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SPE 89334 Analysis of the Effects of Major Drilling Parameters on Cuttings Transport Efficiency for High-Angle Wells in Coiled

Tubing Drilling Operations


M. Evren Ozbayoglu / Middle East Technical University, Stefan Z. Miska, Troy Reed, Nicholas Takach / The University of Tulsa

Copyright 2004, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Conference and Exhibition held in Houston, Texas, U.S.A., 2324 March 2004. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in a proposal submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to a proposal of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The proposal must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

portable rigs can be used, which enables to make drilling possible on smaller ships or harsh environments, etc. Main applications of CT are drilling multilaterals, horizontal sections or extended reach wells, underbalanced drilling applications, workover operations, etc. However, the wellbore sizes are limited, drag increases due to zero pipe rotation, weight on bit is provided only due to the downhole motor and BHA, hydraulic limitations, etc, so serious engineering considerations have to be conducted before using CT for drilling practices. The maximum flow rate available for hole cleaning with CT is limited by the pressure at the surface and the flow rate limitations of the downhole motor/BHA1. There are two major points that differ between the hole cleaning in CT applications and conventional drilling operations. Those are; i) the requirements of cuttings to be suspended by the fluid, and ii) contribution of pipe rotation on hole cleaning. Also, the flow rates and fluid properties show variances as the inclination of the wellbore changes. Lower annular velocities and higher fluid viscosities are preferred for vertical wells, and high annular velocities and low fluid viscosities are more suitable for high-angle wells for successful hole cleaning2. Cuttings transport studies in horizontal and high-angle wells were initially focused on developing semi-empirical equations and the effects of drilling parameters such as rate of penetration, flow rate, fluid properties, mud density, inclination, cuttings size, eccentricity, etc3-8. Later, researchers attacked the problem by developing mathematical models. Two-layered and three-layered mechanistic models were developed using certain assumptions9-11. Horizontal and high-angle wells are very common applications for CT drilling. One of the major challenges still needs to be focused on is the cuttings transport in such highangle and horizontal wellbore sections. There are many factors that have impact on cuttings transport while drilling highangle wells using CT, which can be summarized as the average annular fluid velocity, fluid properties, cuttings properties, annulus eccentricity, rate of penetration, etc12. There have been several studies conducted on the effects of these parameters on cuttings transport and hole cleaning13-19.

Abstract Coiled Tubing (CT) Drilling is becoming more popular as the drilling technology is advancing. Most of the CT applications are associated with highly inclined or horizontal well drilling. In such wells, cuttings transport is still remaining as a major challenge. In this study, a layered cuttings transport model is introduced for high-angle and horizontal wells, which can be used for incompressible non-Newtonian fluids as well as compressible non-Newtonian fluids, i.e., foams. A computer program is developed based on the proposed model. The effects of major drilling parameters, such as flow rate, rate of penetration, fluid density, viscosity, gas ratio, cuttings size, cuttings density, wellbore inclination and eccentricity of the CT on cuttings transport efficiency are analyzed. The results are verified with the experimental data obtained at The University of Tulsa Low Pressure Ambient Temperature flow loop. The major findings from this study are, the dominating parameter on wellbore cleaning is the flow rate, and, as the viscosity of the fluid is increased, the thickness of the cuttings bed developed in the wellbore is significantly increasing. Also, cuttings properties, fluid density, wellbore inclination and eccentricity have some influence on cuttings transport.

Introduction CT is simply continuous tubing which is spooled onto a storing reel. CT drilling applications are becoming more widely used because of its major advantages over conventional drilling process, such as no pipe connections are required which decreases the trip time significantly as well as eliminates the problems related with joints, smaller and more

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SPE 89334

Most of these studies agreed on the major effective drilling parameter on cuttings transport in high-angle wells as the annular fluid velocity1, 2, 12-19. Moreover, when the flow regime is turbulent in the annulus, a significant reduction is observed in cuttings bed development1, 2. Therefore, better cuttings transport ability has been reported for low-viscosity fluids when compared with high-viscosity fluids, because turbulent flow can be much easily obtained if the fluid viscosity is low. It has also been observed that, when aerated fluids are used as drilling fluids in CT applications, the liquid phase has the main impact on cuttings carrying process, rather than the gas phase20-21. Also, for foams, as the gas ratio is increased, the cuttings bed development is enhanced2. But, this observation for foams is mostly because of the increase in the viscosity of foam as the gas ratio increases. Eccentricity, wellbore geometry, wellbore inclination, cuttings properties, etc. has also some influences on cuttings transport in CT drilling. This study aims to investigate the effects of flow rate, rate of penetration, fluid density, viscosity, gas ratio, cuttings size, cuttings density, wellbore inclination and eccentricity on cuttings transport while drilling with CT for various flow conditions and fluids.

P AII + I II S I II L II III S II III L

II w S II w L s g AII LSin
f g AI LSin = s AII II
2

(5)

P AIII + II III S II III L static bed g AIII LCos


(6)

s g AII LSin f g AI LSin = 0


The shear stress between any two surfaces is

i, j = f f i, j

i (i j )
2

(7)

Slip Velocity The slip velocity between a fluid and a cutting in layer-II can be derived as

v 4 dc g vslip = 3 ( C Sin + C Sin ) () L D


where

(8)

Theory A layered wellbore section with length L, inclination , and a pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the section P, is presented as shown in Figure 1. The following equations are derived under the assumptions that, the fluid within L is incompressible and fluid properties are constant, cuttings bed is stationary and flow is ignored inside the bed, flow is steady. Mass Conservation Assuming a constant ROP and flow rate, the material balance for fluid and solid phases can be written as

c f ( Cos Sin + Sin Sin ) . f

(9)

where and are depending on the compaction type. In-Situ Cuttings Concentration Determination of the in-situ concentration of the cuttings at layer-II is very important for defining the mixture density at layer-II accurately. By using the equation of continuity, in-situ cuttings concentration at layer-II can be derived as

I AI f + II AII f 1 CC
f

II

) = A (1 C
w

) f

(1) (2)

CCII =
where

2 C CCbottom CCtop + CCtop hII v y


2 2 2

hII v y

(10)

t AII CC c = Aw CC c
II

where

t = II slip
f

(3)

(C

Cbottom

CCtop hII v y ( 2 C + hII v y )


hII v y

(11)

e C 1
Detailed information can be obtained regarding with the mechanistic model developed from the previous works of the authors2, 22. Experimental Setup Experiments were conducted at The University of Tulsa Drilling Research Projects Low Pressure Ambient Temperature (TUDRP-LPAT) flow loop (Figure 2). The test section is approximately 100 feet long and consists of an 8-in.

Momentum Conservation The momentum conservation within the wellbore for layerI, layer-II and layer-III, respectively, can be derived as

P AI I II S I II L I w S I w L f g AI LSin = f AI I
2

(4)

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SPE 89334

inner diameter transparent casing (1/2-in. wall thickness) and a 4.5-in. diameter aluminum alloy drillpipe. The cuttings are injected into the annular section from a 650-gallon capacity injection tank using a rotating auger system. An industrial-size shale shaker separates the fluid from the cuttings, which are then collected in a collection tank. One end of the flow loop is attached to a movable platform, while the other is connected to a pulley, which enables the user to incline the loop at any angle between 0 to 90 from vertical. A 75-HP centrifugal mud pump (maximum capacity 650 gpm) is used to supply liquid and a compressor (working capacity 0-125 psi, maximum 825 scfm capacity) is used to supply air. Both gas and liquid flow rates are measured using Micro-Motion mass flow meters. The control, measurement and recording of the flow rates for both phases (air and liquid), drillpipe rotation, flow loop inclination, pressure and temperature are done from a control room using the LabView data acquisition system.

Flow Rate It has been observed that, for all cases, the most effective drilling parameter on cuttings bed development is the flow rate, in other words, the annular fluid velocity. Increase in the flow rate drastically prevents the bed development and improves the cuttings carrying ability. Especially when the flow is turbulent, cuttings are carried more effectively, and the bed development is reduced significantly. Figure-5 shows the effect of flow rate on bed development. As seen from Figure5, higher flow rates are required for preventing bed development in the annulus. Rate of Penetration From the model results, it has been observed that the rate of penetration has a slight effect on the bed thickness. Experimental observations also agreed on this result. Variations on the ROP are more effective on the elapsed time required for the bed to be developed rather than the thickness of the bed. In Figure-6, the effect of ROP on bed development is presented. It has been observed that, as the fluid flow rate is increased, the influence of ROP on bed thickness diminishes. However, ROP quantitatively effects the average concentration of cuttings in motion. Fluid Density Fluid density has a moderate effect on cuttings bed development. Due to the improvement on the buoyancy effect, the cuttings can be carried with less force as the fluid density is increased. Also, if all the other parameters are kept constant, increase in fluid density yields an increase in the Reynolds number, which shows that turbulent flow conditions can be much easily obtained. The effect of fluid density on cuttings bed development is presented in Figure-7. As the flow rate is increased, the magnitude of this effect reduces. Effective Fluid Viscosity Another important drilling parameter on cuttings bed development is the effective fluid viscosity. For vertical wells, it has been proven that, increase in effective viscosity of the fluid improves the cuttings carrying ability. However, for horizontal or high-angle wells, high effective viscosity acts in the opposite way. Since an increase in the effective fluid viscosity causes a reduction in the Reynolds number, it will become harder to obtain turbulent flow conditions. Thus, this enhances the development of the cuttings bed within the wellbore. As seen from Figure-8, there exists a threshold point, after which no matter how much the effective viscosity of the fluid is increased, the bed thickness does not change. This is the point where on the bed surface, the shear force on the cuttings bed becomes permanently less than the lift force required for lifting the cuttings. From Figure-8, before this threshold viscosity, a significant increase in the cuttings bed development is observed as the effective fluid viscosity increases. The threshold viscosity shifts to the right as the flow rate is increased. Fluid Behavior Index Fluid behavior index, n, significantly affects the velocity profile of the fluid within a conduit. If everything else is kept constant, change in n will cause a development of a flatter

Results and Discussions Model Confidence Verification The model results are verified with the data of cuttings transport experiments conducted at TUDRP-LPAT flow loop using different fluids i.e., Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, and ROPs, as well as with the data from the literature. The comparison of the experimental data and the model results for estimating the bed thickness in the wellbore is presented in Figure-3. As seen from Figure-3, the model can predict the cuttings bed within the wellbore with an error of mostly less than 15% for various fluids. Also, it has been observed that the model can predict the pressure loss gradient with an error less than 20 % for all cases. Sensitivity Analysis for Major Drilling Parameters After the verification of the confidence of the developed model, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the cuttings bed development for the major drilling parameters, such as flow rate, rate of penetration, fluid density, viscosity, gas ratio, wellbore dimensions, cuttings size, cuttings density, wellbore inclination and eccentricity on cuttings transport while drilling horizontal and high-angle wells with CT. Several cases are simulated using the model with the following ranges for different drilling parameters; flow rate from 25 to 400 gpm, ROP from 20 to 100 ft/hr, effective fluid viscosity from 1 to 300 cp, fluid density from 8.33 to 12.5 ppg, cuttings size from 0.0018 to 0.236 in, cuttings density from 2.3 to 3.0 sp.gr, wellbore inclination from 60 to 90 degrees, and eccentricity from concentric to fully eccentric. The wellbore dimensions are assumed to be 5 in to 21/2 in, which is a very common configuration for CT drilling. A typical simulation result determined by the developed model is presented in Figure-4, for a 5-21/2 inches horizontal, semi-eccentric wellbore with an ROP of 50 ft/hr, 8.4 ppg and 20 eq.cp fluid, and 0.118 in 2.65 sp.gr cuttings. The following analysis is conducted using the similar data for a wide range of various drilling conditions, as given above.

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SPE 89334

velocity profile rather than a bullet shaped parabola inside a gap. Thus, higher velocities can be observed at points closer to the conduit walls. In Figure-9, the effect of n on cuttings bed development is presented. As seen from Figure-9, as n is reduced, the bed thickness reduces due to the increase in the velocity at the vicinity of the bed surface. These higher velocities will cause erosion on the bed due to the high shear force applied on the bed surface until the critical shear force is reached, which is equal to the lift force of the cuttings on the bed. The magnitude of this effect reduces as the flow rate decreases. Cuttings Size Cuttings size has a significant effect on cuttings bed development. For vertical wells, it has been known that smaller cuttings can be carried with less force. For horizontal or high-angle wells, experimentally, it has been observed that, as the size of the cuttings are reduces, it becomes very hard to reduce the thickness of a developed cuttings bed. This is due to the reduction of the area for the fluid to apply drag and lift. Also, the space for fluid to generate eddies to lift the cuttings decreases; therefore, a boundary layer develops on the bed surface where the fluid velocity is almost zero. From Figure10, it is seen that, the experimental observations and the model results are in a reasonable agreement. Cuttings Density Effect of cuttings density on cuttings bed development can be considered as slight or moderate. Greater the density of cuttings, harder to lift and transport the cuttings due to gravitational effects. Thus, an increase in cuttings density enhances the cuttings bed development. Figure-11 shows the effect of cuttings density on cuttings bed development. As the cuttings density increases, an increase in the cuttings bed area is observed. CT Eccentricity Drill pipes tend to stay on the lower side of the wellbores due to gravity in horizontal and high-angle wellbore sections. This causes an uneven velocity distribution in a cross-section of the wellbore. The velocities are significantly low at the narrow sections, and become higher as the gap increases. Therefore, it becomes very difficult to remove a cuttings bed located in an eccentric wellbore. Figure-12 shows the effect of eccentricity on cuttings bed area. As seen from Figure-12, as pipe alignment goes from concentric to fully eccentric, the ratio over the bed area to total wellbore area decreases. Interestingly, during the experiments, it has been observed that the bed thickness is increasing as the eccentricity increases. However, if the cuttings bed area is calculated from the bed thickness, it is observed that the bed area decreases as the eccentricity increases. The magnitude of this effect reduces as the flow rate is reduced. Well Inclination The effect of well inclination on cuttings bed development is slight. According to the experimental observations, for 70 degrees and higher inclinations, the bed thickness is almost constant if the drilling conditions are kept constant. Figure-13 shows the effect of wellbore inclination on cuttings bed

development. It can be seen that, the relation between the inclination and the bed area is almost null. Gas Ratio Performance of gasified fluids on cuttings transport in horizontal and high-angle wells is still not fully understood. Studies conducted on cuttings transport using gas and liquid mixtures showed that, the cuttings transport is dominated by the liquid phase. Thus, a reduction in the carrying capacity of the mixture is observed as the gas ratio is increased. Similar trend is also observed for foams, which is also a gas-liquid mixture. As the gas ratio increases, cuttings bed developed becomes thicker. The effect of gas ratio on cuttings bed development for foams is presented in Figure-14. Conclusions An extensive sensitivity analysis is conducted on the effect of major drilling parameters while drilling horizontal and high-angle wells using Coiled Tubing (CT) technology. A layered model is developed, which has been verified by experimental data. The followings have been concluded: Average annular fluid velocity (fluid flow rate) is the dominating parameter on cuttings bed development. As the flow rate is increased, bed development is reduced. Also, turbulent flow is better for preventing bed development. High viscous fluids are not good for carrying cuttings at high-angle and horizontal wells. Cuttings size is another important parameter on cuttings transport. Smaller particles are much more difficult to remove if they have built a bed. For gasified fluids, as the gas ratio increases, the carrying capacity reduces. If everything else is kept constant, as the fluid behavior index is decreased, the developed bed also decreases. Increasing eccentricity causes the cuttings bed area to decrease. Fluid density and cuttings density has moderate effects on bed development. Rate of penetration and wellbore inclination has almost no effect on the thickness of the developed bed.

Nomenclature A C d ff g L m m P Area ( L2 ) Concentration, Coefficient Diameter (L) Friction Factor Gravitational Acceleration ( L )
T2

Length (L) Fluid Behavior Index Mass (m) Pressure ( m )


LT 2

S Perimeter (L) v Velocity ( L )


T

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SPE 89334

Greek Letters Inclination Angle (from horizontal) Angle Density ( m )


L3

Diffusion Coefficient
Angle Shear Stress (
m LT
m LT 2

Viscosity (

Subscripts b Bed c Cuttings f Fluid I First Layer II Second Layer III Third Layer p Particle s Slip, Suspension T Transport w Wall, Wellbore References
1. Leising L.J., and Walton I.C., Cuttings-Transport Problems and Solutions in Coiled-Tubing Drilling, SPE 77621, SPE Drilling & Completion, March 2002, pp.54-66 2. Ozbayoglu M.E., Cuttings Transport with Foam in Horizontal & Highly Inclined Wellbores, PhD Dissertation, University of Tulsa-OK, 2002 3. Tomren, P. H., The Transport of Drilled Cuttings in an Inclined Eccentric Annulus, M.S. Thesis, University of Tulsa-OK, 1979 4. Iyoho, A. W., Drilled-Cuttings Transport by Non-Newtonian Drilling Fluids Through Inclined Eccentric Annuli, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Tulsa-OK, 1980 5. Becker, T. E., Correlations for Drill-Cuttings Transport in Directional-Well Drilling, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Tulsa-OK, 1987 6. Larsen, T. I., A Study of Critical Fluid Velocity in Cuttings Transport For Inclined Wellbores, M.S. Thesis, University of Tulsa-OK, 1990 7. Jalukar, L. S., A Study of Hole Size Effect on Critical and Subcritical Drilling Fluid Velocities in Cuttings Transport for Inclined Wellbores, M.S. Thesis, University of Tulsa-OK, 1993 8. Sanchez, R. A., Azar, J. J., Bassal, A. A. and Martins, A. L., The Effect of Drillpipe Rotation on Hole Cleaning During Directional Well Drilling, SPE 37626, 1997 Drilling Conference, Amsterdam-Holland, March 4-6, 1997 9. Gavignet, A. A. and Sobey, I. J., A Model for the Transport of Cuttings in Highly Deviated Wells, SPE 15417, 61st Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans-Louisiana, October 5-8, 1996 10. Clark, R. K. and Bickham, K. L., A Mechanistic Model for Cuttings Transport, SPE 28306, 69th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans-Louisiana, September 25-28, 1994 11. Nguyen, D. and Rahman, S. S., A Three-Layer Hydraulic Program for Effective Cuttings Transport and Hole Cleaning in Highly Deviated and Horizontal Wells, IADC/SPE 36383, Asia Pacific Drilling Technology, Kuala Lumpur-Malaysia, September 9-11, 1996

12. Azar J.J., and Sanchez R.A., Important Issues in Cuttings Transport for Drilling Directional Wells, SPE 39020, presented at 5th Latin American And Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference and Exhibition held in Rio de Janerio, Brasil, August 30 September 3, 1997 13. Leising L.J., and Walton I.C., Cuttings Transport Problems and Solutions in Coiled Tubing Drilling, IADC/SPE 39300, presented at IADC/SPE Drilling Conference held in Dallas, TX, USA, 3-6 March, 1998 14. Li J., and Walker S., Sensitivity Analysis of Hole Cleaning Parameters n Directional Wells, SPE 54498, presented at SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Roundtable held in Houston, TX, USA, 25-26 May, 1999 15. Walker S., and Li J., The Effects of Particle Size, Fluid Rheology, and Pipe Eccentricity on Cuttings Transport, SPE 60755, presented at SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Roundtable held in Houston, TX, USA, 5-6 April, 2000 16. Cho H., Subhash N., and Osisanya S.O., Selection of Optimum Coiled-Tubing Drilling Parameters Through the Cuttings-Bed Characterization, SPE 68436, presented at SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Roundtable held in Houston, TX, USA, 7-8 March, 2001 17. Li J., and Walker S., Sensitivity Analysis of Hole Cleaning Parameters in Directional Wells, SPE 74710, SPE Journal, December 2001, pp.356-363 18. Li J.S., Walker S., and Aitken B., How to Efficiently Remove Sand From Deviated Wellbores with a Solids Transport Simulator and a Coiled Tubing Cleanout Tool, SPE 77527, presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in San Antonio, TX, USA, September 29 October 2, 2002 19. Leising L.J., and Walton I.C., Cuttings-Transport Problems and Solutions in Coiled-Tubing Drilling, SPE 77621, SPE Drilling & Completion, March 2002, pp.54-66 20. Vieria P., Miska Z.S., Reed T., and Kuru E., Minimum Air and Water Flow Rates Required for Effective Cuttings Transport in High Angle and Horizontal Wells, IADC/SPE 74463, presented at IADC/SPE Drilling Conference held in Dallas, TX, USA, 26-28 February, 2002 21. Naganawa S., Oikawa A., Masuda Y., Yonezawa T., and Hoshino M., Cuttings Transport in Directional and Horizontal Wells While Aerated Mud Drilling, IADC/SPE 77195, Presented at IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology held in Jakarta, Indonesia, 9-11 September, 2002 22. Ozbayoglu M.E:, Miska Z.S., Reed T., Takach N., Cuttings Transport with Foam in Horizontal & Highly Inclined Wellbores, SPE/IADC 79856, SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam-Holland, 19-21 February, 2003

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SPE 89334

100 Layer Area / Wellbore Area (%) , velocity (ft/s), Dynamic Cuttings Concentration (%)

0.08 pressure loss (psi/ft), Cuttings Slip Velocity (ft/s) 350 120

Layer-I

80 60

0.06

0.04 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Flow Rate (gpm) 0.02

0 350

Layer-II
v1 (ft/s) v2 (ft/s) vs 8ft/s) A2 (%) dP/dL (psi/ft) A3 (%)

Layer-III

Cc2

Figure 4 A typical result of the layered model for a given case Figure 1 - Cross-section of the wellbore

100 Bed Area / Total Wellbore Area (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Flow Rate (gpm) 1 cp 20 cp

Figure 5 Effect of flow rate on developed cuttings bed Figure 2 TUDRP Low Pressure Ambient Temperature flow loop

100 80 Experimental (%)


Bed Area / Total Wellbore Area (%)

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 40 60 80 100 Rate of Penetration (ft/hr)

60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Calculated (%) water foam polymer Larsen [6] Tomren [3] Sanchez [8]

75 gpm

150 gpm

Figure 3 Comparison of the model estimations and experimental values for the ratio of bed area over total wellbore area (%)

Figure 6 - Effect of rate of penetration on developed cuttings bed

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SPE 89334

80 Bed Area / Total Wellbore Area (%) Bed Area / Total Wellbore Area (%)

80 70 60 50 40 30 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 Cuttings Size (in) 75 gpm 150 gpm

60

40

20

0 8 9 10 11 12 13 Fluid Density (ppg) 75 gpm 150 gpm

Figure 7 - Effect of fluid density on developed cuttings bed

Figure 10 - Effect of cuttings size on developed cuttings bed

80 Bed Area / Total Wellbore Area (%) 70 60 50 40 30 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Fluid Effective Viscosity (cp) 75 gpm 150 gpm Bed Area / Total Wellbore Area (%)

70

60

50

40

30 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 Cuttings Specific Density 75 gpm 150 gpm

Figure 8 - Effect of fluid effective viscosity on developed cuttings bed

Figure 11 - Effect of cuttings specific density on developed cuttings bed

80 Bed Area / Total Wellbore Area (%) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Fluid Behavior Index 75 gpm 150 gpm 0.8 1 Bed Area / Total Wellbore Area (%)

80 70 60 50 40 30 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Eccentricity 75 gpm 150 gpm

Figure 9 - Effect of fluid behavior index on developed cuttings bed

Figure 12 - Effect of eccentricity on developed cuttings bed

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SPE 89334

80 Bed Area / Total Wellbore Area (%) 70 60 50 40 30 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Wellbore Inclination (deg) 75 gpm 150 gpm

Figure 13 cuttings bed

Effect

of

wellbore

inclination

on

developed

80 Bed Area / Total Wellbore Area (%) 70 60 50 40 30 55 65 75 Gas Ratio (%) 150 gpm 300 gpm 85 95

Figure 14 - Effect of rate of gas ratio on developed cuttings bed

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