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COPY

933

FCM No. A7BlO

RESEARCHMEMORAND
.

LOCATION

OF DETACHED

SHOCK WAVE AT S~ERSONIC _ _

lN FRONT SbEj3DS

Ol? A BODY MOVING . -Edmund .- -.

r V. Laitone

Bs a& Otway OM: Laboratory Calif. Pardee

v-

Ames AeronauticaJ. . Moffett Field,

-3 b ,3;:

_L NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS fd8 2 WASHINGTON P d May 6, 1947 $-g

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l

LOCATION OF Dr,TtiCMZDSHOGK ?WV3 IN FRONT OF d BODY~OVIWG AT 5WERSONfC SPEEDS By Edmufid V. Laitone and 3t~py OIM. Pardee

It sonic, front es-t-ted of

is shown that the position


a

for

velocities

siightly

in excess of in may be the avaflable

of the detached

shuck wave located

given body at zero ai?+rfe of attack theoretically developed data. INmOBUGTION to a mEsonable conpares favorably with

degree of accuracy.

The theory experimental

The solvable into conic, two distinct is con?letely

fluid-flow classes: its

~roblons

are In general

divided of flow Is super-

those +n which the field special very little

subsonk

and those in which the flow

each regfrr;e hying iit3 yet,

methoda of solution has been accomplishes. problems later. in that region 1%

and apmoxin;ation. toward the solutfon between the critical

of my fluid-flow. Xzch nmber being defined regtie.

and the shock detachrrent This region of nixed The difficulty

Mach number, the latter eolution is due in 1qge

sometimes termed the traneonic

measure tc the oo=bfnatlon.of

subsonic vieuoeity

and supersonic

flows

together

with

pronounced however, one for


.

or boundary-layer.effects, and wind-tunnel

There is, work - that 1

problem capable of solution both in flight itich numbers slightly It


every

which should prove very useful of estimating the position flight that of the preceding Here a

in excess of

detached shock-wave preceding is characteristic body or attached to its

a body. nose is a shock wave. bodies,

of supersonic

differentiaiion bodies.

should be made be&een pointed similar to that pointed

and blunt-nosed 1.
. . .-

In the case of blunt-nose.

the bow wave is a Mach

always remains detached

shown in figure body> there

However, for any given sharply it is attached

number below which the shock wave is detached but above which in the characteristic 1. For pointed fashion bodies of a Mach wave, this Mach number represents aefined. flow between are the certain as shown in reference the upper limit bodies, The solution

is the detachment Xach number, and, as noted before, of the traneonic hand, there since there to the region of the present region. on the other is no upper limit is no interaction effects Uoreover,
may

For blunt-nose

problem in transonic The viscosity unimportant,

is somewhat simplifies almost all present relegated

the shock and boundary layer. problem are relatively from linear

of the wake snd for theory

of the results which at first Linear

perturbation theory

be used

glance might not seem spplicable. perturbation has in the past found wide

! .

micii

SC: :-0.

ql31q

uses in the study of subsonic is based upon the assumption the presence velocities flows, bodies

and suPersonic that that Is,

flow

fields, created

It by

the disturbance

of the body fs small; Kith

the perturbation for subsonic along the Taoand discussion

due to the body are small compared to the free-. these approximations shows that, the pressure coefficients theory for very slender

stream velocity. perturbation

of revolution, flow

body are independent din:ensfonal

of Mach number; whereas for The dcvclopment

they are not. are given

of these points

in references

2, 3, 4, and 5.

The following used In this II


I40

is a list given

of the more Important in order of their

synbols

report,

introduct+on:

Mach number free-stream Each number normal to free-stream Mach number on downstream face of shock wave angle shook wave makes with direction deviation excess
Of

If 1 6 A9 E As P
P

an&lo of flop free-stream

at shock Irave Mach number overl, small

compared to 1 change in entropy pressure


Censity

4 Yv Vo Vl
a X

ratio velocity

of specific

heat at constbnt volume (op/cv)

pressure

to spec.ifio

heat at constant free-stream velocity distance distance length velocity

on do-mstream face of shock wave from nose of body of body line from the shock wave to the along stagnation of body TEEORY
.

speed of sound maximum thickness nose of the body

T S L

The. flow field xX*-axis to this

to be considered T

is show-n in figure stream. X0 It

1, has up

The body of maximum thickness and at zero incidence point at point is called a stagnation

is symmetrical

about the leading

to the free line.

0 and the stream 1Fnc the stagnation

This body is moving at a supersonic In both directions. line at the point S. to the stream lines,

speed such as to the stagnation such as

grqduce the detached shock wave AA1 which extends to infinity The shock wave intersects At this At ather point, points the shock wave is normal in the field,

direction but p, the shock is not norrn.7.r to the free-stream makes an angle 6 with this normal, ,The angle 6 varies from zero at S to the complement of the Mach angle at

5
.

infinity,
c

for

tLe shock wave ham an asymptote is the Each angle. the ffeld into

whose angle

-rrith the horizontal

The shock wave divides and the totaLhead the field pressure. shock :+ave. the free-stream
when 6 = 0; that

two parts. is uniform is constant, throughout stagnation or total the of

Everywhere upstream of the shock wave, the flow or stagnation pressure Downstrsam of the shock ?:ave, the flo7-3 varies and each streamline Thi.s varfation The entropy is, has a d:fferent in entropy in stagnation

pressure

head is due to the v,ariation

change through a function 6,

change is primarily line.

Xach number and the angle on the stagnation in d%rection A6

being greatest

The deviation through deviation varies

of the flow upon passing as ,sho~n in figure line 1. to a This

the shock %z.ve is

from zero at the stagnation

maximum angle aggroaches wave varies

some point a finite distance out on wmx the shock wave and approaches zero again as the shock wave its asymptote. of the shock than1 S. with Hach
of S

The Hach number on the downstream side also ?-rith the angle The lowest 6 stream Mach number.

88 we.11 as the freeGoing

Xaeh nuzbcr is less

and occurs %:here the shock is normal et the point out along the shock wave, the Mach number increases increasing number as
The vmiation

ang2c 6
then

6,
is

approaching
fron subsonic

the .free-stream
fn the vicinity

apTroaches the complement of the Hach angle.

to supersonic only free-stream at all

far

out on the shock,wPve. developed slightly It then will in this greater report 1+ c, covera being c where the To velocities than sonic,

The method of solution times at a free-stream

P!aoh number of

is small compared to 1, maximum entropy are of higher further simplify determined, order than

be shown that

change and maximum deviation E: and consequently to determine the problem,

angle @,,, negligible. OS fa Mach numbers plane. since It it will


.

only the dLst?nce for free-stream

which Is-sufficient 1 + c,

the shock wave

in the vicinity of the order of will variation

of the body since,

the shock wave is nearly to oonaider line,

then only be necessary of velocity

a normal shock and the the distance

along the stagnation

be shgqn that

theae are sufficient

to determine

through a shock wave is given by CJS. The entropy,change iy As = % Jr-l --=--+y IO RJ~O conditions, where the subscript o refers to the free-stream Expanding this in powers of Mea - 1, where W,
is

the free-

stream Mach number, -by means of the re-lations following expression is obtained

of conservation 1, the

of mass, momentum, and energy given in reference

for normal shqck wavea:

Then since entropy

lo = 1 + E,

the maximum possible

Increase

in
.

is given by
(3

Therefore, consequently It is of h:ghor

the entropy

is

~~proXin~t&y

constant

and pressure.

zb

so is the totai order than e.

head or stagnation Von K&&n


6) that

can be shown also "hat refereme

the maxrmum flow deflection has shown the minimum Ha& nmber

(equation@.y)of . for a given

flow deflection
- + z -. &T =

is given by
ltl v3.

24'c

(A91 2' function deviation

(41

and slncc arbitrary

is a monotonically defines

Increasing

of A9 for an

the sams equation

the maximum flou

Hach number.

Then 1aepPzcIng 'if by 1 + E the le given by


(5)

and .it con be seen that higher order thsn 3, c. From the conservation K&zh number in term by
2 7: --I -

the maximum deviation lag 16 referred before

of flov

is of the

to previously, (upstream)

after
i&h

(downstream) number

a normal shock is given the shock

of the

2+(r-l)&= 2rxoa4r-11

(61

23

flACA FUANo. A?310 of the velocity V, after a shock to the velocity velocity) is given by

The retie V, treforc

the shock (the free-strcan;

Setting neglecting

II, = 1 + c nnd.y = c2 and higher

7/5

in equations

(6) and (7) and -

powgr,thF

e4qgat$ons become

(9)

Then

Psi, 2nd E.

Vl/Vo-

diffc:-

ftom free-strcan

conditions

by

the order the field,

Since the,entropy

and total

head we constant..throughout used, the flow downa velocity this potential. vector It with is velocity fron

to the order of approxl.mn.tion necessary

stream of the chock wave Ls derivable The boundary conditions potential distribution now necessary

to specify

are the ah,-.pe o.f the body and the velocity over any surface to consider flat.;, which encloses vsriations in the flow field

the body.

change in boundary conditions. For subsonic at infinity supersonic replzced the shape of the body and the flow boundary conditicns; r;;hile for
I

are sufficient
flOWi

the up~tro,~~ at infinity is ..L. condit.ion ...~. by one on the downstre,am face of -----. the shock -. _ wave. cc iditions.in.either subsonic or

I ., .I

Since the bound.zy

supersonic Pelocitg

flow

am

a continuous is a continuous

function faction

of Each nurn5er, the of Nach number fields at is a common limit velocities, it

potential the bound-y

inBide

lisits.

EJov if

the two potential


be cortinuous

(nubsosic
a Xach aonl.c only

and supersonic)
of 1 end

are to qproach free-&rem

number

conseacently

from sub-

through
necessar3

to supersonic that

the boundcry

conditIone

approach a 1 from above, thah 1. 6, the

common liEit. as the free-strea.:. the shock vxvc recedes


deviation

Xach nuCoer ag>roaches upatmm it to Infinfty is of higher order

and the flow

vaniehes

einca

. .

Mach number increment; dowlietrem as for then is a unifom,

and furthermore free potential, functioil for strem cage,

the Mach number on the The 3.irA.t the sme at inffnity

face of the shock v:,-,ve asgroaches parallel subsonic

the raore obvious for 0 region

Hence, the velocity coefficient s and in this is a continuoue

velocity, in the subsonic

and pressure region between If then, freeof with for

any given point the variation

of the Mach number. coefficient free subsonic stream,

of pressure

Mach number em be determined stream I&ch nulzbere slightly . . l-fthis E, is obttiined subti~dc, -Ja.r?,a'Gfcn of pressure by vfrtue of the velocity funotf_on of Each Ember.

a good apgroxi rzstion to the prcsmre greater by z nathemtical

coefficients inuat'Loc boirg

t&.n 1, of the order


cant

of the

cocfficie3t potential

~i.t;h Koch nurzoer, a ccntinuoue

10

iY.&ca

The 'velocity

variation

along the stagnation

given by an equation v= Vo :;here nondimensional velocity is locnted at any point V = V,,

of the form f (x/T, II) convenience, qx-axis and V being the 14 the local then becomce (11) are given by ($) Eina
,

form is used for x along the x.

Nach number at the point

At the point

S where the shock

x = S, and M = 14, the equation (S/T, sir:ce I[&) 14, and Vi/V0

$- = f
0

and

S/T

is determined (6) and (7)

equations
(9) by

or approximately

from equations

14, = 1 - E = 2 - 11, and With these approximations equetion (11) becomes


(14) (13)

yrhich defines

S/T as a function

of

14,.

APPLICATIONS I In order to cv,?luate et is neceswry this to resort the functions to linear defined by equation theory. ratio (14) With VP, perturbation in the velocity .

purpose in mind the ?-zriation

?Si.C!iRIi No. A7310 along the stagnc".ti.o;l line ftander9 flax,' the results first. from the methods of reference the velocity of &ch ratio. is Independent number. 2 that V/V, piat has be,en obtained for a number of I. be The

11

two- and three-dteensional dimensIona bodies

shapes in incompressibLe fn table will of revolution

of which ore presented

case of three considered It slender

can.be.ahmn bodies line

for is,

of revolution

along

the stagnation

(151

For illustrative three-dimensfonal Referring to table 1,

purposes,

the method is applied comparison

to the made.

source and an experImental

Then using from

this

in: equation

(15) the point

S Is determined

12 The curves presented under the assumption pressure of tich coefficients number. It 1n figure that

NhCk RM.No. A7BlO 2 were,Qbtained line in this manner

even in the case of a sphere the are independent the for any Rankine a 20curve which the theory decrcasthe . than would was of note Chat the curve for the values

on the stagnation is worthy ratio

8ource approxima.tes very closely Ovoid of thickness In figure millimeter shown for shell

less than 0.10. data for from the U.S. Army firing The theoretical
since

3 are sho:dn some expcrimcntal

which were obtained is for large E source,

range at the Aberdeen Proving conpariaon was used had a fairly a three-dinensionel is rather ing its speed; for

Grounds., nose radius

the shall it

neking

approximately ,

source shape.

The agreement with was continually location the result

good even though the shell

due to the deceleration to be at a different of revolution bodies,

of the shell,

shock wave is likely

be found at a steady velocity, In the case of bodies simple. coefficient difficulty culating and of itself negligible the present unidinensional For two-dimen.s1onal varies appears. the velocity It howcvor, to realize perturbation betwe.en local assumption however, the pressure that in calin by a in that

with Mach number, and here a slight is necessary linear ficlr;, In fact, That this theory

;lakes no distinction quantity.. flow,

and free,

stream Hach number.

they are nsaumed to differ is not velid it is possible,

case is self-evident;

can be shown in

where an exact solution

there

is

less

error

in calculating field in using

the the

velocities local

in a

decreasing rather than

velocity

Mach number
this

the free-streti (13),

Mach number. ratio at

Csing

crltorion S is

and equation

the velocity

the point

wow M, = 1 - E azd-neglecting JF--p therefore l . where


.

ca =

and higher - 1)

powers

&(&lo

SE 3 (Mo - l)3'a from in this table

I. The
CUPV8S

'(171

(V/V, ) lfmo 'IaSSuX8d that

can be obtained ,$ were obtained even in r&e the holds

shown in figure been the hes

mamer, CirCtim

where

it

has

case of the on
the

cylindelz line.

Prandtl-Glauert

stagnation Aeronautics,

Aeronautical Laboratory,Comfitttee National Advisory Moffett FIe'Ld, Calif.

for

E&mnd V Laitone, Aeronautical Engineer.

Approved:

Electrical

Engir-eer.

Dor,ald Aeronautical

FT. Wood, EkIgin8eP.

14

NACA RM No. A7810

1.

Taylor, G. I., and Maccoll, J. W.: The Mec.h8nics of Compressible Fluids. Vol. III of Aerodynamic Theory, div. H, W. F. Durand, ed., Julius Springer (3erlfn),
1935.

2.

Herriot, John G.: The Line= Perturbation Theory of Axlally:Sywmetric Comprese1ble Flow, With Application to the Effect of Compressibility on the Pressure Coefficient at the Surface of a Body of Revolution, NACA BM GHl9, 1947. Glcuert, H.: The Effect of Compressibility on the Lift of an Aerofoil. R. & M. No. 1135, British A. R. C.,
1.927.

3*

4.
5-

General Considerations Prandtl, L.: NACA TM NO. Compressible Fluids.

on the Flow of Sag, Oct. 1936.

Uber Luftkrkfte bei sehr grossen Ackeret, J.: Ceschwindigkeiten insbesondere bei ibenen StrEmungen, Helvetica Physica Acta, vol. I, fast. 5, 1928, pp. 301-322. The Problem of Resistance in Compressible von K&man, Th.: GALSIT Fub. No. 75, 1936. (From R. Accad. Fluids. d'Italia, cl. sci. fis., mat 8 nat., vol. XIV, 1936.)

6.

.G...

Ifll(lA RM Ho. b7BlO

16

TABLS I.-

T~VfLooXTYPARAHETm

v/r0

FORVARIOUB BODSM IN INCOHPREBBIBLEFYWY

ALom THE 8TAm.#lT10I LINE

Bodm0r
Three-dimeAaioAa1 Sphers, 1 8OU2'00, 1 -

r070iuti0A

ibnlsine Prolate

Ovoid,

T/L = 0.10,

1 - 0.63% 1 - O.OOgldl

1
.

Spheroid,

T/L - 0.10,

Two-dimensional

eouroe, 1 -

1 -

0.1592 ($+ 0.1592)


l

Ciroular

cylinder,

x1
-c (a) T

Ranklne

Oval,

T/L = 0.05, 1 - (g+


T/L = 0.10, T/L = 0.16, 1 - @ I @b

lij:3 - 96.77
5;-a

Flankhe F&nkine

Oval, Oval,

- 23.35
- 6.714 .

1,052 J-125)=

Eilliptio

cylinder,

T/L = 0.05,

1 - 14($+

10)'

- 399 + 2?@+ 10) 1 4( $+

lo>'- 3991

Elliptio

OyliAder,

T/L = 0.10,

1 -

99 +

2(;+5)p(:+

5)9 - gg

NATIONAL ADVISOR-f COMHITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

HACA Ry lo.

A7BlO

Ffgo. 3,4

.6 .4 .A2 0 A

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