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Location of Detached Shock Waves in front of a body moving at Supersonic Speeds

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933

RESEARCHMEMORAND

.

LOCATION

OF DETACHED

lN FRONT SbEj3DS

r V. Laitone

v-

-3 b ,3;:

_L NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS fd8 2 WASHINGTON P d May 6, 1947 $-g

FF=IG

. N&mlA8WWkSand

Space Adrnmwualmn

Lsnglsy RBb6nfuh cultw Htlamton, vrgilna

Pmbta BDsJEcTa

JUM I dB57

Distribution

180A/Security

Cla8aification

Otfiear

Dlstad Prior to

NtiA/N&SA Doaummts

this data, all matarid~~olarsificd bv this Ccntcr pr%or to Nffoative January I, 1960, is declassified. Thi8 action doer not include material derivatively ulroaifimd at thr Center UpOn instructions from other Agekier. nmediate te-making ia not roquirsd; howover , untfl material ia rt-marked by lining through the daeeification and annotating with the followingrtatement, .* .. it must gontinus to be prottitmd aa if classifiadr

ZW-l!JPrking.

If

letter

'Declassified

datad

June

by Matharity

16,

of 1983rw

EaRC

(sfxb] the

re-masking I: large wnt of nxaterial is desirable, but unduly burden-e, 8u8todianm may folhw the inatrwtions contained in NRB 1640.4, subpart F, section 1203.604, paragraph (h),

Tbia declasrffiuatlon action comp3,emants earlier sctfons by the National Arahivee and Records Service (WARS)and by the NhSA Sacurity ClaeeffiCsticuI Rcvjew program 607008, N&U8 dcclasoffi-ed Officer taco) . Zn Dsclaraifioatfon the Centers l Resaarch Authorization' filr6, which contain reprts, Resaarch Authorizations, carrespondence, photographs, and other doctummtation. Eszlfrr, in a 1971 latter, the NASA 8CO daclqaifiad all YW~6ll formal rmrfea doauments with the exception of the folloufng remrtm, which must

tomain

clwrff

iad:

Document 80.

BS7A30

Pftrt

Author

..

*

2

this matter,

L,

bistributionr

SOL 037

ECI

.

and

Teobnicrl

HASA Scientific

Intamation

P.O. Box 8757 BIPI hfrport, p

Faaoilfty

21240 . .

NhSh--NIB-S/smurity

18OA,/RIAb

'

-.

l

LOCATION OF Dr,TtiCMZDSHOGK ?WV3 IN FRONT OF d BODY~OVIWG AT 5WERSONfC SPEEDS By Edmufid V. Laitone and 3t~py OIM. Pardee

a

for

velocities

siightly

of the detached

given body at zero ai?+rfe of attack theoretically developed data. INmOBUGTION to a mEsonable conpares favorably with

degree of accuracy.

~roblons

are In general

subsonk

subsonic vieuoeity

and supersonic

flows

together

with

.

every

which should prove very useful of estimating the position flight that of the preceding Here a

in excess of

of supersonic

differentiaiion bodies.

and blunt-nosed 1.

. . .-

number below which the shock wave is detached but above which in the characteristic 1. For pointed fashion bodies of a Mach wave, this Mach number represents aefined. flow between are the certain as shown in reference the upper limit bodies, The solution

is the detachment Xach number, and, as noted before, of the traneonic hand, there since there to the region of the present region. on the other is no upper limit is no interaction effects Uoreover,

may

For blunt-nose

the shock and boundary layer. problem are relatively from linear

perturbation theory

be used

glance might not seem spplicable. perturbation has in the past found wide

! .

micii

SC: :-0.

ql31q

uses in the study of subsonic is based upon the assumption the presence velocities flows, bodies

flow

fields, created

It by

the disturbance

due to the body are small compared to the free-. these approximations shows that, the pressure coefficients theory for very slender

of revolution, flow

of these points

in references

2, 3, 4, and 5.

I40

is a list given

synbols

report,

introduct+on:

Mach number free-stream Each number normal to free-stream Mach number on downstream face of shock wave angle shook wave makes with direction deviation excess

Of

If 1 6 A9 E As P

P

Censity

4 Yv Vo Vl

a X

ratio velocity

of specific

pressure

to spec.ifio

on do-mstream face of shock wave from nose of body of body line from the shock wave to the along stagnation of body TEEORY

.

T S L

to be considered T

1, has up

The body of maximum thickness and at zero incidence point at point is called a stagnation

is symmetrical

This body is moving at a supersonic In both directions. line at the point S. to the stream lines,

grqduce the detached shock wave AA1 which extends to infinity The shock wave intersects At this At ather point, points the shock wave is normal in the field,

direction but p, the shock is not norrn.7.r to the free-stream makes an angle 6 with this normal, ,The angle 6 varies from zero at S to the complement of the Mach angle at

5

.

infinity,

c

for

tLe shock wave ham an asymptote is the Each angle. the ffeld into

whose angle

The shock wave divides and the totaLhead the field pressure. shock :+ave. the free-stream

when 6 = 0; that

Everywhere upstream of the shock wave, the flow or stagnation pressure Downstrsam of the shock ?:ave, the flo7-3 varies and each streamline Thi.s varfation The entropy is, has a d:fferent in entropy in stagnation

pressure

being greatest

some point a finite distance out on wmx the shock wave and approaches zero again as the shock wave its asymptote. of the shock than1 S. with Hach

of S

The Hach number on the downstream side also ?-rith the angle The lowest 6 stream Mach number.

and occurs %:here the shock is normal et the point out along the shock wave, the Mach number increases increasing number as

The vmiation

ang2c 6

then

6,

is

approaching

fron subsonic

the .free-stream

fn the vicinity

far

out on the shock,wPve. developed slightly It then will in this greater report 1+ c, covera being c where the To velocities than sonic,

P!aoh number of

is small compared to 1, maximum entropy are of higher further simplify determined, order than

be shown that

.

which Is-sufficient 1 + c,

be shgqn that

to determine

through a shock wave is given by CJS. The entropy,change iy As = % Jr-l --=--+y IO RJ~O conditions, where the subscript o refers to the free-stream Expanding this in powers of Mea - 1, where W,

is

the free-

stream Mach number, -by means of the re-lations following expression is obtained

of conservation 1, the

lo = 1 + E,

Increase

in

.

is given by

(3

the entropy

is

~~proXin~t&y

constant

and pressure.

zb

6) that

the maxrmum flow deflection has shown the minimum Ha& nmber

flow deflection

- + z -. &T =

is given by

ltl v3.

24'c

(41

is a monotonically defines

Increasing

of A9 for an

Hach number.

(5)

and .it con be seen that higher order thsn 3, c. From the conservation K&zh number in term by

2 7: --I -

of flov

is of the

to previously, (upstream)

after

i&h

(downstream) number

of the

2+(r-l)&= 2rxoa4r-11

(61

23

flACA FUANo. A?310 of the velocity V, after a shock to the velocity velocity) is given by

Setting neglecting

7/5

in equations

powgr,thF

e4qgat$ons become

(9)

Then

Psi, 2nd E.

Vl/Vo-

diffc:-

ftom free-strcan

conditions

by

Since the,entropy

and total

head we constant..throughout used, the flow downa velocity this potential. vector It with is velocity fron

stream of the chock wave Ls derivable The boundary conditions potential distribution now necessary

to specify

are the ah,-.pe o.f the body and the velocity over any surface to consider flat.;, which encloses vsriations in the flow field

the body.

change in boundary conditions. For subsonic at infinity supersonic replzced the shape of the body and the flow boundary conditicns; r;;hile for

I

are sufficient

flOWi

the up~tro,~~ at infinity is ..L. condit.ion ...~. by one on the downstre,am face of -----. the shock -. _ wave. cc iditions.in.either subsonic or

I ., .I

supersonic Pelocitg

flow

am

a continuous is a continuous

function faction

inBide

lisits.

EJov if

be cortinuous

(nubsosic

a Xach aonl.c only

and supersonic)

of 1 end

number

conseacently

from sub-

through

necessar3

to supersonic that

the boundcry

conditIone

deviation

vaniehes

einca

. .

of pressure

Mach number em be determined stream I&ch nulzbere slightly . . l-fthis E, is obttiined subti~dc, -Ja.r?,a'Gfcn of pressure by vfrtue of the velocity funotf_on of Each Ember.

cant

of the

cocfficie3t potential

10

iY.&ca

The 'velocity

variation

of the form f (x/T, II) convenience, qx-axis and V being the 14 the local then becomce (11) are given by ($) Eina

,

At the point

x = S, and M = 14, the equation (S/T, sir:ce I[&) 14, and Vi/V0

$- = f

0

and

S/T

equations

(9) by

or approximately

from equations

(14) (13)

yrhich defines

S/T as a function

of

14,.

APPLICATIONS I In order to cv,?luate et is neceswry this to resort the functions to linear defined by equation theory. ratio (14) With VP, perturbation in the velocity .

?Si.C!iRIi No. A7310 along the stagnc".ti.o;l line ftander9 flax,' the results first. from the methods of reference the velocity of &ch ratio. is Independent number. 2 that V/V, piat has be,en obtained for a number of I. be The

11

for is,

of revolution

along

the stagnation

(151

purposes,

to the made.

this

in: equation

S Is determined

12 The curves presented under the assumption pressure of tich coefficients number. It 1n figure that

even in the case of a sphere the are independent the for any Rankine a 20curve which the theory decrcasthe . than would was of note Chat the curve for the values

8ource approxima.tes very closely Ovoid of thickness In figure millimeter shown for shell

less than 0.10. data for from the U.S. Army firing The theoretical

since

range at the Aberdeen Proving conpariaon was used had a fairly a three-dinensionel is rather ing its speed; for

the shall it

neking

approximately ,

source shape.

of the shell,

be found at a steady velocity, In the case of bodies simple. coefficient difficulty culating and of itself negligible the present unidinensional For two-dimen.s1onal varies appears. the velocity It howcvor, to realize perturbation betwe.en local assumption however, the pressure that in calin by a in that

with Mach number, and here a slight is necessary linear ficlr;, In fact, That this theory

and free,

case is self-evident;

can be shown in

there

is

less

error

the the

velocities local

in a

velocity

Mach number

this

Csing

crltorion S is

and equation

the velocity

the point

.

ca =

and higher - 1)

powers

&(&lo

I. The

CUPV8S

'(171

mamer, CirCtim

where

it

has

case of the on

the

cylindelz line.

Prandtl-Glauert

stagnation Aeronautics,

for

Approved:

Electrical

Engir-eer.

Dor,ald Aeronautical

14

1.

Taylor, G. I., and Maccoll, J. W.: The Mec.h8nics of Compressible Fluids. Vol. III of Aerodynamic Theory, div. H, W. F. Durand, ed., Julius Springer (3erlfn),

1935.

2.

Herriot, John G.: The Line= Perturbation Theory of Axlally:Sywmetric Comprese1ble Flow, With Application to the Effect of Compressibility on the Pressure Coefficient at the Surface of a Body of Revolution, NACA BM GHl9, 1947. Glcuert, H.: The Effect of Compressibility on the Lift of an Aerofoil. R. & M. No. 1135, British A. R. C.,

1.927.

3*

4.

5-

Uber Luftkrkfte bei sehr grossen Ackeret, J.: Ceschwindigkeiten insbesondere bei ibenen StrEmungen, Helvetica Physica Acta, vol. I, fast. 5, 1928, pp. 301-322. The Problem of Resistance in Compressible von K&man, Th.: GALSIT Fub. No. 75, 1936. (From R. Accad. Fluids. d'Italia, cl. sci. fis., mat 8 nat., vol. XIV, 1936.)

6.

.G...

16

TABLS I.-

T~VfLooXTYPARAHETm

v/r0

Bodm0r

Three-dimeAaioAa1 Sphers, 1 8OU2'00, 1 -

r070iuti0A

ibnlsine Prolate

Ovoid,

T/L = 0.10,

1 - 0.63% 1 - O.OOgldl

1

.

Spheroid,

T/L - 0.10,

Two-dimensional

eouroe, 1 -

1 -

l

Ciroular

cylinder,

x1

-c (a) T

Ranklne

Oval,

T/L = 0.10, T/L = 0.16, 1 - @ I @b

lij:3 - 96.77

5;-a

Flankhe F&nkine

Oval, Oval,

- 23.35

- 6.714 .

1,052 J-125)=

Eilliptio

cylinder,

T/L = 0.05,

1 - 14($+

10)'

lo>'- 3991

Elliptio

OyliAder,

T/L = 0.10,

1 -

99 +

2(;+5)p(:+

5)9 - gg

HACA Ry lo.

A7BlO

Ffgo. 3,4

.6 .4 .A2 0 A

6

03 4

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