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# GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003

## (C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 1

ECE 739 Fall 2003
Satellite Communications
Lecture 2
Orbital Aspects
Dr. Leila Z. Ribeiro
September 08, 20003
2
Agenda
Orbital Mechanics
Look Angle Determination
Orbital Perturbations
Orbital Mechanics
4
Defining Space
US Astronauts get their wings if they
fly at an altitude of 50 miles (80 km)
International Treaty boundary can be
at an altitude of 100 miles (160 km)
Atmospheric drag starts at 400,000 ft
on re-entry (76 miles, 122 km)
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 2
5
Is 100 miles (160 km) enough?
ISS injected into orbit at 397 km on 9 June
1999
It was down to 360 km by the end of 1999
Need to raise the orbit or it will decay into
the atmosphere
Most satellites with lifetimes >5 years are at
500+ miles (800+ km)
6
Newtons Laws of Motion
s = ut + (1/2)at
2
v
2
= u
2
+ 2at
v = u + at
F = ma
s = Distance traveled in time, t
u = Initial Velocity at t = 0
v = Final Velocity at time = t
a = Acceleration
F = Force acting on the object
This is the Key
equation
7
Concept of Force
Force (F) = Mass(m) Acceleration(a)
m is the mass of the satellite
Unit of Force is a Newton
A Newton is the force required to accelerate 1 kg
by 1 m/s
2
Underlying units of a Newton are therefore (kg)
(m/s
2
)
In Imperial Units 1 Newton = 0.2248 ft lb.
8
Acceleration Inwards
a
IN
= acceleration due to gravity = / r
2
r = radius from center of earth to satellite
= G* M
E
, is the Keplers Constant
= 3.9861352 10
5
km
3
/s
2
G = Universal Gravitational Constant
G = 6.672 10
-11
Nm
2
/kg
2
= 6.672 10
-20
km
3
/(kg s
2
) (other units)
M
E
= Mass of the earth
M
E
= 5.9733 10
24
kg
Note: An object near the earths surface accelerates at a rate of 9.811 m/s
2
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 3
9
Acceleration Outwards
a
OUT
= centrifugal acceleration = v
2
/ r
Where:
r = radius from center of Earth to satellite
v = speed component on a direction perpendicular
to rotation.
10
Forces on a Satellite
Force inwards due to gravity (i.e.centripetal
force) is:
F
IN
= m ( / r
2
) = m (GM
E
/ r
2
)
Force outwards (i.e. centrifugal force):
F
OUT
= m (v
2
/ r)
11
Balancing the Forces - 1
F
1
Gravitational-
Centripetal
Force
v (velocity)
F
2
Inertial-
Centrifugal
Force
Orbital plane
Earth
For the satellite to stay in
orbit, the forces must balance;
set F
IN
= F
OUT
, solve for the
required speed v
v = ( / r)
1/2
If circular orbit:
2 / 1 2 / 3
/ 2
/ 2

r T
v r T
=
=
12
Example Circular Orbits
1 40 27.0 7.4624 780 Iridium
1 55 17.8 7.1272 1,469 Skybridge
5 55 48.4 4.8954 10,255 ICO-Global
23 56
4.091
3.0747 35,786.43 INTELSAT
Orbital
Period
hr. min. sec.
Orbital
Velocity
(km/s)
Orbital
Height
(km)
Satellite
System
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 4
13
Orbit Limits
There must be a balance between inward
gravitational (centripetal) forces and outward
centrifugal forces
Must not be too close to the earth as it will be
slowed down by the atmosphere
Velocity must be in the right direction
(parallel to earth surface).
Orbital Mechanics:
Keplers Laws
15
Coordinate System 1
Earth Main Planes
The earth is at the center of
the coordinate system
Reference planes coincide
with the equator and the
polar axis
x axis
y axis
z axis
Equatorial Plane
r
Earths rotational axis
More convenient to use this coordinate system
16
Coordinate System 2
Orbital Plane Coordinate System
The earth is at the center of
the coordinate system
Reference plane coincides
with orbital plane of
satellite
x
0
axis (Often defined as
direction of perigee)
y
0
axis
z axis
Orbital Plane
z
0
axis
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 5
17
Developing Equations of the Orbit - 1
Re-writing gravitational force:
Eq.2.7
Where is a vector in the direction from the earths center to
the satellite of magnitude r
But force = mass X acceleration:
Eq.2.8
Equating yields a 2
nd
order differential equation
Eq.2.10
3 3
r
m GM
r
m
E
r r
F = =

2
2
dt
md r
F =
0
3 2
2
= +
r dt
d r r

r
18
Solving the differential equation leads to three laws
of orbits (Keplers Laws of Motion) and six
constants (the orbital constants/ephemeris data)
which define the orbit
Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion govern motion of
satellite around earth and planets around sun
Johann Kepler (1571 - 1630) was a German
astronomer and scientist who derived the laws
empirically by observation only.
Isaac Newton (1642-1724) was a British astronomer
who calculated these relationships 50 years later.
Developing Equations of the Orbit - 2
19
Keplers Three Laws
First Law: Orbit is an ellipse with the larger body
(earth) at one focus
Second Law: The satellite sweeps out equal arcs in
equal time (NOTE: for an ellipse, this means that the
orbital speed varies around the orbit)
Third Law: The square of the period of revolution
equals a constant the third power of the semi-major
axis of the ellipse
Well look at each of these next
20
Review of Ellipse Geometry
Points (-c,0) and (c,0) are the foci.
Points (-a,0) and (a,0) are the vertices.
Line between vertices is the major axis.
a is the length of the semi-major axis.
Line between (0,b) and (0,-b) is the minor axis.
b is the length of the semi-minor axis.
1
2
2
2
2
= +
b
y
a
x
2 2 2
c b a + =
Standard Equation:
y
V(-a,0)
P(x,y)
F(c,0)
F(-c,0)
V(a,0)
(0,b)
x
(0,-b)
ab A =
Area of ellipse:
Important Relationships:
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 6
21
Keplers First Law: Elliptical Orbits
Important Definitions:
e = ellipses eccentricity
0 < e < 1 ellipse
e = 0 circle
O = center of earth (one focus of
ellipse)
C = center of ellipse
Perigee = Point closest to earth
Apogee = Point furthest from earth
a = length of semi-major axis
= (perigee + apogee)/2
b = length of semi-minor axis
p
O C
x
0
Perigee

0
y
0
r
0
b
a
Apogee
ae
a(1+e)
a(1-e)
p = width of ellipse at focus = a(1-e
2
)
r
0
= distance earths center to satellite

0
= angle between r
0
and the perigee
(the true anomaly)
22
Orbit Characteristics
Semi-axis lengths of the orbit
height is
When the x
0
axis is chosen so that both the apogee and perigee
lie along it (major axis of the ellipse).
and
and h is the magnitude of the
angular momentum
where
2
1 e
p
a

2
h
p =
( )
2 / 1
2
1 e a b =
23
Orbit Eccentricity
If a = semi-major axis,
b = semi-minor axis, and
e = eccentricity of the orbit ellipse,
then
b a
b a
e
+

=
NOTE: For a circular orbit, a = b and e = 0
24
Keplers Second Law: Equal Area Arcs
If t
2
- t
1
= t
4
- t
3
,
then A
12
= A
34
Velocity of satellite
is slowest at apogee
and fastest at
perigee
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
E
A
34
A
12
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 7
25
Keplers Third Law: Orbital Period
Orbital period and the Ellipse are related by:
T
2
= (4
2
a
3
) /
IMPORTANT: Period of revolution is referenced to inertial space, i.e., to
the galactic background, NOT to an observer on the surface of one of the
bodies (earth).
For a GEO, for instance, T is the sidereal day
= Keplers Constant = GM
E
26
Solar vs. Sidereal Day -1
A sidereal day is the time between consecutive crossings
of any particular longitude on the earth with reference to
inertial space (or its own axis); I.e., in practice, with
reference to any star other than the sun. This corresponds
to a 360 degree rotation.
A solar say is the time between consecutive crossings of
any particular longitude of the earth by the sun-earth axis.
This corresponds to more than 360 degrees.
Solar day = EXACTLY 24 hrs
Sidereal day = 23 h 56 min. 4.091 s
Why the difference?
27
Solar vs. Sidereal Day - 2
Why the difference?
By the time the Earth completes a full rotation with
respect to an external point (not the sun), it has already
moved its center position with respect to the sun.
The extra time it takes to cross the sun-earth axis,
averaged over 4 full years (because every 4 years one
has 366 deays) is of about 3.93 minutes per day.
28
Solar vs. Sidereal Day - 3
Sidereal Day: A 360 rotation
Sun Earth Day 1
Earth Day 2
Solar Day: More than 360
This extra distance is why
solar days are longer
Reference
Reference
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 8
29
Solar vs. Sidereal Day - 4
Numerical Calculation:
4 years = 1461 solar days (365*4 +1)
4 years : earth moves 1440 degrees (4*360) around sun.
1 solar day: earth moves 0.98 degrees (=1440/1461) around
sun
1 solar day : earth moves 360.98 degress around itself (360 +
0.98)
1 sidereal day = earth moves 360 degrees around itself
1 solar day = 24hrs = 1440 minutes
1 sidereal day = 1436.7 minutes (1440*360/360.98)
Difference = 3.93 minutes
30
Numerical Example 1: The GEO Orbit
Problem: Calculate radius and height of GEO orbit
given that Sidereal Day = 23 hrs 56 min 4.1 sec
Solution:
T
2
= (4
2
a
3
) / (Keplers Third Law)
Rearrange to a
3
= T
2
/(4
2
)
T = 86,164.1 sec
a
3
= (86,164.1)
2
x 3.986004418 x 10
5
/(4
2
)
a = 42,164.172 km = orbit radius
= 35,786.03 km
31
Locating the Satellite in Orbit - 1
Goal: Find satellite coordinates in orbital
plane
Need to develop a procedure that will allow
the average angular velocity to be used
If the orbit is not circular, the procedure is
to use a circumscribed circle
A circumscribed circle is a circle that has a
radius equal to the semi-major axis length
of the ellipse and also has the same center
32
Locating the Satellite in Orbit - 2
= Average angular velocity
M= Mean Anomaly = Arc
satellite would have traversed
since perigee passage if it were
moving around the circumscribed
circle with average angular
velocity
E = Eccentric anomaly = Angle
between the orbit center and the
intersection between the vertical
line from the satellite to the
circumscribed circle
O C
x
0
axis
y
0
axis
A
E
x
0
y
0
Orbital Plane
Circumscribed Circle
a

## GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003

(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 9
33
Given the time of perigee t
p
, the eccentricity e,
and the length of the semi-major axis a
o t
p
Time of Perigee = time the satellite is crossing the x
0
axis, according to the reference used.
o t- t
p
= time elapsed since satellite last passed the
perigee.
Calculate the orbital constants to locate the
satellite in the orbital plane at time t
Procedure follows:
Locating the Satellite in Orbit - 3
34
Orbit Description 1
(Orbital Constants)
Average angular velocity
M Mean anomaly
E Eccentric anomaly
r
o
) /( ) (
2 / 3 2 / 1
a =
35
Orbit Description 2
(Orbital Constants)

o
True anomaly
x
0
and y
0
(polar to cartesian coordinate transform)
Now, we have the coordinates of the satellite,
(r
o
,
o
) or (x
o
, y
o
), in the orbital plane at time t
(solve for
0
)
36
Orbit Description - 3
The Orbital Constants allow you to
determine coordinates (r
o
,
o
) and (x
o
, y
o
) in
the orbital plane
Now need to locate the orbital plane with
respect to the earth
More specifically: need to locate the orbital
location with respect to a point on the
surface of the earth
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 10
37
Locating Satellite with respect to Earth
The orbital constants define the orbit of the
satellite with respect to the CENTER of the
earth
To know where to look for the satellite in
space, we must relate the orbital plane and
time of perigee to the earths axis
NOTE: Need a time reference and time measurement to
locate the satellite. Most often use the time of perigee, t
p
and
Universal Time, UT
38
Measuring Time
Space operations are in universal time (UT)
Taken from Greenwich meridian (this time is
sometimes referred to as Zulu)
Five hours later than EST
Astronomers use Julian days/dates
These dates and their relationship to UT are
well tabulated
39
Geocentric Equatorial Coordinates - 1
z
i
axis Earths rotational axis (N-S poles
with N as positive z)
x
i
axis In equatorial plane towards FIRST
POINT OF ARIES
y
i
axis Orthogonal to z
i
and x
i
NOTE: The First Point of Aries is a line from the
center of the earth through the center of the sun at
the vernal equinox (spring) in the northern
hemisphere
40
To First Point of Aries
RA = Right Ascension
(in the x
i
,y
i
plane)
= Declination (the
angle from the x
i
,y
i
plane
NOTE: Direction to First Point of Aries does NOT rotate
with earths motion around; the direction only translates
Geocentric Equatorial Coordinates - 2
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 11
41
Locating the Satellite - 1
Find the Ascending Node
Point where the satellite crosses the
equatorial plane from South to North
Define and i
Define
Right Ascension of the Ascending
Node
Inclination of orbital plane
w.r.t. equatorial plane
Argument or perigee west
42
Defining Parameters - 1
Orbit passes through
equatorial plane here
First Point
of Aries
Center of earth
Argument of Perigee
Right Ascension (RA)
Inclination
of orbit
Equatorial plane
x
i
axis

Ascending Node
i
y
i
axis
Perigee
z
i
axis

43
Defining Parameters - 2
(Source: M.Richaria, Satellite Communication Systems, Fig.2.9)
44
and i together locate the Orbital
plane with respect to the Equatorial
plane.
locates the Orbital coordinate
system with respect to the
Equatorial coordinate system.
Locating the Satellite - 2
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 12
45
Orbital Elements
To specify the exact position of an
orbiting satellite at a given instant, we
need the Orbital Elements:
Right Ascension of the Ascending Node
i Inclination of the orbit
Argument of Perigee
t
p
Time of Perigee
e Eccentricity of the elliptical orbit
a Semi-major axis of the orbit ellipse
46
Numerical Example 2:
Problem: Considering the Space shuttle circular orbit (height , h
= 250 km), and Earth radius = 6378 km, obtain:
a. Orbital period
b. Average linear velocity
Solution:
a) r = (r
e
+ h) = 6378 + 250 = 6628 km
From equation 2.21:
T
2
= (4
2
a
3
) / = 4
2
(6628)
3
/ 3.986004418 10
5
s
2
= 2.8838287 10
7
s
2
T = 5370.13 s = 89 mins 30.13 secs
b) The circumference of the orbit is 2a = 41,644.95 km
v = 2a / T = 41,644.95 / 5370.13 = 7.755 km/s
Alternatively: v = (/r)
2
. =7.755 km/s.
47
Numerical Example 3:
Problem: Elliptical Orbit: Perigee = 1,000 km, Apogee = 4,000 km
a. Period
b. Eccentricity
Solution:
a) 2a = 2 r
e
+ h
p
+ h
a
= 2 6378 + 1000 + 4000 = 17,756 km
a = 8878 km
T
2
= (4
2
a
3
) / = 4
2
(8878)
3
/ 3.986004418 10
5
s
2
= 6.930545 10
7
s
2
T = 8324.99 s = 138 mins 44.99 s = 2 hrs 18 mins 44.99 s
b) At perigee, eccentric anomaly E = 0 and r
0
= r
e
+ h
p
.
r
0
= a ( 1 e cos E )
r
e
+ h
p
= a( 1 e)
e = 1 - (r
e
+ h
p
) / a = 1 - 7,378 / 8878 = 0.169
Look Angle Determination
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 13
49
Look Angle Definitions - 1
Look angles: The coordinates to which an ES must
point to communicate with a satellite. These are
azimuth (AZ) and elevation angle (EL)
AZ: The angle measured from N to E to projection of
satellite path onto horizontal plane
EL: The angle measured from the horizontal plane to the
orbit plane
The subsatellite point: The point, on the earths
surface, of intersection between a line from the
earths center to the satellite
50
EL
Look Angle Definitions - 2
Local Vertical
North
East
AZ
Projection of path onto
local horizontal plane
Path to
satellite
NOTE: This is
True North
(not magnetic,
from compass)
51
Look Angle Definitions - 3

C
Sub
Zenith direction
52
Calculating the Look Angle
Need six Orbital Elements
Calculate the orbit from these Orbital Elements
Define the orbital plane
Locate satellite at time t with respect to the First
Point of Aries
Find location of the Greenwich Meridian relative to
the first point of Aries
Use Spherical Trigonometry to find the position of
the satellite relative to a point on the earths surface
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 14
53
Most Common Methods Today
Go to http://www.stk.com and go to the
ANALYTICAL GRAPHICS software suite
called Satellite Tool Kit for orbit determination
Used by LM, Hughes, NASA, etc.
Need two basic look-angle parameters:
Elevation Angle
Azimuth Angle
54
Coordinate System - 1
Latitude: Angular distance, measured in
degrees, north or south of the equator.
L from -90 to +90 (or from 90S to 90N)
Longitude: Angular distance, measured in
degrees, from a given reference longitudinal
line (Greenwich, London).
l from 0 to 360E (or 180W to 180E)
55
Coordinate System - 2
(Source: M.Richaria, Satellite Communication Systems, Fig.2.9) 56
Satellite Coordinates
SUB-SATELLITE POINT
Latitude L
s
Longitude l
s
EARTH STATION LOCATION
Latitude L
e
Longitude l
e
Calculate , ANGLE AT EARTH CENTER
Between the line that connects the earth-center to the satellite
and the line from the earth-center to the earth station.
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 15
57
Look Angles
Azimuth: Measured eastward (clockwise)
from geographic north to the projection of
the satellite path on a (locally) horizontal
plane at the earth station.
Elevation Angle: Measured upward from
the local horizontal plane at the earth station
to the satellite path.
58
Geometry for Elevation Calculation
El = - 90
o
= central angle
r
s
r
e
Center
of Earth

r
e

r
s
d
Local horizontal
EL
Earth
Station
Plane in picture is the one
that includes center of the
earth, Earth Station and
Satellite.
Subsatellite point will
also be on the same plane.
Subsatellite point
59
Review of Slant Path Geometry
Review of spherical trigonometry
Law of Sines
Law of Cosines for angles
Law of Cosines for sides
( )( )
( ) 2
,
2
tan
cos 2
sin sin sin
2 2 2
c b a
d
c d d
b d a d C
C ab b a c
c
C
b
B
a
A
+ +
=

=
+ =
= =
a C B C B A
A c b c b a
c
C
b
B
a
A
cos sin sin cos cos cos
cos sin sin cos cos cos
sin sin sin
+ =
+ =
= =
c
A
B
C
a
b
a
b
c
A
B
C
Review of plane trigonometry
Law of Sines
Law of Cosines
Law of Tangents
60
The Central Angle
is defined so that it is non-negative and
cos () = cos(Le) cos(L
s
) cos(l
s
l
e
) + sin(L
e
) sin(L
s
)
The magnitude of the vectors joining the center of the
earth, the satellite and the earth station are related by
the law of cosine:
( )
2 / 1
2
cos 2 1
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
s
e
s
e
s
r
r
r
r
r d
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 16
61
Elevation Calculation
By the sine law we have
( ) ( ) sin sin
d r
s
=
Which yields
cos (El)
( )
( )
2 / 1
2
cos 2 1
sin
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

s
e
s
e
r
r
r
r
62
Azimuth Calculation
More complex approach for non-geo satellites. Different formulas
and corrections apply depending on the combination of positions
of the earth station and subsatellite point with relation to each of
the four quadrants (NW, NE, SW, SE).
A simplified method for calculating azimuths in the
Geostationary case is shown in the next slides.
63
Specialization to Geostationary
SUB-SATELLITE POINT
(Equatorial plane, Latitude L
s
= 0
o
Longitude l
s
)
EARTH STATION LOCATION
Latitude L
e
Longitude l
e
The GEOSTATIONARY CASE allows some
simplifications in the formulas:
64
The Central Angle - GEO
The original calculation previously shown:
cos () = cos(Le) cos(L
s
) cos(l
s
l
e
) + sin(L
e
) sin(L
s
)
Simplifies using L
s
= 0
o
since the satellite is
over the equator:
cos () = cos(Le) cos(l
s
l
e
)
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 17
65
Elevation Calculation, GEO
Using r
s
= 42,164 km and r
e
= 6,378.14 km gives
Distance to satellite, d:
d = 42,164 [1.0228826 - 0.3025396 cos()]
1/2
km
Elevation Angle (El) is obtained from:
or alternatively:
( )
( )
( ) | |
2 / 1
cos 3025396 . 0 0228826 . 1
sin
cos

= El

(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=

sin
cos
tan
1 e
s
r
r
El
66
To find the azimuth angle, an intermediate angle, , must first be
found. The intermediate angle allows the correct quadrant (see
Figs. 2.10 & 2.13) to be found since the azimuthal direction can lie
anywhere between 0
o
(true North) and clockwise through 360
o
(back to true North again). The intermediate angle is found from
( )
( )
(

=

e
e s
L
l l
sin
tan
tan
1

## Azimuth Calculation, GEO - 1

67
Case 1: Earth station in the Northern Hemisphere with
(a) Satellite to the SE of the earth station: Az = 180
o
-
(b) Satellite to the SW of the earth station: Az = 180
o
+
Case 2: Earth station in the Southern Hemisphere with
(c) Satellite to the NE of the earth station: Az =
(d) Satellite to the NW of the earth station: Az = 360
o
-
Azimuth Calculation, GEO - 2
68
Numerical Example 4:
GEO Look Angle Calculation - 1
FIND the Elevation and Azimuth
Look Angles for the following case:
Earth Station Latitude 52
o
N
Earth Station Longitude 0
o
Satellite Latitude 0
o
Satellite Longitude 66
o
E
London, England
Dockland region
Geostationary
INTELSAT IOR Primary
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 18
69
Step 1. Find the central angle
cos() = cos(L
e
) cos(l
s
-l
e
)
= cos(52) cos(66)
= 0.2504
yielding = 75.4981
o
Step 2. Find the elevation angle El
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

sin
cos
tan
1 s
e
r
r
El
Numerical Example 4:
GEO Look Angle Calculation - 2
70
Step 2 contd.
El = tan
-1
[ (0.2504 (6378.14 / 42164)) / sin (75.4981) ]
= 5.85
o
Step 3. Find the intermediate angle,
( )
( )
(

=

e
e s
L
l l
sin
tan
tan
1

= tan
-1
[ (tan (66 - 0)) / sin (52) ]
= 70.6668
Numerical Example 4:
GEO Look Angle Calculation - 3
71
The earth station is in the Northern hemisphere and the satellite is
to the South East of the earth station. This gives
Az = 180
o
-
= 180 70.6668 = 109.333
o
(clockwise from true North)
ANSWER: The look-angles to the satellite are
Elevation Angle = 5.85
o
Azimuth Angle = 109.33
o
Numerical Example 4:
GEO Look Angle Calculation - 4
72
Visibility Test
A simple test, called the visibility test will quickly tell you
whether you can operate a satellite into a given location.
A positive (or zero) elevation angle requires
( ) cos
e
s
r
r
which yields
|
|
.
|

\
|

s
e
r
r
1
cos
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 19
73
Operational Limitations
For Geostationary Satellites
81.3
o
This would give an elevation angle = 0
o
Not normal to operate down to zero
usual limits are C-Band 5
o
Ku-Band 10
o
Ka- and V-Band 20
o
Orbital Perturbations
75
Previous section simplified assumptions:
Earth and satellite modeled as point masses
influenced only by gravitational attraction.
Results in a Keplerian orbit.
Uniform gravitational force around the earth.
Two-body systems (no influence of other
heavenly bodies were considered).
No consideration for atmosphere drag.
76
Reality: Orbit perturbations - 1
IRREGULAR EARTH:
Irregular gravitational force around the Earth due to
non uniform mass distribution.
Earth is not a sphere, it can be modeled as an
ellipsoid with a slight bulge at the equator.
21 km difference between POLAR and EQUATORIAL radius
Results in additional forces on the satellite because
the gravitational pull is offset from the center of the
Earth.
Sun-synchronous orbit benefits from this effect.
GMU - ECE 739, Fall 2003 - Satellite Communications Class: Sept-08-2003
(C) Leila Z. Ribeiro, 2003 20
77
Reality: Orbit perturbations - 2
OTHER HEAVENLY BODIES:
Orbit calculation is not a two-body solution, but
rather a N-body solution.
Main external perturbations come from Sun and
Moon.
When satellite is near to those external bodies it
Moons gravitational force tends to pull satellite out of
equatorial plane (GEO)
Main effect is change in inclination (geostationary
orbit).
78
Reality: Many orbit perturbations - 3
ATMOSPHERIC DRAG:
Due to friction caused by collision with atoms
and ions.
Affects more low-orbit satellites.
Reduces ellipticity of an elliptical orbit,
making it more circular.
Reduces altitude in circular orbits.
At extreme conditions (very low altitudes),
results in loss by burning.
79
Reality: Many orbit perturbations - 4
OTHER PERTURBATIONS:
Solar radiation pressure: affects large GEO
satellites which use large solar arrays. Increases
orbital eccentricity and affects north-south axis of
the satellite.
Earths magnetic field
Meteorites
Self-generated torques and pressures caused by RF