI). A A' to rotation of and a negative rotation of A to A". positive achieve a maximum The local radius at A for both the sections is considered to be very large giving a deflection during TE the the the aerofoil chord of of element. This extension significant lift help the take towards off requirements. Negative camber, or chord meeting would reduction is desired for roll control and manoeuvreload control. The degreeof rotation is follows: for two the the and as extension reduction sections and

25 -

Geometric variation A-A' (Deg)

Section A 15.0 -5.0 6.3 16.4 77.08 (0.5, -0.7008)

Section B 10.0 -3.5 9.28 26.73 164.49 (0.5006, -1.57783)

AW ' (Deg) Chord reduction (% x/c) Chord extension (% x/c) adius (% x/c) Origin of Rotation

Comparison of the two VC geometries indicates that TESBI has a greater radius of local curvature than TESAL The former therefore experiencesmore extension for a smaller degree of rotation than the latter. This is due to the flatter nature of the upper surface on Section B. The first scheme that was devised for the aft camber variation explores the design of the wind tunnel model used in reference [24]. The system is depicted in Figure 2.8a (TESA2) for Section A. The TE element comprisesof a solid rear section which slides backward on a ridged body on a rail let in-to the fixed wing structure. The radius of arc A-B keeps Point A continuously attached to the ridged body during the deflection of the TE device. The transitional motion detachesthe TE element from the underside at large camber settings. In order to keep the lower surface continuous, a hinged (closing) plate is introduced. The rotation with a single plate is limited to only 10*. Rotation of up to 15" requires an additional plate which can slide backwards with the TE element. This feature is illustrated in Figure 2.8b, which shows a photograph of a demonstration A. Section built around model Figure 2.8c (TESB2) features this schemefor Section B. The TE sliding element and the under surface plates are seen to have very little stiffness. Furthermore the little A (attachment Point TE the suggests at very contact element region of sharpness for be This to therefore appears unsuitable aerofoil sections which are scheme area). relatively flat on the upper surface.

Investigationsto eliminate the possibility of using extendingplates and to seek a be could applicablegenerallyto any aerofoil sectionled to a simple which solution by designed Lunn[251, by applyingthe thepossible who estimated weight savings scheme VC systemto a transportaircraft wing. LunnW1 that would vary suggested a scheme by in reference TE [24]. Illustration of this scheme the camber the methoddeveloped

26 -

is given in Figure 2.9. A shroud on the upper surface keeps the continuity between a conventional flap and the main wing box. This shroud is assumedto be designedsuch that it exerts a constant downward pressureon the TE flap.

Examinationof the conceptsuggests from both the that it is highly unsatisfactory to structuraland the aerodynamic pointsof view. The flexible shroudsIdnis assumed be restrained only at the rear sparposition. Apart from which thereare no physicalor mechanical restraintsto hold its shape or control the flexibility during VC operations. The latter is only dependent on the characteristics of the skin material. Such an arrangement cannotbe practical, since the long unsupported skin panelswill simply loading. warp and lift due to aerodynamic
An initial modification to this idea resulted in the scheme shown in Figure 2.10a (rESA3). The upper surface skin is held in a track through a roller system at one end while the other end is clamped at the wing rear spar: the track being part of the TE device. Figure 2.10b showsa photograph of a model made to demonstratethe system. It is obvious that the stiffness of the flexible upper surface plate would not be sufficient for it to hold shapewhen subjectedto aerodynamicpressureloads. A way around this problem is to support the length of the plate through a series of rollers holding it continuously in a track. Figures 2.1 la and 2.1 lb show the essentialfeaturesof the idea for aerofoil Section B (TESB3). The schemecomprises of the following elements: 1) a solid TE piece, 2) a flexible upper surface, 3) a hinged and spring loaded lower flap, 4) an extending track 5) a support track 6) a set of rolling elementsfor the conforming of the upper surface, and 7) a conforming track. Curvature to the TE flap is provided by attaching it to a curved extending track which is in inside The keeping track these tracks of similar profile. shape support of a slides deployment A-B. between Sliding the the two tracks is possible the arc of profile with by placing rollers or low friction sliding material between them. Continuity between the TE element and the wing structure is maintained by a flexible skin on the upper hinged lower flap the a and panel on surface. surface The flexible upper skin is clamped at the rear spar position and sits in a conforming track through a set of rolling pins. The conforming track is part of the TE device and the extending track, and therefore matches the upper surface of the un-deflected TE device from Point C to the TE tip and curves from Point C forward to match the shape

27 -

of the extending track. The upper surface thus slides within this conforming track during the transition of the TE device. On the lower surface a hinged plate is provided which is spring loaded so that it automatically deflects to follow the movementof the TE device. It can be seenin both the schemeTESA3 and TESB3 that the under side is reduced along the chord of the TE device (Cm in Figure 2.11a). The under side of the TE device is so shapedsuch that the transition from one camber setting to the next is smooth on the lower surface of the aerofoil. With this geometry the lower surfaceremains continuously attachedto the TE device. Table 2.1 contains the coordinates of the reduced TE device of Section B. Computational investigations[M showed no aerodynamic effects due the slight Idnk appearing at the hinge point of the lower surface of TESB3 (Figure 2.11a). 2.3 VARIABLE CAMBER WITH HIGH LIFT DEVICES Reference [24] and [271 suggestthat the high lift requirement necessaryfor low speed approach and landing conditions for a transport aircraft can not be achieved with full VC settings. Maximum VC for aerofoil Section A and Section B gives maximum 2-D CL in the range of 1.6 to 1.8. C,,. for transport aircraft is generally in the range of 2.5 to 3.0. To ensure that such high lift demandsare satisfied, it is necessaryto add high lift devices to aerofoil as part of the VC control system. Unfortunately in both reference[24] and [27] the investigationswere limited to VC only device high lift the type the to necessary and size of with no aerodynamic suggestionas for low speed conditions. For sake of completenessit was decided to look at some described devices VC incorporating the of such with geometries geometries methodsof above. The intention was to investigate only the possibilities without carrying out a detailed design study. Thus high lift deviceswere simply positioned inside the schemed TE No LE the cambering elements. attempt was made to and of profiles aerodynamically optimise the proposed geometries. 2.3.1 Leading Edge High Lift Devices

for providing extra A conventional to the VC device is suggested slat as an extension LEAS2. The original LE noseis dividedin to two sections, lift for scheme a slat body body in 2.12 (LE device), Figure (LESA4). The variation in LE aft as shown and a by is device in LE it the the track roller system possible actuating sliding and camber described. is The independently it slat travels on a separate actuated and previously which is of the same tracking system profile as the VC track. On full VC settingthe LE devicecomesto a stop. Thusfurther actuationsimply detaches the LE devicefrom

28 -

the slat which starts performing as a high lift device. The size of the LE nosepiece for schemes LESB3 and LESB4 eliminated the possibility of including an extra high lift device. Thus the maximum CL is limited to what is achieved with full VC leading edge settings.

2.3.2 Trailing EdgeHigh Lift Devices


With schemeTESA2 it is possible to install an auxiliary flap of approximately 10% chord, as depicted in Figure 2.8a. Flap operation would be on full VC setting with a separatedrive system for which a screw jack or a linear actuator could be used. The actuation systemtogether with the tracking systemfor the flap can be carried within the TE device. With scheme TESA3, an auxiliary flap or a hinged (drop) flap of up to 30% chord could be installed to satisfy the high lift requirement. Figure 2.13 illustrates a photograph of a model madeto demonstratethe former feature with a 10 % chord flap. The operation of the flap would be on full VC setting. The system can be carried within the VC aerofoil between the upper and lower surface skins aft of the rear spar. 2.4 DISCUSSIONS AND DESIGN EVALUATION The selection of any of the combination of schemesdependson whether the:1) aerodynamic requirements are satisfied and 2) the design is structurally, mechanically and practically feasible. A preliminary assessment and an evaluation was therefore necessaryin order to select the best possible solution. 2.4.1 General Mechanical and Practical Design Considerations

In an attemptto judge the practicalityof the designs an initial consideration was given to the following guide-lines: 1) Safetyand structuralintegrity, . The basic philosophy governing the design of the VC system was to develop and structuralcomponents with adequate safetymargins. mechanisms Since the systemwill be operatingcontinuouslythroughoutthe entire flight of the load involve the environment will manyload factorssuchas flight manoeuvring aircraft, loads,atmospheric loads,high andlow gustloads,takeoff andlandingloads,repeated conditions,etc. The movingcomponents temperature will be susceptible to wear and

29 -

tear, and structural components Le skins, will be susceptible to environmental degradation, Le humidity/temperaturevariation, contamination. The likelihood of parts jamming and binding will be considerablehigh.

2) Mechanicalreliability, hadto be mechanically The proposed system reliablewithoutpartsfailure. Knowledge is necessary in order to quantifyandmakecomparison of reliability in termsof analysis of different designs. The systemswould have to have developmenttests for a considerable period beforethe initial analysiscan be confirmed. However, a certain design. is degreeof confidence be if the could gained conventionality retainedwithin
3) Reduced complexity and weight, Mechanical reliability could be guaranteed or improved if only few componentsare used to make up the system. Traditional flap/slat designshave shown that in order to reduce the design complexities aerodynamic sacrifices must be made. If however, the design becomes The then the very complex. use are satisfied aerodynamic constraints is link (MAW)1121 Wing Adaptive VC Mission complex the a example of a good of on be designed that could maintained. characteristics so aerodynamic arrangement Complex structural componentsand mechanicalsystemsinvariably mean extra weight. Reducing the number of moving components,would effectively keep the weight down. 4) Maintainability and inspection T11isis an important aspect from the overall structural design point of view of the aircraft. The design philosophy of all modem aircraft cover the aspectof maintenance and inspection. It is necessaryto design a system whereby the componentsare easily in failure. to case of and/or modify check accessed 5) Fuel Storage and Spar Position The bulk of the fuel on transport aircraft is stored within the wing structural box. It is therefore crucial to design a systemthat will minimise the invasion of the fuel space and reduce fuel capacity owing to the size of system components, such as actuators, links and tracks.

The relative position of the front and rear sparsis governedby fuel and torsional Observations front transport that the aircraft suggest of and rear spar criteria. stiffness 65% 20% at approximately and positioned chord respectively. These are usually fuel box. Preliminary stiffness the sufficient within storage wing provide positions box that the suggest structural width with these spar settings is also calculations adequate.

30 -

2.4.2 Advantagesand Disadvantages of the ProposedSchemes

In view of the aerodynamic requirements and the general practical considerations outlinedabove, the relative meritsand the probabledisadvantages of all the schemes are discussed. 2.4.2.1 Leadingedgedesignschemes
Initial observationsof the three schemes presentedin Section 2.2.1 (above) suggestthat LESA2 (Figure 2.3b) is by far the best way of changing the LE camber. However, this idea can only be used on fairly well camberedaerofoil sections (Section A) and not on flatter aerofoils such as Section B. Unless the deployment programme for the latter type of aerofoils shifts away from giving a constant upper surface curvature, which

unsatisfactory. would obviouslybe aerodynamically


Owing to the large deploymentradius for Section B, the designsof both LESB3 (Figure 2.5) and LESB4 (Figure 2.6) require a flexible skin for the upper surface. Closer observations of the two ideas suggestthat the former schemeis not satisfactory since the skin can only be supportedat the two ends. When subjectedto pressureloading the skin will be susceptibleto warping. The track length required for all three schemeshas to be partially positioned inside the wing box. Thus, the front spar web will have to be cut locally to accommodatethis intrusion into the fuel space. The positive aspectsof LESA2 are that it has a solid LE body and support structure. There is a possibility of including a high lift device with a positive drive mechanism. These features can not be implemented on either the LESB3 or the LESB4. The problem with LESA2 ariseswhen trying to blend the under surface between the LE is from 2.3c is body. Figure It that there the apparent slight mismatch main wing and deployment (15'). For C the wind tunnel model" simple curved maximum on at point plates were placed to close the gap occuring between the LE nose piece and the main is do it Furthermore, its box. In to this. to reality not possible owing physical wing device LE the (Figure 2.3b) the the the upper near region of surface of step aft size, hold during high difficult loads. be Scheme LESB4 to pressure suffers from a will disadvantage. Steps basic created near the aft region of the flexible upper similar front disruption the to the airflow. spar near position will and cause surface

31 -

Accepting all the problems associatedwith the three schemesit was concluded that VC by rotating the LE to increasethe chord is not a feasible proposition. In view of this drooped derive the LE to geometry which simply an alternative made an attempt was without increasing the basic chord. VC by drooping the LE is not a new concept. In Chapter One several designs are presented which achieved camber variation without any chordal extension. Investigations with regards to deployment by this method,were made on Section B. From the two available aerofoils it seemedappropriate to use this section since it was designedwith very little initial camber and had a flatter upper surface than Section A. The LE therefore required a greater degree of droop to meet the aerodynamic needs, thus presenting a greater design challenge. The deployment geometry was determined by a trial and error basis using a Computer Aided Design (CAD) system. Figure 2.14a (LESB5) shows the geometric details of the LE in its un-deflected and deflected position. The nose is fixed between 4% chord (Point A) on the upper side and 6% chord (Point B) on the lower side. The length between A and 17% chord (Point D) on the upper surface and between B and 12% is be flexible. lower to Q (Point the assumed surface on chord The method used to droop the LE geometry is described as follows: The region betweenA and D is isolated and subdivided into 15 points. Starting at point I (on the upper side) as the pivot, all the points greater than point 1 (2-15), and the I 2 (as 1.5*. Moving through to point an angle about of point rotated nose piece are the pivot) the procedure is repeatedie, all the points greater than point 2 and the nose 1.5* 2. After for through the the rest of the about repeating procedure rotated piece are is joined in by final Resulting of each point the position a cubic a spline. points, 4.5% (A') is from 17% A' Where (D). to to the and subsequently nose smooth curve deflected position of A. Point B become B' as the nose and the upper surface are deflected. Point C is fixed without any rotation.

Detailed designinvestigations with this arrangement were not madebut preliminary that the upper side of the aerofoil (forward of 17% Spar investigationssuggested down bend its length. be The to simply made without changing can under position) but down in length, thus the as well will experience a push reduction must surface (slipjoints) to compensate for that. As shown designmustincorporate sliding members features in Figures2.14a and 2.14b, the essential of this scheme are likely to be:1) a flexible uppersurface,from point A to D, 2) rigid nosepiecefrom A to B, 3) a flexible lower surfacebetween points B and C,

32 -

4) a solid lower surface body between D and forward spar E, 5) a system of three to four linkages to control the conformation of the upper surface (not shown), 6) a deployment track for the nose piece (not shown), and 7) a lower surface support track

The flexible uppersurfacewould be attached at point A to the nosepieceand at D to the wing structuralbox (nearthe forward sparposition). The link systemshouldhold during the actuationof the the uppersurfaceskin andconformit to the requiredshape be LE linear deployment The through the nose piece can made or a rotary of a nose. hinge (power type). actuator
Figure 2.14b (LESB6) shows the lower flexible surface being held by a series of rolling is fixed LE Any in to the the track end and nose at end. one other on a elements lower backwards LE therefore the the would surface slide skin of rearward movement towards the rear spar. A Krueger flap is suggestedfor high lift purpose. Detailed designing of the mechanism has not been carried out, but the operation and the control would be through links and in One. Figure 1.2 Chapter Flap to the drive shown one of similar system rotary from be VC its be deflection is likely to only separate operation and will operation full VC setting. on possible This scheme does not suffer from the disadvantagesrelated to the other three LE following It discussed the also realises advantages: above. schemes 1) It has a generousdroop to suite the TE camber, 2) It gives a roof top pressure distributionr2n, 3) There is no aerodynamic interference, 4) It is easy to incorporate a high lift device with'the VC system, 5) All moving parts can be confined within the LE (forward of front spar), but this will design detail work, and require 6) The system can be applicable to any aerofoil section.

The main drawback of this designis that it is likely to havetoo manymovingpartsand to the thereforeits reliability could be questionable.Thereis also a question of access be inspection Therefore be to not appears easy. and which maintenance will system, difficult. This problemis sharedby the designs of the other threeLE schemes.

33 -

2.4.2.2 Trailing edge design schemes From an aerodynamic point of view both scheme TESA2 (Figure 2.8) and TESB3 r24]rm. (Figure 2.11) satisfy the deployment constraints placed on the aerofoil sections Closer inspection of the two ideas suggestsTESB3 is decisively better than TESA2. The latter suffers from a forward facing step and it also has a double Idnk on the lower flow (sliding will probably cause plates), which separationparticularly at high surface speedconditions. On a real wing the exposure of the tracking system to the airflow in scheme TESA2 fairings be increase large that the required cover will which will undoubtedly means hand drag. Scheme TESB3 the on other gives a much smootherprofile without overall any breakup of surface continuity, except for the presenceof a slight kink on the lower is be (hinged to not considered which plate) very significant. The tracking surface is is design body for the the therefore there this all within main of aerofoil no system is fairings. This for an obviouse advantagefor keeping the drag down. cover reason From structural point of view the positive features of schemeTESA2 are:1) The TE system componentsare all aft of the rear spar therefore the centre section remains intact. 2) It has a ridged support structure which can be used for fuel storage, 3) It has a positive motion, 4) It has a conventional tracldng system, 5) An auxiliary flap can be installed to meet the high lift and roll control requirements, and 6) The system can easily be inspectedand maintained. The practical disadvantagesof this scheme is that it can only be used on aerofoil initial degree high Even of camber. a with such aerofoils, sliding plates sectionswith have to be used on the under side to give the required deflections. These plates must be controlled and supported. As well as the aforementionedaerodynamic advantages,TESB3 realises the following benefits: practical 1) The system has no links and very few moving parts, 2) Both positive and negative deflections are possible to give the required profile changes, 3) Inspection and maintenanceare not envisagedto be a problem, 4) It can be applied to any aerofoil section, and 5) The TE device can be installed with a high lift device that has up to 30 % local flap

34 -

chord. The disadvantagesof this design are:1) Wear between rolling elements and the tracking system, interchangeability and if from the environment could problems protected and sealed properly not contamination jamming and of the rolling pins, leading to binding and eventual cause clogging wrinkling of the upper surface skin, 2) Tracks have to be attachedto the wing side ribs, thus reducing the fuel volume, and 3) Interruption of the wing rear spar web will reduce the structural efficiency. It is apparent from the advantages and disadvantages of the designsdiscussedabove that TESB3 is more attractive than TESA2 and is therefore consideredto be a better solution to provide aft camber variation on a supercritical aerofoil section.

35

Table 2.1: Lower surface coordinates of the TE device of Section B

Coordinates along x-axis (x/c) 0.645142 0.645142 0.668445 0.691342 0.713778 0.735698 0.757051 0.777785 0.797850 0.817197 0.835779 0.853553 0.870476 0.886505 0.901604 0.915735 0.928864 0.940961 0.951992 0.961940 0.970772 0.978470 0.985061 0.990393 0.994588 0.997592 0.999398 1.000000

Coordinates along y-axis (y/c) 0.061130 -0.015494 -0.014815 -0.014598 -0.014231 -0.013723 -0.013090 -0.012353 -0.011538 -0.010674 -0.009792 -0.008924 -0.008099 -0.007342 -0.006673 -0.006101 -0.005634 -0.005269 -0.004999 -0.004812 -0.004702 -0.004661 -0.004668 -0.004704 -0.004757 -0.004825 -0.004906 -0.004999

36

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43

Figure 2.6:

Variable camber design scheme two for LESB2 LESB4 -

Po i nt-

Pixed Flexible skin to the piece nose A Point at

'-Set C: Z, of' springs compression

LE

nose

body Finite steps A

r-- Po i nt

Flexible surPace

under plate

44

(a) Section A- TESA I


--Smooth curvature ______,
A Po i nt -Poin

continuous

Point

A"

r PPoDii StA
I Point n

A'

z ------------- L ------------5. ---- ---------- - 5.0


-\------

De g
0.0 Deg

------------------

10.0

Deg

Rear spar position


Origin (0.500, -0.7000) of' rotation

(b) Section B- TESBI


I Point, /I Point :35DI 3.5 -: A eg / nnf -0.0 Deg Po i nt A'

------Wing box centre

----------1) 10.0 q (--,


\-Hinged lower 41 surf'ace -1.57783)

-f

(0-506,

Figure 2.7:

Trailing edge variable camber geometries

45 -

Figure 2.8a: Variable camber trailing edge design scheme one for TESAI

TESA2 -

Forward step

Pac

i nq

Point

A Point B

10 :/ f, I ap

chord

.............. Extending sliding) surrace Under hinge body (doub under plate

Rigid

surPa point I/ So Iid rear sect i on

Wing centre section V-Flap

carriages

Cam track attached to the rear spar


origin or; rototion Pairinq; Large cover tracks ror the

46 -

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56

Figure 2.14b: Variable camber scheme LF-SB5 installed with a Kruger flap LESB6 -

Flexible upper fsurface plate


Rigid nose / ---- -- trger .., flap ed

I/I

Under surfac( plate (flexible and sliding) Flexible skin

Guide

lZolling rail

pills

Kruger flap deployed

57 -

CHAPTER THREE THREE DIMENSIONAL (3-D) VARIABLE CAMBER WING

(VCW)
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The desire to change the profile of a wing across its span necessitateddividing the ideal into For devices segments. an several aerodynamic solution camber controlling thesedevices must be deflected in-line of flight with splitter plates placed betweenthem for controlling the vortex dragr"I. This chapter discusses the geometric implications of such an arrangement on a typical transport aircraft wing. 3.2 GEOMETRIC AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Figure 3.1a shows a wing planform with a TE variable camber, (VC) system. The ' in-to devices high to the several spanwise are split segments similar camber-controlling lift devices on a conventional transport aircraft wing of high aspectratio and high taper. The spanwiselift distribution may be controlled and altered by independentdeployment is be This feature to for considered a very useful these segments. reducing the of due initiated bending to pilot moments manoeuvre and atmospheric overall wing root be loading by the The capable of reducing loads. should peak system experienced gust loads is the It the due these reducing weight to so of structure. also thought the wing distribution camber by across the two wings, roll control that choosing an asymmetric dedicated devices thus be roll control eliminating such as ailerons and achieved can benefits in the Further achieving spanwise of variation camber are realised spoilers. [24] [28]. in and fully references outlined and 3.2.1 Sweep and Tapering Effects

3.2.1.1 In-line of flight motion Independentdeploymentof the segmentswould cause a mismatch between two if different VC these feature This were positioned at segments settings. neighbouring importantaerodynamic following two the considerations: necessitated 1) The spanwise split between the segmentswould cause excess drag due to induced introduced To be these between prevent or vortices, reduce a plate must vortices[241. in These 'splitter' the likely be retain airflow. to order twice plate are each segment

58 -

the depth of the aerofoil in order to cover the full VC deflection range. 2) All the segmentsmust ideally be deployed in-line of flight. Deployment on any increase drag from this obviously would profile of the splitter platesand therefore angle reduce the overall efficiency of the VC system.

The requiredplanform geometryis similar to the layoutof Figure 3.2, which satisfies the requirementsfor spanwisevariation in camber with the chordwise VC from TE In the translational motion of elements. reality sucha geometryis and rotational impossibleto achieveon a sweptand taperedwing, for the following reasons: Consider the 2-D geometry of the TE shown in Figure 2.7b of Chapter Two (subis (0.506, local 2.2) the the of rotation origin where of chord. If section -1.57783)x/c joined (origins) these were along the span of the wing for each real points several of hinge-line imaginary (H/L) be the will swept and tapered, as shown constructed chord, in Figure 3.3a. The local radius of curvature therefore varies along the span, decreasingfrom root to tip. The deploying point A (Figure 2.7b) thus lies on a frustum is imaginary hinge-line line the (H/L). Figure 3.3b the which of centre of a cone, TE Figure 3.1 the being deployed strearnwise the of segments plan of wing shows Quite H/L. is this this to clearly geometry unsatisfactory in both perpendicular spanwise and chordwise planes, since all the segmentsshift laterally across the span from the inboard (I/B) to the outboard (0/13). If the segmentsare to move backwards in a strearnwise direction with their edges streamwise, and at the same time rotate to be deflection, the axes of rotation must unswept. Figure 3.4a shows angular give an fixed H/L, that the radius of curvature (R) matchesat such and unswept an untapered local Thus, the curvature only matchesat one point along segment. the centre of each 2-D deployed The the profile shown in Figure 3.4b, of the centre, segment. the spanof inboard and outboard part of a segmentindicatesthat there is a miss-matchin curvature Aerodynamically the this will give undesirable flow segment. the of span along I/B the due the certainty of separation near to sharp changes with end characteristics, in TE curvature. To avoid this problem and retain the in-line of flight motion, the forward and aft ends of the TE device must be unswept. Figure 3.5 illustrate how this the the 3.1. Figure the R of wing of same planform aspect ratio as effect would With O/B the this segments. the TE the of ends arrangement the chord of matches device (CTE)decreasesrapidly as the span of the segmentincreases,thus reducing the by VC the degree system practically the of restricting of deflection, effectiveness IB To the the this, end of segment. the size of the segments at overcome particularly therefore the be be the and of number segments across reduced span must must increased. That would introduce undesirable complexities and increase the overall details (further in Chapter Four). the system are covered of weight

59 3.2.2.2 Conical deployment From the above arguments it can be assumedthat it is unlikely, if not impossible to keep the profile smooth along the chord and at the same time retain the streamwise translation of the segments. It would appear that a VC profile can only be maintained if the moving elements were kept perpendicular to the conical H/L. The rota"tionof in 3.6. Figure frustum A 'true' be as shown a cone, of a on these elements would If be the to the span. splitter across plates were segments used shifts conical motion flight line be to the and therefore will require substantialcover of skewed they would fairings which undoubtedlywill increasethe profile drag of the wing. From a structural be design considerableand structural efficiency would the complexities point of view have in 'true' to highly a solution be practical with conical motion. order reduced will For example, to achieve this motion with the proposed TE design, the support tracks to the the'axis sweep be angle of equivalent of rotation, angle an at mounted must improve 3.7. To in Figure lines the these tracks dotted efficiency, must shown as depicted in by full lines Figure directly the to the be side wing ribs, mounted obviously 3.7. Such an arrangementimplies that the motion no longer remains 'truly' conical but be 'near' therefore A to diverges. must made conical obtain a compromise slightly parallel to the main wing box and deployment. This is possibleby placing the segments deploying them perpendicular to the conical H/L. Simplistic illustration of this method is given in Figure 3-8. Structural constraints must be applied to keep the segments For box during box TE translational the motion. example structural the wing parallel to be it to flex the through twist tracks attached must or extending be to and made must in Six Chapter Four, Details these possibilities are of covered jointed arrangement. pin in Figure 3.8, it is still disadvantageous to With the shown Seven. arrangement and include splitter plates, since the segmentsare skewed with respect to the line of flight. have theseplates. to not is it therefore recommended it be 3.8 Figure is better that discussions assumed can a representation From the above 3.2 (the Figure than required planform). geometry spanwise a of

3.2.2 NegativeDeployment
is it for 2.11 (from Figure design the aft camber variation, apparent With the proposed in deployment have be to the Two) that order a negative rear spar must Chapter of for if Section B. Therefore % 54 the to some chord of segments were at positioned deployment deployment the the both positive while rest only, and positive have negative drawback is be This the obvious staggered. an since structural must spar the rear be lower than the the much say will continuous spar arrangement. system of efficiency

60 -

43 C c a)
% %

0 4-) E

a)--

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61

LI NL

OF

FL I Gl IF

III -) Tra iIi ng edoo, deplollod -'eqmont-f-' i i) Ii r)4 ()f' VI i 1)) it,

t I(

f, Ii

ql it

i so (: imw )tr-(! )I (It, Ol ;

it, LOF

Figure 3.2:

Ideal in-line of flight deployment of tile trailing edge segments

62

Deploying line lies on a Prustum oP a cone


'\ '

\I\ I
I

'

\ \

Varying radius of' curvature


-

//x'

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V L
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(b

L-he TE devices to dep I oyment H/Lconical

duoon o

Figure 3.3a&b: Deployment of the streamwise segments on a conical hinge-line

63

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66 -

------

True conical deployment

I dea I f' I ight f,

in -Ii ne of' deployment

Initt'.

al

position i t; I pos Fi no 31 position

I of

Conical

hinge-line

17
Line of' f'light T Maximum line rrustum curvature on rotation or a cone

Segments and placed to deployed normal I ine hinge the conical

Large rairing cover lateral ror movement the segments or

-igure 3.6:

Trailing edge segments skewed to the line of flight and deployed on a conical hinge-line

66 -

True conical deployment

\;
Ideal Night in-line of' deployment

Init'.

al

position position

--Final

Conical

hinge-line

Line

of'

PI ight

Maximum curvature line on - rotation rrustum or a cone

Segments placed and to deployed normal hinge line the conical

Large fairing cover lateral ror movement segments or the

Figure 3.6.

Trailing edge segments skewed to the line of flight and deployed on a conical hinge-line

67

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68 -

Near conical lateral without

deployment movement Points or rotation Por W-ie i nboard and ends or outboard three segment

Conical

hinge-line

Figure 3.8.-

Skewed trailing edge segments deployed on a conical hinge-line without lateral movement

69 -

CHAITER

FOUR

THE APPLICATION AND SOME DETAIL DESIGN ASPECTS OF THE VARIABLE CAMBER WING (VCW)
4.1 INTRODUCTION Confidencein applyingthe proposed variablecamber(VC) conceptto a real aircraft by design investigation, be comprehensive out a carrying gained only and can wing has design that to the similar wing conventional a control devices. It was comparing detailed in order to justify whether however to number a of examine aspects necessary the systemis practically feasible,but a comprehensive comparison was beyondthe Therefore this asa preliminarystudya particularaircraft application research. of scope for investigation. was selected
The concept for forward camber variation, the leading edge (LE) nose scheme disclosed in literature the the concept previous of search. These resembles some include the 'Royal Aircraft EstablishmentVariable Aerofbil Mechanism' or RAEVAM11) 1121. Wing (MAW) Adaptive II Detailed design Mission F-1 the of the proposed and be idea to therefore the considered essential, not since such as the MAW was scheme have proved to be applicable to a real aircraft. The novelty of the proposed VC system is the manner in which the aerofoil profile towards the rear is changed (the trailing edge, TE scheme). It was therefore decided to concentrateon the details near the aft region of the wing, Before attempting to study thesedetails, knowledge of the relevant loading conditions, operating load environment, design cases, critical design loads, distributions of these loads, and hinge (track) In loading loads to the design order assess the required. was and aspects, a reactions decision had to be made as to what aircraft to select for the application of the VC details the the This briefly of chosen gives aircraft the chapter and outlines system. it. The description for design chapter concludes the with a selecting of of one reasons TE segment. Calculations involved in the analysis are included in Appendix A, B and C. 4.2 APPLICATION OF THE VARIABLE CAMBER WING (VCW) SYSTEM

lendsitself to both civil passenger jets The VCW concept aircraft from smallexecutive aircraft suchas the 400 seat747-400,and military aircraft usedfor to large commercial drops, transportation The both troops of and aerial cargo. success of categories airlifts,

70 -

of aircraft dependson a wide and varied range of flight operations. For instance, the varying mission requirements for military airlifters call for the aircraft to have long range strategic and short range tactical airlift capabilities. In the case of passenger in the continuous change market requirements with respect to payload, and aircraft, range, suggeststhat it is necessaryto look for technologiesthat provide commonality in wing design. This should therefore reduce the developmentof an increasednumber be hence design The to an economical solution. and prove of a common of variants, A330/340 is Airbus Industries the a classic example of two aircraft with wing on differing range requirements. One is a twin engine aircraft while the other has four engines. 4.2.1 Design Philosophies The design of aircraft in both the civil and military transport category is based on an initial set of requirements which form a guide-line for a preliminary design work. As 'specific' these requirements are established in order to meet a of a set well as particular need. 4.2.1.1 General requirement For civil passenger aircraft, current trends and key features for the overall wing design are to: direct (DOC), fuel cost operating and reduce save design through structurally optimising the wing, Le weight minimum achieve by reducing wing root bending moment (WRBM) through gust load alleviation (GLA) and manoeuvreload control (MLC), development initial and eventual maintenancecosts by designing reduce long the term market requirements (reference [23]), to satisfy common wings Design safe and reliable systemsthat meet the airworthiness requirements, reduce sensitivity of aircraft to atmosphericturbulence for improved passenger comfort for fuel the volume within sufficient wing provide storage, and have provision for control devices to meet the roll and high lift requirements. Simplicity in the design of the military aircraft wing is of prime importance to meet the Favourable targets. designs with regards to and maintainability reliability stringent incorporate fewer therefore usually systems componentswhich may be easily control low Wing for these aircraft are generally modified at and cost. aerofoils replaceable designed with deeper sections to meet the aerodynamic needsand fuel requirements,

71 -

thus further reducing the design complexities. Other featureswhich govern the overall design of the military aircraft are:-

in hostile Survivability battle damage, the to a environment and ability sustain in 'bulking-out' due Alleviating (cofg) to problem shift centre of gravity position, in demands fuel in during Reduce the tactical stocks operations wartime and in peacetime, economy operating give Low and operatingcosts. productionprocurement 4.2.1.2 Specific requirements To realise the full potential of the VCW system, the chosenaircraft must be designed to meet the following set of specific requirements: flight Varying operations of and mission requirement, range for short and long range operation, designed Aircraft CL (good field operation through varying range of optimum and cruise -

performance), in the cofg Longitudinalstability control to trim the aircraft due to changes position. Passenger turbulence. comfort by reducingsensitivityto atmospheric
4.2.2 Aircraft Selection it was recognised that the VC system could be applied to a very large number of decided in It in fully justify that to was operation. order the concept, current aircraft the ideal candidate must be of current interest for near-term development. The ideal be designed. be two that One installed with a alternative wings could process would installed the arrangement while system other control with the new VC conventional for This allow eventually would a comprehensiveperformance analysis control system. between two the options. comparison a and One such aircraft was the FLA (Future Large Aircraft) which is still -at its preliminary design stage. The FLA is an airlifter design involving several European aircraft is It to replace current versions of the Hercules C-130. manufacturing organisations. A brief history and the details of the aircraft are given in Appendix A. It was decided for further investigations FLA the of the VC concept for the following to select

reasons: -

72 -

(1) Considerable fuel savings'were envisagedby operating the aircraft at the optimum cruise conditions. (2) Being a medium to large transport airlifter, it was thought the aircraft is likely to have sufficient wing depth to allow for the instalment of VC mechanismsand system, fairings large to the and shroudsand therefore-adding external thus avoiding need use to the overall aerodynamic efficiency. (3) As shown in Figure 4.1, Common to this type of aircraft is a wide variation in CL include different design take-off, ie, climb, airdrops at conditions critical range, landing, loading, It gust etc. was thought that conditions, cruise altitudes, various best be by by CL these conditions could achieved at varying the operating Optimum wing camber. 4.2.3 Conceptual Design Study and the Base Line Wing Configuration Being a new and a joint pursuit, the specification of the FLA and details with regards be information layout Limited its could not obtained. was and to configuration but journals this to in was not adequate and publications, give a clear several available its intended In identify details, to the order role. the and required aircraft picture of Le wing planform arrangement, weights and loading, design conditions (to establish a to carry out conceptualand preliminary design baseline configuration), it was necessary investigations. Prior to that a parametric study was carried out to collect data on in Appendix details A. Full these studies are given of relevant aircraft. Much emphasiswas placed upon the geometric details and layout of the wing, because The layout based the the overall research. of thrust current aircraft on was the of of in (details layout the the category same aircraft of current are given with comparison in Figure A. 3 of Appendix A). for derived drawing FLA is shown in Figure the the wing of A general arrangement 4.2. It has a moderate sweep back combined with thick and relatively low cambered is in Chapter 2) (description Mach to of which given enable a cruise aerofoil section features 0.75. The the to principle geometric of wing are; up of number 193.73 m2 Gross area, S= Aspect Ratio, A=9.5 42.9 m Span, b= sweep of 0.25c line = 22.51 Leading edge sweep = 25.22" Taper Ratio 0.3 =

73 -

Wing mean aerodynamic chord (M AQ=4.952 m0 Wing geometric mean chord (G M C) = 4.5158 m Root Chord = 6.947 m Tip Chord = 2.084 m

41 % semi-span

4.3 THE FLA WING INSTALLED WITH THE PROPOSED VC CONCEPT The concept of varying the wing profile changes the whole philosophy behind the improvements In in transport aircraft. principal, of a requirements operational in in increase and range, reduction payload overall drag by maintaining performance, load lift and and stability control are the major goals of the proposed coefficient, cruise in Implementation of such a system concept. order to achieve these camber variable benefits could alter the overall configuration of the aircraft "']. For example, wing span its increased be position arranged to reduce the vortex drag. The systemcan and could handling'4alities. the and characteristics control also enhance Unfortunately it was beyond the boundaries of this researchto consider major changes for For it FLA the an solution. optimum necessary modifications was therefore and considered acceptableto retain the external geometry of the wing, and simply replace the conventional control devices with the suitable VC design schemesdescribed in Chapter Two. 4.3.1 Segment Sizes and Track Positions To control the load distribution across the span of the wing, the VC control surfaces The in to be segments. size of these segmentsdependson a number several split must include: of criteria which 1) optimum load distribution characteristics with minimum structural and mechanical component weight. 2) Loss of lift and therefore increasedrolling moment due to loss of a segment. 3) Flap bending moment and track positions (or hinge reaction points). 4) Practical restrictions, ie fuel space,engine positions, main wing pick up rib position, Small segmentsof equal span are ideal for controlling the load distribution across the is Such to from give arrangement an a continuous variation root to tip in order wing. during high 'g' the manoeuvresand gusty conditions. The the wing of shape to alter be the the to cover the flap span. This is an the greater number will size smaller in damage in loss that case of or of a segment, a major catastrophe is advantage due loss Rolling too to the moments are not adverse of a segment. Loss of avoided.

74 -

by up deflection of the lift due to reduced flap area on one wing can be compensated tip region on the other wing. The weight of the segment is in proportion to its spanwise size. Therefore small in becomes bending less lighter. Stiffness invariably critical as the are segments is hinges between relatively small. span unsupported With small size and large number of segmentshowever the multiplicity of the parts (tracks, side support ribs, etc) means higher manufacturing and maintenancecosts, heavier in fuel and a over all wing structure. possibly volume, substantial reduction The design of large segmentsrequires a considerabledegree of system redundancyin increases failure. Additional the redundancy undoubtedly to catastrophic avoid order loss In large case of a of segment, rolling momentswill the structure. overall weight of develop due to substantiallossesin lift. depends flap TE tracks the the the on aeroelasticity of The numbers and positions of (deflection the box the across segment span), and side support ribs and of structural inadequate box. An lead in tracks to the number of support may wing their position flutter and excessvibration resulting in loss of the whole flap. If the number of support be just high, is then side ribs will neededwhich will obviously reduce as many tracks the fuel storage space. For a practical system (taldng account of the above considerations) the FLA wing was Three into relatively small outboard segmentsof approximately segments. six split inboard inboard larger the The the three on section. segments size of equal span and by for the the engines on the governed position chosen primarily three segmentswas be It A). that the three Appendix (see envisaged was outboard will segments wing distributing load. 4.3a Figure the towards spanwise adequately to assist required the the type of wing showing the geometry of arrangement planform exhibits implemented.

initial calculationswere made using the methodgiven in For high lift requirements CL 1.875 full These that the take [29]. suggested Off Of possible was with a reference to include of 2.5, it was necessary VC setting. To meetthe landing CL requirement flaps (Figure4.3b) on the inboardpart (alongwith full VC setting)30 % chord nested inboard TE (three segments). of the wing

75 -

Roll control performance for the aircraft with the VC system was not checked, but it is envisagedthat by appropriately distributing the camber acrossthe wings, asymmetric load distribution should provide adequateroll. To achievethis, the tip region (outboard Le deflection, for rotation of up to -3.50, while the root negative three segments)caters Le between 0.00 (inboard camber setting, rotation positive maximum gives end) region and 10.00. The shear force (SF) and bending moment (BM) distributions, deflection curves, and hinge reaction loads are all dependenton the position and the number of the hinges. it was decided to use the planform geometry of Figure 4.3 and support eachTE device inboard fairly The the tracks and two at outboard ends. substantial placed segmentson BM across the large segmentsand high reaction loads on the tracks were assumedto be acceptable, since the only way to reduce them was by placing extra support tracks With the the intermediate segments. extra structure wing of within position span at box an immediate penalty is paid by reducing the available fuel volume. Furthermore, by having only the two tracks per segmentthe number of cutouts in the wing rear spar Additional tracks the bare kept is would otherwise reduce to minimum. a web if becomes This the the problem severe spar. much more of structural efficiency is increased. The has proposed an added arrangement number of small segments be the in tracks segments the adjacent can on supportedon a single rib that advantage (inside the structural box), thus further reducing the complexity and the weight of the inspection the the the task tracks the ends of segments and By at of placing system. becomes easier. maintenance 4.3.2 Detailed Design Considerations loads load from hinge the were calculated BM SF, spanwise reaction The and distribution curves presented in Appendix B, using 'STRUCT, Structural Analysis Aeronautics College Personal Computers. These ['01 the of on available program inboard load the the concentrated near the was wing and end of that maximum showed in particular over the fifth segment(see Figure 4.3a). This had been expectedsince it decided for It therefore to this largest the was segments. use segment six is the of further studies. Principle dimensions for the segmentare given in Figure 4.4. in detail considered were the track roller system, conforming The main components Stress the skin. calculations were madeto size the track roller surface upper tracks and in details Appendix C. Figures the sIdn, of which are given surface upper system and 4.5 to 4.7 show the main features of thesescomponents. Figure 4.6 shows the inboard

76 -

(I/B) track arrangementwhich is fixed to the TE device and designedas a 'C' channel in titanium to transfer high bending loads through to the main wing structure. These loads are acceptedby the side support ribs which are designedas T beams(seeFigure 4.5) in titanium and stressedto check flange instability and shearing of the web. To is by the the provided a series of motion sliding system retain conventionality within in 4.5. These Figure depicted through to carriages are attached side as cam rollers, beam ('I' the side rib). wing support structure of The upper surface is made to flex by placing it within a set of conforming tracks for design I/B link Details the the of arrangements. through a series of rollers and in 4.7a. The Figures the tracks of conforming are part the are given segment station of design for device. The the TE the at the roller/link arrangement track and extending intermediate span positions is shown in Figure 4.7b. due deflections to that the to surface skin upper A stiffness criterion was used ensure local depth 2% the the loads maximum aerofoil[311. of of within remained aerodynamic for be however checked acceptance. Estimation of the substantially This criterion must 13'1 by finite (FEA) IdeasT' SDRC element analysis system deflections were made using finite Details face the thin loads shell of on elements. pressures as representing the C. in This be Appendix tool to system a (FE) proved useful given are model element for iterating between the material type, skin thickness and the position/number of the for 4.8 details Figure the the tracks. shows used of notation intermediate conforming it iterations After the tracks. the was conforming of many position and orientation ply found that a4 mm carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) skin with the ply arrangement is restrained at seven intermediate spanwise stations that [([0/9012/0/45/0/90)s Of The in Y (00 the deflections elastic and surface. modulus plies) across adequate gave is 0.73 IW ) I(P 0.537 F,, N/mM2 (F, to directions equal x x and and gy, (900 plies) for laminate is I(P N/mM2 0.15 The the of rigidity modulus x NImm" respectively. . in it fibre has because the that the fibre advantage of orientation Carbon chosen was has Carbon be the to tailored stiffness meet requirement. also upper surface skin could fibre than other reinforced plastic (FRP) materials. any better strength characteristics it be that tailored tapers along the chord the such skin can For an optimum solution TE to the tip). from surface upper spar position (decreasing rear device box TE between the the main wing and can be kept continuous The under side in be held by flap. This track position a hinged at either end could surface by a under is down device deflects Structural design TE details the actuated. as and of the segment is but it flap be that flap the considered, not assumed can were made as a of this

77 -

box with composite face sldnsand honeycomb sandwich core.


The track radius varies across the span, decreasing from root to tip. "Ibus if the TE segment is made rigid and supported on say two tracks (inboard, and outboard of a segment), on actuation the segmentwill either be reluctant to move or it will tend to ride more on the larger (inboard) track. The later will give an undesirable lateral movement. In order to eliminate this effect the TE element must be made to flex both across the span and chord. This way the TE segmentwill effectively have to deploy independently on the two tracks. Design details of the TE device (flap piece) have not been considered, but it is assumedthat it can take the form of a conventional flap design, Le a composite FRP box. This may require a linkage system (scissor type independent the actuation of which would assist in flexing and twisting arrangement), the composite box. Examples of such an arrangementcan be seen in reference [11]. With a flexible TE box the system could quite simply be driven by a pair of linear hydraulic actuators placed at the ends of each segment. One end mounted to the wing structure while the other end attachedto the extending track. Independentinput to these deployment adequate with twisting of the segment across the ensure actuators would span for parallel motion.

78

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External dimensions of segillent I-Ivc

83

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84

Figure 4.5b: Details of the inboard rib, extending track and conforming track/roller

arrangement

Top Plonge or the support structure (cross-section 00 x 8.5 mm)

Rol I er I ink arrangement rlexing the surrace skin (See Figure

ror upper 4.7)


upper sk i r)

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85

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Details of the upper surface flexible carbon skin

89 -

CHAPrER FIVE THREE DIMENSIONAL (3-D) STRUCTURAL MODEL OF THE TRAILING EDGE (TE) DESIGN CONCEPT
5.1 INTRODUCTION The proposed design for changing the profile behind the rear spar (the trailing edge flexible is a practical made with upper surface skin held down by rolling region) Camber in is continuous rail/tracks. a set of control provided by curved elements tracks fixed to the TE device riding on cam rollers which are appropriately positioned kinematics The box the side ribs. of the system is very simple, but, main wing on becauseof its continuous operation through-out the flight, the track/roller arrangement jamming, be to sticking, contamination and environmental degradation. The prone will be loads to pressure subjected skin will which may cause it to warp, upper surface resulting in a discontinuousupper surface profile and therefore loss of lift and increase in drag. In order to observeand assessthe behaviour of the system under such loaded dimensional (3-D) three scaled structural model was designed and a conditions, constructed. The aim of this chapter is to outline the principle reasons and requirements for is Description the model. given of the design details and the constructing manufacturing of the major components.

5.2 REASONSAND REQUIREMENTS


5.2.1 Reasons The variable camber (VQ system is to be an integral part of the control system of a typical transport aircraft wing which is both swept and tapered. The systemis required to operate continuously and efficiently throughout the flight of the aircraft. It is device TE the that the camber controlling near region for the Future Large suggested Aircraft (FLA) wing satisfies this requirement. It was thought that the justification of the basic design can only be madeby constructing a 3-D prototype model which can be following key the three to points:address used

90 -

1) Jammingmechanisms is one of the main reasons for flap'failure. Lack of free Jammingof the mechanism it in to stick cause can one position, implying that the flap can become movement ineffective, which would obviously be catastrophic. The continuoususe of the VC in termsof wear and servicelife. devicesaddsfurther complications Althoughthe track roller ideais in its infancy, the designis very simple,neatand tidy. for flaps can fail under that eventhe simplestmechanisms However,history suggests loadingconditions. adverse 2) Upper surfacestiffness The uppersurfaceskin is thecritical featureof the concept. The mostimportantaspect beingrequirements stiffness andchordwiseflexibility. The sIdnmusthave of spanwise its hold in to loading. order to aerodynamic shapewhen subjected sufficient stiffness flexibility across the chordis desiredfor it to conformwith ease. At the sameinstance, Hence,for the FLA wing the useof carboncomposite materialis suggested wherethe is in laminate arrangedto give the requiredstiffnessand flexibility a ply orientation characteristics.
3) Deflection geometry It is quite clear from the findings of the 3-13 geometric work in Chapters Three and Four that the desired conical deployment will not be possible with a rigid trailing edge (TE) element. For the FLA wing it is recommendedthat the TE box warps as it is deployed in order to achieve a near conical (parallel) motion. Furthermore, the under fixed be hinged 60% is flap to This at required chord. provides a reasonable surface between deployed TE device the the underside on and the under surface flap. continuity Given thesegeometric constraintsit was questionablewhether the proposedsystemwill It build therefore to was necessary the a working model to assess operate successfully. behaviour. system

5.2.2 Requirement and Aims


To design and construct a model the size of the FLA wing was beyond the scopeof this Limited manufacturing and testing capabilities within the department and research. funds for factors the available project were research which governed the scale restricted be to made. the model of

91 -

After much deliberation it was decided to confine the design to one TE device segment key dimensions, is displayed the The this, half showing of external geometry to scale. in Figure 5.1. This is representativeof segment3 on the FLA wing (see Figure 4.3).

it was requiredthat the modelshouldadapta conicaland paralleldeployment motion different (O/B) inboard (I/B) tracks two arranged the are at outboard and radii suchthat VC be Rotations to to condition maximum setting was of up considered of curvatures. incorporating for Therefore an 'auxiliary flap (for landing (ie take off). provision being 71 down VC The + range and -3.50up. purpose)was not necessary. The basic aim was to designthe tracking systemand the upper surfacein detail such loads. It be tested was also requiredto adhereto representative with that they could device for TE flap the 3-D the and under surface so that the system the given geometry demonstrating 3-D (VCW) dynamically for the be variable camber wing used could
technology. 5.3 DESIGN APPROACH

5.3.1 Geneml had for design FLA, the the the the camber keeping system of variable model In with following the elements: to comprise stiffnesssuchthat it would not deformand 1) A track/roller system which hadadequate load, deployed a under stick when TE device,which mustnot restrict the overall deployment of the 2) A representative system, be flexible hold to to must conform, An which 3) yet stiff enough upper surfaceskin,
its shape, 4) A lower surface, which had to be hinged at 60% chord and attached to the TE device,

for box track/roller support, ribs A side 5) structural with 6) An actuationand control system
5.3.2 Design Criteria

stiffness checks and stressing In view of the aboverequirements, calculations were thetracking structure andthe support system only, since limited to theuppersurface, loaded Furthermore, be the to elements. sincethe modelwas to be a thesewere

92 -

technologydemonstrator, standard materialswas not necessary. useof aerospace 5.3.2.1 Upper surfaceskin
The design of the upper surface sIdn was basedon the following three criteria: 1) Maximum deflection at any point was restricted to 2% of the maximum depth of the is 'rule has been This thumb' of a general criterion which used for a number aerofoil. College Aeronautics, is for the of work at and considered to be project of years design for work". preliminary adequate Maximum aerofoil thickness to chord ratio is 14%. Therefore maximum allowable deflections at the I/B and O/B endsof the model were limited to 4.46 mm and 3.91 mm respectively. 2) The sIdn had to be manufactured in one piece in order to retain it's flexibility in bonded fastened because together or pieces several would prevent this. chord, 3) Constant contact had to be provided betweenthe lower part of the upper surface sIdn device TE the help the This across to segment of the side span. upper was retain and the continuity on the top side of the aerofoil. 5.3.2.2 Tracking system The tracking system and support structure of the chosen TE configuration will be bending loads level due high large in to the to of a chord. extensions subjected Inadequate design will be prone to excess deformation and eventual jamming. designed had be to track such that they do not become unstable the Therefore sections due to bending loads. Details of these calculations are given in Appendix D.

5.3.3 Loading 5.3.3.1 Upper surface


The upper surface skin will deflect and warp under aerodynamic pressure loads. Where, Pressure, P= lhpV2CP
Cp is the 2-D pressure coefficient, obtained from reference [27], and V is the EAS for Thus V= 103.3m/s (see Appendix B) and p is the air density case, condition take off 3Kg1m 1.225 =

93 -

The upper surface skin extends from the rear spar position (54 % chord) to 90 % in loading Cp its The and pressure variation across chord is given in Table 5.1. chord. It must be noted that the upper surface s1dnshould ideally be tested under high speed level highest loads (refer sub section B. 4.1.3 of high these the since give gust or Appendix B). However owing to the magnitude of the load due to these cases, the testing of the skin through a medium such as sand (refer sub section 6.3.1.1 of Chapter Six) became highly impractical. Therefore a lower speedcase was used instead. 5.3.3.2 Tracking system The purpose of the tracIdng systemwas to transfer the aerodynamicloads aft of the rear box in Theoretically the to the structural theseloads arise main of wing. position spar from the TE device, the upper surface skin, and the lower surface panel. It was assumedthat a wing half the size of the FLA wing will be used on an aircraft Therefore lift fly take total conditions. off same at on half the wing will be which will 23.25 106/ 4= 0.93 KN, x with the design operating velocity being = approximately 103.3 m/s (see Appendix B). From the spanwise load distribution (Appendix B), the load between 70 % and 79 % 3 FLA is No. the (span on wing) approximately 8.2% of the total for segment of span VC full take setting. off span a For the aerofoil section with the deployment of W at the LE and 70 near the TE, the load across the chord aft of 54% (rear spar) is 38.8%. This was estimated from the 2-D theoretical pressuredistribution calculations made in reference [271. The load was flexible between lower the the upper surface skin, surface, the TE device proportioned The TE load the side. portion upper of and side on these components is as under

follows:Component Length (% Chord) From 1 2 3 4 54 60 90 go TO 90 90 119 119 Load M 13.74 10.75 6.61 7.70 105.9 98.7 Position (% Chord)

94 -

I234-

Upper surface Lower surface Under side of the TE device Upper side of the TE device

For initial design work the component loads were simply estimated by factoring the total half wing load by the chordwise pressure and spanwise distributions. Thus, the follows: is loads the as magnitude of Comp!2nen Upper surface Lower surface TE under side TE upper side Load M 2620 2050 1261 1468 Load (Kg) 267 209 129 150

5.3.4 Structuraland Finite ElementAnalysis(FEA)


5.3.4.1 Structural analysis of the tracIdng system The design of the tracks dependedon their ability to withstand shearand bending loads. bending loads dictated the stability. the the loads stiffness, while The shear governed Estimation of theseloads together with stiffness calculations were first made manually by balancing the moments, and then checkedwith the College of Aeronautics structural Stress data design 'STRUCT"'Ol. calculations were made using analysis package, in Appendix D. these Details calculations are given of sheets.

5.3.4.2 Finite elementanalysis of the stiffnessof the upper surfaces1dncould only be possible Accurateassessment finite (FE) developed SDRC Simple FEA models element were on system. with a the selectionof which was thoughtto be system[321' IDEAS Finite ElementAnalysisTm face it has loads the because thin applying capability of pressures shell as on suitable loads. to the the exact elemental necessity calculate or nodal elements,avoiding
Illustration of the loaded and restrained FE model is given in Figure 5.2. A flat plate The thin shell quadrilateral elements. pessimistic approach of using was assumed flat be to considered the surface was skin plate as a acceptable since upper modelling little in during The required change profile camber section variation. width the aerofoil by loading from the the governed the was size of elemental pressure element each of

95 -

distribution for theaerofoil (seeTableS.I). The thickness pressure obtained chordwise depended due to the appliedpressures, on the levelsof deflections of the uppersurface in 5.1. Table as given in six direction (translation The modelwasrestrained and rotationin X; Y and Z axis) in (rear 54% face 'A' the vertical direction (Z axis) at the spar position, chord), and at inboardandoutboard endsandat threeintermediate spanwise the stations(representing The tracks). the vertical restraintsalong the chord at the five conforming of position to predictthe loadsexperienced by the of the segment werenecessary stations spanwise loads trackingsystem. Theseloadswere thencombined with the appliedaerodynamic due to the TE deviceand usedto designthe tracks.
A number of material types were considered (see Section 5.4.1.1). The set of being declared for interactively. the For fibre reinforced used material were properties laminates (A (FRP) the stiffness composite matrix and D) were obtained from plastic the College of Aeronautics Laminate Analysis program (COALA)[331. 5.4 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 5.4.1 Upper Surface Sldn Design The design of the upper surface skin centred around:1) the requirement to have variable stiffness in span and chord, and 2) the possibilities of positioning it in rails (or tracks) by means of a set of rolling elements.

5.4.1.1 Material selection


The SDRC IDEASTmFE systemc"Ibecamea useful tool for trying to find a solution in It design material selection. and was assumedthat the top surface skin will terms of be continuously held at the five spanwise restraint (or track) positions previously referred. The upper surface skin material was selected from either aluminium, aluminium lithium, or carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites. These being the three basic materials used for the skin construction of the modem transport aircraft wings. As well as satisfying the stiffness criterion mentioned previously, the material choice depended on the stiffness to weight ratio. Table 5.2 contains the basic characteristics

96

and properties of the selectedmaterials. Both aluminium and aluminium lithium have latter but has higher density the elastic modulus and therefore higher stiffness. similar CFRP composite appearsto be superior in terms of reduced weight than its isotropic its is however, stiffness very much dependenton fibre orientation. The counterparts: figures for elastic modulus appearingin Table 5.2 are those for a laminate with (r plies is 5.2). Figure It (see quite clear that the stiffness along the x- axis is much also only With a balancedlay-up the laminate could the higher than the s' yaxis. along liffness be tailored such that the stiffness in the two directions is approximately equal. A typical elastic modulus with such an arrangementis 0.6 x 1W N/mm'. With the density " is kg/mM3 3.75 x 1010. This is shown to be 10 to the 1.6 stiffness weight ratio x of better than the value for either the aluminium or aluminium lithium (see Table 5.2). Before attempting to find an appropriate lay-up solution with a composite material, it lithium base line decide to aluminium as a use material to estimate the required was thickness. As a result of many iterations of restraint positions and skin thicknesses,it five AM Lital (fixed found that with restraint mm positions a2 equidistant apart) was level. In deflections the that terms of flexibility it was not within required were gave certain that this gauge thicknesswould conform adequately. A solution was to reduce the thickness and introduce spanwisestiffeners as shown in Figure 5.3. This however did not provide A continuous attachment between the upper surface skin and the TE device. but it is felt that repeated Fatigue behaviour of the flexible skin have not been assessed, loads due to continuous flexing and deforming of the skin material could be the critical

design. for case Comparisonof the materialand manufacturing cost of the abovematerialswere not isotropic in is known(151 It that materials generalcost less than FRP, and are made. it However felt that the designof the upper surface to was manufacture. much easier by flexibility be the stiffness and governed criteria rather than the cost or s1dnshould easeof manufacturing. it was decidedto seeka solution usingcarbon As a result of th aboveconsiderations laminate had have The to the spanwise stiffnessof the sameorder as the composites. baseline materialto give a controlleddeflection.

97 -

5.4.1.2 Conformation
The purpose of the conforming tracks/rofler system is to: -

1) Keep the upper surfacesIdn continuously to the TE device, which,would attached due lift loadingand to to aerodynamic tend otherwise during TE cambervariation. 2) Alter the uppersurfaceshape
Initial intention was to design the system for conforming the upper surface skin such that it could be loaded when assembledas part of the structural model. Ideally this design in be Chapter the Four (Figure 4.7a and b). to suggested similar should system Complications with regards to the conically warped TE box suggested that the fittings be suitable roller would such of expensive. The end conclusion manufacture idea loads the to applying of representative on the upper surface s1dn(see was eliminate Chapter Six Section 6.3.3). It was necessaryhowever to make sure that the sldn was it held TE device to that the remained attached such and that smooth profile adequately during VC operation. achieved was 5.4.2 Under Surface The design of the lower surface simply depended on maintaining the given lower Sufficient depth between the aerofoil. the lower side of the TE of geometry surface device and the lower side of the aerofbil suggestedinclusion of stiffening members or foam filling to increasethe stiffness. 5.4.3 Trailing Edge (TE) Device The whole concept of varying the camber conically and parallel to the wing side ribs hinged on the design of the TE device. Parallel actuating tracIdng systemwith a single in device be TE giving a percentage extension chord could possible by warping piece idea is deployed. it Such box TE an could be achievedby designing the TE box as the in composite FRP material and appropriately tailoring the fibres to provide the required flexibility. Construction of a FRP warping TE box was too costly and time consuming design, feasible so solid laminated wood device was used. a to produce

96 -.

5.4.4 ActuatingTrack System


The extending track to deploy the TE device had 'of course' to be curved and located in a manner so as to allow the TE device to deploy on a continuous curvature. On a in be high design these titanium would either made or grade steel such as S96111. real For the purpose of the model these materials were considered far too expensive to low It therefore that was accepted machine. and grade commercial steel such purchase as E8Mr`J would adequatelyserve the purpose. An initial suggestion was to have a low friction bearing material such as PTFE (PolyTetro FIoro Ethylene) or Nylon coating between a two track system. One track would act as a support track while the other would be the deployment track which device. The TE is illustrated the in Figure 5.4. the cross-section of system extends The advantagesof such an arrangementare:design therefore and reduced complexity, simple very - reduced weight, to manufacture, easy less jamming, therefore probability of rollers no and - continuous sliding contact.

it was unconventional This designhad to be rejectedbecause and it sufferedfrom the following disadvantages: the bearing material would be prone to contamination, it will be subjectedto varying environmental and loading conditions and therefore wear away steadily.

In order to retain conventionally,it was decidedto introducerollers to provide low friction sliding and transferof the bendingloadsto the wing supportstructure.
5.5 DESCRIPTION OF THE FINAL DESIGN

is 5.5a in Figures Displayed a photograph of the structuralmodel madeto satisfy the Figure 5.5b detailsof the modelat the requirements. gives sectional mentioned above I/B endof the segment.Detaileddrawingsmadeto manufacture the majorcomponents in E. Appendix The design comprises -of. are contained flexible A uppersurfaceskin, with tagsas sliding elements and conformingrails, a) b) A set of two trackssituatedat either end of the segment, for bearing load TE A structure. the support used attaching components, c)

99 -

to twist during deployment, d) A singleTE devicewhich is assumed for increased flap foam filled hinged A stiffness,and surface under e) f) A hydraulic actuatorsystemfor providing deployment. Detaileddescriptionof theseitemsis given in the next few paragraphs.
Uppgr Surface and -Conforming Rails

The upper surface is made as a single piece from CFRP material. The laminate thicknessis 2.00 mm, madefrom 8 plies of thickness0.25 mm and the fibre orientation 900 0' the the to the span [(02/90/45)s]. along while run plies run parallel plies of laminate 5.2). Details the (Figure and stiffness matrix along with the material of chord 5-3. in Table properties are contained Figure 5.6 shows the deflection geometry obtained from the FEA for the above skin loading 5.2). described (Figure It and restraint conditions can previously material and be seen that the deflection due to theseconditions is 1.41 mm. 7bis is well below the 3.91 mm. of required value for designs the conforming tracks and rollers for the the that suggested It was agreed difficulties. In order to avoid these a very lead to manufacturing FLA wing would 5.7. 'C' Details in this Figure of solution are sought. given simple solution was from At I/B O/B the the the strips of steel. made of and ends were rails channel in fixed device, TE to the track the the extending and these are while rails segment intermediate span positions they are fixed to the TE device only. Tags as apposedto

to surface camber variation. upper ensure used are rollers Trailing Edge (TE Device
it was necessaryto ensure that the design of the TE device gave the desired motion jamming. The the simplest way of achieving the requisite geometry was system without This decision by manufacturing the TE device from Jelutong (a high grain wood)[371 . loads be by TE torsional to justified there the carried were no since componentand was design box in detail. it Becauseof the soft to the necessary not structural was therefore it having by direct between thought that the material, was a wood attachment of nature it and the extending tracks adequatetwist will result. Deflection tests (details of which in Chapter is Six) the fully that this arrangement proved satisfactory. outlined are

100

Track Roller System and-SuppgrtStructure and under surface flap The most striking feature of the proposeddesign is the deployment of the TE device by (Figure 5.8a). A has been designed two track tracks the system extending meansof fixed to the support structure and the other track attached'to the TE track one with device. An initial suggestionwas to have only track rollers to take the bearing loads Owing to the conical nature of the motion. rolling contact and provide continuous degree lateral be device TE to the of there an appreciable movement of appeared system (seeChapter Six). The required free movement of the systemwas also observed to be introduced between To this, the a set of needle'rollers were overcome unsatisfactory. two track system (Figure 5.8b). The support structure is made from mild steel and comprises of the front and rear spar for lower The the the the spar provides attachment rear the upper and side ribs. and TE surfaces. A hydraulic actuator is mounted mid spanof the front spar. The side ribs designed bending loads. to are react tracking and the and shear system support The design of the conforming rails and sliding elementsshown in Figure 5.7 was kept Their design in the to manufacturing cost. simple reduce meant that these order simple had to be placed very close to the upper surface skin. As is shown in Figure 5.8b, such in flange in free the top the to cut outs of requires spar allow order an arrangement movement of the rails. A foam filled aluminium sandwichpanel was designedfor the under surface flap. This is fixed to the support structure (Figure 5.8c) by meansof a longitudinal piano hinge. Two spring loaded V sectionchannelsan the I/B and O/B endsof the segmentprovide TE device. the to the under surface of a continuous attachment Hydraulic Actuator and the System The deployment of the TE device is by means of a single linear hydraulic actuator (Figure 5-9). deploy The the in to the of segment the position system mid-span placed TE device comprising essentiallyof, a power pack, a throttle (control) valve which can be adjusted to change the flow hence the deflection rate, a linear hydraulic actuator, a flow direction valve and a control switch.

is in keeping the actuator with the maximumdeployment The strokeof rangeof +711 it is front to the it that mounted pin pivots vertically and laterally. sparsuch to -3.51.

101

5.6 MANUFACTURING The desired motion meant that close tolerance manufacturewas required for the track roller system, the conforming rails and the sliding tags, the TE device, and the upper surface skin. The manufacture of the two sets of tracks was simply a matter of billet The from them. stress solid of steel and relieving a assembly of the machining These from three setsof steel were was also a simple process. made strips conforming length. their strips and spot welded along Initial intention was to use a wooden plug shown in Figure 5.1 Oa as the tool for The for the upper surface skin the material skin. selected surface upper manufacturing Pre pregs normally require is a carbon epoxy in a pre preg form (Ciba Geigy 913C)1311. Likewise be the temperature. tooling associated must capable of curing an elevated laminated The temperature. this at wooden plug therefore could comfortably working because heating. The directly this tool be tool matrix material had to of as a used not be a room-curing wet epoxy systempossessing a high heat deflection temperature. The 139). 695 5PS HDT S95 SPS Figure 5.10b and gel coat was shows a chosen system from tooling the wooden plug. the made composite photograph of
the upper surface was laid up and vacuum consolidated on a flat surface and later transferred to the tool for curing. The curing procedure carried out is shown in Figure 5.11. To stop the flap sticking to the tool surface, the surface was first sprayed Initially film. Secondary bonding then covered a and with release agent was release with a bonding is by the a good surface surface, skin produced using peel plies on required faces. A thin piece of mild steel sheet plate controlled the preg the pre outside on thickness of the skin and was placed on top of the release film and exactly over the bath breather The to A used as cloth was a extract air and volatile. glass skin. in a nylon bag initially for vacuum and breather tool and were placed stack complete in The for the autoclave. consolidation pressure cure cycle was as per secondly [36][371 Figure 5.12 shows the

manufactures specification from tooling. composite carbon manufactured

upper surface skin

The laminated wooden plug shown in Figure 5.10a was trimmed further and cleaned deyice. TE the the of to size

102 -

distributionacrossthe uppersurfaceflexible skin Table 5-1: Chordwisepressure

Elemental Strip No

Strip Width % Chord 3.56 3.87 3.81 3.72 3.65 3.55 3.44 3.30 3.16 3.03

Cp.. (-ve)

Pressure (-ve) NIme x 10-11 5080 5086 5122 5232 5302 5236 5063 4810 4488 4287

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0.7818 0.7827 0.7883 0.8051 0.8160 0.8058 0.7792 0.7403 0.6906 0.6597

Total width of the upper surface sIdn = 35 % Chord from 2-D (mean obtained Cp.. pressure) of computational calculations *coefficient [271 in reference carried-out Average pressure = 4970 NImO

Averagechord Segment span

523 mm = 970 mrn =

load on the uppersurfacesIdn = 2522N. This compares well with Thereforeaverage 2620 N. load of applied the estimated

103 -

Table 5.2: Material properties


Material Type Elastic Modulus, E x 10' (NI m ml) E, Ey Density, p ' 10 (kg/mm') x Stiffness to weight ratio (E/p) x 1010

Aluminium Lithium Aluminum CFRP

0.795 0.720 1.400

0.795 0.720 0.100

2.54 2.80 1.60

31.3 25.7 -

104

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laminate

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Details 5.8a-c: alld tile undcr of the track roller system, support strLlCture Figt1re surface flap

114

FIgure 5.9-

Hydraulic system and actuation

115

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118 -

CHAITER

SIX STRUCTURAL

TESTING OF THE THREE DIMENSIONAL MODEL


6.1 INTRODUCTION

designing last in the of purpose and constructing a prototype the As stated chapter, design This be the concept. to proposed verification could only validate model was both loaded by testing unloaded and conditions. under virtue of possible for brief the reasons, of requirements, and aims carrying outline This chapter offers a described Test the and procedures are tests. and methods results are these out

discussed.
6.2. REASONS, REQUIREMENTS AND AIMS FOR TESTING in highlighted to address several order questionable. set areas were Three requirements design: the initial of during assessment dimensional (3-D) (TE) trailing design three the edge segmentwas of The 1) proposed had but be to The designed this feasible be proved. model practically, to was thought TE fundamental The deployment a solid wooden piece. with query was to give parallel be deployment It tapering could possible with type a this segment. was of whether behaviour the system and monitor the lateral the to of therefore assess required tracking the system. of movement

binding loading for to continuously is this operate without under all it system 2) vital to therefore A ensure a smooth test necessary operation under applied was conditions. load.
based the tracks for the designs and were surface on a stiffness criterion. upper 3) The loads finite (FEA) due the to obtained applied were using element analysis Deflections Analysis beam (2-D) designed dimensional analysis systems'. models within two and little Therefore and unrefined. very simple confidence could very these systems were In in order to check the validity of theseresults and to guarantee the results. be placed form loading for both it to test the carry of necessary out some was upper the stiffness,

119 -

surface skin and the tracks. in view of these requirementsthe main objectives for carrying out the tests were to: -

lateral movement 1) Observethe deployment and the expected of the-tracks schedule (O/B) inboard (I/B) ends, the and outboard at the deflections,and 2) Statically load the upper surfaceand the tracks and measure (FE) finite the predictions,and element compare resultswith 3) Observethe behaviourof the assembled modelwhile deployingit under simulated loads.
6.3 TEST SET UP, PROCEDURE AND RESULTS The three objectives statedabove suggestedthat the testing had to be divided into three distinct phases: (1) PhaseI for testing the stiffness of the upper surface, the behaviour of the unloaded model, and (2) Phase11for assessing loaded behaviour the for the III of Phase model and statically testing the (3) assessing stiffness of the tracldng systems.

6.3.1 PhaseI (Stiffness testing of the upper surface skin) 6.3.1.1 Test apparatus

in 6.1a Figures 6.1b. Where1igure 6.1a test and shown the are set up Details of 6.1b depicts Figure drawingsgiving while schematic illustratesa set of photographs, item. The is inverted the upper surface various of placed dimensions on and position former longitudinal formers the rear spar. and one representing five setsof chordwise . I formers ide intermediate the the simulated supportand stiffnessof gu rdils. The three down I/B O/B hold the the to at and skin positionsandat the rear 'G' clampswereused 3/4" plywoodwhich restedon a 'Dexion' frame formers to All the nailed were a spar. drilled it. holes holes These 48 dial had the across allowed to gauges reach and work (across A dial 'Dexion' the loaded of eight set gauges mounted skin. span) on a the deflection to measurements make six along the chord. used sets of frame work were

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The required load acrossthe upper surface was 267 Kg (seeChapter Five). Due to the for loading formers the upper surface skin was the the area chordwise effective of width be 238 load Kg. To The to the of reduced was worked out magnitude apply reduced. be distributed loading important it that load to medium could adequately a use this was in 1500 1600 density KG/m^3 Dry the range of a sand with silver and practically. (dependingon the moisture content), packed in plastic bags was consideredto meet this had be distribution dry load to the In to sand as as possible. maintain even order need. Moisture content,was reduced by drying the sand in an autoclave. For the required distribution, the load was effectively split between eight cells, as depicted in Figure 6.1b. Table 6.1 contains the incremental load applied in five stages in these cells. Thus five deflection measurementswere made at each of the dial gauge position. owing to only eight dial gaugesbeing used, the panel had to be loaded and unloaded six times.

6.3.1.3 Results
Measured deflections for the five load stagesare contained in Table 6.2. Maximum deflection of 2.262 mm is seen to occur at gauge position 28. This is well within the % depth % (2 3.91 the the the maximum of of aerofoil at mm outboard of value allowable deflection 6.2 load for dial Figure the shows vs the curve gauge segment). end of 47. The these 4,6,9,14,21,32,40 purpose and of plotting set of curves positions deflections dial the were accurate at various measured gauge to check whether was 6.2 is from Figure is that the It stiffness very much similar across apparent positions. is largely due inaccuracy is It that the to the variation slight suggested of the surface. distribution later due The the to the dial of uneven sand. effect the gauges and also because the therefore be the surface was curved and upper sand controlled not could had the tendency to shift toward the rear spar position. This is justified by the 21 32. deflections large to at gauge positions occur and seen relatively 6.3.1.4 Comparison with the finite element analysis (FEA)

testwas to checkthe skin stiffness The mainpurposefor carrying out the uppersurface for FE FE The described the the model upper results. surface skin predicted validity of in ChapterFive was modifiedslightly to takeaccountof the chordwiseformers. This beam including by the Results to extra the stiffness. represent elements of possible was in Table 6.3 and shown FE analysisof the modified model and the testare contained in Figure 6.3.

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the two setsof resultsis observed The correlationbetween to be betterat mid-chord deflections at mid-chordstations are slightly less stationsthan the ends. The measured than thoseobtainedfrom the FE analysis. This had beenexpected and is due to the is included board, in 3/4" the FE model. At the the wooden ply which not stiffnessof higher FE This due inadequate deflections than the values. the are was measured ends distributionof the loadsnearthese regions. Particularlytowardsthe rear sparposition, loads This due than the was greater what to of was required. concentration was where the curvatureof the sIdn which was tendingto slide the dry sandtowardsthat region. hasresultedin The unevenload distributiontogetherwith sticIdness of the dial gauges deflections. distribution irregular the of measured curves an
6.3.2 PhaseIl The upper surface sIdn is shown to satisfy the stiffness requirement both analytically its how flexibility in to The tied was examine stage next with the and practically. deployment of the assembled model. Assessmentswere made purely by way of observing the movement of the parts. Photographsof the model shown in Figure 6.4 for -3.511,0* and 7* deployment settings both is deflections. the gives and positive that and operational system negative suggest The design of the TE device in laminated wood is therefore justified. The variation in deflection acrossthe span suggestedthat the upper surface had to twist in Owing large deployment to the chord. as conform radius as well of warp and fairly This twisting subtle. moderately changing profile of the upper the was curvature be to The smooth the and controlled. observed span was use of carbon along surface in desired flexibility in the providing assisted chord and the material composite flexibility from Evidence this of achieving maximum negative to necessarycontinuity. in is Figure 6.4a 6.4c. It be apparent of rotation angles and positive can maximum binding inside the smoothly without skin conforms that surface wrinkling upper or seen the rails. The maximum (T) achieved extension of the TE device at the I/B and O/B ends were found to be approximately 270 mm and 261 mm respectively. In comparison the 301 (I/B) 264 the two required at mm are extensions ends and mm (01B) maximum 64.5% The is I/B to the the chord. achieved extention maximum at end relative for to the 71' expected equal camber setting at the centre span value approximately total translational limited by Thus the the stroke of the actuator. motion was position.

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Furthermorethe magnitude of maximumextensionis approximately equal to 6.50of for 6.5* cambersettingat the O/B end rotation of the I/B end. The requiredextension is 237 mm. It is apparent that the stiffnessof the TE deviceis considerable for it to flex at large cambersettings. It thereforetendsto ride moreon the larger (I/B track) device TE 0' 6.5 full Figure the the at position of shows and at cambersettings radius. (at the O/B end) due to sucha motion. It is apparent that the TE deviceexperienced its during deployment. The lateral degree measured movement movement of a at the I/B and O/B endswas2.65 mm and3.05 mm respectively.The differencein thesetwo further for achieving evidence of the twisting actionnecessary provides measurements a conical motion.
Due to the simplicity in the design of the upper surface conforming strips and the lateral difficulties in supporting tags, the movement caused some aforementioned sliding how the upper surface sIdn at five spanwisestations. It was therefore decided to assess the skin flexes while being supported at the two ends and at the mid span position. Such an arrangementwas found to be adequatein providing the required flexibility to in displayed is in Figure 6.4. the photographs the upper surface, as shown If the TE device were to be of a flexible nature (made from fibre reinforced plastic ideally, two the then requires actuators placed at either end of the system material) in the twist These segment resulting adequately a continuous spanwise would segment. device in design TE The the of solid material (which moved and chordwise camber. laterally) meant that only a single linear hydraulic actuator placed in the mid-span for This implemented be this set-up. position of the actuator meant that position could locally. be had to cut the spar web

The under surfacein this designis simply held in positionby a pair of spring loaded is O/B It from I/B 6.4 Figure the and ends. apparent at that these placed rails angled in keeping the undersurfacecontinuouslyattached to the TE adequate quite are rails the rails andundersurfaceowing to device. Thereis no evidence of clashingbetween lateral movement. the previously mentioned III 6.3.3 Phase
The purpose of this exercise was simply to monitor the changes in deployment behaviour of the TE device and the tracks due to the applied loads. The distribution load in 6.6. the Figure The was of as shown application model was mounted and inverted. Sand bags totalling to 102 kg were used to load the TE device and dead

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kg 146.7 in suspended were of pans were placed on the extending tracks. weights Additionally, massof up to 16 kg was hung on the upper surface skin through a series initial intention lugs. had been The loading to load the upper surface skin with 267 of kg (the exact magnitudeof load, calculated in Chapter Five). Unfortunately it was not inadequate because design of the conforming rails this task the to carry out of possible and the tags (used to locate the upper surface skin). The relatively small load of 16 Kg friction between to the conforming rail and the sliding tags. provide was applied only The total load was applied in gradual increments as contained in Table 6.4.

during the operationof the systemindicatedno real difference in the Observations in loaded deployment the model comparison with the unloadedmodel. Exceptthat of in appliedactuator load the former system wasmuchslowerasprovenby the increment is had been in 6.4. This Table expected and primarily due to the increased shown friction between the needlerollers and the two setsof tracks. Figure 6.7 showsthree intermediate degrees, taken and maximumcambersettingswhile at zero photographs the systemwas operatingunder loadedconditions. The number appearingon the the time at which the picture was taken. This bottom right hand corner represents is deployment from that achieved a successful zero to maximum camber suggests in is 6.8. Figure Further this given evidence of setting.
The dial gauge shown in Figure 6.6 was used to measure the deflections of the O/B track system. The measureddeflections due to loading and unloading of the systemare 6.4. load deflection in A Table in Figure 6.9 gives a vs of plot shown contained is deflection 5.827 The trend. maximum mm. It is felt that the measured predictable deflection is due to the deformation of the whole of the structural model rather than If deformation deflect the tracks degree the tracks. to the to were of then such a simply the system would bind and eventually seize. This obviously is not the case, as is 6.7 in 6.8. Figures by the and photographs proven 6.4 CONCLUSION

that the combinationof a conical and It can be concludedfrom the abovediscussions is if flap TE box is deployment possible a warping used. This point is parallel the TE deviceof the structuralmodelin laminatedwood and highlightedby designing loaded Deployment indicated unloaded and under conditions. checks operating no VC The tracks. translational with continuous achieving curvature of problems motions be flexed to the smooth, and upper observed surface skin without wrinkling or were binding.

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FE analysis and initial static tests of the flexible upper sIdn surface suggest that it is that the an appropriate number of to provided stiffness requirements, satisfy possible between The the the two along span. close proximity chordwise rails are positioned in be FE future Thus indicates that analysis. can placed confidence much setsof results

for the uppersurface. checks static stiffness separate require not may work The operationof the systemwas very quick with a simple linear hydraulic actuator. it is envisaged With high pressure control technology, powerpacksandmodemsystems for load faster those required alleviationpurpose,could such as operations, that much be carried out.

125

increments five in laod skin the to Applied surface 6.1: upper Table

1 No Cell 1A IB 2A A 2B 3A 3B 4A =4B
.,

Load (KG) 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 : 6:::: 9: _=I 16 8 16 8 16 8 16 24 12 24 12 24 12 24 12 4zl 16 16 16 16 96 36 19 42 22 42 22 36 19

126

due to applied load increment Table 6.2: Upper surface skin deflection measurements Cell No IA Deflection (mm) Dial Gauge Number Load (KG) 8 16 24 36 0.320 0.415 1 2 0.296 0.305 0.308 0.467 3 0.135 0.274 0.415 0.675 Cell No IB Dial Gauge Number 4 4 8 12 16 '---T 19 0.055 0.146 0.234 -0.407 5 0.172 0.310 0.445 0.555 0.658 6 0.000 0.003 0.070 0.158 0.248 10 0.032 0.210 0.233 0.601 11 0.189 0.386 0.419 0.604 0.786 12 0.192 0.407 0.405 0.405 0.414 0.604 0.794 7 8 0.197 0.399 0.433 0.811 1 9 0.208 0.401 0.600 0.825

127

Table 6.2 (Cont.):


Cell No 2A Dial Gauge Number 13 8 16 24 42 0.723 0.988 14 0.150 0.421 0.657 1.097 15 0.230 0.477 0.695 1.460 19 0.873 1.276 20 0.485 0.915 1.236 1.756 21 0.400 0.815 1.155 1.675

Cell No 2B Dial Gauge Number 16 4 8 12 16 22 0.183 0.540 0.870 1.460 17 0.225 0.447 0.640 0.906 1.229 18 0.470 0.784 0.784 0.801 1.102 22 0.292 0.746 1.148 1.875 23 0.295 0.553 0.844 1.142 1.575 24 0.291 0.430 0.699 1.029 1.500

128

Table 6.2 (Cont. ):


Cell No 3A Deflection (mm) Dial Gauge Number Load (KG) 25 26 27 31 32 33

8 16 24 42

0.990 1.410 1

0.606 1.145 1.545 2.225

0.318 0.852 1.278 1.908 Cell No 3B 0.083 0.300

0.431 0.863 1.235 1.885

0.368 0.956 1.254 1.835

Dial Gauge Number


Load (KG)

28 0.345 0.816 1.302 2.262

29 0.396 0.697 1.051 1.357 1.970

30 0.241 0.514 0.879 1.489 2.003

34 0.330 0.687 0.899 1.477

35 0.310 0.439 0.717 0.953 1.224

36 0.039 0.354 -

4 8 12 16 22

0.950

129

Table 6.2 (Cont. ):


Cell No 4A Dial Gauge Number Load (KG) 37 38 39 43 44 45

8 16 24 36 0.823 -

0.425 0.752 1.063 1.618

0.278 0.270 1.050 1.545 Cell No 4B Dial Gauge Number 0.415 0.440

0.176 0.305 0.367 0.567

0.189 0.256 0.536 0.685

Load (KG)
4 8 12 16 19

40
0.213 0.445 0.692 1.008

41
0.245 0.477 0.651 0.861 0.956

42
0.205 0.532 0.765 1.026 1.241

46
0.135 0.266 0.435 0.654

47
0.055 0.213 0.345 0.466 0.547

48
0.094 0.315 0.478 0.839 0.980

130

jabig

L Comparison of measureddeflections with fi _6, Gauge Position

element (FE) predictions FE Predictions (mM) 0.213 0.546 0.695 0.594 0.599 0.627 0.492

Chordwise Station No.

Measured Deflections(mm) 0.415

7 13 19

0.794 0.988 1.275 1.410 0.300

One

25 31 37 43 2 8 14

0.44 0.467 0.811 1.097 1.756 2.255 1.855 1.618 0.567 0.675 0.825 1.46 1.675 1.908 1.835 1.545 0.685

0.242 0.484 1.412 1.781 1.509 1.468 1.614 1.292 0.550 0.560 1.719 2.201 1.854 1.781 1.985 1.594 0.650

Two

20 26 32 38 44 3 9 15 21

Three

27 33 39 45

131

Table 6.3 (Cont.) Chordwise Station No. Gauge Position 4 10 16 22 Four 28 34 40 46 5 11 17 23 Five 29 35 41 47 6 12 18 _ 24 Six 30 36 42 48 Measured Deflections (mm) 0.407 0.601 1.460 1.875 2.262 1.477 1.008 0.654 0.658 0.786 1.229 1.575 1.970 1.224 0.956 0.547 0.248 0.416 1.102 1.500 2.003 0.950 1.241 0.980 FE Predictions (mm) 0.491 1.486 1.200 1.755 1.670 1.802 1.425 0.650 0.339 0.891 1.387 1.401 1.318 1.260 0.936 0.482 0.257 0.544 1.010 1.195 1.125 0.942 0.633 0.405

132

Table 6.4: Track deflections and actuator loads due to applied loads (PhaseIII testing)

Applied load

Outboard track deflections (mm) Loading Unloading 0.000 0.214 0.453 0.697 1.154 1.228 1.516 1.796 2.021 2.179 2.480 2.813 3.234 3.642 3.811 4.070 4.563 5.096 5.827

Actuator load (N) 0 157 334 412 549 687 746 883 1020 1096 1213 1391 1569 1747 1925 2103 2281 2459

0 + 16 KG Sand (US) * 18 KG Sand (TE) * 14 KG Sand (TE) *8 *6 KG Sand (TE) KG Sand (TE)

0.000 0.341 0.792 1.232 1.479 1.667 2.051 2.475 2.845 3.235 3.392 3.615 3.884 4.328 4.605 5.023 5.477 5.549 5.827
KG 64.7 7 KG (T (TLotal)

* 14 KG Sand (TE) * 14 KG Sand (TE) * 14 KG Sand (TE) * 14 KG Sand (TE) + 17 LB (Bar) + 12 KG (Pans) * 40 LB (Weights) * 40 LB (Weights) * 40 LB (Weights) * 40 LB (Weights) * 40 LB (Weights) * 40 LB (Weights) *4B (Weights)

TE - Trailing edge device

US - Upper surface

133

for Phase I Apparatus testing 6. Ia. Figure

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Finite element results Measured deflections Deflections in nim Figure h-.3-. Comparison of measured deflection with the FE predictions

137

6.4: F7iaure

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138

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139

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141

loaded deployment Further 6. S. conditions under evidence of Figure -

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143

CHAPTER SEVEN DISCUSSIONS


7.1 INTRODUCTION

into investigation feasibility the focus this an was of a variable The work research of Practicality for from transport (VCW) aircraft. was considered a system camberwing design. investigations The areas structural of and the point of view of mechanical included: for the aft camber and chord of a development changing the system a of supercritical aerofoil, forward the on same variation aerofoil, camber of possibility implications dimensional (3-D) three the of the geometric of examination camber variation across the wing span, to typical transport the a system aircraft the proposed wing, of application design (TE) by developing 3-D trailing the edge the proposed of a validation TE segmentand testing under simulated aerodynamic of one model structural loads. ,

features draws the covered as part of this research and together all This chapter VC the system over a conventional single slotted the of possible superiority examines flap because it The arrangement was used adequately flap arrangement. single slotted Aircraft Large (FLA). Future low the of speedrequirement met the 7.2 THE FOCUS OF THIS RESEARCH 7.2.1 The Variable Camber (VC) Geometries 7.2.1.1 Two dimensional (2-D) variable camber (VC) system 7.2.1.1.1 Proposed 2-D geometry initiated as a result of some encouraging two dimensional (2-D) This project was 1241 in Rao investigations [24]. to committed carried was out reference aerodynamic by leading (LE) the aerofbil supercritical section edge a rotating the of camber change (TE) The translational these element on a circular arc. of trailing motion edge and increments to helped the thereby to overall chord and provide gave elements drag penalty. Accepting the arguments to lift a paying significant without considerable

144

increasing by Mackinnon" the the chord, varied the profile of profile aerofoil change in The a similar essentialrequirement was thicker aerofoil section way. supercritical a to have a roof-top pressure distribution by maintaining the continuity on the upper surface. A literature review on the subject suggestedthat such a form of profile variation has ideas disclosed Most in the that been the of practical were accepted past. studied not forward drooping the by and aft regions of the aerofoil. These simply the change did but translational systems some provide a motion to extension, chordal no required is An in Royal Aircraft the such example of a system the chord. reduction counteract Establishment Variable Aerofoil Mechanism (RAEVAM) concept[41.
in developed VC reference [24] and [27] suggested that for the The unique geometries have be transport the to aircraft wing to a system on would practically work concept Accepting from different this those employed. currently challenge, an radically implications. This in the and practical geometric resulted a of assessment was made design for aft camber variation which utilised the profile developed by the two for A forward the solution was not possible practical authors., camber aforementioned leading (LE) the It translational motion of edge and element. rotational with variation is recommended therefore that in order to relieve the LE suction peaks the LE element is A drooped. be which proposed maintains a smooth profile on geometry only should t273 investigations (aerodynamic) Initial computational suggested that the upper surface. (for the aft geometry LE proposed a supercritical aerofoil) with along geometry this ideal for distribution. top be The an roof to pressure providing suitable proved is LE for the to geometry very much similar changing a number method recommended include These developed RAEVAMIl and the been the have to-date. ideas that of In view of this and to give more time to develop the more important F-111 MAW[121[141. development further forward the on work of a camber configuration, edge trailing in this project. carried-out not was system varying

for aft cambervariation 7.2.1.1.2 Alterriative2-D geometries


for distribution the basic aerofoil section and the VC geometry The chordwise pressure loading. The large in the experiences aft that considerable aerofoil extensions showed induced high VC during into torsional the aft the stresses operations observed chord loads due device. TE box This is to the due the aerodynamic acting on structural wing between TE large the arm air-load and the centre of rigidity. The the moment to be in to these required accept can stresses considerable, material resulting structural

145 -

high structural weight and stiff design. This initial uncertainty of the proposed scheme resulted in considering alternative geometries with a reduced torsional arm.

The momentarm may be reducedby either decreasing the radiusof curvature(R) or the camber shouldbe varied without increasingthe chord. An illustration of these for Section (see Chapter is Aerofoil B Two) in Figure 7.1 (TESB4) given geometries and 7.2 (TESB5).
Decreasedchordal extension (IESB4) For the first of the two methods the TE element is rotated on a circular arc. The is (A) the the of rotation on upper surface of point set at 90 % chord and the position is half deploy this the value for TESBI. Deflection by to approximately point radius this method indicatessharp changesin sectionalcurvature at A which will allow marked increase in lift at high subsonic speedsbut usually with an increasein drag. by an arc drawn from A to B (Figure 7. la). The TE element in this schemeis separated A much sharper curvature cuts the rear spar near the wing centre-line, thus allowing Deployment be by top the side. on can structure meansof guide rails fixed to a rigid this structure with roller carriages attachedto the TE device. A flexible under surface keep is to the the necessary undersideattachedto the TE device. rear spar at clamped Discontinuities appearing on the underside are unavoidable and are considered to be insignificant. The VC system shown in Figure 7.1a can be combined with a double slotted flap for VC/flap The be the combination mechanism can similar to a conventional system. double slotted flap arrangement. An example of such an arrangement is the B767, 7.1b. in Figure shown

The under surfacecan be spring loaded,suchthat during high lift operationit closes the top surfaceshroudand the lower side. the gap formed between to be an ideal solution From a practicalpoint of view this scheme can be considered following the advantages: with - . flap type slotted conventional of arrangement, -A drive Solid and positive system, inclusionof a spoiler, Possibility of behind Moving are the wing rear spar, thereforethere is no elements all invasionof fuel space,

146 -

Clamped kinks, therefore under surface plate, no is The too system not complex, and inspect is It to and maintain. easy -

This VC geometry(MB4) was proposedfor the A-9011",a short haul passenger designwere developed aircraft with the wing quarterchordline sweptat 250. Pratical. for both the inner wing[411 and the outer wingl4l].
Aft camber variation without chordal extension Elimination of chordal extension is possible by simply preventing any translational 7.2 Figure TE the shows the necessarychangesmade to the VC element. of motion 2.7b) (Figure TESBI which acceptszero chordal extension, and at the same profile of time gives a relatively smooth curvature. The extended chord (C,, + CBI) is reduced to the basic chord (CB)by shifting the deployed section ABC', such that C' lies on the % (100 Point A (maximum chord). as co-ordinates x/c curvature) moves same -C (to first A" A' then to to match the upper surface at 54 % chord). In doing so, across it reduces and changesthe shapeof the structural box. The centre of rotation for are A'-A" shifts from (0.506, -1.5778) to (0.3167, -1.5704). From the structural point of is the torque reduced appreciable, the reduction in structural box area although view, Initial increase the torsional calculations suggesta possible increment stresses. would 2%. of approximately Continuity between the TE element and the wing box section is provided by flexible lower both Both the the skins are fixed to the centre and surfaces. upper on skins section at one end and at the other end the upper surface skin is attached to the TE device, while the lower surface skin simply sits under the TE device without being fixed.
Vti

Detailed design of the mechanism for this geometry has not been considered. It is in device it TE have be to the that to order actuke would pivoted through a envisaged 0. The be held the point surface about upper skin can arm continuously between crank links. One end of each link must be attached through a series two of pivoting the ends to the crank arm while the other end can be fixed to the flexible upper surface skin. On actuating the TE device, the pivoting action of the crank arm would push the links accordingly, which would change the profile of the upper surface skin to the required degree. The lower surface can be pushed up or down depending on the movement of high For lift a simple drop flap operated independently is device. TE the

147

recommended. Aerodynamically this schemehas the following advantages: kinks therefore the Clamped no on under skin, side, surface and under be to It section. any aerofoil applied can -

The major disadvantages of this systemare:link it That and mechanisms, complex requires for into box intrusion deployment the the It structural support and necessitates device. TE the of mechanism
7.2.1.1.3 Comparison of the proposed and alternative concepts SchemesTESB4 appearsto be both structurally and mechanically better than scheme TESB3 (Figure 2.11). SchemeTESB5 appearsto be complex and could be unreliable. The geometries of both the above schemes were designed to seek an alternative ideas is Camber these with either of variation not smooth and structural concept. higher higher Therefore settings camber will give suction peaks and continuous. is drag. It therefore increase to test the theseprofiles recommended aerofoil probably designs. these before proceeding with theoretically 7.2.1.2 Three dimensional (3-D) camber variation This is possible by dividing the LE and TE control devices into several spanwise in-line flight ideal deployment found is the that these It of of segments was segments. is due The This to the tapering the and sweep effects of wing. resulting not possible. investigations proved that if the rotational and translational motion is combined then the deployment of the VC system must be on a conical hinge-line, Le the segmentsmust Both impracticality frustum the structural and cone. mechanical of a of ride on a drawbacks increases in the the aerodynamic with possible and motion, a such achieving deployment is drag, that modified programme a slightly necessary. suggested overall Hence the segmentsof the proposed aft VC schemeare deployed parallel to the wing These Four). Chapter (see to the are placed ribs perpendicular angle of sweep of ribs the hinge-line. devices TE for the proposedschemeshould be made to twist and the that is It suggested for to the differing track radii at the two ends of each the allow chord flex along

148 -

segment. The suggestedmethod of varying the camber along the span will of course suffer fiom in drag) (increase disadvantages profile since the segmentsare all skewed aerodynamic be investigated flight. This line must aerodynamically'before aspect to the of design. The is if the to the adjacent system proposed satisfying pursue attempting The deployed the angle. same problem arises when two adjacent at segmentsare VC different settings. at are segments The alternative geometriespresentedabove in Section 7.2.1.2 must also allow for these 3-D effects. The extra link mechanismsrequired to flex the TE devices of the TESB5 (Figure 7.2) and conically warp the flexible surfacesof the TESB4 (Figure 7. la) will flexible heavy. The be likely upper surface will require support and complex most further This increase intermediate the complexities of this will positions. the span along idea. The change in profile of the TE device support structure on the second scheme (due to flexing of the box across the span) will introduce manufacturing difficulties. 7.2.2 Application of the Variable Camber Wing (VCW) Details are given in Chapter Four of an aircraft selectedas a typical candidate for the The Future VCW Large Aircraft the the chosen aircraft was concept. of application (FLA), sponsored by EuroFLAG (see Appendix A). The detailed design of the is that the suggests scheme system camber varying very simple provided proposed aft be box device TE can made to twist without a complex link structural that the mechanism. installing benefits such a system are:the of major Three of 1) improved performance and therefore reduced fuel consumption, 2) Operational flexibility, and 3) Load relief due to atmospheric gusts and high 'g' manoeuvres. is below: these given Further explanation of -

jjyd

flexibility and operational performance

it is that the cruisePerformance point of view expected From an aerodynamic of the including by improve the VC system (assumingthat the considerably FLA will device increase does TE drag). Evidence the segments the not of of suchan skewness improvementis given in Figure 7.3 and 7.4. WhereFigure 7.3 depictsthe variation

149 -

in lift coefficient (CL) againstincidenceand Figure 7.4 showsthe lift to drag (UD) 2 degrees high 0,1 0.74. Mach for VC Thesewere and at speed of no of settings ratio information suppliedby Macldnnonm derived by convertingthe 2-D computational in It that ESDU the assumed change was profile acrossthe wing was sheetst81. using is from Figure It 7.4 that the IJD ratio the apparent segments. six. all madewith in increase increases aft camber. The maximumUD ratio for the aircraft with with P is Appendix A). With 18.68 (see basic also cambersettingacrossthe wing the wing 21-8. UD to the rises ratio span
by the FLA In Appendix A an estimation is made of-the approximate fuel mass -required Tiiiis how Braguet the range of-a-t-rai-nip-ortthe equation shows equation. range using -iiu-ch L/D Evaluation is ft -dependent the Lara lic fy I on ratio. of the equation suggested v in rc te ratio of aircraft mass at the start of cruise to the aircraft mass at the end of that tt the increasing is 1.1546. L/D By 21.6, the MI/M2 drops (MI/M2) 1.13. to to ratio r uis pruise Jim With te in fuel in 16% it ] consumption This reduction improv results re., s is therefore possible-(6-i-n-c-re-asCeitF6-r--t-he-payload mass or the cruise range if the Studies is be by GreftJ221 to maintained. carried-out mass gross suggestthat maximum fowler long-range through on motion a a aircraft configuration gives camber variation 4% improvement in L/D ratio. Even though the system shown suffers from a mild discontinuity on the upper surface. A common practice in the design of a transport aircraft is to use the wing structural box for fuel storage. It is therefore suggestedthat the bulk of the fuel for the FLA should be stored in its wings. One of the main reasonsfor following this practice is that the inertial loads q=icularly at high 'g' case) continuously help relieve the wing from by loads. is It the bending by aerodynamic caused that moments envisaged excess improved due inertia fuel loads to the the performance, mass will also be reducing in increased is This structure mass which result will required to carry the reduced. bending loads (particularly near the root regions of the wing). The extra bending by further be VC Such the therefore utilising relieved system. must a situation moment law in input will require control which to optimise complex a a command may result load distribution the UD optimise simultaneously and across the wing span. ratio the These feature must be studied and quantified in order to justify the advantageoffered in improving VC the performance. by the system j)uring its mission the weight of an aircraft decreasesas it bums fuel. Thus for I 'g' flight the aircraft lift reduceseither by reducing the lift coefficient (C,) or by reducing For flight it is best to maintain a cruise C;- in dynamic an optimum pressure. the

150 -

increase it is to the this the cruise altitude (decreasing to often case order achieve densityso UD ratio remains density),Le cruiseclimb. Drag decreases with decrease decreases density Furthermore, engine power with reduced air and so constant. is kept without changingenginesetting. From air traffic control Thrust/Dragbalance be it is believed With that the climbing cruise can a source of concern. of view point vC systemthe aircraft can operateat optimumUD ratio and thereforeno restrictions it into imposed be can slot any air space. since altitude, on need Load distribution
Figure 7.5a representsa unit load distribution on the FLA wing in its basic uncambered is is distribution flying Such that normally associated with a wing a at configuration. deflection high 'g' incidence the the of control surfaces, such as without gust an integral Double distribution (which this of manoeuvres. pitching curve and conditions is elliptical) from tip to root gives a unit bending moment of 0.43 near the wing root the (i. the This position of spanwise centre represents of pressure effectively e region. bending moment /load). One of the main assetsof the VC system is that it can be used for manoeuvre load (GLA). load To (MLQ achieve thesethe centre of pressure alleviation and gust control bending inwards. For to the (BM) be relieve maximum example moment shifted must for a 2.5 g manoeuvrecasesuch that it is equivalent to a 1.5 g casethe spanwise, centre 0.43) / 2.5 (1.5 0.258 P) (C load The to shift x of must semi-span. = pressure of distribution associatedwith this shift in C of P will be similar to that depicted in Figure 7.5b. Such a distribution can only be possible by applying a low or negative camber be increased. the the Figure in II root camber must tip nearer the while region near Appendix F gives a concrete evidence of variation in spanwise camber attainable to is CL* It the that type assumed of spanwise variation shown could the required suite FLA justification Full the the be of size wing. on a wing possible of this certainly J271 data by the translation experimental virtue of considerable amount of of requires calculations. 7.2.3 Comparison of the Proposed (VC) System to a Conventional Single Slotted Flap Arrangement high lift on requirement suggestedthat the FLA will require Preliminary calculations TE flap LE (see for Appendix A details). The slotted single and a slat conventional a flap be in TE to to three the was The system assumed split segments. of size of span

151 -

inboard VC is the the three the span of segments(discussedin as same these segments Chapter Four). The outboard track design suggestedfor the intermediate TE flap is has five 7.7 (this VCW in the Figure the same span as segment on segment of the given FLA). Estimates were madeof the loads experienceby the flap. These together with in flap The the few proposed scheme. was assumedto resulted stressingcalculations a be supported on three flap tracks made in Titanium along its spanvia rollers. Each flap track is mounted off the rear spar and roller carriages are fixed on chordwise flap ribs. All the tracks protrude outside the basic aerofoil and therefore require cover fairings. Comparison of Ilie flap system shown in Figure 7.7 with the proposed VC system in is latter the the undeployedposition and also when all the cleaner that much suggests deployed the setting. at same set segmentsare Estimated mass of the outboard track for the flap scheme is 63 kg while for the VC flap design TE device box have kg. is 146 Detailed the it the of and structural system is likely it be but that their to the been masses are assumed of same out, carried not be likely the two is the that it mass of overall system will very much the also order. include flap the The the mass total slotted conventional arrangement span of will same. (three flap fairings With VC track the systems per and nine segment). the cover of be heavy the A tracking will six structure systems. the complete predominantly system be flap has been the two the only made can once systems system comparison of designed in detail. It is recommendedtherefore to accurately assessthe number of flap for the total tracks the and span number of needper segmentand required segments their positions. VC from the the requirement to hold system'suffers, In terms of mechanicalcomplexity To down achieve this a track roller arrangement continuously. the upper surface skin be This prone to contamination and probable will obviously system is proposed. jamming if not protected. Furthermore the continuous operation of the system will Complexity further increase if and the maintenance. attention will considerable require TE device structural box includes link arrangementsfor providing adequatetwist. As increase. is likely it the that also will structural weight a result flap design the apparent complexity is in the design of the the With conventional flap The to the to tracks take three positions. These allow are shaped system. tracking deployed for deployed (10*) (00), for landing (300). To take off and being the nested between the tracks the front and rear roller has to be fairly pitch small have relatively in flap motion during deployment and the distance between the The change small.

152

free lack lead to of movement andprobabilityof roller sticking. The track rollers may from design is VC fairly this the high the since would not suffer roller pitch of system is the are. on a continuous motion and
The proposed design for the VCW also realises the following advantages over a conventional system:it is a single control system across the span, therefore there is no requirement for an aileron, extra high lift units and spoilers for low speed roll control. Inclusion of these on a conventional wing will result in additional weight, The design can be made fairly conventional, The system can be used for gust load alleviation (GLA) and manoeuvreload

control (MLQ. It is important to note however that roll control may be inadequate,even with the total VC distribution the system. of asymmetric The proposed VC systemrequires tracking systemwhich invades the fuel space. Initial by into fuel 10 % taking due the to this volume account available reduction of estimation invasion suggest that there is sufficient space for the total fuel needed for maximum range. 7.2.4 Design and Testing of a Trailing Edge (TE) Variable Camber (VC) Structural Model The development of the VC system into a structural model justifies the potential of the in Cost limitation several assumptions and 'shortcuts' for resulted VC concept. designing and manufacturing the model. These include:had to be made in laminated wood, and device TE The which design The the rails. of conforming Discussions with regard to conical deployment suggest that the spanwise variation in by TE In have is the flexibility to segment. order warping possible adequate camber in both the chordwise and spanwise directions, the TE device should be made from a fibres. Such a system requires considerableamount of composite carbon or equivalent detailed design study from the point of view of both stiffness, strength and fatigue aspects.

for achievingconical deployment is by introducingpin jointed An alternativescheme in 7.8. Figure Double joint that fittings are placed shown as such pin arrangement track and the TE deviceat the inboard(I/B) andoutboard(0/13) betweenthe extending

153 -

The the varying track radius at the two ends will causethe TE device segment. of ends to move laterally along the span (I/B to 0/11). For the same reason the vertical deflection of the I/B end of the segmentwill be more than the O/B end. The vertical laterally, horizontal device TE to the the move while pins should assist pins will allow the vertical pitching movement. The rails required at the intermediate span positions (not shown) to conform the upper surface skin will be fixed to the laterally moving TE device. These rails must therefore be shaped such that they ride on a frustum of a is idea in 7.8 briefly Figure during that The the an was considered shown system cone. latter part of this project. Development of this schemehas therefore not been possible. It is thus recommendedthat this schemealong with the warping box idea previously discussed should be designed in detail to assessthe potential of spanwise camber variation. It can be argued that the static test set up for measuring the upper surface skin deflections is not a good representationof the actual situation. The purpose of this test however.was not to simulate the actual loading and environmental conditions. it was devise deflections to the to cost effective and way measure a simple skin necessary finite be (FE) intention The then a similar element with compared model. could which for in future FE that, the such to analysis confidence work the upper surface was gain deflection Indeed further for tests. both the the the static results require not will skin do FE bags the show a good correlation. In any case analysis the and sand tests with (sliding the design tags) proved to the retaining strips and elements conforming of the be inadequateto fully load the upper surface skin while it was assembledas part of the it design Furthermore to the necessary was model. upper surface such that structural it had adequatestiffness. Of course the exercise would have no value if simply a thin flexed for be By the skin to surface which upper with used ease. choosing were sheet lay-up (for the scale and size of the be believed is to material and an appropriate what TE segment), a considerable effort was required to change the skin profile with the In tag the comparison arrangement. sliding with and strip conforming track conforming for FLA the from this high link wing, proposed system arrangement, suffers roller and friction due to large contact area. For future work it is suggestedthat the upper surface skin should be appropriately loaded during the operation of the structural model. This will require a good design for the rollers and fittings that help maintain a curvature on the upper surface skin. The successof the proposed concept of varying the camber depends heavily on the the TE device. is it to the Ideally of upper attachment surface skin continuous

154 -

by loads to the upper surfacewhile this to applying representative monitor necessary illustrates 7.9 Figure the onepossibilityof carryingout continuously. operating system inverted is The test. with a set of compression model mounted springspulling sucha load distribution,springsof different stiffness the uppersurfacesIdn. For appropriate in device is TE deployed. the This be The the tension as will vary springs used. could increase decrease loading be the to or therefore on the uppersurfacesIdn used could as per requirement.
Also shown in Figure 7.9 is a technique to load the TE device with varying load along the chord. A set of rams are placed along the chord at several spanwise stations. These are fixed to a frame at one end while the other end pushesthe TE device. The frame can be made to translateon a rail during camber variation. It therefore requires have deploy the the (possibly to the same two) stroke as actuators which used actuators TE device. Ram pressureto load the TE device could be varied to suit the chordwise in the distribution change camber. with associated pressure

155

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165

CHAI'TER EIGHT CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


8.1 CONCLUSIONS The emphasis of this project was to investigate the feasibility of a variable implications. by This the (VCW) structural and mechanical considering wing camber has been demonstratedby designing a half scale three dimensional system to vary the 1) testing this section and system under realistic aerofoil critical a super of aft camber loads. Deflections of the system were measured and these were compared with the finite element predictions. The correlation between the two sets of results was found to be good. find kinematics investigations to dimensional Two a solution suggestthat it is 2) forward camber variation on a super critical aerofoil impossible to achieve practically As deployment by a result an arc. alternative circular on a geometry rotation section drooped the Continuity the nose of aerofoil. was simply which was considered lower both literature flexible the A by and upper on surfaces. skins survey maintained indicated designs that a number of practical systems accepting camber on variable been developed. have Further development by this already method camber variation immediately therefore for not necessary. similar system was work for by The aft camber variation was successfully geometry maintained 3) required in by held the a guide of rollers rail series on a flexible upper surface and a skin a is developed in The it lower that flap method the novel surface. gives a hinged on between the trailing curvature variable camber continuous edge a with profile smooth details Full deployment the the device centre section. of geometry and wing (TE) and 2.2.1.2 in Chapter Section Two. The design translating of given are the proposed increased the therefore TE the torsional moment arm and the element stress of motion due to aft loading. In an endeavour to reduce the moment arm, two alternative One through camber variation provided reduced radii of considered. were geometries by drooping the the camber simply other varied without any curvature while From the be these point thought aerodynamic of view to motion. were translational in There was insufficient the changes curvatures not smooth. were since unsuitable in the the It changes for aerodynamic of current study. examination was analytic time further development ideas decided to these postpone work on until such therefore information was available.

10

166 -

investigations dimensional Three showed that spanwise camber geometric , deployment devices in-line flight ideal of camber controlling through of was variation is The that tapered. transport typical wing swept and aircraft required not possible on a deploying devices by the be aforementioned conically which obtained profile can only be The flex frustrum to cone. rotating elements must either made a of a on must ride in both chordwise and spanwise directions or they must be supported on a pin jointed 4) arrangement. 5) Comparison of the proposed VC system with a preliminary design of a for flap that the the same aircraft suggests new arrangement slotted single conventional be The the two is systems could of the same mass of VC system mechanically simple.

order. Estimates made of the possible performance improvements by applying the 16 % in fuel this to aircraft suggest a reduction proposed variable camber system 6) consumption. WORK FUTURE FOR RECOMMENDATIONS 8.2 be development further pursued as part of the continuing can which areas Some (VCW) development the the of variable camber towards wing system, effort research discussed: it's are now viablity, practical and economical to ensure forward for front the the camber The varying of spar geometry 1) , proposed be in detail The design must studied solution and possibly scheme. requires a loaded for testing conditions. under manufactured for (behind the rear spar) camber variation can the The aft 2) proposed concept doing deployment. In the true the so conical profile across parallel with work only is is Such TE that the is acceptable provided motion element retained. not wing span in laminated wood for the structural model device TE design The flex. the of to made degree. In order for the system to be practical it is to, this certain a accepts in composite fibre reinforced plastic (FRP). be TE the that should made recommended in 7.8 Figure suggestsa possiblealternative for conical deployment The schemeshown further by This be joint the considering scheme arrangement. must pursued pin with detail design aspectsof the fittings.

167 -

Comparison of thesetwo systemsis necessarysuch that a lighter solution with minimum is complexities realised

Practicaldesigns for are requiredfor the two alternativedeployment geometries aft cambervariation. 3)
The continuous operation of the system under loaded conditions needs further designed for track This roller system an appropriately requires changing justification. the upper surface skin profile (similar to the design suggestedin Chapter Four). 4) 5) is neededto Fatigue testing along with reliability analysis (systemsassessment) degradation due to and of material properties contamination effects quantify possible (particularly the composite upper surface skin). An optimisation program is required to size the VC segmentsby considering: i) The aerodynamic requirement (from the point of view of ideal load distributions to flight conditions), and all suit ii) The structural and practical aspects, Le flexural deformation, redundancy and fail Chapter Four). (see also etc safe, engine position, The advantagesoffered by the VCW in terms of operational flexibility suggests However be designed be there a common wing. with can can marked that aircraft differences in the number (and position), size and type of enginesrequired for operating With flight the application of the VC concept a missions. of range through varying 7) integration. be to the to engine assess conducted study needs Kinematics of high lift devices combined with the VC system require detailed design Le the the possibilities of control mechanismrequired to operate the assessment, 8) VC system and an auxiliary flap. I

depends Successful operation of the variablecamberwing concept on automated Assessment (which the be fail of systems requirement controls. must safe computer be redundancy) must madeto establishthe practical possibility of considerable with the wing profile. changing continuouslY 9)

168 -

Detailed comparison of the direct operating cost, mass and performance must be made with conventional control system if the variable camber system is to be 10) justified.

169 -

REFERENCES [1] SpiUman, J. J. A New Approach to Wing Design. Aerogram, Vol 4 No. 1, Cranfield Institute of Technology, 1985 [21 Gould, D. K. Variable Camber Wings. Home Built Experimental Aircraft, Theory 1975 Symposium, Proceedings the Practice, of and [3] Cole, J. B. Airplane Wing Leading Edge Variable Camber Flap. Commercial Airplane Company Boeing

[41 Pierce, D. Treadgold, D. A Simple Mechanical System to Vary a Wing Section Shape to Suit Various Flight Conditions. RAE Technical Memorandum O`M) Aero 1149,1969 [51 Moss, G. F. Haines, A. B. Jordan, R. The Effect of Leading Edge Geometry on High SpeedStalling. Conferenceproceedings on Fluid Dynamics of Aircraft Stalling, AGARD-CP-102,1972 [6] Rowarth, R. 1980 [71 Brown, S. T. Statkus, F. D. Variable Camber Aircraft Wing Tip. United States Patent No. 4429844,1984 Variable Camber Wing. United Kingdom Patent No. 20593684,

[81 Cole, J. B. Variable CamberLeading Edge Assemblyfor an Aerofoil. United StatesPatentNo. 4706913,1987
[9] Ishimitsu, K. K. Mechanisationand Utilisation of Variable Camber in Fighter and Attack Airplanes. Boeing Airplane Company Report No. D180-15377-1,1973

[10] Gould, D. K. Variable CamberWing - PhaseI-Final Report, Boeing Airplane CompanyReportNo. D180-17606-1,1973
[11] Davice, D. F. Development of Variable Camber System for a Supercritical Wing. AFFDL-TR-76-65t 1976

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[12] Gilbert, W. W. Mission Adapove Wing System for Tactical Aircraft. J Aircraft Vol 18 No. 7,1981

[131Moore, M. Frei, D. X-29 ForwardSweptWing Aerodynamic Overview. AIAA Conference, AIAA-83-1834,1983 Applied Aerodynamic
[14] Moxon, J., Mission Adaptive Wing. Flight International, Vol 128, IOh August 1985, pp 22-25. [15] Boeing Commercial Airplane Company. Assessment of Variable Camber Wing for Application to Transport Aircraft. NASA CR 158430,1980 [16] Hillq T. G. , Variable Area, Variable Camber Wing for Aircraft. Patent No. 3904152,1975 United States

[171 Sharrock, B. Variable Camber Wing. United StatesPatent No. 4361299,1982 [18] Sharrock, B. Halliday, D. P. Aircraft Wing and Flap Arrangement. United States Patent No. 4395008,1983 [191 Hilbig, H. Wagner, H. Variable Wing Camber Control for Civil Transport Aircraft. International Council for Aerospace Science 1984, ICAS-84-5.2.1. pp 243248. [201 Renken, J. H. Mission Adaptive Wing Control System for Transport Aircraft. AIAA 31 Applied Aerodynamic Conference, AIAA-85-5006,1985 [21) Szodruch, J. Hilbig, R. Variable Wing Camber for transport Aircraft. Aerospace Science Vol 25 pp 297-329,1988

Designand Integrationof a Variable CamberWing for [22] Greff, E. Aerodynamic Long/Medium Aircraft. Range International Generation Council for Aerospace New a Science1988,ICAS-88-2.2.3
[231 Greff, E. The Development and Design Integration of a Variable Camber Wing for Long/Medium RangeAircraft. Aeronautical Journal Paper No. 1750,1990

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[24] Rao, A. Variable camber Wing for a Transport Aircraft. PhD Thesis, Cranfield Institute of Technology, 1989

[25] Lunn, J. D. WeightEffectsof a VariableCamberWing. Msc Thesis,Cranfield Institute of Technology.1987


[26] Spillman, J. J. Stollery, J. L. A proposal for a Researchon Variable Camber Wing for Transport Aircraft, 1989, Unpublished [271 Mackinnon, A. V. An Experimental Study of a Variable Camber Wing. PhD Thesis, Cranfield Institute of Technology, 1992 [28] Spillman, J. J. The Use of Variable Camber to Reduce Drag, Weight and Cost Journal, Royal Aeronautical Society Aeronautical Paper No. Aircraft. Transport of 1844, January 1992 [29] Torenbeek, E. The Synthesis of Subsonic Airplane Design. Delft university Press, 1986 [301 Young J. B. 'STRUCT', College of Aeronautics Structural Analysis Computer Programme, Cranfield Institute of Technology [311 Howe, D. College of Aeronautics Loading Analysis Notes, Cranfield Institute of Technology. [321 Structural Dynamics Research Corpration. Modelling", Users Guide, 1990 SDRC-IDEAS Finite Element

[331 Young J. B. 'CoALA', College of Aeronautics Laminate Analysis Computer Code, Cranfield Institute of Technology

MaterialProperties [341Young, J. B. Collegeof Aeronautics andDesignDataSheets, Cranfield Instituteof Technology [351Niu, M. C. Y. Airframe StructuralDesign, 1990
[361Macreedys Glynwed Steelsand Engineering Ltd. EngineeringProperties of Free Cutting Steel

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[371 James Lathem Limited. Material Properties of Jelutong. Wood Merchants, Simpson Road, Fenny Stratford, Bletchley, Milton Kynes, United Kingdom [381 CEBA-GEIGY Plastics and Additives Company. Low Temperature Curing PrePreg for Composites with Outstanding Environmental Resistance. CIBA-GEIGY information Sheet No. FTA. 46d, 1983 [39] Structural Polymer Systems Ltd. Information Sheeton 150' Epoxy Laminating System SP695 [40] ESDU W 01.01.01. Lift Curve Slope of Swept and Tapered Wings, 1981 [41] Fielding, J. P. Design Specification for A-90 500 Seater Short Haul Airliner, College of Aeronautics. Cranfield Institute of Technology, 1990 [42] Larrive, L. Design of Variable Camber Inner Flaps for the A-90 Project. College of Aeronautics, Cranfield Institute of Technology, 1991 [431 Landryq J. G. N. Variable Camber Outer Flaps for the A-90 Project. College Cranfield Institute Technology, 1991 Aeronautics, of of

173 -

APPENDIX A PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF THE FUTURE LARGE AIRCRAFT (BASELINE CONFIGURATION)

NOTA-TION

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SVT T-ORUN T-035

TJMG 0/01 0/0, VC VCFVS1 Vo X P

Wing Aspectratio Aerodynamicmeanchord (in) Wing span(in) Spanof the horizontaltail unit (in) Spanof the vertical tail unit (in) Drag coefficient Lift coefficient Wing root chord (in) Wing tip chord (in) (in) Externaldiameterof the fuselage Geometricmeanchord (in) Aircraft serviceceiling (in) Lift top drag ratio length (in) Fuselage Landing run (ft) Landingfrom 50 feet screen(ft) Fuel mass(Kg) Aircraft landing mass(Kg) Payloadmass(Kg) Maximum take off mass(Kg) Wing loading (Kg/0) factor Normal acceleration Operatingempty mass(Kg) Maximum fuel range(nm) Maximum payloadrange(nm) Wing planformarea(0) Horizontal tail area(in) Vertical tail area (in) Take off run (ft) Take off to 35 ft screen(ft) Thrust to weight ratio Wing thickness to chord ratio at the root Wing thickness to chord ratio at the tip Cruise speed(Knots or m/s) Economiccruise speed(Knots or m/s) Stalling speed(Knotsor m/s) Designdiving speed(Knots or m/s) Wing taperratio Air density(Kg/m)

174 -

A. I BRIEF HISTORY OF THE FUTURE LARGE AIRCRAFT (FLA) In 1982 Aerospatial in France, British Aerospace(BAe) in United Kingdom, Lockheed Georgia in the USA and Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm (MBB) in Germany (all companies with transport aircraft manufacturing experience) teamed to carry out in future Aeritalia Italy in for CASA transport needs. and military studies preliminary Spain joined the team in 1987. The FIMA (Future International Military Airlifter) is been has known it (as then since reorganised and now called), as was group EuroFLAG (European Future Large Aircraft Group), becauseLockheed is no longer in joint Euroflag team. the are currently engaged partners studies an active member of forces European transporters the the to the existing with air replace at to address need the turn of the century. The Euroflag sponsoredFuture Large Aircraft (FLA) is aimed in Air Force; in 130 Royal Transall C. 160 Cthe the the the and primarily at replacing German Air Force and French Air Forcet'". Both C-130 and C. 160 are optimised for shorthaul and their cargo compartmentsare force for for the the modem army and air customer. of example, needs relatively small bulks 14-16 C-130 the tonne mark. Helicopters have the out at the stretched version of in Hercules, fit has been down transport the to and personnel be always to stripped hot or absolutely freezing inside. is It and either very noisy cramped, uncomfortable. The Hercules was designedin 1950's and Transall suffers from the samebasic comfort problems. for improved FLA design basic the are the criteria payload/range/ cruise In general hold including a airlifters, wide of optimised the cargo generation present speed over improved field bearing tail performance and load crew and passenger very good ramp, a from develop that FLA to a common airframe aircraft could perform an seeks comfort. freighter transport or advancedearly warning (AEW) roles. A. 2 INITIAL AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATION AND PRELIMINARY REQUIREMENTS Owing to the nature of the role of the aircraft and the fact that it is a new and a joint details FLA information the the specification overall and geometric of regarding pursuit, In firm by the the be absence partners. of a any of requirement an released could not initial specification was developed based on the information obtained from several literature journal included data base. This articles magazine and computer and sources.

derivative implying 146, be BAe FLA thought followed the that that as a of of could It in design between terms be two the of wing aircraft and general similarities there will longer (approximately l5ft) is have fuselage The to a aircraft arrangement. aircraft 1) A. 12ft, Hercules C130H-30 (Table ft) anda wider (between the and 15 than stretched is have high 'T' floor. It to tail hold arrangement. a cargo 400 knots which will comparewell Transit speedof the FLA will be approximately 300 for C-130H-30. be knots. knots High Economic the 325 cruise speed will with Mach 0.75 No. 0.7 dash to of of capabilities are envisaged. speed

175 -

The FLA would be powered by four contra-rotating propfan engines. The baseline four four Hamilton is 578D Alison the plus engine with standard swept powerplant blade propellers. It is to have "fairly good" field performance with minimum take-off field being be 4000ft Thus 3000 talked to about. rough performance will slightly of run improved on the C-130H-30's take-off roll and landing runs will be within 2,500-3000ft. Maximum take-off mass (MTOM) is suggestedto be between 192,000 in both bulk, lb's. 200,000 terms of weight and requirements are aimed -Payload and by fact C-130. In is the the tentative doubling the capabilities provided plan airlift at for FLA to carry 25 tonnes of cargo, with an increase of 1000-1500 nm range over fuel 30min 5% C-130 and an additional reserves at sea-level. of minimum the with State-of-the-artavionics will allow day/night all-weather operations from semi-prepared be built for low-level The desert field the aircraft will rugged and strips. or grass forward battle Survivability to the edge close of area (FEBA) must be tactical role. improved by good and reliable airframe/structural design. Primary missions for the aircraft are:Air-lifting ammunition, of general stores, military vehicles, air-landing and helicopter. and systems weapon Air-lifting troops military other passengers. and of Air-dropping troops, stores, ammunition, palletised weapons of and other equipment. Casualty evacuation. medical and The FLA is to have in-flight refuelling capabilities. Short take-off and landing (STOL) high lift devices flap. be conventional such using as slotted achieved capabilities will Spoilers will be employed for roll control. A. 3 CONCEPTUAL AND PRELIMINARY DESIGN STUDY (BASELINE CONFIGURATION) The information given above is obviously very limited in identifying the exact features determine In details its loading to the order requirements. parametric of the aircraft and balancing, it targets, to mass performance configuration, etc, aircraft was with regards design be It that this study. must noted to study was a preliminary carry out necessary data on the two aerofoil was available and therefore before the aerodynamic undertaken be details compared. not should the fuselage design layout, tail the that the aircraft, regarding overall thought of It was be design/layout, time-consuming etc, would configuration, under carriage and section initial final for development VC Thus largely the the system. of work not necessary design layout the the of wing, performance analysis and on and concentrated weights/loading estimates.

to military/commercial studies madeof theaircraft comparable Detailsof theparametric in Table 1. A. presented are application airlifter
The initial specification and the study of previous designs together with informative

176 -

discussions with BAe (Commercial Aircraft Ltd) provided the starting point for some layout schemes. These were an attempt to bring together the main features of the feasible Several into alternatives with regards to wing loading configuration. aircraft 2 initial A. Table the contains considered. specification target were and geometry figures for the FLA.

A. 3.1 Initial Aircraft Layout


The basic form of wing for an airlifter type of aircraft would be one of high aspectratio it low loading to large to achieve moderately wing enable area and small planform and induced drag. The wing would require some amount of sweepbackto allow a transit drag 0.75 0.7 Mach suffering rise effects. without number of cruise It was envisaged that a modem supercritical aerofoil would be used to obtain the increased depth. both and structural sweep wing reduced advantagesof fuselage is in to the location the most cases dependent on the The wing relative of is For the transport airlifters wing often mounted on top of operational requirements. is for C-130, This Ilyushin 11-76, Le, high true the fuselage, arrangement. wing the Lockheed C-5A Galaxy and many other transport aircraftIA21. Such an arrangement for (wing helps It have the to engines mounted). also clearance ground sufficient allows in loading/unloading fairly to the to the fuselage assist ground of cargo. With close the design it is to low a simple undercarriageunits that could possible ground clearance this be installed within the fuselage. These argumentstherefore suggestthat the FLA will have a high wing arrangement. An artist impression of the FLA (taken from reference [A fl) shown in Figure A. I support this suggestion. Tactical and strategic mission requirements for the FLA call for an optimised cargo hold volume with the design payload mass and large rear loading door. The aircraft hold. Details height layout the have cargo of and width overall constant a of the must fuselage were not available accept that length would be approximately 15ft longer than the C-130H-30. It was therefore assumedat this stage to retain the external shapeof length increase C-130 the accordingly. Hercules and the for be 'T' tail required maximum tail arm and freedom would arrangement A trimming from wing and engine induced turbulence.

Solution Towards the 3.2 A.

design to a specification establish preliminary and the detailedwing In an attempt it decided in FLA, to [A3], the the [A41, was use methods given reference of geometry [A51. ' and andaircraftperformance A. 3.2.1 Wing loading
_Low z liftjequiremen Spg!

lift N4aximumattainable coefficient (C,,, j with the supercriticalsection design by

I-

177 -

Two) is 1.25. It wasnecessary Mackinnon [A6] (seeChapter to includea leadingedge (LE) noseslat anda trailing edge(TE) flap in order to increase this value suchthat the for both the tack-off (T-0) andlandingconditionsare satisfied. low speed requirements Preliminary estimations were madeusing the methodgiven in reference[A31. The high lift devices has following the with characteristics: aerofoil proposed
The aerofoil requires a LE slat of 17% chord which is to be deflected at 15* for both the take off and landing conditions. The aerofoil experiencesan increment in CL Of about 0.6. Towards the aft region a single slotted flap of 30% chord is required. This is to be deflected through 10*and 30* for T-0 and landing conditions respectively. The possible C, increment with these settings being 0.272 (10') and 0.724 (300). Total 3-D Cj, ,. is 2.122 2.574 for for T-0 and landing conditions therefore the and aerofoil attainable limit decided CL..., 1.875 It for to the to the former and 2.5 required was respectively. for the latter. Take off (10) field distanc

For the C- 130 the take off distance to 35 ft screen is 5160 ft (Table A. 1). Since the FLA is required to have a slightly better performance it is assumedthat the distance ft. distance 4000 For [A4] be this (figure to 3.7) gives the reference restricted should following take off parameter;
MG s

8 CL,

To
MG

=106 )

The variation of thrust to weight (TJM,, ) ratio with wing loading is shown in Figure A. 2. Since the FLA wing is a derivative of the BAe 146 wing, it was assumed that the is likely loading be the two to the aircraft on of wing sameorder. The wing maximum loading (MGIS) for the BAe 146 variants is as follows: BAe 146 - 100 = 493 kg/O (103 lb/ft') BAe 146 - 200 = 546 kg/O (119 IbIft') BAe 146 - 300 = 610 kg/ml (125 lb/ft').

It was decidedto designthe wing basedon a relatively lower wing loadingthan these 100 JbIfe (488.2 kg/m2) A be of to value considered was quite appropriateto values. landing field lengths. The take thrust to weight ratio (TJM,,) for and off reduced give is 0.503 loading therefore = wing this
final design of the aircraft an initial drag predictions were made the On achieving near in [A3]. Thus the given reference method the economic cruise drag is, using

nation Mg estim

178 -

CD

= 0.0171 + 0.04188CL

29

CruiseCL. (UD)max

= (0.0171/0.04188)lr2=0.639, and 18.68 =

The high value of CL,.. implies that the aircraft could be in the buffet region, therefore this value of (UD)..,, could be reduced.

Cruise 12Erformanc
To maintain the (ILJD). value while steadily climbing to maximum service ceiling the increase TJMO decreases. loading the Reference [A4] gives and cruise must wing for 3.13) high (figure compression ratio turbofan engines which curves generalised illustrate this variation. The variation of TJMO with MO/S for aspect ratios of 9. o, 9.5 in 2. for A. Thus is Figure 10.0 a wing aspect ratio of 9.5: shown and mo/s 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 TJMO 0.3619 0.3197 0.2837 0.2635 0.2368 0.2180 0.1998 Hx 101(ft) 45.60 42.50 40.05 38.15 36.10 34.18 32.00

is over 36,000 ft. The It is noticed that the service ceiling for the required (M. /s) n= for be 36,500 FLA ft. the to was assumed ceiling rnaximum

-field _Landing

dislan-ce

The FLA is required to have a good field performance, Le STOL characteristics. The landing distance from 50 ft screen had to be less than 3000 ft. In order to check is this possible an estimation was made using an empirical relationship given whether in reference [A5]. Thus the overall field length from 50 ft screen,
L50=7. I
VA +TA,, 1.6 R MTO

I.V _,

a 0 -2 f t.

where:

VA

A TR/MTO where:
CL

1.3Vs, 0.3 - Assumegood disc brakes 0.2 - Thrust reversal


CLMAX=

2.5

179 -

ML

Vs. r=

s
P
CL

ML/S is the landing wing loading. This can be estimated from ML/MTO. From the 0.847. this ratio = mass estimation Thus

mds
VS1
VA

84.7 lb/fO (413.5 kg/m2), = = 100 Knots, = 130 Knots = 219 ft/s, and = 2613 ft.

L50

This falls between the required target of 2500-3000 ft A. 3.2.3 Mass estimation An initial mass estimation was made basedon the empirical relationship developed by Howe'A51-This was used to give the aircraft maximum take off weight by considering individual Thus breakdown the components. of the Wing: iong For range transport aircraft
M

=C w4 cosA, /, C,

bS

(1+21)

V
*5NO

M, 0.3
.3G.

(3+31)

where

= 0.028
10-3 MTOI .35

Substitution of the relevant parametersgives; MW x = 1.885572

KG

Fuselage:
mg = 0.024 [2LfDfVDO. 5]1-5 = 6419 KG

Tail unit:
MTU

0.142 =

MTO'-"

180

Undercarriage:
MUC

0.38 =

MTO

Powerplantand installation:
ToW of 4 engines @ 2600 KG each""
MENO

2600 = x4x1.3

13520 KG =

System equipment and furnishing etc:

Fuel system Flying control Hydraulic and Pneumatic Electric power APU Instrumentation and Automatic controls Radio and Navigation
equipment De-icing system Fire and Tank protection External paint Furnishing Air conditioning 3 Crew members averaging 100 KG Payload

0.04MTO

MTO' 0.17 = MTO 0.005 =

= 0.16MTo0-75 MTO'-3 3.2 =

= 250 KG (Assumed) = = = = = = = 0.025MTO 0.7 MTO 0.16 0.006 MTo 0.5 S=0.5 m. /S 10-3MTO 1.0244 x 75 Kg (Assumed) 0.009MTO 300 KG 25000 KG

Fuel: Assumption was made that the fuel will be allocated for use in the following proportions: Take off and climb = Cruise = Reserves = Landing = 18 % 60 % 17 % 5%

For flights in stratospherethe cruise range (from Breguet range equation) is givn by: S=1320-E [L/Dlmaxloglo C2 M,
M2

181 -

where, M, is the massof the aircraft at start of the cruiseand M2is the massat the endof the fuel is C the from the to be 0.4057(Calculated specific consumption estimated cruise, in is data [A7]), S given reference and calculated as maximumpayloadrange engine less200 nm for climb and descent, thus S= 3046- 200 = 2846 nm. Evaluationof the aboveequationgives M, = 1.1546M21
Since the cruise fuel mass (MF) is 60 % of the total MF, the actual MF = 0.2577 M2 is 18 % 0.04017 Take MF MI. MI. Therefore, 0.2232 Of off or or
M,
= MTO

0.04017 MI, MTO.

or

Mp
ML

= 0.2146
M2

Landing mass,

0.05 -

MF

0.8327 MTO*

MTO: Gross take F, off mass, of valuation The above constituents are fixed massesor mass terms of various power of the MTO. These were summed and solved iteratively to give a MTOof 94540 KG. Table A. 3 listed the component above. mass of each contains A. 3.2.3 Estimation of the geometric parameters Wing

Wing Quarterchord sweepangle,

A,

/4:

The FLA wing requires moderate wing sweepbackto allow a cruise Mach number of 0.75, without suffering the drag rise effects. The 3-D Mach number is related to AI/4 (reference [A6]) by
MD(A-0) MD (CosAO. 2557

is 2-D drag Mach is the the from, value of rise number, and calculated whereMD(A=M MD(A=O) =I-0.66(t/c)ltl 0.2C,..,.., -

is (t/c) be 0.125 the the (which to minimum value across wing, assumed where (t/c). 0.122 for 146-300), BAe the CL., 0.639 the (see with of well and = compares i,, Drag estimation). Evaluation of the above two equationsgives A114 = 22.51,for MD not 0.75. to exceed Torsional stiffness checks: Reference [A5] gives a relationship to check whether torsional stiffness is likely to be is It based design (t/c) consideration. only on speed, ratio and aspectratio. significant a

182 -

This statcs that; :


A 3/2 t/F < 3xlOs VD2cosAj/4

36,500 ft, this criteria is satisfied for (t/c) = 0.15 With VD equivalent to M=0.810 (at the root), A=9.5 and Al/4 = 22.5".

Wing area:
The actual wing size is determined simply as the gross take off weight divided by the take off wing loading. Thus Wing Area
--' MTO / (WS) =

193.73 M2

Wing Taper Ratio (CIC, ):

to be 0.3 by comparison This was simply assumed with similar aircraft.


Fuselage sizing Discussions with BAe concluded that the diameter of the fuselage must be higher than that of the C-130 in order to give favourable wing body aerodynamic characteristics. Assumption was madethat the finesseratio ODf) of the FLA would be the sameas the 1), ix by WhitfordIA'l (see designed Table A. I/Df 8.73. With this ratio the = aircraft length diameter If fuselage the and ware calculated as = 34.047 m, Df = 3.9 rn new respectively.
Eminn-n-age-

Thesewere simply obtainedby matchingthe tail and fin volume coefficientswith the few of the existing transportaircraft.
A. 3.2.5 Engine sizing and location Information regarding the power plant to be installed on the FLA was not available. Decision was made to install the Rolls-Royce RB509-05-FPTCR PUSHER as the base line powerplant for which appropriate information was available. Calculations with fuel (c), thrust to the ratings, engine specific consumption engine performance, regards [A7]. using reference made etc were The propeller diameter was assumedto be Oft. This was in keeping with the propeller blade diameter for the C-130H engines. The position of the engine was judged on the basis that the blades of the adjacent engine cleared each other and the side of the fuselage.

183 -

A. 3.3 Description of the Final Design A general arrangementdrawing of the final configuration is shown in Figure A. 3 and some points are discussedbelow: Wing goomtt-ry

A moderatelysweepback combinedwith thick and relatively low camberedwing sectionenablecruiseMach numberof up to 0.75 to be achieved.
There is sufficient fuel tankage in the wing for a range of 5250 nm with reserves. Tanks on each half of the wing extend from 9% to 70% semi-span,with 5% reduction between tanks and engines. The chordwise size of the tanks is between 17% and 65 % chord. The front spar was placed at 17 % chord while the rear spar was placed at 65 % chord. These were changedslightly for the FLA wing with the VC system. Details of the planform arrangementare given in Chapter Four. Conventional devices for the base line configuration include, a single slotted flap system, a LE slat, an aileron and spoilers. Gross area, S = 193.73 m 9.5 Aspect ratio, A = Span, b = 42.9 m Sweep of 0.25c line = 22.5' Leading edge sweep = 25.220 Aerofoil section (see Chapter Two) Thickness ratio, Root = 15.98 % % Tip 13.14 = Q 70% semi-svan = 14.0 % 0.3 Taper ratio Wing mean aerodynamic chord (M A = 4.952 m@ 41% semi-span 4.5158 m Wing geometric mean chord (G MQ 6.947 Root chord = m 2.084 Tip chord = m Trailing edge device: Type: - Single slotted, 3 position flap % 30 Flap chord/wing chord = Take off flap setting = 10* Landing flap setting = 30* Inboard end of the flap from C/L = 1.95 m outboard end of the flap from C/L = 17.16 m Ailerons: Type: - Round nose Aileron chord/wing chord = 25 % Movement +/- 25* Inboard end of aileron from C/L = 17.16 rn

184 -

Outboard end of aileron from C/L = 21.45 m Spoilers: Tbree equal length segments spoilers are installed, extending from the side of the fuselage to 80 % semi-span. Chord = 15 % Maximum movement relative to the top surface = 500 Distance of spoiler LE from wing TE = 25 % Taill2lane and fin Tailplane 16.05 m 49.00 m 4.136 m 2.068 m Fin 7.161 m 21.680 m 5.1869 m 3.1121 m 10% 0.6 4.2311 m

Span Area Root chord Tip chord Leading edge sweep 10% Thickness ratio 0.5 Taper ratio 2.8952 m MAC Weights and loading Maximum payload Maximum fuel mass Maximum take off mass Maximum landing mass Maximum wing loading Normal load factor = = = = 25000 kg 20288 kg 94540 kg 80075 kg 488 kg/m 2.5g

(55125 lb) (44735 lb) (208461 lb) (176565 lb) (100 lb/ft)

LoweM]anj
Thrust rating (all engines) Maximum take-off thrust optimum cruise thrust 520768 N (240751lbf) 107874 N (49871lbo

Inboard powerplants: line below datum front face centre at Distanceof engine = 1.5m Distanceof enginecentreline from aircraft centreline at front face = 6.6066 rn front face aft of fuselage 1,ocationof engine nose = 17.325m Engine Propellerdiameter= 13 ft. (3.9624m) Total enginelength = 5.936 rn
outboard powerplants: line below datum at front face = 1.5 m centre engine Distance of line from Distance of engine centre aircraft centre line at front face = 11.7975 m

185 -

Location of enginefront face aft of fuselage nose = 19.725m Engine Propellerdiameter= 13 ft. (3.9624m) Total enginelength = 5.936 m Performance Leguirements
Standard mission profile for maximum payload range is shown in Figure A. 4, for which the fuel is proportioned as follows: Take-off and climb Cruise Reserves Landing % 18 = = 60 % % 17 = =5%

The take-off run is limited to 4000 ft. This will be taken as the maximum take-off distance to IIm (35 ft. ) altitude. Landing distancefrom 15 m (50 ft. ) altitude is 2620 ft. 5250 (cruise Maximum fuel range nm and climb) = Maximum payload range = 3050 nm Optimum operating cruise altitude = 36500 ft. (11125 m) ft. 39300 (11979 Service ceiling m) = Economic cruise Mach No High speed dash Mach No [All Airdrop speeds = = = = 0.70 0.75 115 and 250 knots at sea-level 200 and 250 knots at 25,000 ft.

186 -

REFERENCES FOR APPENDIX A

[Al) WanstaH, B. Norris, G. Europe Defines Airlifter Needs. Interavia Aerospace Review, Sept 1991

PublicadonCompany,London 1989 [A2] Janesall the Worlds Aircraft. Janes


Synthesisof Subsonic Airplane Design. Delft University [A3] Torenbeek, E. -The Press, 1986 [AQ Lofting L. K. Subsonic Aircraft: Evaluation and Matching of Size to Performance, NASA Publication 1060, August 1980 [A5] Howe, D. Fielding, J. P. College of Aeronautics Lecture Notes on Aerospace Vehicle Design and Initial Project Design. Cranfield Institute of Technology

Studyof a Variable CamberWing, Ph D [A61 Mackinnon, A. V. An Experimental Thesis 1992CranfieldInstituteof Technology


[A7] Rolls Royce Limited. The RB509-05 FPT CR PUSHER Project Turbo-Shaft Engine. Published by Brochures & Specifications Group, 1984 [A81 Whitford, R. Design of a Medium Military Airlifter. American Institute of Aeronautics, AIAA-89-2064,1989 Published by the

187

Table A. 1: Parametric data of the aircraft used for military and commerciai cauriiift application.

Aircraft Type C- 130H-30 C- 17 Nimrod MR Ilyushin 11-76 Lockheed C-5 BAe 146 Transall C-160 A300 A310 B 747-20OF ATLAS*

b (m) 40.41 50.29 35.00 50.50 67.88 26.34 40.00 44.84 43.89 59.64 38.75

AR 10.09 7.17 6.20 8.50 7.75 8.97 10.00 7.73 8.80 6.96 9.00 1

CR

(m)

S (m) 162.12 353.00 197.00 300.00 576.00 77.30 160.00 260.00 219.00 511.00 166.79

A114

(E,,O)

4.88 9.00 13.85 4.84 8.38 16.56 6.15

0 25 20 25 25 15 28 28 37

Aircraft

Type

bHT

(m)

SHT

(M)

SVT

(M 2)

If (m) 34.47 53.39 38.63 46.59 75.54 28.60 32.40 53.30 46.66 70.66 35.79

Df (m) 3.30 5.49 2.95 3.40 5.79 3.56 4.30 5.64 5.64 6.13 4.10

C- 130H-30 C- 17 Nimrod Ilyushin Lockheed MR 11-76 C-5

16.05 14.51 20.94 11.09 14.50 16.62 16.26 22.17 15.50

49.40 52.98 113.76 . 25.64 43.80 64.00 169.10 47.70

27.87 16.63 110.35 20.81 46.20 45.20 45.20 100.00 -

BAe 146 Transall C-160

A300 A310 B 747-20OF ATLAS*

188

Table A I: (Cont.. )

Aircraft Type C- 130H-30 C-17 Nimrod MR Ilyushin 11-76 Lockheed C-5 BAe 146 Transall C-160 A300 A310 B -20OF

TORun

(ft)

T035ft

(ft)

LRun

(ft)

L50

(ft)

hc

(. )

1091 2320 1463 850 2530

1573 -

518 823 1615

838 -

10060 12800

2987

450 725

1164

15500 10895

715 -

990 2347 1768

550 -

869 1536 1478 2109 1660

8230 12121 11212 13715 11000

1031

3170 1500

ATLAS*

Aircraft Type C- 130H-30 C- 17 Nimrod MR Ilyushin 11-76 Lockheed C-5 BAe 146 Transall C-160 A300 A310 B 747-20OF ATLAS*

RPL

R,,,(nm) 4250 5000 3617 5618 1476 4780 7100 4080

VC (Knots) 325 350 500 432 496 -

VCE

VS1

(Knois) 3000 = 0.77 -M 425

(Knots) 100 -

2046 2400 2700 2892 1176 3546 2800 2700 1750

450 383

104 92 95 134 132

M=0.64 480 483 523 415

189

Table A. 1: (Cont.

-) OEM (Kg) 36397 117480 39000 169643 22861 29000 88928 76107 175540 MTO

Aircraft Type C- 130H-30 C- 17 Nimrod MR Ilyushin 11-76 Lockheed C-5 BAe 146 Transall C-160 A300 A310 B 747-20OF ATLAS*

(Kg)

MF

(Kg)

MPL

(Kg)

MO/S (Kg/ml) 434.50 -

70310 258547 80510 170000 379657 42184 51000 165000 132000 362875 83000

28540 38940 150815 9362 15295 50499 44236 159320 24600

17645 78110 54430 40000 118388 10478 16000 41072 32393 90720 22300

659.00 545.70 319.00 635.00 710 498.00

* Design study carried out in reference [A8]

Table A. 2: Initial specification targets for the FLA Cruise Mach No. Range Take off run Landing run Maximum take off mass payload mass 0.70-0.75 3000 to 4000 feet 2500 to 3000 feet Around 200,000 lbs 25000 Kg

190 -

Table A. 3: Mass breakdown Component Wing (inc. auxiliary surfaces structure) Fuselage Tail unit Under carriage Engine Fuel system Flaying control Hydraulic system Electfical Power Auxiliary power unit Radio and navigation De-icing Fire protection Paint and furnishing Air-conditioning Crew Payload Fuel Total Mass (Kg) 9829 6419 1915 3593 13520 3782 863 984 2570 423 2614 487 621 172 851 300 25000 20288 94540 _%MTOM 10.40 6.79 2.03 3.80 14.30 4.00 0.91 1.04 2.72 0.45 2.77 0.52 0.66 0.18 0.90 0.32 26.44 21.46 1

191

0 0
C,, C, )

(I)

-4

192

04

11

10.

CIA

: 1-:

T-4
cz ri

11

tz

cl

00

cz 1.

P-

!) (

"I

OjL)

optu lq5iam o) IsnjtljL

193

uA

z g

>1

cli 1

) (a.

Ll.

194

C,

8
ID C> 00 C) c) C14

r-

cl)
CA CD IT 11 -0

11 0

ca

clj

CA

E cz -0

q C/)

195 -

"PENDIX AERODYNAMIC

LOADS AND LOADING ANALYSIS FOR THE FLA WING

B. 1 INTRODUCTION

In Appendix A detailsof the configurationand the geometricparameters are outlined for the FLA wing. In order to studythe detaileddesignaspects trailing of theproposed it loads to calculatethe magnitude (TE) of aerodynamic was necessary scheme, edge by FLA the wing. experienced
This appendix discussesthe relevant loading conditions, operating load environment, is load described by design The diagram the environment the cases. n-V critical and for the symmetric gust and manoeuvrecases. Critical TE design loads are distributed be has been inertia It that to no consideration the noted must span. given wing along loads. It is felt that thesewill be significant in providing inertial relief to the wing, but devices. TE insignificant be the on their effect will Note: The notation used to describe the loading equations is same as that given in [1311 reference B. 2 TYPE OF LOADS that flight loads on the wing arise either directly from pilot Experience suggestsEB11 initiated manoeuvre or from the environment in which the vehicle operates. These loads are split into symmetric and asymmetric cases. Where, (1) Symmetric flight casesarise either due to the action of the pilot in the longitudinal from turbulence, air vertical symmetric or and plane or pitching (2) Asymmetric loads arise when a rudder or an aileron is operated for yawing or Horizontal gust a or non symmetric vertical gust will also respectively. motions rolling loads. to asymmetric give rise

resultingfrom theseconditionsfor Consideration shouldbe given to all the load cases This hundreds in order through design the means sieving wing. overall of of cases the for different design by the the aircraft. Owing identify the case roles played critical to for this project, consideration limited time available of all the casesand the the to for detail designing loading the FLA the necessary analysis of wing was not rigorous decided It to the design therefore the reduce number of cases and was restrict possible. loading devices lift Thus high the VC only. calculations were limited to only the to symmetriccases.
AND CASES DIAGRAM DESIGN 3 n-V B.

that the FLA would be subjected The broad spectrumof operatingconditionssuggest load flight from cases, of which only few of them are likely to be to a multitude in loads be due The do different would variation operation at speeds, altitudes critical. IB3] Airworthiness formulated requirementS(B21, give weights. guidance and and based (which are on past experience) that would appreciablyreduce recommendation

196 -

the load cases. for symmetric load cases that the aircraft mustoperate Requirements suggest within the (n-V) diagram. boundaries acceleration of the manoeuvre B.3.1 SpeedEnvelope B.3.1.1 Speedvariation with altitude The FLA is to fly at cruiseMach No. of 0.7 with a dashcapabilityof 0.75. The design MC + 0.05 = 0.8. The economiccruisealtitudeis diving Mach No. is given byIBII 36500ft, thus true airspeedCrAS) varies as a result of variation in temperature with increasein altitude. Where,
VTAS

And

VEAS

V.

PO
a=1.4 R=

M (ceRT) (plpj" TAS = 3 1.225 KG/m = 287.1 KG/KJ K

112

Figure B. I shows the variation of both the TAS and the EAS with altitude. B. 3.1.2 Flap design speed in Requirements 3.1.2.1 B. as given reference [B2] Design flap speed V. is defined as not less than: i) 1.6 Vs, with the flaps in the take off position, zero engine power and maximum design mass. ii) 1.8 Vsj with the devices in approach position at, zero engine power and maximum landing mass, iii) 1.8 Vs, with the devices fully extended, zero engine power and maximum design landing mass. flaps deflned for i) the was so requirements and iii) are Note, no approach position used. Where, Vs, = Equivalent stalling airspeed.

197 -

B. 3.1.2.2

Flap speed calculations

i) At design landing mass (ML = 80075 KG)

(Mg) VSX, 2 (A ) sc". p 2


m=

s=
CLMAX

VS1 and
VF

ML = 80075KG 193.73m' = 2.5 = 51.46 m/s 92.63 1.8 Vs, m/s = =

ii) At design take off mass (94540 KG) M= S=


CLMAX MTO

= 94540 KG

VS, and
VF

193.73m' 1.875 = = 64.56 m/s 103.0 1.6 Vs, m/s = =

B. 3.2 Critical Altitude Three altitudes were considered for setting the critical design cases. These are at 36,500ft. 20,000ft and sea-level, 13.3.3 Design Mass E41, Vehicle weights considered to give high wing loads wereU111, operating empty mass, fuel (ZFM), landing take mass and maximum zero off mass, mass. maximum B. 3.4 niagram

The technique involved in constructing the n-V diagram for military aircraft are detailed in reference [B2]. These techniqueswere used to calculate the limiting boundaries for both due loading to the manoeuvreand gust. for FLA symmetric the Thus, For the manoeuvreenvelope following requirements are specified:
n2
n3 n4

=1-0.3n

VA
VE

vc,

= = = =

(n, 1), -0.6 0.75n V, (nl)"2, 0.7VDs


2nMg
PSCL.

= 018VD9 1 Vsx

198 -

The normal load factor n, for a transport aircraft is limited to 2.5g for normal its flapped Og for 2. to configurations. and restricted manoeuvre The value of n for stall boundary (ns) is given by,
12

Po mg

LMAX

where,
()-"' VEAS: VA I

for lift i. is Cuax the coefficient appropriate wing configuration, maximum e and
CLMAX

for landing, 2.5 = for 1.875 take off, and = for 1.25 clean nestedwing. =

load factor due is to the to sharp normal edge gust given by, Increment
-ipV2

1u

n, =

(-L-) alLS vmg

where,
0.88m F= 5.3 +11 lf

and
2M pSca,

following for the valuesare suggested: which U is the sharpedgegust velocity

Aircraft Flight Speed M/s VB VC


VD

GustSpeed EAs (o - 6100m) M/s 20 15.2 7.6

GustSpeed EAS(@ 15200m) M/s 11.6 7.6 3.8

U varies linearly from 6100m to 15200m, Thus

199 -

Aircraft GustSpeed Flight Speed EAS (@ 11125.2m) M/s M/s VB 15.36 11 VC VD 5.5
VB Where' = V., (n. + 1)1/2, or it is determined from the intersection of the 20 m/s gust line with the static stall boundary.

Example gust calculation: Design case 1 4.5158 m S 193.73 = m = 0.511 a, varies with the Mach No = 5.542 / rad 174 VC m/s = 15.2 u m/s = = 31.836 /A 0.7544 F = 1.41512 no =

for thepreliminarysymmetricdesignloads. These the conditions Table B. I summarise likely be high load the thought to of representative are conditionssuitablefor conditions box design the and the control (flap and VC) surface. of wing structural preliminary Figure B.2 illustrateexamples andgust n-V diagramfor the FLA for of the manoeuvre two flight conditions. The formulationof the n-V diagramfor the flight conditionsof that would give highestwing loads. These Table B1 indicatea total of 32 designcases in detailed B2. Table are case
BA LOADING ANALYSIS

B. 4.1 Loading Actions

Severalmethodsare established and availablefor calculatingthe overall wing loads. For the purposeof estimatingthe loads on the FLA use was madeof the simplified in lifting force [131]. It that the suggests given reference on the aircraft wing approach body combinationcan be found from;
LWB=l OB)

poVj&s(aa 2s

+aBSB

assuming

200

aB=o

-1 2

VjsSa a

Contribution due to tail load is not included in the this expression but doesplay a in loading the overall of the wing. This tail load (LT) is found from; role substantial
LT=

[M, +ngM(h-H0)

F+TZT-Mk;

2 01

"t

For steadysymmetricmanoeuvres

0=0
The total load on the wing is now given by;
LwB = ngM - Lr

B. 4.1.1 Wing loads samplecalculation

CaseI
Mass = M-ro Alt = Sea level VD EAS h cofg s
ST Izz lPitch

94540 KG 190 m/s = = 0.2771 MAC 193.73 m' 49.8 m2 = 3077.317xlO3 KGm' 0.24 MAC 4.952 m 21.878 m 0.5583 = 5.75 had 4.2 had -0.0622 (above datum) -0.8649

H. c it M a1w
alT

Mach No

CMO
ZT

When the aircraft is in its steadystateposition. Lifting force L nMg =1


p V2SCL

CL

2nM g p V2S

201

For level flight 0 19; CL


CD

= 0.2165 2 0.04188CL 0.0171 + = 0.019060 = Drag D,


=_pV2SC

Aircraft thrust T

2D

The value of ngm(h - Ho)c Pitching moment at zero lift K1

81659 N 170388 Nm

p V2SCC 2Ma

Lr
IIB

1319414 Nm =[-1319414 + 170388 - 70627] / 21.878 N = -55748 983185 N Lr = ngm -

For 2.5g case: = 0.5413 CD 0.0294 = 125825 N T = ngm(h - Ho)c = 425970 Nm M. = -1319414 Nm N Lr = -45812 LWB = 2364406 N (Total) CL

and

B. 4.1.2 Results

in Table B2 design 32 for were evaluatedusing the above the given cases Loads together the The these with required variables are also calculations of results equations. B2. in Table given B.4.1.3 Critical loads from design highest 2 B. Table the that the cases considered, suggests Observation of loads on the wing occur at the following conditions: Design caseI from 0 to 2.5g at VDat sealevel. In this Aircraft operatingat MTO,manoeuvring is 2.37 0.54127 CL MN, flight 0.588. lift No. Mach the and the = = wing condition
Design case 15 Aircraft operating at ML, landing flap setfing, manoeuvring to 2. Og at Vip (landing) at lift is 1.59 MN, the CL = 1.5431 and flight Mach the In this level. condition wing sea

202

No. = 0.272.
Design case 16 Aircraft operating at MTO,take off flap setting, manoeuvring to 2. Og at VF (take off) is lift 1.86 CL 1.4649 MN, In level. the this the condition wing and flight = at sea Mach No. = 0.304. Design case 20 Aircraft operating at MjrO,in a symmetric gust of 3.343g accelerationat VC at 6096 m. In this condition the wing lift is 3.13 MN, the CL = 0.8832 and flight Mach No. 0.544. B. 4.2 Load Distribution Loads calculated above were distributed along the wing in both the spanwise and directions. chordwise To estimate the distribution acrossthe spanan empirical methodgiven in reference [B5] load distribution be factored This to suit a which can a unit gives method was used. design condition. particular The exact percentageof the load acting on individual component can only be estimated from the chordwise pressure distribution. For the basic aerofoil section and for the distributions IB61 by VC Mackinnon the obtained settings, pressure were section with device distribution high lift had be the In to the was used case when obtained used. by Lesoineum. developed with a panel method program The chordwise load was split between the wing body, the trailing edge device and the 25 % flap piece (on the inboard). The TE was taken to be aft of 64.5 % chord position. Therefore all the loads on the TE variable camber device are assumedto act aft of the loads for The four design the the over percentage system calculated spar. rear wing follows: casesare as Case No 1 15 16 20 Load 27 51 42 27 Position (% x/c) 93.5 97.0 100.0 91.0

to act aft of the wing rear All the loadson the TE variablecamberdeviceare assumed spar. distribution factored for in accordance the designcases The spanwise curves were unit loads from distribution. Illustration the calculated the chordwise percentage of with in is Figure 3 B. for four design factored the given curves cases. these

203

REFERENCES FOR APPENDIX B [B1] Howe, D. College of Aeronautics Lecture Notes on Loading Actions. Cranfield Institute of Technology

[B21DefenceStandard 00-970
[113]joint Airworthiness Requirements - 25. Design of Civil Aircraft, Civil Aviation Authority [114] Torenbeekq E. The Synthesisof Subsonic Airplane Design. Delft University Press, 1986 [115] Engineering and Science Data Unit. Method for the Rapid Estimation of Theoretical Spanwise Loading Due to Change in Incidence. Transonic Data Memorandum (TDM) 6403,1982 [B6] Mackinnon, A. V. An Experimental Study of a Variable Camber Wing, Ph D Thesis, College of Aeronautics, Cranfield Institute of Technology [B71 Lesoine, M. Msc Project thesis on Slat Design for the A88 Aircraft, Cranfield Institute of Technology, 1989

204

Table B. 1: Preliminary symmetric design cases

Case No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1

Alt (m) 0 0 0 6096 6096 6096 11256 11256 11256 0 0

Mass
MTO

vc (m/s) 174 174 174 172 172 172 108 108 108 174 174 1 1

VD

VA

VS1

n, 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 1

Conf

(m/S) 190 190 190 188 188 188 123 123 123 190 190 1

(m/S) 125 90 110 125 90 110 125 90 110 73 91 1

(m/S) 79 57 70 79 57 70 79 57 70 52 65 Clean

OEM ZFM
MTO

OEM ZFM
MTO

OEM ZFM mi,


MTO

I-and T-0

205

Table B. 2a: Symmetric wing body loads due to pitching manoeuvre

Case No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Alt (m) 0 0 0 0 0 0 6096 6096 6096 6096 6096

Mass
MTO MTO MTO

VEAS

CofG 0.277 0.277 0.277 0.193

(m/s) 190 174 125 190

C. (-ve) 0.0645 0.0627 0.0570 0.0645 0.0645 0.0645 0.0639 0.0660 0.0583 0.0639 1 0.0639 0.0588 0.0568 0.0543 0.0530 0.0546

n, 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 -1.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 -1.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0

LWB

(MN) 2.37 2.37 2.33 1.28 -0.42 1.84 2.36 2.37 2.33 -0.86 1.82 2.33 2.33 1.23 1.59 1.86

OEM OEM ZFM


MTO MTO MTO MTO

190 1 0.193 0.316 190 172 188 125 172 172 123 108 90 93
1

0.277 0.277 0.277 0.277 0.316 0.277 0.277 0.193 0.250 0.277

ZFM
MTO MTO

12 13 14 1 16

11126 11126 11126 0 0

OEM mi.
MTO

103

206

Table B. 2b: Symmetric wing body loads due to vertical gust

Case No 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 = _2 _

Alt (m) 0 0 0 6096 6096 6096 6096 6096 6096 6096 6096 6096 6096 11126 11126 11126

Mass OEM OEM ZFM


MTO MTO

VMS (m/s) 174 174 174 172 172 172 188 188 172 172 172 188 108 108 108 106

CofG 0.193 0.193 0.316 0.277 0.277 0.193 0.193 0.193 0.193 0.316 0.316 0.316 0.277 0.193 0.316 0.316

Cino

n, 3.433 -1.433 2.700

1-WB

(-ve) 0.0627 0.0627 0.0627

(MN) 1.71 -0.63 2.01 3.13 -1.20 2.6 1.64 -0.54 -1.60 3.00 1.58 1.92 2.07 2.69 1.39 1.79

0.0639 1 3.343 0.0639 -1.343 0.0639 0.0639 0.0660 0.0660 0.0639 0.0639 0.0639 0.0568 0.0568 0.0568 _2.820 0.0565 2.5 1 5.414 3.267 -1.267 -3.414 4.152 2.152 2.611 2.225 2.899

OEM OEM OEM OEM ZFM ZFM ZFM


MTO

OEM ZFM ZFM

207

<D C CD

C9

-I

C) >

:>u

I /IZ- -7

r1o)

'n

I
0

-T -- --

-------

T -----------

01)

01x

aptqq

IV

208

Sea

le,., E

11cgl)
2.0-

EA v 50 100 C// VD 200

-1.0-

(99 9) n
3.0

Gust loading

Manoeuvre loading

1.0

V
100 150 200

(IIVS)

Figure B. 2: Examples of n-V diagrames

209

pua pjlcoqlno

J2 10
r. cu

>

CL) >

0 ". -4

F--4 rn

$,

pua piuoqul

Cl-

c\I

CD (w/NM) unds 1!unpj! -l

c3
cl,

210

APPENDIX

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND STRESS CALCULATIONS THE FLA VARIABLE CAMBER TE SEGMENT
C. I STRESSING OF THE TRACK ROLLER SYSTEM

FOR

The load distribution curves given in the last appendix were used to estimate the distribution loads force TE (SF) the and reaction normal and parallel to shear spanwise the chord, RN and Rp respectively, at the inboard (I/B) and outboard (0/13) track Structural done by Analysis Program, 'STRUCT"I" This of a means was positions. College Aeronautics, The loads (in the personal computers. of on reaction available KN) at the two hinge (track position) of segment five, for the four design cases(see Appendix B) are as follows:

[FTase No.
1 15 16 20

(KN) Load Reaction Outboard Inboard 50 65 64.5 66.5 1 40 48.5 47.5 49

RN

Reaction Load Rp (KN) Inboard Outboard Flaps retracted 14 10 Flaps retracted 11.5 8

These loads have to be vectored to the vertical and horizontal to establish the TE lift (L) and drag (D) loads respectively, aft of the rear spar.
Thus: L
RN

TE device lift and drag load components


Lif t=L=Rlvcoso -Rpsino

Drag=D=RNsinp+Rpcosp

211

where 00.

30' and 100for cases 15 and 16 respectively, and for cases I and 20

Evaluation of the above equationsgives:


Case No. Lift Reaction L (KN) Outboard Inboard 50 63.5 63 66.5 40 47 46 48.5 Drag Reaction D (KN) Inboard Outboard 25 18 To 20 13 -

1 15 16 20

Six twin roller sets are arranged along the track (chord) to react the lift loads. be known. the the these of rollers must position reactions, estimate
R6

R,

R2

R3

R4

R. 5

Roller position along the track length

Roller No.

Chordwise position (% X/C) 31 41 51 61 71 81

Angle (Deg)

1 2 3 4 5 6

83 86 90 93 97 101

From these, only two setsof rollers (front and rear) will expefience the greatest loads. R, becomes the front roller (RF) for Cases I and 20, while the rear roller (RR) is Cases by R6. For 15 16, R, R, and and represent R, and RRrespectively. represented

212

Roller reaction loads For Case I


tEFV=0=RFCOS Cr-MaboutR, =0=-L(0.935-0.31) -RR(. 81-. 31) (83-90) +RRCOS (101-90) +L

RR = -1.2584L and R,. = 0.2383L Similarly: For Case 15 RR = -1.5568L and RF == 0.5296L, For Case 16 RR = -1.6474L and RF = 0.6189L, and For Case 20 RR = -1.2010L and RF = 0.1809L

The calculated reaction loads for the four casesare as follows:


Case No. Inboard reaction loads (KN) R1,
1 RR

Outboard reaction loads (KN) Rr 9.5 25 28.5 91


RR

14.5 33.5 39 1 12

-62.5 -98.5 -104 -80

-50 73.5 -76 58.5 -

15 16 20

Maximum roller reaction loads are therefore due to take off variable camber (VC) loading condition. and setting
Bearing Siz

The design has a double bogie cam stud type roller arrangement at all roller positions. Rollers bearings were chosenfrom INA KR Series[C2]. It was assumedthat one roller in a set should take the full load in-case the other one fails.
The required roller has 80 mm outside diameter with a static load rating of 120 KN just is load 104 to KN. the sustain sufficient applied of which Extending Track Cross Section

This is forged from an aerospacegrade titanium, TA48, and has the following cross(taken from reference [C31): properties material and sectional MM4 31794587 I= MM3 Z= 397432

213

f. =831 N/mm', t5 = 927 N/mm'

1/,E. = 140, m=

27, and

36.5 13-6.5 -A 87

Flange instability chec From reference [C3]


crcr
-fn
11

0.58En En

(t/b)2=1.0

36.5 104

and

897.5 N/t-nn'2 = or,,


= o-,, Z= 357 KNM.

Allowable bending moment, M,,,, Maximum

applied bending moment, M,,Pp will be experienced near the rear roller inboard Thus, track. the at position, M. = 63.3 x (0.97 - 0.81)c,, PP Where 0.97c,, is the position of the centre of lift due to aft loading (see Appendix B), inboard five. is the the the of segment end chord at cy and MaPP= 55.2 KNM (Limit) 55.2 X 1.5 = 82.5 KNM (Ultimate) RF = 357/82.5 > 2.0

CarriaRe Shear Loads


The carriage is fixed to the side support structure with a 3/4" S96 shearing pin. The pin goes through a inside bearing the side support rib. placed spherical Maximum ultimate applied load = 104 x 1.5 = 156 KN

I' Ilin

Pin in shear Maximum allowable load = 159 KN. RF = 159/156 = 1.02 Sf) erical bearing
bearing track

This was chosen from reference [C4], Part no II AWG 12 3/4 " outside diameter. Static Load rating = 178 KN RF = 178/104 = 1.71
Side Support Structure BendinR

Roller reaction loads are transferred through to the main wing box via the side ribs. The rib section accepting these loads is an 'I' beam assumedto be cantilevered at 17 % chord position.

214

80

+vc

8.5 <
IxIT

763

RF

487632404 nun' 1278198 mm'

Material Titanium - TA40 fn = 831 Nlm M2 ni = 27, and I/en = 140 ,

RR

X-X

Maximum bending moment due to loads at Rr and R, is; (0.81RR + 0.51R.. ) c, = 354 KNM (Limit) 531 KNM (Ultimate) =

For flange instability, or, is worked out (as before) to be 863 N/m M2 ., 1103 KNM M. 11 Z or., Therefore = RF = 1103/531 = 2.07
C. 2 FLEXIBLE UPPER SURFACE SKIN STIFFNESS CHECK

The upper surface skin at the TE is made from carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) is 4512/o/90). Each 0.125 ([(0/90/O/ the ply ply arrangement mm with of material thick, giving an overall thickness of 4mm to the laminate.

64.5 % chord 00 plies Span 90' plies Chord

100 % chord

CFRP skin for the upper surface

Greater number of 0' plies are placed in the laminate in order to alow the surface to flex in chord. in that the the of skin stiffness suggested order to be aerodynamically clean, A check on (rollers) be of retainers number a positioned in rails along the chord on there should

215

hold to the skin. stations several spanwise


The deflections were obtained using SDRC IdeaSTMfinite element analysis (FEA) I for C. FE Figure the the analysis. Loads on the skin shows model used sYstem"'. face by pressures on thin quadrilateral shell elements. were represented

C. 2.1 Loading 2-D Pressuredistribution curves were obtained from reference [C6]. These were than loads for low dynamic into the pressure speed and high speed design real converted cases. Where low speedloading is due to takeoff at 103.3m/s and high speedloads arises from flying at 190 m/s.
Appl i edPressureP,, 12 Pp= 2p V&SCP

Pressure coefficients (C, ) and the applied pressures (P) due to suction on the upper in following for the table: the two contained cases are surface,

FF

-Strip

NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 81

Width (%c,,) 1.65 3.724 3.65 3.55 3.44 3.30 3.16 3.03 1

C. Low 0.7883 0.8051 0.8160 0.8058 0.7792 0.7403 0.6906 0.6597

P (N/mm') 5122 5232 5302 5236 5063 4811 4488 42887

Cl, High 0.7745 0.6493 0.5678 0.4804 0.3954 0.3142 0.2337 0.1650 1

P (N/mm') 17125 14357 12555 10622 8743 6047 5167 3648

C. 2.2 Results The geometry of the deflected skin due to the loads for the high speedcase is shown in Figures C. 2. Maximum obtained deflection for this casesis 8.31 mm.
The allowable deflection was limited to 2% of the maximum depth (d) of the aerofoil. 11.96 mm At the outboard end of segment five, d= 598 mm. Therefore, 2% of d= RF = 11.96/8.31 = 1.44 Thus,

Conformina Rollers and Link sizinp, The upper surface skin is conformed via a roller link arrangement. A set of links are attached to the upper surface skin at one end while the other end of each link has a

216

inside a conforming track. roller running From the FE results the maximum applied load (L) at the link is 5.4 KN. Suitable cam track roller'J has 16 mm outside diameter and 6 mm inside diameter with a static load 6.5 is bearing KNfor the rating Link lug stress (Light Alloy - L168) Applied stresses: Tensile Stress =L/ Shear Stress =L/ Bearing Stress =L/ (2ct) (2at) (dt) 2 226N/mm = 2 148 N/mm = 2 429 N/mm =

Allowable Stresses (N/ni ln2): _

Tensile Shear Bearing


Buckling of te link

Fall 424 180

Proof 380 x 1.5 x 0.7 = 399 142 x 1.5 x 0.7 = 149 570 x 1.5 x 0.7 = 599

RF 1.77 1.01 1.04

The link is likely to buckle along the Y axis. Where, lyy = (2t)' 2a/12 = 107 mm" V= 1.464 Iyy/A = radius of gyration E7-T _ CT AL2AL2 From reference [C3]
--ET
pIr 2 7C T[2E7'k2

Cr Cr

1= ET

2.569xlO

-3

X171

=0.439. fl --"

-.(jcl=186N/n2M2

Thus,

P,, = 13612 N

RF

= 13612/5406 = 2.5

217

REFERENCES FOR APPENDIX C [CI] Young, J. B. 'STRUCT' Structural Analysis Computer Code. Available on System, Cranfield Institute Computer Network Personal Aeronautic's College the of of Technology [C21 INA Bearing Company Limited. Roller Bearings INA 305.

[C31 Young, J. B. College of Aeronautics Detail Stressing Notes and Design Data Sheets. Cranfield Institute of Technology [C41 Ampep Aerospace Bearings, Ampep PLC, Cleveden England [C5] SDRC-H)EAS F"inite Element Modellinil. Users Guide, 1990

[C6] Mackinnon, A. V. An Experimental Study of a Variable Camber Wing. Ph 1992 Technology, Institute Cranfield Thesis, D of

218

17

11 s
cu

'CJ

7i
cu

0 4

u)

(L)

"0

iz

Ici

r-

:2
cl

1.

Z: u2

CD

73 0

0
a.)

219

cl:

C13

01) -ci

11

cl 0 .0

220

APPENDIX STRUCTURAL MODEL TRACK -

D LOADS AND STRESSING

D. I INTRODUCTION The loaded componentsof the structural model were essentially, the upper surface skin, the tracking system and the support structure. The details of the loads on the upper have been described in Chapter the checks relevant stiffness already and skin surface Five. However, the exact details of the loading and stress analysis on the tracking been have the structure not covered. This appendix gives these support and system details and contains the calculations made to stressthe tracks.
D. 2 TRACK LOADING AND STRESSING

The extending track of the two track system transfers aerodynamic loads aft of 54 % in bearings the to through roller support structure. These loads are position chord therefore due to the TE device the upper surface skin and the lower surface panel. The upper surface skin and lower surface panel loads were obtained directly from the finite element (FE) results. These are as follows: Chordwise position (% x/c) 0.579 0.61 0.658 0.696 0.733 0.769 0.804 0.837 0.869 0.9 0.9 Lower surface loads Upper surface skin loads Inboard track loads (N) 25 38 42 37 39 34 34 27 29 12 345 Outboard track loads (N) 19 32 37 33 34 30 30 24 26 10 328

221

The TE device loads on the upper and lower side were assumedto act at the inboard (I/B) and outboard (0/13) ends of the TE segment in 2/3 and 1/3 proportions respectively. Thus, Loads (N) Chordwise position % X/C TE upper side TE lower side 0.987 1.060 I/B track 979 841 O/B track 489 421

The total track loading is therefore as follows:

FF

F.

Upper surface skin loading I TE upper surface ------------

17 % chord position

R I

R2

n44 70 CIIUI-U

Lower surface panel loads TE lower surface

position Track loads aft of 54 % chord

Where R, and R2 represent the cam roller positions for reacting the above loads. From loads balance (N) at these positions is worked force the total reaction moment the and out as:

r -Roller

No.

Chordwise position % x/c 0.511 0.. 625

Inboard end 6733 -9175

Outboard end 3821 -5325

R,

R2

The maximum applied bending moment (Mpp) to the tracks Is 341 NM (I/B) and 668 NM (0/13).

222

Cam Bearing Siz A double roller bogie arrangementis usedat all roller positions. Thus assuminga fail fails if the other should sustain the full load. one roller safe system, ID11the required bearing diameter for the I/B and O/B From the INA bearing range , track rollers is 35 mm and 26 mm respectively. The later has a static load rating of 23 KN while the former has a static load rating of 11.3 KN.
Track Stressing

The tracks are machined from a commercial mild steel, EN8M with a 0.4 % carbon follows: for The this are as material properties content.
f,
t2

t, Yield stress E From reference [D2]: m f. 1 /C.

= = = = =

620-770 Nlmm 370 - 415 N/mrn 2 0.95 t2 = 394 N/mm 2 2 450 N1mrn and , 193000 N/mm 2

2,

= 13.51, 2 338 N/mm = = 610

All the four tracks were principally checked for bending. The calculations made to in instability Appendix flange C those (for the FLA to outline the similar were assess following Evaluation the the tracks). equations of gave critical bending variable camber (M.,, ): bending ) (a,, moment allowable and stress E= Type Track T, I/B Support I/B Extending O/B Support O/B Extending I (mm') 671824 568593 285516 315138 Z (mm') 22027 15882 11897 10505 or,,(N/mm2) 414 388 409 400 M. 11 (NM) 9115 6157 4863 4198

As is seen, M. u is greater than M... for all the tracks. Therefore these tracks are not likely to fail in bending.

223

REFERENCES FOR APPENDIX D [DII INA Bearing Company Limited. Rolling Bearings INA 305

[D21 ESDU Validated Engineering Data. ESDU Item No. 76016, ESDU Intemational Limited, 1976

224

APPENDIX E

MANUFACTURING DRAWINGS FOR THE STRUCTURAL MODEL

Drawings. VCW-TE/1 VCW-TE/2 VCW-TE/3 VCW-TE/4 VCW-TE/5 vCW-TE/6 VCW-TE/7 vCW-TE/8 Wing structural box Upper surface mould Flexible upper surface skin Trailing edge device Hinged lower surface box Variable camber tracks Upper surface conforming strip Actuator attachmentto the trailing edge device

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233

APPENDIX F
Paper presentedat the 18' International Council of the AeronauticalSciences. "The Aerodynamicand StructuralDesignof a Variable CamberWing", ICAS 1.6.4,181,ICAS 1992. congress,September

234

THE AERODYNAMIC AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF A VARIA13LECAMBER WING (VCW) JP Fielding SHM M4cci AV Maclcinnon JL Stollery Cranfield Instituteof Technology,Cranfield. Bedfordshire,MK43 OAL England

Current trends in the design of transport (civil/military) aircraft have shown that in order to be economicallyviable it is necessary to investigatetechnologies which may give an improvementIn performance and operationalflexibility. It is believedthat the applicationof variablecamber(VC) to a wing would assistin achievingsucha goal.
With the aim of developing a system which satisfies the structural and aerodynamic requirements, conflicting investigations have been made to: 1) Study the low and high speed theoretical and experimental aerodynamic effects of continuously changing the wing profile to suit all flight conditions. . 2) Examine the practical (structuraYmechanical) implications of applying such a concept to a real aircraft.

IA C, CD%& CIU. C, aof 17 [90/02],[Note :

U3 TE VCW Cro BCL

The two dimensional (chordwise). variation in camber is obtained by simultaneousrotation and extension of the trailing edge element near the aft Aegion,and by simple droopof the leading edge(LE) elementtowardsthe front of the aerofoil. Thus a family of aerofbilsof varying camber may be generated. Two dimensionalexperimental testsin lift coefficient,gradualvariation indicatethat with increase of camber results in lower drag comparedwith the basic section. undeployed to divide the On a three dimensionalwing it is necessary leading and trailing edge wing span into multi-scgmented in Experimental tests that spanwise variation show pieces. lift distribution can be achievedif thesespanwise segments are deployed independently. The root bending moment loads with gust loadsor pilot initiatedmanoeuvre associated is significantly reduced by altering the spanwise lift distribution in sucha way to causeinboardmovement of the by selectionof a highly centreof pressure. This is achieved wing root portion combinedwith low or negatively cambered tip segments. cambered

Leadingedge Trailing edge Variable CamberWing Chordwiselength of the tralUg edgeelement Youngsmodulusof elasticity(N/mnr) lift coefficient Local lift coefficient Drag coefficient Drag coefficientincrement Roll coefficientincrement Coefficientof pressure Camberangleof rotation(Degrees) Angle of incidence(Degrees) Spanwise position of centreof pressure Orientation,No. and lay-up of carbonfibres. Subscript's' refers to symme*trf6lay all non dimensionalised coefficientsare calculated basedon the undeployMreferencechord]. 1 Root 0 2 0 5 10 5 10 5 3 0 5 10 0 0 0 4 7ip 0 5 10 0 0 -3.5 A X Symbol

Segment No

Camber angleof rotation, a (Degrees)

5 10 5 10 5

1. INTRODUCTION The objectiveof this research the problems wasto investigate and benefits of applying a variable camber wing (VCW) systemto transportaircraft. Spillman(Reference 1) pioneered a novel methodof camber variationby means of rotationandtranslation of leadingedge (LE) and trailing edge(TE) elements. 'Me top surfacewas kept smoothandcontinuous to generate a family of cambered by acrofoil sections.7le proposalwastestedexperimentally 2) usinga quasitwo dimensional Rao(Reference (2-D) wing. 'ne work presentedin this paper maintains the same deploymentprogrammefor the aft cambervariation.

Thispaper: 1) Reports foundfromthe on theencouraging results theoretical andexperimental aerodynamic work, 2) Presents solution a design of a practical system theaerodynamic whichsatisfies requirements, and 3) Describes thetests carded aut to verify theoverall design concept. I

235

&ckness % to chorT'mtio A supercriticalaerofoil of 14 (t/cmax) was designed with generous section thickness between50% and 70% chord and significant TE thickness. the camber Tlis was perceivedto assistin accommodating actuationequipment. The detailsof the changein sectionprofile are depictedin Figure 1. Ile position of maximumcurvatureon the upper surface ties at 64.5% chord and so was chosen as the junction betweenthe centrebody and the TE element. The as the centreof rotation origin of this curvaturewas selected and the camber angle, S, was prescribedas the angle of rotationof the 7E elementin a circular arc aboutthis origin. A flexible upper surfaceplatejoins the centre body and the TE elementto permit extension yet maintaincurvature. 7he lower surfacewas a simpler systemin which a rigid closing held 60% body from and is hinged chord the at centre plate by spring loadsto the TE element. This geometrymaintains a smoothtop surfacewhendeployed. is to control the LE suction The purposeof LE deployment due in to by circulation variations caused peak pressure LE the Deployment element on a of changes. camber design insurmountable problems. presented arc circular Theseare overcome(seeFigure 1) by simply drooping the LE element without extension, similar to the RAEVAM in Figure 2 is description this A given concept of system. 3). (takenfrom Reference variati4 of camberis possible For a finite wing, spanwise by dividing the camber controlling devices into several be deployed can of which the each span. along segments implicationsof achievingsuch independently.7lie geometric 3.2. in Section discussed in are a variation wing camber 2. AERODYNAMIC DESIGN 2.1 VARIABLE CAMBER WING WIND TUNNEL MODEL ne variable camber (VC) half wing wind tunnel model shown in Figure 3 was of a rectangularplanform swept at distanceof 1.6m and referencechord of 250. A semi-span 0.6m gave an aspectratio of 5.33 which combinedwith a No. in Reynolds test of two 50 a m/s resulted tunnelspeedof millions (2 x 10.
100 00,5* and of settings -3.5% -Discrete chordwise camber (TE) detachable trailing edge tested using rotation were into four divided The for span was camber. each pieces equal segments, thus any number of camber settings and be could achieved. positions spanwir: One TE piece of each camber setting was pressure tapped along with a leading edge segment and the centre body. The pressure distribution over the entire wing could therefore be measured by moving the appropAate pressure tapped segments along the span.

2.2 FORCESAND MOMENTS Mie notation usedto describethe value of camber settings (rotation of the TE elementaboutthe origin) at eachof the four span positions is simply done by stating the camber settings from root to tip (eg 10 10 00 describesa wing configurationof two 10 degreecambersettingsat the root portion combinedwith two undeployed settingsat the tip). Figure 4 displaysthe graph of lift coefficient (CL) against incidence, ot, for three uniform spanwisecamber cases namely, 00,5* and 10*. Also shown are two caseswith discontinuous spanwise camber settings these being , 10 10 55 and5500. It was foundthat the experimental lift curve slopeof 3.86/rad comparedwell with the theoretical value of 3.871rad (Reference4) for the basic section. increase in uniform camberacrossthe spanto 50 Subsequent and 100resultedin a parallel shift of the CL vs a curve. 71USCL at zero incidencerose from 0.092 to 0.342 for the 50caseand up to 0.646 for the 10*case. 7'heslopeof both the discontinuous spanwise cambersettings is greater than those of the uniform camber distribution. Examiningthe 5500 caseit would be expected that the lift againstincidence curve would lie directly betweenthat of 50 and 00 uniform case as the mean camber would be 2.51 acrossthe span. IMese testshowevershow that for positive incidencethe 5500 lift againstincidencecurve lies nearer for the the 51thanthe 0* curve. A similar patternis repeated 10 10 00 case. This indicatesthat a large portion of the loading Is carried by the segments at, or adjacent spanwise to the root of the wing. Figure 5 shows the graph of drag coefficient against lift coefficient(CDvs CL) for the threeuniform cambersettings (namelyV15* and 10. 71ere appears to be little difference between the threecurvesbut a trendcan be seen. At low C1. in camberresultsin an increase in CD. As the CL an increase and at CLof approximately risesthis drag differencereduces 0.8 the drag of the 5* caseequalsthat of the (r case. Above that the more camberedsections this value Of CL it is Se'en producelessdrag than the basicsection. Thus at the higher valuesOf CL the CDvs C,. curvesoverlap one another. To maintainthe minimumdrag thecambersettingwould haveto be increased graduallywith increasingCLabove0.8. lo amplify the difference betweenthese curves the drag incrementswith respect to the basic section, CDi.. Were plottedagainstCL, as depictedin Figure 6. It is clearly seen that the bigher the camber setting the larger the drag incrementat zero lift. As CL increases the drag increment drag for the 5* and 100cases reduces. 71e 5* casematches at CL Of with the basicsectionat C, of 0.8 and the 1()*Case 0.9. Above thesevaluesdrag benefit is gained. Figure 6 also shows the drag increment for the aforementioned discontinuouscamber casesplus a further case with the camber setting of 550 -3.5, which has two camber discontinuitiesacrossthe span. For thesethree casesthe reduction in drag increment with increasedCL is much sharper. For the configuration5500 the drag cross-over occurs at a C, of approximately 0.42, whilst for the 10 10 00 case it occurs at a CL of 0.8.71iis is a little

A seriesof testswas carriedout with both uniform spanwise forces spanwise settingsmeasuring camberanddisconfinuous and momentsand recordingpressuredistributionsat twelve stations. spanwise

236

it that the configuration with was suspected as surprising discontinuity would generate additional camber mid-span between due drag to the step adjacent geometry vortex is indicated by However the the reason segments. camber in 11. Figure With the lift distribution shown spanwise is 550 0) distribution (eg the camber of change sparwise further distribution The load was elliptic. nearly more altered by introducing a second spanwise camber discontinuity with the configuration 550 -3.5. This 5500 drag in the the as same almost results condition single camberdiscontinuity case. In an attempt to reduce drag further, small fences were to straighten introduced betweeneach of the TE segments cross flow. Over the entire CL range the results show an increased increment due to drag the wettedarea. extra Figure 7 shows a graph of rolling moment coefficient incrementwith respectto the basicsection,C,.j.. againstCL. It demonstrates that little rolling moment change is This se between cases. camber spaw. uniform experienced was to be expectedas the planform remainsrectangularand hence the spanwise loading are of similar shape. The 5500 configurationshows a reductionin rolling moment is 0.3 Airther CL 20% and reduction of a at of coefficient 00 10 10 550 configurations. and the -3.5 achievedwith 11is effect is more clearly shown in Figure 8, where the is CL. It is 71, against plotted pressure, of centre spanwise low large cambers and wing root the of that combination seen inboard large the of movements tip causes camber wing centre of pressure.
2.3 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS

probablydue to the existence of a small gap(3mm) between wing root and reflection plate to prevent rigging load interferenm "is gapallowsa smallpassage of air from the lower surfaceto the uppersurfacereducinglift near the LB and increasing aft loadingdueto thepresence of a small root vortex. At the tip of the wing CL Is zero and at station 12, 30mm from the tip, the pressuredistribution is severely alteredby the presence of the tip vortex. Ibis increases the by 'wash-out' aft loadingconsiderably andcould be reduced by camber near the tip. For a VCW this would be achieved reductionof the tip segment. It was found that the shapeof the pressure distribution was similar for all the spanwisestationsexceptstation 12, the only differencebeingthegradualreductionof lift towardsthe tip. This suggested that the vortex influencewas strongest over the outer 10 % of the span. Figure II shows an almost rectangular spanwise lift distribution for the three uniform spanwise, camber cases. Altering the spanwise, the tip camber camberby decreasing and increasingthe root camberchanges the lift distribution significantly. This results in a' large loss of lift in the outboardregion. Consequently the centreof lift is moved inboard. 2.4 DISCUSSION Theseresultsraisedseveralpoints:

distributionswere measured at twelve spanwise The pressure local lift distribution the From chordwise each positions. based before the on was as and calculated was coefficient referencechord. Comparing the pressuredistributionsat spanwisestation 7 (SeeFigure 9) for the three uniformly camberedwing cases identifies the need for an efficient and well controlled LE due in LE The device. the peak suction pressure rise camber by increased the aft camber circulation produced the to variation is significant. Early theoretical calculations device deployment for LE the and a a need confirmed in a change curvature, maintained smooth which method junction body between the that the and to centre at similar deployedTE element. It is alsoseenthat significantly more is from larger due This to the the loading camber. results aft rotation and extensionof the TE elementand much of the is by lift the chord extension. carried additional On the lower surface for the larger camber cases a discontinuityof slopeof pressure coefficient, Cp, appears at 60% chord. This position is the joint betweenthe hinged lower surfaceclosingplate and thecentrebody and this peak was acceptedin order to simplify the structural design. Theoretical calculations indicWd negligible drag penalty diodification. insufficient to warrani which was Figure 10 shows the pressuredistributionsat stations 1,7 for 12 the uniform spanwise camber configuration and 5555 at zero incidence. It is seenthat the root pressure distribution has a slightly lower LE suctionpeak compared to the mid-spanpressuredistribution it station 7. This is

1)Ile CL at which the uniform spanwise camber cases 5555 and 10 10 10 10cross-over in Figure6 to indicate lower drag compared to the basicsection are very high (greater 0.8). TheCLrange than overwhich variable camber 0.2 and0.6 for most wouldbe desirable wouldbe between theoretical civil aircraftat cruise. However calculations indicate thatlittle morethan2* of camber rotation wouldbe to coverthis CLrange,. therefore needed the50case would suit a high lift situation. T'he 100cast would be more to thelow speed takeoff andlanding applicable conditions whereit is felt little or no additional assistance wouldbe fromauxiliary highlift devices. required

2) Ile selectionof the origin of rotation based on the maximumcurvatureof the upper surfaceat 64.5% chord results in a large amountof chord extensionfor a given rotation. It is felt that the chord "tensions of 13.6% and 27.7% for the 50 and,100casesrespectivelyare too great in the total wettedarea. T'hese resultingin a large increase valuesmay be reducedby choosingan origin with a smaller radius of rotation resulting in more camber and less in extension. The penaltyfor this would be a local increase curvatureon the upper surfaceat the junction betweenthe increasing the possibilityof centrebo4y and theTE segment wavedrag at transonicspeeds. 3) 77he neglectof the LE camberdeploymentduring wind tunnel testsresultsin large LE suctionMics. Whilst these may be toleratedto someextentat low speedthe resulting wav drag at transonicspeeds would be a severepenalty.

237 -

4) it is seenthat spanwise variationsof camberis a powerful tool for two reasons; a) the rolling momentand hencethe wing root bending by the momentcanbe significantlyreduced in conjunction deployment of large root cambers with low tip cambers. Typically high lift situationswould benefitgreatly, as manoeuvre would the gust load alleviationproblem. lie 5500 b) Tle drag advantages and550 -3.5 of above CL 0.4 comparedto configurationcasesat the basic sectionindicateshow the operational flexibility of a variablecamberwing can allow the lift distribution to be alteredto becomemore elliptic henceminimising vortex drag. 3. STRUC`rURAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN 3.1 TWO DIMENSIONAL (2-D) TRAILING EDGE DESIGN SCHEME investigations thatthepredicted Aerodynamic suggest aerofou if best be improvements the upper can achieved performance surface curvature is kept smooth and continuous. 'nese geometric constraints therefore governed the practical, design VCW. the of and mechanical structural, Figure 12 shows the essential features of the proposed following the It elements: of comprises scheme.
1) a solid trailing edge CrE) device, 2) a flexible upper surface, 3) a hinged lower surface, 4) an extending/conforming track, 5) a support track, and 6) a set of rolling elements for controlling the profile of the upper surface.

3.2 THREE DIMENSIONAL (3-D) GEOMETRIC AND PRACrICAL DESIGN CONSIDERA77ONS Spanwisevariation in camber is possibleby dividing the similar to control devices(LE andTE) into severalsegments high lift devices on conventionalwings. IMe resulting discontinuity between the differentialy deployed camber segments meansthat the motion shouldbe in-Uneof flight. Figure 13aillustratesthe planfom arrangement of a typical transportaircraft wing, with theTE split in to six segments. inboard segments Ile three* are deployedthrough positive have both anglesonly, while the three outboard segments positiveand negativedeflections. In reality this geometryis impossibleto achievefor a sweptandtapered wing, sincethe local radius of curvaturevaries along the span, increasing from tip to root. Ite deploymentline joining the points of maximumcurvaturethus lies on a frustumof a cone. If the segments are to move backwardsin a line of flight direction with their edgesstreamwise, and at the sametime rotateto give angulardeflection,the axesof rotation,and the forward andaft endof the TH devicemustbe unswept. 71c necessarychangesto be made to the wing planform are shown in Figure 13b (the radius of curvature matchesthe outboardendof the segment).With suchan arrangement tfie (see Figure 12) d=eases chord of the TE device, C1.8. increases. rapidly as the spanof the segment it is apparentthat a true VC profile From thesearguments by placingthe segments couldonly be achieved perpendicular to the hinge line and deployingthem conically as shown In Figure 13c. Ile conical nature of the deploymentrequires the support tracksto be attached at an angleto the vertical. as illustrated in Figure 13d(dashed lines). This angleIs equivalentto the to the line of flight. Such an angle madeby the segments arrangementgives a lateral movement to the TE device which is; a) aerodynarzilcally unsatisfactory; requiring large cover fairings (Figure 13c), and b) structurallyimpossibleto give differential deployment of adjacentsegments. The attachmentof the tracks should be directly on to the wing structural box side ribs, as shown by full lines in Figure 13d. Deploymentof a solid TE is obviously not possiblewith such an arrangement,unless the TE box is made to flex and warp or be supportedby a suitable universaljoint system. It is apparentfrom Figure 12 that in order to havenegative deflectionsthe rear spar position mustbe moved forward (to 54% chord). If someof the segments were to haveboth negativeand positive deploymentwhile the rest only had positive deploymentthe rear spar must be staggered,as shown in the planform,drawings of Figure 13. This is an obvious drawback since the structural efficiency of the system will be much lower than say the continuousspar arrangement.The structuralefficiency is further reducedby introducingcutoutsto allow the tracks to run in and out of the main wing section.
modern transport aircraft make use of the wing structural box for fucl storage. An obvious disadvantage of the proposed concept is the positioning of the tracks on the Most

is TE device for the deployment curvature The necessary track which it by to extending curved a attaching provided 7%e the profile. track same the of support slides within deploymentarc in keeping is the tracks with these of shape A-B. Continuity between the TE device and the wing flexible by is skin on the upperside and a provided structure 7le flexible skin Is lower flap the side. on hinged panel a in a conforming the and sits spar position rear at clamped The by conforming set of rolling elements. of a means track Wending in both track and the is the curved grooved track Cupper It surfaceof the unTE device. thereforematches from from C D device TE tooint and curves point deployed forward track. the C the to match shape of extending point The uppersurfacethusslideswithin the track during the TE by meansof deployment. The undersideis kept continuous 60% lower hinged loaded surface closing plate at a spring chord. Computationalcalculationsshowedno significant due kink lower to the a slight at effects surface aerodynamic hinge link. 7be practicalsizeof the uppersurfaceskin restrictsthe range 00 to +10* or -3.5* to +7*. The to deflection either of for the formerrangeis 64.5% spar the rear wing of position it is placed at 54%. 71c negative later for the while deflection was requiredfor the flap to contributeto the roll bendingmomentcontrol. root wing and control

side ribs inside the wing box, thus invadingthe fuel space.

--

238

3.3 THREE DIMENSIONAL (3-D) STRUCTURAL MODEL DESIGN AND TESTING

it is clearthatthekeyfeatures discussions Fromtheabove of are: thedesign 1) Thedesire to havebothconical andparallel deployment, and for flexibilityandcontrolled 2) lie requirement of theuppersurface. curvature
it wasdecidedthereforeto design,constructandtesta scaled prototype model of one TE segmentwith the following aims:with a 3D a) Highlight the problemsassociated deploymentgeometry. how the system(tracktroller) behaves b) Assess when actuatedand deployedunder appliedloads. c) Checkthe suitability of designingthe uppersurface with varying stiffnessin spanand chord. -rbe secondand third objectivesrequiredthe tracIdngsystem be designed to to meet suitable the surface upper and stiffnesscriteria. 3.3.1 Model Design An illustration of the designof the proposedsystemis given in Figure 14. U2MLLd=J29I,: gn

effectively slideswithin the aforementioned strips. Mic design of the upper surfacewas basedon a stiffness criterion which restrictedthe maximumdeflectionto be less than 2% of the maximumlocal spar depth. IMe deflection predictionswere madeusing Finite Element (FE) analysis techniques by simulating face pressures on thin shell elements.

A two track systemis adapted track sliding with an extending on top of a support track with the assistance of cam and needle rollers (See section drawing in Figure 14). 'ne loads, whilst the rollers are sized to react to aerodynamic designof the tracksis basedon their ability to transfershear andbendingloadsto the supportstructure(wing box). TE Devi Structuraldesignof the TE wasnot necessary sinceits basic function was only to display the 3-D geometricproblems associated with conical and parallel deploymentof a solid body. It was therefore simply machinedfrom laminated wood.

-ne design of the upper surface is critical to the whole being important 7lie spanwise stiffness aspect most concept. have The flexibility. sldn must surface upper chordwise and hold in to shapewithout excessive order stiffness sufficient loads. At the same due to the aerodyparnic applied warping for it is. to conform flexibility the nFAed chord along time be The binding. warping can undesired sticking and without following three by the of any, or combination, prevented ways: 1) 'ne attachment of spanwisestiffenersacrossthe chord of the upper surface, 2) The placement of severalchordwiserails acrossthe span, 3) 71iedesignof the surfacein appropriatefibre reinforcedplastic (FRP) material. For the structural model it was decided to combine the second and third alternatives. The skin was made from fibres composite and restrainedalong the chord at 5 carbon longitudinal 7lie (spanwise) stations. spanwise and segmental transverseE valuesof the materialare 0.8175 x JW NIme HO N/mm2 0.499 x respectively. Ile laminateis 2mm and thick and has 8 (0.25 mm thick) phes orientated in direction. Ile 00 plies are placedalong (9010,1+451OV90]3 the spanto give chordwiseflexibility. througha seriesof 'Tbe uppersurfaceskin profile is changed tags (rolling elements)positioning the sidn in strips (rail-*, At the inboardandoutboardendsthe rails are attached to the TE device. in the tracks and the intermediate while extending span position they are attachedto the TE device only. On device, TE the the extendingtrack movesaft, of actuation carrying the conformingstrips. 7lius the uppersurfaceskin

Initially it was intendedto havetwo actuators placed,one at either end of the segmenL However suchan arrangement if the TE device is madeto flex can only be implemented along the chord and warp along the span. Since the TE devicewasdesigned as a solid body which was envisaged to experiencea lateral movementduring deployment,only a single actuatorcould be implemented. This actuatorwas placedin a mid-spanposition. 3.3.2 StructuralTestingand Results In view of the three test objectives,the testing had to be divided into threedistinct ph : PhaseIStiffnesstestingof the uppersurfaceand comparison of the resultswith the FE predictions. Phase II - Observation of the TE deployment unloaded. III - Observation Phase of the deployment with representative appliedloads.

Verifications of the FE results could only be possibleby testingthe uppersurfaceundersimilar loadingconditions. is shown in Figure 15a. Illustrations of the test apparatus Ilie test was carriedout by supportingthe upper suiface on five chordwiseformersalongthe span(simulatingthe tracks andconformingstrips). Ile distributedload wasappliedby meansof sandbags and the deflection measurements were madewith aial gauges. 48 deflection measurements were recorded along the span and chord of the skin. An defiectionsalong illustration of the measured and analysed the span at one chordwisestation is given in Figure 15b. Ilie miss-match of the results is due to slight miss

239 -

loading the and the stiffness parameters of representation betweenthe two systems. In generalthe two setsof results little difference. very with well correlate

4 RECOMMENDATIONS

its in orderto observe theTE wasactuated onceassembled, 16 displays Figure of the a photograph motion. translational deployed its in position. positive possible maximum model that the TE initial observations of the systemsuggested to conform Theupper wasseen surface deployed smoothly. binding. or wrinkling without and continuously smoothly (frominboard lateral thespan across ne expected movement different because This the of was evident. was to outboard) to whichtends of thesegment, trackradiusat thetwo ends Ading TE The TE obviously was element twistthe element. it (inboard) the larger than smaller was on the radius on more one.
The maximum measuredextensions(for 7* of camber rotation) at the inboardand outboardendswere found to be approximately 270 mm and 261 mm respectively. In at the two endswere301 comparisonthe requiredextension mm (inboard)and264 mm (outboard). The differenceIn the two setsof figures implies that the TE device13too Stiff to twist in order to flex for maximumparalleldeployment.The TE device had a tendencyto bind above6* of deflection.

1) Ile 7E device boxneeds to be redesigned structural so thatit flexes andhasadequate stiffness suchthatit is not to flutter. prone
5 CONCLUSIONS 7be outcomeof this work was to designa variable camber wing which accommodates manyof the conflicting structural and aerod namic problems. 'ne wind tunnel model demonstrated by thepossibilityof improvingthe performance meansof both chordwise and spanwisecamber variation. Ile structuralmodeltested provedthat suchtypeof variation wasa practicalpossibility.

Figure 17 displays a photograph taken while operating the system under applied loads. 7te, Purpose Of this exercise in deployment behaviour the to changes simply monitor was of the TE and the tracks due to applied loads. Observations indicated no real difference in the deployment of the loaded model in comparison with the unloaded model, except that the former system was much slower. This had been expected and is primarily due to rolling friction between the needle rollers and the two tracks.

This;project wasa joint ventureinvolving British Aerospace (CommercialAircraft Division), the Departmentof Trade and Industry (DTI) and Cranfield Instituteof Technology. It provideda uniqueopportunityto blendtheextensive design experienceof British Aerospacewith Cranfield's research and testingfacilities to producea workabledesignsolution. D77's involvement was of great assistance to the designof the wind tunnel model and with its aerodynamic testing. 71e authorswish to express their appreciation to all involved and especiallyto ProfessorIJ Spillman, who originatedthe project and whose enthusiasm and experienceontributed greatlyto all aspects of the work. REFERENCES 1.1. Spillman, T'heuseof variablecamberto reducedrag, weight and cost of transportaircraft. Aeronautical Journal, January 1992 Royal AeronauticalSociety PaperNo. 1844 Variable for camber wing transportaircraft, PhD Thesis 1989 Cranfield Instituteof Technology

3.4 DISCUSSION A totally new designconcepthas beendevelopedto satisfy the given geometricconstraintsof the aerofoil sectionand flap deploymentset by aerodynamic requirements. Extension of the concept to a 3-D wing showedhow the desiredconical and parallel deployments are possibleonly if a warping TE flap box or universaljoints are used. T'his point is highlighted by designing the TE device of the structural model in laminated wood and operating under unloaded and loaded conditions. Deployment checks indicated no problems of achieving VC with continuous to motionswereobserved curvaturetracks. The translational be smooth,andthe uppersurfaceflexedwithout wrinkling or binding. FE analysis and initial static tests of the flexible upper it is that suggest possible to satisfy the stiffness surface requirements. provided that an appropriate number of chordwise rails are positionedalong the span. Ile close indicates between two the sets of results that much proximity confidencecan be placed in FE analysis,thus future work may not require separatestiffness checks for the upper surface.

2) A. 1. Rao

3) Pierce and Treadgold

A simple to mechanical system to suit varya wing section shape flight conditions. various RAETM 1149,1969

Jft curve 4) Engineering and ESDU Item 70011- T. ScienceData Unit slopeand aerodynamic centre (ESDU) positionof wings in inviscid

240

Smooth

continuous

upper

surface

profile

; 7% Chord 5

PPoinntt ooff maximum ature 6

1 60 Drooped 0 edooe nose leading % Cho Id Aft variation camber by simultaneous and extension rotation

7
unchanged wing box Figure 1: Basic aerofoil section indicating

VI Hinged Origin (0.506,

lower

surface

of rotation -1.5778) variation scheme

proposed

camber

Segment No

1 Root 0

2 0 5 10 5 10 5

3 0 5 10 0 0

4 Tip 0 5 10 0 0 -3.5

Symbol
X

Camber angle of rotation, 6 (Degrees)

5 10 5 10 5

13 6 x

F-0

Figure 2: The RAEVAM 4: TSweep = 25'

leading edge droop

Chord 0.6 m

-3.5"00
5100 Figure 4: Lift coefficient vs Incidence

Figure 3: Four segment variable camber wind tunnel model

241

Segment No

1 Root 0

2 0 5 10 5 10 51

3 0 5 10 0 0 01

4 Tip 0 5 10 0 0 -3.5 1

Symbol X 0 0 cl A. x

X10-1 1.000. CRinc

Camber angle of rotation, (Degrees)

5 10 5 10

0.

-0.

-I
-1 Figure 7: Roll coefficient increment vs Lift coefficient 1 . 00 0.800 3( X -0.40 0.40 1.20 CL Figure 5: Drag coefficient vs Lift coefficient OOJ %--L

CD

0.20d

x,6 0.40 1.20 CL

-0.40

XIO-2 0.80

Figure 8: Spanwise centre of pressure vs Lift confficinnt

-I

CDinc

CP

-0.

-ch
Figure 6: Drag coefficient increment vs Lift coefficient

Figure 9: Pressure distributions at span station 7 for 0,5', and 10' uniform spanwise camber

242

-1.00

Station 1 Station 7 CL,

CP
-0.60

-0.20.

00 0.20-', ' I

'-: 400-600

'800

GOO

Chord (mm)
Figure 11: Spanwiselift distribution for various uniform and discontinuousspanwisecamber

Figure 10: Pressure distributions at span stations 1,7 and 12 for 50, uniform spanwise camber

I 2 3 4 5. 6 7

Solid trailing edge device Flexible Upper surface Itinged lower surface plate Grooved extending track Conforming track Support track Rolling pins

", 3
CTS

-- 13
--

8 9
10

Compression spring Under surface hinge


Wing structural box

11 - Wing rear spar @ 64.5 % chord 12. -7 Wing rear spar 54 % chord (for maximum 4 13Reduced under-side to negative deflections)

Section A-A

Section B-13

retain lower surface continuity

Figure 12: Two dimensional solution for aft camber variation

243

I- Wing planform split into six trailing edgesegments (In-line of flight de[310yment) 1
2. Splitter plates 3 -Staggered rear spar 4- Unswept hingeline

9
Inboard

5 -Conical Wngeline

6- Unswept trailing edge device 7- Conicaly deployed segments 19.5 10 Outboard 8- Fairings to cover lateral movement of the segments 9- Support (raclu, mounted at an angle 10 - Support tracks mounted direct of the wing side ribs

Figure 13: Three dimensional geometric implication of spanwise camber variation on a typical transport aircraft wing

11 - Wing side ribs

6 -Cain rollers
Carbon fibre upper surface skin Solid trailing edge device Conforming strip Extending track 7 -Needle rollers 8 Rolling elements 9 Front spar 10- Rear spar IISide support rib

2 3 4

5 -Support track

12 - Lower surface flap panel

Figure 14: Three dimensional structural model

244

I 2

Carbon skin Chordwise form :ers 7 fram, Comparison of fSnite element and test results G est 4- Sand bags simulating distributed load 5- Sand bag retainers 6 -Holes (48 off) for deflection measurements Finite element Spanwise position 0

3 -Support

Figure 15: Static test arrangement and deflection measurements of composite flexible skin

16: Photograph of model at maximuni deployment

Figure 17: Operation of the structural niodel under applied load