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2ND YEAR MINOR SYNTAX 1 COURSE INSTRUCTOR: ROXANA-CRISTINA PETCU, PhD LECTURE I THE NATURE OF UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR This

s course of lectures aims to look into the structure of the simple finite sentence, namely sentences that contain one single predication relation, the verb of which carries a Tense marker. The theoretical perspective is the one offered by the Theory of Government and Binding, first synthesized by Chomsky in Lectures on Government and Binding (1981). UG was defined by Chomsky (1976) as follows: the system of principles, conditions and rules that are elements or properties of all human languages. the essence of human language. The goal of UG is to provide a theory of grammar that should be able to offer a number of principles, a number of generalized statements which are valid cross-linguistically. The differences between languages are accounted for in terms of parameters, namely the different values that the principles have in different languages. Principles The Principle of Structure Dependency Definition: language relies on structural relationships rather than on the linear sequence of items. Operations on sentences such as movement require knowledge of the structural relationships of the words rather than their linear sequence. Evidence : Question formation 1. The letter will arrive tomorrow. 2. This is a dagger which I see before me. 3. The man who is tall is John. Will the letter arrive tomorrow? *A this a dagger which I see before me? *Is the man who tall is John? Is the man who is tall John?

What moves in order to form a question in English is not the third or the fourth word in a sentence, but the auxiliary in the main clause, irrespective of whether it comes first or second in the sentence. In fact, what moves is the constituent which carries Tense, be it an auxiliary (be, have), a modal verb (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would, ought to) or DO when used in question formation for the Simple Past Tense and the Simple Present tense. Movement of the auxiliary depends on the knowledge of the structure of the language. English, like all human languages is structure-dependent. The Projection Principle The theory emphasizes the Lexicon and the fact that speakers know what each word in the language means, how it is pronounced and how it behaves syntactically. The syntactic description of the sentence and the lexical properties of each lexical item are integrated by the theory via the Projection Principle, which requires that syntax should accommodate the lexical specification of each lexical item. 4. Helen likes the French paintings. *Helen likes. 5. Peter is working. *Peter is working a chair. Each lexical item has a lexical entry in the Lexicon which provides information about the phonological form of the item, its categorical status, and also about the theta roles (Agent, Patient, Theme, Experiencer) that item can assign. 6. like category information [+V, -N] thematic structure [Experiencer, Theme]

[ ___NP] 7. work category information [+V, -N] thematic structure [Agent] [ ____ ] Two types of selectional restrcitions operate on the lexical item so as to define the subcategorization properties of the respective item c-slection (categorial selection) and s-selection (semantic selection), which in fact are predictable from the thematic properties of the item. C-selection refers to the type of categorical phrase that is subcategorized by the item, while sselection refers to the sematic properties of the phrase subcategorized by the respective item. 8. He brought a book to me. Bring [+V, -N] thematic structure [Agent, Theme, Goal] 9. The earthquake brought disaster to Japan. Bring [+V, -N] Thematic structure [Cause, Theme, Location]

So, the lexical entry is said to project onto syntax. The Projection Principle states that the lexical features of each item stored in the Lexicon are projected to the other levels. It is a universal of human language, as all languages integrate their syntactic features with their lexical entries.

The Principle of Endocentricity


One other important aspect of our study of the language is the way in which the elements are ordered in a language. The main assumption is that sentences may be broken up into constituent phrases that are in fact words grouped together round a head. The head is that word without which the respective phrase has no meaning. The phrase is in fact a projection round a head, it is endocentric. One important criterion to identify a phrase is the fact that the phrase and its head have the same distribution (appear in the same contexts). The head gives the category of the phrase. 10. [The London train NP] [arrived [at [platform five.NP]PP]VP] No Vo Po N0 One important parameter is the position occupied by the head in each language, because in all types of phrases in a language the head always occupies the same position, either on the left (first) or on the right (last). For instance, English is a head-left (head-initial) language, whereas Japanese is a head-right (head-last) language. The GB theory incorporates a particular theory of the structure of phrases, called X-bar syntax which expresses generalizations about the phrase structure of all human languages rather than features that are idiosyncratic to one language. The Extended Projection Principle It is another principle of UG that requires all sentences to have a subject. The problem is that the subject is not always overt even in the finite sentences. This is a variation between languages, a parameter called the Pro-drop Parameter. For instance, English is a non-pro-drop language, whereas Romanian is a pro-drop language. 11. pro este acas. *pro is at home. We can now say that the grammar of a language can be seen as a particular set of values for the parameters, while the overall system of rules, principles and parameters is UG, which we may take as to be one element of the human biological endowment, namely the language facility.

The Componets of the Grammar LEXICON D-STRUCTURE MOVE S-STRUCTURE

Phonological Form PF-Representations

Logical Form LF-Representations

GB requires two levels of representation, namely d-structure and s-structure. At d-structure all the elements in the sentence are in their initial location, while at s-structure they have moved. Move is the one single basic operation on a sentence. Deletion and insertion may also operate on the sntence. Move operates on d-structure and is a general rule that says that anything can be moved leaving behind a trace coindexed with the moved element. Traces are empty categories (they have no phonological form and no meaning). Traces are indicated by t and they mark the original place in the sentence of the elements that have moved. They are symbolized at the level of s-structure as a means of preserving the initial syntactic relations existing between the constituents of the sentence so as not to alter the meaning of the sentence. The PF and the LF components operate on the s-structure, not on the d-structure. 12. You are seeing what at the cinema? Whatj arei you t i seeing t j at the cinema?

The Structure of Phrases As we have stated, phrases are endocentric, they are projections round a head according to a general format that can be synthesized as follows and can be represented as a tree (a phrase marker -PM). XP X Spec - X X0 XP Spec X -(YP)

X0

YP

- the notions of node, branch, sister branches, mother node, maximal and intermediate projection

- the idea that the X level is recursive. - the notions of complement and adjunct Noun Phrases (NP) 13. the investigation of the corpse (after lunch) NP Spec N N0 Det The investigation of the corpse after lunch PP N PP

Adjectival Phrases (AP) 14. (rather) envious of Mary AP Spec AdvP A0 Rather envious PP of Mary A

Prepositional Phrases (PP) 15. (right) across the bridge PP Spec AdvP P0 Right across NP the bridge P

Verb Phrases (VP) 16. walk; (always)clean the bike; offer flowers to mother (a) VP V V0 Walk (b) VP Spec AvdP V0 always Det clean the N0 bike (c) VP V V PP to mother V0 offer NP flowers N NP V

Lexical and Functional Categories Lexical categories open classes of words that have descriptive content (N, A, Adv, P, V). - They contain an infinite number of members, new ones can always be added to such classes. - project structure according to the X-bar schemata - both c-selection and s-selection operate on lexical categories - are assigned theta-roles (N) or are theta-role assigners (V,P) - are assigned case (N) or are case assigners (V,P) - can license an argument (V) or can be licensed as an argument (N) Functional categories closed sets; no new members can be added - do not have descriptive content, they are semantically abstract. They serve to express certain morpho-syntactic features that are not expressed by the lexical category they combine with. - they always select the same type of argument (only c-selection. Eg. I 0 always selects a VP) - project structure according to the X-bar schemata.

They are the locus of grammatical information. Parametric variation affects only functional categories Do not assign theta-roles. Determiners (definite and indefinite articles, demonstratives, the possessive marker s, cardinal numbers, possessives, pronouns), degree, tense, aspect, agreement, inflection, mood, complementizers (that, whether, for-to)

The Structure of the Simple Sentence 17. *He buy a book. (He bought a book / He buys a book every week) The simple finite sentence is a projection of the INFL node that carries Tense and Agreement. INFL is a zero-level category, it is a functional category which dominates all verbal inflection. I 0 is a functional head, it projects structure, its maximal projection is IP, its complement is always a VP. Depending on whether I0 carries markers for Tense or not sentences are divided into two main classes finite and nonfinite. Finite sentences carry Tense markers, while non-finite ones are [-Tense]. We include infinitives, gerunds, present and past participles and also small clauses under the category of non-finite sentences. IP Spec DP He I0 T -ed V0 buy VP DP a book I

18. I will ask [whether [Poirot will abandon the investigation.]] I will say [that [Poirot .]] We suggest that the Complementizer is the head of the sentence. Complementizers are non-lexical (functional) heads and their complement is always an IP. The choice of the IP is determined by the choice of the C 0. 19. I want [for [him to come.]]

IP Spec Det I0 I

T -s

M will

VP V Vo

CP C C whether
0

IP
Poirot will abandon the investigation

say

The Auxiliary - auxiliaries are a functional category. - modal verbs, Progressive and passive BE; Perfective HAVE; Negative and Interrogative DO. - auxiliaries are base-generated in a pre-verbal position, to the left of the verb, in a Specifier position which is available for each of them. - auxiliaries lack an event structure; do not assign a theta-role - auxiliaries move(raise) to Inflection , while lexical verbs do not move in English, they remain inside the VP - auxiliaries can be negated by NOT; they can invert with the Su in question formation - auxiliaries occur in tag questions -Modal verbs are base-generated under I0 together with Tense and Agreement - BE and HAVE are V0 s; they are generated in a Spec VP position; their complement is always a VP - DO is devoid of amy meaning.It appears as a Last Resort. It is a support for the negative or the Tense affix; it is inserted under I0. 20. (a) He might have been reading a book. (b) She does not sing. (c) Did Mary wash the dishes? (a) He might have been reading a book. IP Spec Det He T -ed I I0 M may V0 have V0 be VP VP VP V V0 reading (b) She does not sing. IP Spec Det I I0 T DO -s Neg 0 Not NegP Neg VP V V0 sing DP a book

Argument Structure Theta Theory The intuitive idea of participants in an activity has been formalized in terms of the genral notion of argument structure and of the notion of thematic structure. Genarally speaking, verbs have an argument structure, based on the structure of the event denoted by the verb. The structure of this event determines the structure and the meaning of the sentence. The argument structure of a verb determines which constituents of a sentence are obligatory. The obligatory constituents are called complements, while the non-obligatory ones are called adjuncts. 21. This detective imitates Poirot. (Two arguments, Agent Patient/Theme) We like John. (Experiencer Patient/Theme) He gave the flowers to Mary. (Agent Theme Goal) He bought the book for Mary. (Agent Theme Benefactive) He is working. (Agent) The house collapsed. (Theme) Arguments are divided into external and internal arguments. Internal arguments are subcategorized by the verb. Adjectives and prepositions also have an argument structure. (interested in art, between Mary and John). The specific sematic relations between a verb and its arguments are referred to in terms of theta roles. The verbs theta-marks its arguments by assigning a theta role to each of its arguments. Theta-Criterion - each argument is assigned one and only one theta role, and each theta role is assigned to one and only one argument. (very important for Move) Theta roles

1. Agent/Actor the initiator of some action John made a table. 2. Theme/Patient entity undergoing the effect of some action The ball rolled towards him. Jane crumbled to the floor. 3. Experiencer entity experiencing some psychological state Students hate linguistics. 4. Benefactive entity benefiting from some action.
John did the job for me. 5. Goal entity towards which something moves He offered the flowers to Jane. 6. Instrument means by which something comes about He opened the door with the key. 7.Location place in which something is situated or takes place He put the book on the shelf. 8. Source entity from which something moves. He came from Venice.

2ND YEAR MINOR SYNTAX 1 COURSE INSTRUCTOR: ROXANA-CRISTINA PETCU, PhD LECTURE II - CASE THEORY Case Theory accounts for some of the formal properties of overt NPs and integrates the traditional notion of case into the grammar. Case theory deals with a special property that all noun phrases are assumed to have. If they lack this feature, the sentence which contains the phrase is rendered ungrammatical. A distinction has to be made between the notion of abstract case and morphological case. Abstract case is a universal property, while the overt realization of abstract case by means of morphological case varies with the language. Many languages have case systems in which every NP in a sentence bears a particular phonological form that denotes its grammatical or thematic function in the sentence. MORPHOLOGICAL CASE AND ABSTRACT CASE In English the overt realization of case in full lexical NPs is restricted to the Genitive case (eg. The butlers coat is too big).Nominative and Accusative are not realized overtly in modern English full NPs, although they were overtly marked in earlier stages of the language. The overt distinction between Nominative and Accusative forms in modern English is still to be found in the pronoun system (eg. He[Nominative] attacked him[Accusative].) Nevertheless, all NPs are marked for case in comparable syntactic configurations whether or not they display case overtly in their phonological and morphological forms. This marking for case is called Abstract Case. The assumption is that the system of Abstract Case is universal and hence it must not be learned. What is learned is the mapping between Abstract Case and overt morphological case, which takes different forms in different languages. Morphological Case, where it appears, may be used as a clue as to how Abstract case is assigned. There are two kinds of Case - structural Case and inherent Case. In the standard theory only two nodes may assign Case: V and P. V assigns the accusative (objective) Case to the item it governs, and P assigns the accusative or oblique Case to the item it governs. English does not appear to differentiate between the accusative and the oblique Cases, hence we will call it the accusative Case. There are languages that do differentiate between them. STRUCTURAL CASE ASSIGNMENT In English the lexical categories assigning case (case assigners) are verbs and prepositions, but there also functional categories that assign case, namely Inflection (more precisely Tense) and the s marker of the Genitive. Prepositions and verbs, which assign Case, cannot be assigned Case. In a structural case assignment configuration, we generally speak about two heads one head which assigns the theta role and another head which assigns case. Generally speaking, structural case assignment presupposes the existence of two heads one head which assigns theta-role and another head which assigns cae. ACCUSATIVE CASE ASSIGNMENT In a strictly syntactic theory of Case assignment, the conditions under which case is assigned must be syntactic, and in the GB approach configurational. The classical intuition is that the verb governs the direct object, and thereby assigns Accusative case to it. We assume that there is a well-defined relation of government. Case is assigned under terms of government, or at least the nominative and the accusative Cases are assigned this way. The accusative Case is assigned to the complement of a verb, unless the verb is marked to assign (or check for) another Case. The complement of a head is governed by the head. Accusative is assigned by the verb to the direct object in the following configuration: VP V V0 NP ACCUSATIVE

Several syntactic relations have to be defined as as to uniquely identify the NP in this configuration:

a. in the linear ordering of the constituents, the NP is strictly adjacent to the V (they are sister branches) b. the NP is dominated by the node in the tree that immediately dominates the Case assigner ( in this case the V, the category which assigns case to the NP) c. the NP is immediately dominated by the node in the tree that immediately dominates the case assigner (the V and NP are sisters) d. the NP is dominated by the lowest maximal projection that dominates the Case assigners This is in fact the relation of c-command (c = constituent command). c-commands iff the lowest branching node which immediately dominates also dominates . Based on the assumptions above, we can also define the relation of m-command (m= maximal projection) m-commands iff for all , being a maximal projection that dominates , dominates . We shall adopt the definition of government in terms of m-command, as it is the only option giving satisfactory results for Case assignment to the subject position as well. Government can be defined as follows. 1. governs iff a) is a head b) m-commands c) there is no barrier between and d) is [+G] (a governing category) NOMINATIVE CASE ASSIGNMENT The nominative Case is assigned to the specifier of [+Tense]. the nominative Case is assigned to the subject NP of a sentence if tense is [+Tense]. T (tense) governs the NP adjoined to TP. IP Spec NP I0 [+Tense] [+AGR] I VP V V0 NP

If we look at the example above, we notice that IP is a maximal projection that dominates I 0 and NP and there is no maximal projection that dominates I0 that does not dominate NP.Hence, I0 m-commands NP, that is I0 m-commands the subject, while V0 m-commands the direct object. Chomsky considers the Nominative Case to be assigned by [+Tense]. [+Tense] assigns the nominative Case to the right. The Nominative Case is assigned to the NP in the Spec position by T. What happens is a checking of the case features when the Specifier and the Head agree, that is under the Specifier-Head agreement mechanism. This is the mechanism that hold true for Nominative Case assignment. Eg. John is proud of his results. IP Spec I

I0 [+Tense] [+AGR] -s

VP V V0 BE SC/AP Spec NP John A

A0 proud

PP of his results

John is raised from AP to the subject position. John is not a complement of V or any other head. It cannot receive Case in the position where it was generated because BU is an unaccusative verb.. It must move to a Case-marked position. NP is created in the subject position and the features of JOHN are copied to it Now, according to the conventional theory of Case assignment, the nominative Case is assigned to John by [+TENSE]. The original position, the trace of NP, is not Case marked. It is the position where the theta role is assigned. John i and the trace left behind by movement ti are co-indexed and they make up a chain. EXCEPTIONAL CASE MARKING Eg. I believe her to speak French well. In case the subordinate clause carries no tense marker, that is I 0 is [-Tense], the subject of the subordinate clause is assigned Accusative by the Verb in the matrix clause, under government. It is a phenomenon known as Exceptional Case Marking. In this case, government and case marking a re possible because the [-Tense] Inflection is not a barrier, therefore both government and case marking are possible across the maximal projection IP. IP Spec I I I0 [+T] -s VP V CP Spec C0 C IP Spec NP her [Accusative] I I0 [-T] to VP V

V0 Believe

V 0 NP speak French SMALL CLAUSES By analogy with the Exceptional Case Marking situation, the following configuration is suggested: Eg. I consider [her intelligent] SC VP V V0 consider NP her I0 IP I AP Spec A A0 intelligent The subject of the Small Clause raises to [Spec IP] because in a Small Clause I 0 is null, therefore it cannot act as a governor for the subject position so it cannot assign case, so the subject will be assigned case by the verb in the matrix clause. The theta role of the subject of the small clause is assigned by the non-verbal predicate of the Small Clause, in our case the adjective intelligent. THE SUBJECT OF INFINITIVAL CLAUSES Eg. [For him to attack] would be surprising. FOR is both a Preposition and a Complementizer, so him is governed by a governor which is also a Case assigner, therefore it is assigned case under government. FOR occupies the C 0 position. I0 is non-finite [-Tense], so IP is not a barrier for government or case assignment. The case assigned to the subject in this situation is Accusative. Phrases such as VP,PP,CP do not receive case. They do not appear in positions where case can be assigned, consequently a CP cannot occupy a case-marked position. GENITIVE CASE ASSIGNMENT The s Genitive can also be considered as an instance of Structural Case Assignment by the Specifier-Head Agreement mechanism. Eg. Susans blouse DP Spec NP Susan D0 s D NP blouse

The configuration is similar to the configuration in which Nominative is assigned, so we can presume the existence of the same type of relation, therefore the same type of mechanism, namely the agreement between the Head (s) and the Specifier. THE CASE FILTER Every NP must be assigned Abstract Case. It is called a filter because it filters out any construction containing an overt NP which is not assigned case. But not all NPs in a sentence are governed by a Case assigning V or P, because they are not arguments. Eg. John, I want to see you! This book, I think it will be made into a great movie one day. The italicized NPs are not arguments, they are not governed by a case assigning V or P, so they are not assigned Abstract Case, they are assigned default case. As they are not arguments, they need not be assigned a theta role, so they need not be assigned Abstract Case. So, the Case Filter may be redefined as follows: (a) an argument NP must be assigned Case by the governor (b) a non-argument NP is assigned default case

There is another condition imposed on Case assignment, namely adjacency: Eg. (a) * I saw yesterday John. (b)*I believe very deeply her to be a genius. Therefore, Structural Case Assignment can be formulated as follows: A Case Assigner assigns Case to if governs and and are adjacent.

INHERENT CASE Inherent case can be considered the realization of a theta-role. The Verb does not assign structural case to the NP that it governs, but, since it governs it, it assigns a theta role. The theta role is then overly realized through the assignment of Inherent Case, presumably through a mapping that identifies certain Cases with certain theta roles. Eg. (Romanian) adjectives such as util which assigns Dative case: teorie utila studentilor[Dative]

SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 2ND YEAR ENGLISH MINOR Course instructor: Roxana-Cristina Petcu, PhD ENGLISH SYNTAX SEMINAR (I) I. Discuss structure dependence starting from the examples below: 1. *Tall is John? 2.Did the woman who fall in love with Bogart in Casablanca was played by Ingrid Bergman or Lauren Bacall? 3.*President was assassinated the. 4.*Who did you see the tall in the garden? II. In the sentences below identify the phrases, the head of each phrase and state the complements and adjuncts of each phrase: 1. This boy will speak very slowly to that girl.2.Almost certainly, the cat will eat his dinner. 3.The back seat of my car has got books on it.4.She is very pretty. 5.Mary thinks she may have been writing a letter to his sister. 6.We are nearing a meadow. 7.Near the meadow they built a house.8. The house was nearer to the meadow now.9.Nearness to the meadow was the great virtue of our house. 10.I saw two pictures of my brother on the table.11.Mother has always admired his passion for music. 12.He was so very tall that he impressed all the girls in the first year, 13.I can say I am rather pleased about it.14.She moved two meters to the left.15.He had waited for her in the rain for three hours. III. In the sentences below discuss the Projection Principle: 1.*This book belongs.2.Mary is eating an apple.3.The children are eating.4.The President is kissing his wife.5.*The President is kissing.6.The President and his wife are kissing.7.The professor gave a book to Mary.8*The professor gave a book.9.*The professor gave to Mary.10.I rely on you.11.*I rely.12.John believed Marys lie.13.John believed Mary was lying.14.*John believed to lie.15.The Professor is writing a book.16.The professor is writing a book on syntax. IV. Identify the thematic roles assigned to the NPs in the sentences below: 1. Emily opened the drawer with the iron key. 2. The ball rolled down the slope. 3. The Bengal tiger died. 4. The trooper hoped for a promotion. 5. The poets words inspired the young woman. 6. The delegates left Mexico City for Paris. 7. The government took over a billion dollars from the rich. 8. The chef baked a cherry pie for Jessica. 9. He brought flowers to his wife. 10. Moses waited for them on the mountain. 1. Each year the economy gets worse. 12. Sarah Higgins annoyed me. 13. The drug killed the diseased cells. 14. To build a second nuclear reactor would be foolish. 15. John loves Mary. V. Identify the Auxiliary in the sentences below: 1.He was here yesterday. 2.They have already arrived.3.He may be at home.4.Mother is cooking in the kitchen. 5.She has been reading for an hour.6.The teacher should be here any moment now.7.John may have been waiting for her.8.He could have left.9.She could be reading.10.Mother might have been working in the garden since early morning. VI.Analyse the sentences below and decide whether they are finite/non-finite; compound or complex; analyse the syntactic function of each sentence and of the constituents of each sentence: 1.He knows the answer, but he would not tell it to me whatever I might do to persuade him.2.She cut the bread with the knife which was on the table and she put the slices in the basket for mother to find them in the morning.3.Describe carefully what you saw without omitting any detail.4.That he should be late is quite odd, but that he should do his duty is even more curious, as we all know him to be lazy and unwilling to work.5.I owe Mary a big sum of money, and I dont have any idea how to earn it and give it back to her.6.Tell the story to whoever is willing to listen to you, except for John who is fed up with your telling so many lies.7.Seeing is believing.8.He remembered to post the letters when he went to town.9.He remembered posting the letters.10.The smoke which killed the rat belongs to our neighbours.11. I saw Mary crossing the street. 12. He heard the bell ring. 13. His coming here was quite unexpected. 14. It is always discouraging to lose. 15 They encouraged Mary to go to the theatre. VII. Are the following sentences ill-formed? Why? 1.Omar sighed a book.2.This tradition lasted despite our opposition.3.The women were bringing. 4.I gave the car back to him.5.I gave the car to him back.6.I thought Mary was ill, but it turned out that she wasnt. 7. I knew Mary was ill, but it turned out that she wasnt.7.My uncle realizes that Im a lousy cook.8.My car realizes that Im a lousy cook.9.John very much Mary loves.10.All friends my linguists are.11.I killed John, but he didnt die.12.Gary Gay never loses her temper with anyone.13.The naughty tree who we passed waved his cherry branches at Mary and said: You can tickle my leaves any time, darling. (THE MAGIC FOREST) 14.John respects himself.15.We respect himself.16.Who did we meet at the party? / Whom did we meet at the party? 16.Look at the cross-eyed elephant./Look at the cross-eyed kindness./Look at the cross-eyed from.

SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 2ND YEAR ENGLISH MINOR ; Course instructor: Roxana-Cristina Petcu, PhD ENGLISH SYNTAX SEMINAR (II) I. Case Theory. 1.Define inherent/structural case. 2. Discuss Case assignment for the subject of finite/non-finite clauses. 3.Analyze the NPs with respect to Case Theory : 1.John, come here right away! 2.Johns fight against the virus.3.His passion for music is compelling.4.They considered her a fool.5.She was thought to be a very sensible person.6. John wrote the essay for her.7.It is right that she should have refused the offer.8.For him to have bought these books is rather remarkable.9. Grant seems happy.10. Tom is pleasant to talk to. 11. It was easy for him to have broken into his sisters room. 4. Does Case Theory explain the following (un)grammatical sentences? 1. She preferred very much for the students to do their homework./*She preferred very much the students to do their homework. 2. *Anyone to cover this event would be regrettable. 3.They consider Liz quite competent./ It is considered Liz quite competent. 4. Tom, I do want to see you today! 5. This movie, I dont think I have seen it so far. 6. *After lunch to suit everyone would be remarkable./For after lunch to suit everyone would be remarkable. II.X-bar Theory 1.Identify the lexical and functional heads in the following sentences : 1.England will go head-to-head with Brazil in the final match. 2.The idea that I would do such a thing is absurd. 3.Marys suggestion was well received. 4.He might have been reading for a while then. 5.For him to go there would be unthinkable. 2.Define the Auxiliary in English. 3.What is X-bar theory? State the Projection Principle and explain its relevance for the d-structure representation . 4.Comment on the structure of the simple sentence as IP. 5.Represent the following in X-bar: A. a very tall boy; three meters to the left; straight into the wall; two nice kids; this interesting story; aware of the difficulty; Marys blouse; the leg of the table; frequently see the children; a real appreciation of poetry; B.1.She was aware of the difficulty.2.The city lies on a river.3. She is envious of my blouse.4.They agreed with us on the details of the treaty.5.The meeting started at noon yesterday. 6.It happened in London in 1929.7.He did his jogging on the campus yesterdy. 8.Could he have done it? 9.I wonder what he did in the end.10.I believe that he will come.11.What should I say? 12.The announcement of the news by the BBC surprised the audience inordinately. 13.The blonde boy at the back of the classroom is prone to accidents.14.Im sure that you are right. 15. Almost certainly, the cat has eaten his dinner. 16. He may have been righting a letter to his sister. 17.We are nearing the meadow. 18.Near the meadow they built a house. 19. Mother has always admired his passion for music. 20. He must be truly in love with her. III. Move . 1.Define NP Movement. 2.Analyze NP Movement (as well as any other instances of movement) in the following examples: 1. The house was newly built.2.The book sold out in two days.3.They wondered what book peoplethey should read first.4. What book should they read first? 3.Analyze head-movement in the following sentences: 1. Is he sleeping? 2.Has he got any chance? 3. Could he have done it? 4. Discuss the following sentences with respect to Move . 1.Will Mary invite John tomorrow? 2.Has the teacher checked the papers? 3. Whom will Mary invite tomorrow? 4.The wind opened the door. / The door opened. 5.Mary drove the car well. / The car drives well. 6.The story was believed by all the people.7.It is believed that Poirot destroyed the evidence. / Poirot is believed to have destroyed the evidence. VI. Analyse syntactically: 1.What amazed the guests was that the tea-room opened into a conservatory where one could see a table being laid down the whole length of the floor.2.The ancient custom of having dishes displayed on the table itself seemed to have been abolished by Beatrice, who had become aware that carving was no longer done at table, but by a neatly dressed maid at the sideboard.3.Beatrice had explained to her mother that it was necessary for the hostess to devote herself to social arts and to be left free to give all her guests a hearty welcome.4.Will you stand godmother to my daughter? 5.Everything you see here belongs to me.6.The flats are well positioned for the young couples who commute to London.7.Third World countries are competing with each other for a restricted market.8.My advice is to find a knowledgeable professional who is familiar with your game.9.All of them returned alive.10.The man in the booth wondered whether the girl that was waiting for the bus had introduced herself as Sarah the day before.11.I was surprised that nobody could prevent him from running that dog so very mercilessly.12.In the field that stretched four miles there were patches of snow here and there.13.If you dont behave yourself, Ill give you a good thrashing.14.He happened to find the victim flat on the floor.15.I considered it proper to nod approval when I heard the Mayors voice pronouncing them husband and wife.16.Fortunately,they caught the thief red-handed, although it took them too long a time to do it.17.She cozily wrapped her baby in the thick blanket so that it might sleep a pleasant sleep.18.On hearing the door bang shut she shouted.19.Listen, Ive bought a bunch of lilac for my wife for only 500 lei.20.I grew cold and my hands trembled as I read that they had my son.