You are on page 1of 79

A study report on women Entrepreneurship with reference to small scale industries

INTRODUCTION
It is estimated that women entrepreneurs presently comprise about 10% of the total number of entrepreneurs in India, with the percentage growing every year. If the prevailing trends continue, it is likely that in another five years, women will comprise 20% of the entrepreneurial force. With corporate's eager to associate and work with women-owned businesses, and a host of banks and non-governmental organizations keen to help them get going, there has rarely been a better time for women with zeal and creativity to start their own business. Endowed with the famous female intuition that helps them make the right choices even in situations where experience and logic fail, women have innate flair for entrepreneurship. Although men and women may be motivated by different goals and expectations (In her book, When Money Isn't Enough, Connie Glaser reports that male entrepreneurs are motivated by the potential to earn lots of money, while women start their own companies because they seek greater control over their personal and professional lives.) women entrepreneurs are just as competent, if not better, than their male counterparts. Women are more likely than men to admit when they do not know something and ask for help. They are natural networkers and relationship builders, forging powerful bonds and nurturing relationships with clients and employees alike. They are also more inclined to seek out mentors and develop supportive teams. In business this translates into establishing rapport with clients and providing great customer service. This perhaps is the reason why many women tend to launch businesses that are client based or service-oriented. Sometimes, however, a lack of training and prior experience can render women entrepreneurs susceptible to a number of pitfalls. The following guidelines are aimed at helping women entrepreneurs cross some of the typical pitfalls that may crop up on their path to success: Don't undervalue your abilities. Women typically tend to give away too much and charge too little. This is a common phenomenon in service-based industries where they may charge by the hour instead of charging a fee on the merit of knowledge or service rendered. Adopting valuebased charges and charging per project (not on weekly or monthly basis), will help women entrepreneurs gain the actual worth of the services rendered.

Learn to juggle family with business. Unlike men, it is difficult for women to completely ignore family obligations when pursuing business, and they can quickly lose sight of their desire to have a balanced life in the face of a demanding new business. It is important to sustain a personal life and balance family obligations with professional ones, if they are to be successful and happy. Women also need to be twice as persistent and assertive to make their presence felt in a predominantly male business world. Network, but in a way you feel comfortable with. Establish limits and do make sure that you are well within your comfort zone when networking with others. Do not forget you are running a business. Piling on work/life benefits will not do anyone any good if doing so cuts too deeply into the company's bottom line. You have to learn to be attentive to people's needs and still run a profitable business. Women typically fight shy of selfendorsement. Do not be afraid to promote yourself. Remember, if you want a thriving business you must market yourself and take credit for your achievements. If your marketing is shoddy no one will know what you have to offer Though sidelined as the `weaker sex' for long, with encouragement, support and a conducive environment, woman entrepreneurs are fast becoming a force to reckon with in the business world. An entrepreneur perceives a need and then brings together the manpower, materials and capital required to meet that need. Entrepreneurs search for change, respond to it and exploit it as an opportunity. Entrepreneurship involves combining factors of production to initiate changes and it is a discontinuous process. The high rate of economic growth strengthens the nation, provides a high standard of living to the people to protect the interest of the poor.

Women constitute almost half of the total population in the world. But their representation in employment is comparatively low According the I.L.O report in 1980, Women are 50 per cent of the worlds population, do the two-thirds of the worlds work hours, receive ten percent of the worlds income and own less than one percent of worlds property

The concept of Women Entrepreneurship: Women entrepreneurs may be defined as the women or a group of women who initiate, organize and operate a business enterprise. According to Schumpeter an entrepreneur is an innovating individual who introduces something new into the economy.

According to the Government of India, a women entrepreneur is defined as an enterprise owned and controlled by a woman and having a minimum financial interest of 51 per cent of capital an giving at least 51 per cent of the employment generated in the enterprise to women.

Functions and role of women entrepreneurs : 1. Explore the prospects of starting new enterprises 2. Undertaking of risks and the handling of economic uncertainties 3. Introduction of innovations 4. Coordination, administration and control 5. Routine supervision.

Rural women Entrepreneurship:

A rural women entrepreneurship is a women or group of women who undertake to organize and run an enterprise in a rural area. The supply of rural women entnerprenrship may be classified into the following categories. 1. Women who take t o entrepreneurship because of dire economic needs 2. Women who take to entrepreneurship because they had the family background tradition in some skills or trade 3. Women who take it up because they have certain personality characteristics such a needs for achievement, need for power and influence etc.,

4. Women who take it up as a leisure time activity and 5. on official advice and guidance.

Women entrepreneurship in World:

In countries like Japan, Malaysia and Singapore women started their home industries only their leisure time and later it was converted as full time work. According the informations, the women entrepreneurship percentage in U.S.A in 3.7 % and in Canada 5.8%. In Canada, the growth in female self- employment nation wide has increased by an annual average rate of 5.8% .

Women entrepreneurs in India:

India got independence in the year 1947. The then first Prime minister

Pandith

Jawaharlal Nerhu said, Freedom depends on economic conditions even more than political. If a women is not economically free and self-earning she will have to depend on her husband or some one else and dependents are never free. As a result of this, a new perspective came into existence. Women were encouraged to get higher education as men. Facilities were provided for women to get new jobs and enter into every walk of life. Later, gradually the phenomenon of women entrepreneurship entered into developed economics. In India. the Sixth Five Year Plan (1980 85) encouraged self-employment of women. It provided a package of services to women entrepreneurs who want to launch self-employment. On 30th December 1987 in Bombay, a new organization called All Indian Manufactures organization was set up with a view to encourage, motivate and provide guidance to prospective women entrepreneurs to set up industries In a message to the Indian council for women entrepreneurs, Mr.Rajiv Ganandi said, A big effort is still required to ensure the emergence of women in the fields of business industry and entrepreneurship.

Women entrepreneurship in Tamilnadu:

In Tamil Nadu female population is 49.28 percent and the literacy rate of the female population is 52.29 percent as per 1991 census. Consequently the number of educated women expects employment in Government department. But the government cannot provide employment to all women. Hence, it is absolutely necessary that many of them will have to find out employment for themselves. Taking this aspect into consideration the Tamil Nadu Government started Entrepreneurship Development Program in 1991- 92 to make women start small business units. Various scholars on women entrepreneurship have made search researches. The research studies on women entrepreneurship focus on the various aspects namely, the influencing factors of entrepreneurship, the personal and social factors of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial qualities, type of organizations, inadequate working capital, training given to the entrepreneurs, management of enterprise, economic independence, problems faced by the women entrepreneurs and the suggestions to overcome difficulties.

Generally the personality traits such as achievement motivation, risk taking, sense of efficacy, need for independence and recognition etc., are some of the potential factors for entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs are creative, innovative, adaptable and capable of assimilating modern values.

Another study classifies the four factors that contributed womens entry into entrepreneurship as socio-economic and political climate, experience of socialization, education and work; individual needs of financial and self-fulfillment, and the transitional events of pushes and pulls.

In India women entrepreneurs emerge mostly because of the push factors i.e., responsibility thrust on them. In western societies, women in service tend to become

entrepreneurs because of job discrimination, constraints on promotion, sexual harassment at workplace, influence of mentors and mass media communication.1

Studies on women entrepreneurs reveal that entrepreneurship is not a special privilege for the educated, for the women with no formal education or training many venture into business and prove to be successful.2 Other studies have reported that entrepreneurs have high educational qualification.
3

Where woman are already burdened with many social pressures, education is a

powerful tool in breaking down the barriers to successful entrepreneurship.4 Family background is essential for starting the enterprise and the family support is found to be facilitating the entrepreneurial success.

Studies on women entrepreneurs have found them to be hardworking, dependent, determined and self-confident.5 They are committed to a career satisfaction, which transcends other aspects of their lives.6

Various research studies focus on the problems faced by women entrepreneurs and the suggestions to overcome the obstacles.
1

Berns, M. Communication variables and Female entrepreneurship Exploratory case studies of Six Former corporate Executive women, 1986 2 Rani, C. Potential Women entrepreneurs A Study, Women and Development Women in Enterprise and Profession, New Delhi, Discovery Publishing House, 1991.
3

Srinivas, M.N. A sociological study of Okhla industrial estate, Delhi: cited in small Industries and social change, UNESCO, 1966. ** Derossi, F. The Maxican Entrepreneur, Paris: Development center of the organization for Economic corporation and Development, 1971. ** Mancuso, J. Funds and Guts, The Entrepreneurs Philosophy, 1973. 4 Grace G. Female Entrepreneurs Social and Psychological Variables as related to Business Characteristic, Dissertation Abstract, International, June 1987.
5

Lynne. R. Huntley, women entrepreneurs are career choice Dissertation Abstract International, 1985 Ibid

The study of D. Narendra kumar and D. Himachalam

(1991) points out the problems

like stiff competition, low ability to bear economic risk, technical and environmental risk and late commencement of women entrepreneurship in the country.

The following suggestions are given by the authors to overcome the difficulties 1. Women should be encouraged and supported by the male population and family members in establishing business units 2. Young and educated women should come forward to enter the field of entrepreneurship.

There are other problems, which are identified by V.N. Pujar are 1. No need of achievement 2. No risk bearing capacity 3. Lack of education 4. Family involvement and 5. Lack of information and experience.8

Authors like S.L Kirloskar 9(1988), Hari Narayana Rao10(1991), Narendra Kumar (1991) and Vijayalakshmi entrepreneurs.
11

(1992) give the following suggestions to overcome the problems of

1. At the school level itself entrepreneurial development courses may be conducted and this may be further reinforced at the college level.

Narendra Kumar, D. Himachalam, D. Women entrepreneurship in India, Problems and Prospects, Monthly Commentary on Indian Economic Condition, 1991.
8

Pujar, V.N. Development of Women entrepreneurship in India(ed) Sammiuddin, entrepreneurship. Development in India, Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1991.
9

Kriloskar, S.L Successful Innovation, University News, 1988 Hari Narayana Rao, Promotion of Women entrepreneurship (A Brief comment SEDME, 1991 11 Vijayaliakshmi, V. Women entrepreneurship - (ed) chandrasekar Rajakumari, Womens Resource and National Development: A perspective, New Delhi: Gaurav Publications, 1992.
10

2. Any institution for training women to become entrepreneurs should fix no age limit.

3. Publicity regarding various on going rural development programmes for women must be undertaken at regular intervals in remote and backward areas.

4. The assistance of voluntary organizations is vital in creating entrepreneurial awareness, motivation, identification, training, selection of schemes and regular monitoring of the units.

Every entrepreneur wants to become successful. To become successful the research of T.P.J Bharathi (1991) suggests steps to overcome the difficulties to the would be women entrepreneurs. The list includes the following.12 1. The first and foremost thing for a woman entrepreneur is that she must be bold enough to shake the reserve role. 2. She needs a training at least for ten days in the lines of production. 3. She has to realize that her responsibility is two fold household and project management.

Problems faced by Women entrepreneurs

Apart from the tacit assumption that women are frail and indecisive, women entrepreneurs encounter many problems. The main problems faced by the women entrepreneurs may be analyzed as follows.

Shortage of finance

12

Bharathi, T.P.J- women entrepreneurs in Salem District- A success story mysore Economic Review, 1991

Women entrepreneurs always suffer from inadequate resources and working capital. They are lacking access to external funds due to absence of tangible security and credit in the market. Women do not generally have property to their names. Owing to the lack of confidence in womens ability, male members in the family do not like to risk their capital in ventures run by women.

Inefficient arrangements for marketing and sale

For marketing their products, women entrepreneurs are often at the mercy of the middlemen who pocket large chunk of profit. Although the middlemen exploit the women entrepreneurs, the elimination of middlemen is difficult because it involves a lot of running about.

Shortage of raw materials Women entrepreneurs find it difficult to procure raw materials and other necessary inputs.

Stiff competition Many of the women enterprises have imperfect organizational setup. They have to face severe competition from organized industries and male entrepreneurs.

High cost of production Another problem which undermines the efficiency and restricts the development of women enterprises is the high cost of production. Government assistance in the form of grants and subsidies to some extent enables them to tide over this difficulty.

Low mobility One of the biggest handicaps for women entrepreneurs is mobility or traveling from place to place. Women on their own find it difficult to get accommodation in smaller towns.

Family Responsibilities In India, it is mainly a womens duty to look after the children and other members of the family. Her involvement in family leaves little energy and time for business. Married women entrepreneurs have to make a fine balance between business and home. Their success in this regard also depends upon supporting husband and family. Without the support and approval of husband, the female entrepreneurs cannot succeed.

Social attitudes

The biggest problem of a woman entrepreneur is the social attitude and the constraints in which she has to live and work. In rural areas, women face resistance not only from males but also from elderly females who have accepted inequality. Rural women have the potential but they are not properly trained.

Low ability bear risk Women have comparatively a low ability to bear economic and other risks because they have led a protected life. Sometimes they face discrimination in the selection for entrepreneurial development training. Some of them lack entrepreneurial initiative or specialized training.

Inferiority complex, unplanned growth, lack of infrastructure late start, etc. are other problems of women entrepreneurs in India.

Lack of education In India literacy among women is very low. Due to lack of education, majority of women are unaware of technological developments, marketing knowledge, etc. Lack of information and experience created further problems in the setting up and running of business enterprises.

Low need for achievement Need for achievement, independence and autonomy are the prerequisites for success in entrepreneurship. But women are proud to bask in the glory of their parents, husbands, sons, etc. Their preconceived notions about their role in life inhibit achievement and independence. In the absence of the required urge to achieve few women succeed as entrepreneurs.

Remedies to solve the problems of women entrepreneurs The following measures may be adopted to solve the problems faced by women entrepreneurs in India:

Finance cells In various public financial institutions and banks special cells may be opened for providing easy finance to women entrepreneurs. These cells should be manned by women officers and clerks. Efforts should be made to provide finance at the local level. Finance to women entrepreneurs may be provided at concessional rates of interest and on easy repayment basis.

Marketing cooperatives Encouragement and assistance should be provided to women entrepreneurs for setting up cooperatives. These cooperatives will pool the inputs of women enterprises and sell them on remunerative prices. Such cooperatives will help to eliminate the middlemen. Central and state Government should give priority to women entrepreneurs while purchasing for their requirement.

Supply of raw materials

Scarce and imported raw materials may be made available to women entrepreneurs on priority basis. A subsidy may also be given to make th products manufactured by women entrepreneurs cost competitive.

Education and awareness It is necessary to change negative social attitudes towards women. Elders, particularly, mothers and mothers-in-law, need to be made aware of the potential of girls and their due role in society. Unless the social attitudes are made positive not much progress can be made by women entrepreneurs.

Training facilities

Training and skills are essential for the development of entrepreneurship. Training schemes should be so designed that women can take full advantage. Family members do not lied women to go away to far off places for training. Therefore, mobile training centers should be arranged. Similarly, part time training facilities, especially during afternoons will attract more

women to acquire skills. Additional facilities like stipend, good hygienic crches, transport facilities, etc. should be offered to attract more and more women to the training centers.

Selection of industry by women entrepreneurs Proper selection of industry to be set up by a women entrepreneur depends upon the following factors: 1. Family background 2. Education 3. Attitude 4. Training. Etc

Importance of study:

In recent years women have made their mark in different walks of life and are competing successfully with men despite the social, psychological and economical barriers. This has been possible due to education, political awakening, urbanization, legal safeguards, social reforms etc., Some of the women have distinguished themselves in may unconventional fields as Prime Minister, Ambassadors, Governors, space scientists, pilots, vice-chancellors, administrators and also entrepreneurs.

In business, the entry of women is a relatively new phenomenon. On account of the break-up of the joint family system and need for additional income to maintain living standards in the face of inflation, women began to enter the competitive world of business. Women may start her business due to several reasons. She may not be able to find a job in market place or she may not be able to work out of her house. So, the above said points can be suggested for importance of stud.

Statement of the problem

This study is explored mainly to analyze the socio-economic backgrounds of women entrepreneurs, factors influencing the promotion of their enterprise, to excel about the type and mode of enterprise, impact of training in improve their skills in connection with areas of Thanjavur Town.

Need for study:

As women entrepreneurs were to be recognized as a powerful instrument for the economic development of our nation, a necessity is raised to full this thirst. As Thanjavur town is more suitable for agriculture the development of entrepreneurs must be evaluated to check out the beneficiaries.

Objectives of the study:

1. To study the socio-economic background of the women entrepreneurs 2. Reason to be an entrepreneur 3. Type and mode of Establishment 4. Training program effectiveness 5. Self interpretation of the entrepreneur 6. To suggest the steps and measures for better performance of the women entrepreneurs.

Methodology:

To collect the accurate data, women entrepreneurs were selected who run their business in their own name and other were eliminated. The samples selected were about 30 respondents. The study includes collection of data by means of primary and also secondary data. A structured questionnaire was framed to collect the data from the respondents. The secondary data was collected from the authorities of District Industries center and Mahalir Thittam. Apart from the above-mentioned methods of data collection informations from office of the women development corporation of Tamilnadu, Universities libraries were utilized. To get more response, data was divided into many sections with main and sub-questions which alternative choices for convenience. Limitations of the study:

(i)

This study is concerned with only women entrepreneurs in Thanjavur town

(ii)

The period of study to carry out this research is limited

Review of literature

Various scholars on women entrepreneurship have made search researches. The research studies on women entrepreneurship focus on the various aspects namely, the influencing factors of entrepreneurship, the personal and social factors of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial qualities, type of organizations, inadequate working capital, training given to the entrepreneurs, management of enterprise, economic independence, problems faced by the women entrepreneurs and the suggestions to overcome difficulties.

Generally the personality traits such as achievement motivation, risk taking, sense of efficacy, need for independence and recognition etc., are some of the potential factors for entrepreneurship13. Entrepreneurs are creative, innovative, adaptable and capable of assimilating modern values.14

The emergence of entrepreneurs in a society depends to a great extend on the economic, social, religious, cultural and psychological factors prevailing in the society15. In a survey conducted by Sharma. R.A (1985) it was found that nearly 85 percent of the female

population in the country for one reason or other were not able to participate adequately in the economic reconstruction of India16. According to a study conducted by the International Labour Organization unemployment among women has been increasing at a much higher rate than among men in developing countries. Factors like unemployment, family situation influence the emergence of entrepreneurship.17

It is inferred from the study that unemployment is one of the compelling factors that has driven most of the women entrepreneurs to industrial ventures. Encouragement by the family and the success stories of other entrepreneurs were the most important factors facilitating entrepreneurship. Another reason for a woman to become an entrepreneur is ambition. The desires to earn money and to engage one self fully are also the decisive factors. Women need
13

Bhattacharya, S.K and Akouri, M.M.P Profile of a Small Industry Entrepreneur SEDME, 1975

14

Javillonar, Gloria & Peters, R. George, Sociological and Psychological aspects of Indian Entrepreneurship, 1973.

** Rao & Others Psychological and Organizational factors in Successful entrepreneurship, paper presented at All India Seminar on entrepreneurs Development
15

Gulab Singh, Development of entrepreneurship Among Rural Woman A overview SEDME,1986

16

Sharma R.A. entrepreneurial Performance in Indian Industry, New Delhi: Inter India Publication, 1985 International Labour Organization : study More Hurdle faced by women entrepreneurs, 1988

17

economic independence. Independent economic status is one of the reasons, which led women into industry18.

Another study classifies the four factors that contributed womens entry into entrepreneurship as socio-economic and political climate, experience of socialization, education and work, individual needs of financial and self-fulfillment, and the transitional events of pushes and pulls.19

In India women entrepreneurs emerge mostly because of the push factors i.e., responsibility thrust on them. In western societies, women in service tend to become

entrepreneurs because of job discrimination, constraints on promotion, sexual harassment at workplace, influence of mentors and mass media communication.20

Studies on women entrepreneurs reveal that entrepreneurship is not a special privilege for the educated, for the women with no formal education or training many venture into business and prove to be successful.21 Other studies have reported that entrepreneurs have high educational qualification.
18

22

Where woman are already burdened with many social pressures, education is a

Pillai, N.C, & Anna, V. The entrepreneurial spirit among women A study of Kerala, Indian Management,1990

19

Lee, Gail, Fann, women entrepreneurs Entering the Economic Main stream, Arizon univerisy. Berns, M. Communication variables and Female entrepreneurship Exploratory case studies of Six Former

20

corporate Executive women, 1986


21

Rani, C. Potential Women entrepreneurs A Study, Women and Development Women in Enterprise and

Profession, New Delhi, Discovery Publishing House, 1991.


22

Srinivas, M.N. A sociological study of Okhla industrial estate, Delhi: cited in small Industries and social change,

UNESCO, 1966. ** Derossi, F. The Maxican Entrepreneur, Paris: Development center of the organization for Economic corporation and Development, 1971. Mancuso, J. Funds and Guts, The Entrepreneurs Philosophy, 1973.

powerful tool in breaking down the barriers to successful entrepreneurship.23 Family background is essential for starting the enterprise and the family support is found to be facilitating the entrepreneurial success.

Entrepreneurial

qualities

are

the

influencing

factors

for

the

emergence

of

entrepreneurship. The study of K.L. Pandit (1990) shows that the lack of entrepreneurial qualities victimizes the educated unemployed or employed women.24

Age does not have a direct bearing on entrepreneurship, but yet mostly middle aged and young women become entrepreneurs, because the concept itself is a recent phenomenon. Women entrepreneurs are generally found to hail from middle class.25

Studies on women entrepreneurs have found them to be hardworking, dependent, determined and self-confident.26 They are committed to a career satisfaction, which transcends other aspects of their lives.27

23

Grace G. Female Entrepreneurs Social and Psychological Variables as related to Business Characteristic,

Dissertation Abstract, International, June 1987.


24

Pandit, K.L Lanjewar, A.S and Padhan, A. Unemployment among educated women and entrepreneurial qualities *

A Critical study, university news, 1990


25

Vinze, Medha Dubashi. Women entrepreneurs in India, New Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1987 Lynne. R. Huntley, women entrepreneurs are career choice Dissertation Abstract International, 1985

26

27

Ibid

Various research studies focus on the problems faced by women entrepreneurs and the suggestions to overcome the obstacles.

The study of D. Narendra kumar and D. Himachalam 28 (1991) points out the problems like stiff competition, low ability to bear economic risk, technical and environmental risk and late commencement of women entrepreneurship in the country.

The following suggestions are given by the authors to overcome the difficulties 1. Women should be encouraged and supported by the male population and family members in establishing business units 2. Young and educated women should come forward to enter the field of entrepreneurship.

There are other problems, which are identified by V.N. Pujar are 1. No need of achievement 2. No risk bearing capacity 3. Lack of education 4. Family involvement and 5. Lack of information and experience.29

To widen and strengthen the base of women entrepreneurship a study has been made by Jyotsna Sethi (1994). The study observes the following problems, rooted in Indian customs and traditions and prevent women from obtaining formal credit. They are: 1. Property in male names 2. Segregation of sexes. 3. Lack of education and experience and 4. Lack of information. This

28

Narendra Kumar, D. Himachalam, D. Women entrepreneurship in India, Problems and Prospects, Monthly

Commentary on Indian Economic Condition, 1991.


29

Pujar, V.N. Development of Women entrepreneurship in India(ed) Sammiuddin, entrepreneurship. Development

in India, Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1991.

study further purports three-pronged programme of activity which may prove meaningful. They are 1. Stipulator activity 2. Supportive activity and 3. Sustaining activity30

Authors like S.L Kirloskar

31

(1988), Hari Narayana Rao32(1991), Narendra Kumar

(1991) and Vijayalakshmi 33(1992) give the following suggestions to overcome the problems of entrepreneurs.

5. At the school level itself entrepreneurial development courses may be conducted and this may be further reinforced at the college level. 6. Any institution for training women to become entrepreneurs should fix no age limit. 7. Publicity regarding various ongoing rural development programmes for women must be undertaken at regular intervals in remote and backward areas. 8. The assistance of voluntary organizations is vital in creating entrepreneurial awareness, motivation, identification, training, selection of schemes and regular monitoring of the units.

Every entrepreneur wants to become successful. To become successful the research of T.P.J Bharathi (1991) suggests steps to overcome the difficulties to the would be women entrepreneurs. The list includes the following.34

30

Jyotsna Sethi, Women entrepreneurship in India A Brief comment SEDME, 1994.

31 32

Kriloskar, S.L Successful Innovation, University News, 1988 Hari Narayana Rao, Promotion of Women entrepreneurship (A Brief comment SEDME, 1991 Vijayaliakshmi, V. Women entrepreneurship - (ed) chandrasekar Rajakumari, Womens Resource and National

33

Development: A perspective, New Delhi: Gaurav Publications, 1992.


34

Bharathi, T.P.J- women entrepreneurs in Salem District- A success story mysore Economic Review, 1991

4. The first and foremost thing for a woman entrepreneur is that she must be bold enough to shake the reserve role. 5. She needs a training at least for ten days in the lines of production. 6. She has to realize that her responsibility is two fold household and project management.

The following suggestions are given by Shibani Sen (1992). The author suggests that the small entrepreneurs in general and women entrepreneurs in particular, especially in rural areas, are denied need based finance for reasons of inadequate security to satisfy the financial institutions. It is, therefore, suggested that the quantum of credit be raised, suitably matching the need-based requirements of the potentially promising women entrepreneurs.35

According to Hisrich and Bush (1983) female entrepreneurs tend to be highly energetic, goal-oriented, independent, self-confident and competitive.36 Birdss literature review confirmed that women entrepreneurs were concentrated in retail and service sectors and concluded that such individual difference appeared to influence the entrepreneurs choice of business, the size and success of the venture.
37

She also quoted Birlelys study which revealed

that women pay more attention to employees among other factors. According to Ho and Koh (1992) Female entrepreneurs are usually not sole bread winners of their families, they have less financial anxiety and are more flexible in their management style. Female entrepreneurs are also found to be more tolerant of there subordinates.

35

Shibani Sen, Development of Women Entrepreneurship in Inda(ed) Heptulla Najma Reforms for Women,

Future, options, New Delhi: IBH Publications, 1992.


36

Hisrich & Brush cited chye Tea Goh An Analysis of the Demographic Difference Between Male and Female

Entrepreneurs in Singapore ENDEC, Nanyang: 1995.


37

Bird, Barbara, J. entrepreneurial Behaviour Foresman & Co, 1989

Previous research has identified

several motivating factors underlying female

entrepreneurship. The main ones are 1. A sense of independence and achievement 2. Job frustration , because they have restricted opportunities for advancement and high performance and 3. interest and recognition.38

Studies in United states show growth in small businesses by women, who were mostly single and determined to succeed against all odds.39 The economic status of women plays a key role in determining their social status us well as their psychological relationship with others. A study by Mies Maria on womens sangham of CROSS (comprehensive Rural Operations Services Society) in Bhongir ( Andhra Pradesh ) revealed that women first need economic independence and only subsequently think of emancipation. The women from Bhongir have shown that their struggle for better conditions is linked in separable to their human dignity and self respect 40

Psychological studies reveal that women take much more time in decision making. Since women are sentimental and guide by emotion rather than calculations, they cannot take quick and firm decision which is very much needed in business ventures. Moreover, they are not very independent, therefore in decision making they are very much guided by others. This is also seen that women are not very aggressive, hence lack emotion stability in dealing the business issues.41

38

Carsurd and Olm cited chye Tee Coh et al., - An analysis of the Demographic difference between male and female

Entrepreneurs Singapore, ENDEC, 1995


39

Voss, Bristol, Against all odds: Women in Business Sales and Marketing Management , 1992

40

Mies Maria, quoted in impediments to Rural Liberation, by Kanchana Thammbiborai, Indian Express, May 15,

1987
41

Adarsh Kumari Sharma Women Entrepreneurship in India - A case study of leading women entrepreneurship

in India A survey of Research in Commerce and Management, 1994,

The study of Pareek U. Nadkarni, M.reveals that need for achievement, independence, and autonomy are the basic ingredients required in a successful entrepreneur but these basic requirements are absent or found in negligible quantities in a women in India.42

According to V.R. Gaikward and R.N. Tripathy, bold dashing and pragmatic personality managerial competence, high motivation dominant socio-economic power enjoyed by the family and contracts are higher social and governmental level lead to entrepreneurial development43

According to I.G Patel, women also have to be profitably employed is not merely an economic necessity, it is a social necessity. He adds that credit is necessary but it is never enough. It is never enough in the sense that there are people who did not have the knowledge of markets, who do not understand the modern world, whose technology is stunted, whose knowledge of even ordinary account keeping is poor. Somebody has to goad them into doing the right thing44

Narayana Reddy states that the women entrepreneurs feel frustrated at times because they need to spare their energy both towards their business as well as domestic affairs. At times

42

Pareek, U. Nadkarni, M: Development of Entrepreneurship. A concept ional

Model, Developing

Entrepreneurship Learning systems. New Delhi.


43

Gaikward, V.R. Social cultural and organizational issues in development of Entrepreneur. Paper presented at All

Indian Seminars on Entrepreneurships Development, New Delhi, 1975, Cited in U,S. Shinde.
44

Patel. LG Promotion of credit to women entrepreneurs (ed) Kalbagh Chetena , women in business and

profession, New Delhi, Discovery Publications House, 1992

they may not be able attend to both the duties because of which they are dissatisfied about the progress of their ventures. 45

Kannan Nair say that the women entrepreneurs of the urban areas can undertake almost all business and industrial activities. Small scale industries are mostly suitable for urban and semi-urban area where supply of raw material for these industries and markets for their products are available46

In Nigeria women have more difficulty then men traveling and handling financial arrangements, because of earlier deficits in education47

45

Narayanan Reddy, P_ Problems of Women Entrepreneurs in Goa - A Pilot study Khadigramodyog, 1991

46

Kannan Nair, N- Entrepreneurships Development in small and Rural Industries, Bombay: Gramodyog., 1990.

47

I.C Oknokwo, integrating women into the Nigerian Economic Main stream, Journal of education, 1994

Analysis of data

This chapter deals with analysis of data relating to age, religion, caste, educational qualification, marital status, number of dependents, family back ground, inducing factors, type and mode of establishment, training program effectiveness, self interpretation of entrepreneur etc., Table: 1 Age wise classification of the respondents

S.No

Age

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4

Between 20 30 Between 31- 41 Between 41 50 From 51 and above Total

10 32 6 2 50

20 64 12 4

Source: Primary data

Table: 1 reveals the age wise classification of the respondents. It states that 20 percentage of the respondents were in the age group between 20 30 and 64 percentage of the respondents were in the range between 31 to 40 and 12 percentage of the respondents were in the age group between 41 to 50 and the rest 4 percent is above 51 years.

Age wise classification of the respondents

No. of respondents

Between 41 50 12%

From 51 and above 4%

Between 20 30 20%

Between 31- 41 64%

Religion wise classification of the respondents

Table: 2

S.No

Religion

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4

Hindu Muslim Christian Others Total

36 0 6 8 50

72 0 12 16

Source: Primary data

The table: 2 state that percentages of Hindu respondents were 72, Muslims were 0 percentage, Christians were 6 percentages and other was 8 percentages.

Religion wise classification of the respondents

No. of respondents

Christian 14% Muslim 0%

Hindu 86%

Caste wise classification of the respondents

Table: 3

S.No

Caste

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4

FC BC MBC/DNC SC/ST

6 16 7 21

12 32 14 42

Total

50

Source: Primary data

Table clearly explains that from Forward community percentage of respondents is 12, backward community percentage of respondents is 32, most backward and Denotified community percentage is 14 and SC/ ST percentage is 42.

Caste wise classification of the respondents

No. of respondents

FC 12% SC/ST 42% BC 32%

MBC/DNC 14%

Education wise classification of the respondents

Table: 4

S.No

Education

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4

Up to H.Sc Diploma Degree P.G degree Professional Degree Total

19 22 8 1 0 50

38 44 16 2 0

Source: Primary data

Table: 4 Reveals about the education wise classification of the respondents. About 38 percentages of the respondents were up to H.Sc., 44 per cent were Diploma holders, 16 percentages were degree holders and 2 percentages were Postgraduates and 0 percent was professional degree.

Education wise classification of the respondents

No. of respondents

Professional Degree 0% Degree 16%

P.G degree 2%

Up to H.Sc 38%

Diploma 44%

Martial status of the respondents

Table: 5

S.No

Martial

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4

Unmarried Married Widow Divorcee Green widow Total

13 31 1 2 3 50

26 62 2 4 6

Source: Primary data

The above table reveals that unmarried women are in 26 percent and married were 62 percent and widow are 2 percent, divorcee are 4 percent and green widow are 6 percent

Martial status of the respondents

No. of respondents

Widow 2%

Divocee 4%

Green widow 6%

Unmarried 26%

Married 62%

Classification on Number of dependents

Table: 6

S.No

No. Of dependents

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3

Below 4 Between 5 10 11 and above Total

16 29 5 50

32 58 10

Source: Primary data

The above table shows that 32 percentage of the respondents have dependents below 4 and 58 percentage have between 5 10 and more than 11 percentage counts to10.

Classification on Number of dependents

No. of respondents

11 and above 10% Below 4 32%

Between 5 10 58%

Classification based on their Family Background

Table: 7

S.No

Family Background

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3

Farmer Business Government service Private service Others Total

12 23 8 2 5 50

24 46 16 4 10

Source: primary data

Table 7 clearly explain that 24 percent of women entrepreneurs were from farmer, 46 percent were from business and 16 percent were from government service and 4 percent were from private service and other counts to 10 percent

Classification based on their Family Background

No. of respondents

Private service 4% Government service 16%

Others 10% Farmer 24%

Business 46%

Inducing factors to be an entrepreneur

Table: 8 Personal family backgrounds

S.No

Personal Family background

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4

Unemployment Husbands death Financial support to the family Improvement in revenue Total

22 2 18 8 50

44 4 36 16

Source: Primary data

About 44 percent of the women entered due to unemployment and 4 percent due to husbands death 4 percent to provide financial support to the family and 16 percent for better improvement in revenue.

Table: 9 Motivating factors

S.No

Motivating factors

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4 5

Training in the field Technical and professional skills Self interest Government schemes Innovative idea Total

9 6 29 4 2 50

18 12 58 8 4

Source: Primary data

Table 10 denotes that 18 of the respondents had training in the field and 12 had technical and professional skills and 58 percentage due to self-interest and 8 percent due to government schemes and 4 percent because of innovative ideas.

Table: 10 Triggering factors

S.No

Triggering factors

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2

To earn money To become

28 economically 12

56 24

independent 3 4 To get social status To be economically sound Total 4 6 50 8 12

Source: Primary data

The above table reveals that 56 percent of the respondents to earn money 24 percent to be economically independent and 8 percent to get social status and 12 percent to be economically sound.

Type and mode of establishment

Table: 11 Form of establishment

S.No

Form of establishment

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4 5 6

Sole proprietorships Partnership Conventional family business Co-operative society Private Limited Public Limited Total

27 10 6 6 1 0 50

54 20 12 12 2 0

Source: Primary data

Table 12 describes about the form of establishment. About 54 percent sole proprietorships 20 percent were partnership 12 percent were carrying out the conventional family business and 2 percent were co-operative society and no respondents were from public limited.

Classification based on location

Table: 12

S.No

Location

No. Of respondents Percentage respondents

of

1 2

Urban Semi Urban Total

36 14 50

72 28

Source: Primary data

About 72 percent were from urban and 28 percent from semi urban is revealed in table 13 with reference to location of the enterprise.

Classification based on Building

Table: 13

S.No

Building

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3

Own Rental Lease Total

29 14 7 50

58 28 14

Source: Primary data

Table 13 clearly explain that 58 percent had their own building 28 percent used rental buildings and 14 percent took building in lease.

Classification based on investment level Table: 14

S.No

Investment

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2

Bank Loans

25

50 12

Strong financial background of 6 family

3 4 5

Private borrowings Pledge of jewels Own savings Total

12 5 2 50

24 10 4

Source: Primary data

About 50 percent of the respondents utilized bank loans 12 percent from strong financial backgrounds 24 percent from private borrowings a10 percent from pledge of jewels and only 4 percent from own savings.

Classification of the business based on size Table: 15

S.No

Size

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2

Tiny Small Medium Large Total

18 13 16 3 50

36 26 32 6

Source: Primary data

About 36 percent of the respondents were doing tiny business 26 percent were engaged in small business and 32 percent were doing in medium size business and 6 percent were involved in large business.

Classification based on amount invested in the business

Table: 16

S.No

Amount invested

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4 5 6

Below 10,000 Below 50,000 Below 1,00,000 Between 1,00,000 to 10,00,000 Above 10,00,000 Rupees in crores

14 14 9 10 2 1

28 28 18 20 4 2

Source: Primary data

Table 16 indicates that 28 percent of the respondents invested below 10,000 28 percent below 50,000 18 percent below 1,00,000. About 20 percent invested between 1,00,000 to 10,00,000. 4 percent of the respondents invested above 10,00,000. Only 2 percent invested above one crores.

Effect of Training program

Table: 17

S.No

EDP training

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2

Yes No Total

14 36 50

28 72

Source: Primary data

Table 17 states that 28 percent of the respondents underwent training programe and 72 percent did not attend training program.

Classification based on EDP training efficiency

Table: 18

S.No

EDP helpful

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2

Yes No Total

36 14 50

72 28

Source: Primary table

About 72 percent accepted that EDP was helpful and 28 percent did not get benefited.

Classification based on subsidy from the training organization

Table: 19

S.No

Subsidy by government

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2

Yes No Total

35 15 50

70 30

Source: Primary data

The table 19 reveals that 70 percent of the respondents got subsidy from government and 30 percent did not avail the subsidy.

Self interpretation of the entrepreneurs

Table: 20 Problems faced by the entrepreneur

S.No

Location

No.

Of Percentage respondents 26 52 4 18

of

respondents 1 2 3 4 To get venue to run the enterprise To get finance To Manage the workers To market the products Total 13 26 2 9 50

Source: Primary data

About 26 percent find it difficult to get revenue to run their business 52 percent to get finance 4 percent to manage their workers and 18 percent to market their products.

Table: 21 Factors influencing for success

S.No

Factors

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4

Hard work Support from family Marketability Quality of products service Total

30 10 7 3 50

60 20 14 6

Source: Primary data

Table 21 indicates that 60 percent accepted their success is due to their hard work 20 percent due to support from family a 14 percent due to there marketability and the rest 6 percent for quality of their products

Classification based on government support as an entrepreneur

Table: 22

S.No

Government support

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2

Yes No Total

40 10 50

80 20

Source: Primary data

Table 22 denotes that 80 percent of the respondents got support from government and 20 percent did not get government support.

Family support to promote you as entrepreneur Table: 23

S.No

Family Support

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3

Most satisfied Satisfied Discouraged Total

31 7 12 50

62 14 24

Source: Primary data

About 62 percent of the respondents revealed that they are most satisfied with their family support 14 percent predicted that satisfied and 24 percent discouraged to be an entrepreneur.

Classification based on difficulty faced by the women entrepreneur

Table: 24

S.No

Difficulty entrepreneur

for

women No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2

Yes No Total

35 15 50

70 30

Source: Primary data

The above table indicates that 70 percent of the entrepreneur faced many problems and 30 percent did not face any problems.

Classification based on difficulty faced by the women entrepreneur while dealing with their customers

Table: 25

S.No

Difficulty

for

women No. Of respondents

Percentage

of

entrepreneur in dealing with

customers 1 2 Yes No Total 15 35 50

respondents 30 70

Source: Primary data

About 70 percent of the women entrepreneurs accepted that they faced many problems and 30 percent expressed they did not face any.

Classification based on discharge of the duties at home Table 26

S.No

Satisfied to discharge of the No. Of respondents duties at home

Percentage respondents

of

1 2

Yes No Total

12 38 50

24 76

Source: Primary data

Nearly 24 percentage of the respondent expressed that they are satisfied to discharge the duties at home and 76 percent accepted that they were not able.

Support of husband to be an entrepreneur Table: 27

S.No

Family Support

No. Of respondents

Percentage respondents

of

1 2 3 4

Most appreciated Appreciated Satisfactory Discouraged Total

24 8 5 13 50

48 16 10 26

Source: Primary data

The above table indicates that 48 percent of the respondents husband were most appreciated 16 percent were just appreciated 10 percent were in the category of satisfactory and 26 percent discouraged their wives to be an entrepreneur. .

Findings

Findings, suggestions and conclusions

FINDINGS :

After the interpretation of datas from 50 respondents following findings were stated here.

1. It is inferred that women entrepreneurs are in between the age group of 31- 41 with a percentage of 64% 2. Majority of the women entrepreneurs are emerging from the Hindu family, Among the 50 respondents 72% are Hindus. 3. The majority of the respondents belong to SC category followed by Backward class 4. Majority of the respondents are Diploma holders with a percentage of 44. 5. Married women entrepreneurs in the business were about 62% and 26% were unmarried. 6. The dependents ranges between 5 10 with a percentage of 58. 7. About 46% of the respondents had their family background from business.

8. Nearly 44% of the respondents were unemployed at the initial. So, this personal family background reasons induced them to be entrepreneurs. 9. Self- interest was the result of majority of the women entrepreneurs. Among the 50 respondents 58 % suggested that self-interest was the main reason. 10. Major respondents ( 56%) become women entrepreneurs to earn money. 11. Only sole proprietor were found as major part among the 50 respondents. About 54% of the respondents were sole proprietor followed by 20% of partnership. 12. About 72% of the respondents were from the urban and 28% were from semi-urban. 13. Majority of the respondents had their own building ( 58%)and others through rental (28%) 14. Nearly half (50%) of the respondents got loans through bank for their enterprise establishment and developments. 15. Only 36% of the respondents hold tiny business and business. 16. The amount invested was equal between below Rs. 10,000 percentage was about 28% for each of them. 17. 72% of the respondents accepted that training programme was effective while other 28% did not accept to it. 18. 72% of the respondents accepted that efficiency acquired in the training programme. 19. 70% received subsidy from government while the other 30% did not receive. 20. The major women entrepreneur explained that to get fianc was the main problem (52%) while others (26%) stated that to get venue. 21. 60% of the respondents revealed that hard work was the success and 20% due to the family support. 22. 80% got good support from government and the remaining 20% did not receive any support from the government. 23. 62% got good support" from their family while 24% was discouraged and 14% responded as satisfied. 24. Women entrepreneurs accepted that they faced many problems (70%) and Rs. 50,000. The 32 medium size of

25. Women entrepreneurs faced many problems while dealing with customers due to their gender. 30% declared that they faced problems and 70 % did not face any problem in their business. 26. Only 24% were satisfied in discharging their duties while 76% were not able to do so. 27. A good support was provided by women entrepreneurs husband which counted to 48% while 26% of women entrepreneurs husband discouraged them 10% was satisfactory and other 10% just appreciated them.

SUGGESTIONS

SUGGESTIONS: After analysis of datas from 50 respondents following suggestions were stated here.

1. All women entrepreneurs must attend training programme to update the recent technology prevailing in the environment. 2. Government can take measures to supply or market their products to various places. 3. Training programme by government can be made more interesting and informative according to the recent trends. 4. Government subsidy can be increased. 5. New innovative thoughts can be implemented in business. 6. Financial assistance for bank loans can be made easier. 7. At school and college levels entrepreneurship development training can be provided. 8. Facilities provided by the government must be made aware to the public. 9. Proper review should be conducted after each training programmeme 10. Self Help group women entrepreneur can be promoted by the Government.

CONCLUSIONS

CONCLUSIONS:

In the previous chapters a clear and systematic study of the women entrepreneurs were made with special Thanjavur town. The socio-economic background, inducing factors, type and mode of establishment, training programme effectiveness and self-interpretation entrepreneurs were analyzed in depth. of the

The datas were collected from 50 respondents by using questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed and interpreted.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Entrepreneurial Development - C.B. Srinivasan Entrepreneurial Development Vasanth Desai

Green, Gary P. Finance, Capital and uneven development, Boulder Co., West View Press 1987. International Labour Organisations More Hurdles faced by Women Entrepreneurship A Study 1988

JOURNAL Sedme Small Enterprise Development, Management and Extension Journal (Special issue on Women Entrepreneurs)

Published by : National Institute for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise (Formerly known as National Institute of Small Industry Extension Training). An Organisation of Ministry MSME, Govt. India, Hyderabad.

DAILIES The Hindu

REPORTS District Industries Centre

Questionnaire

A study on women entrepreneurs in small scale industries

Questionnaire

I . Identification of socio- economic backgrounds

1. Name

2. Address

3. Age

(i)Between 20 30 (ii) Between 31 40 (iii) Between 41 and 50

(iv) From 51 and above

4. Religion

(i) Hindu (ii) Muslim (iii) Christian (iv) Others

5. Caste

(i) FC (ii) BC (iii) MBC/DNC (iv) SC/ST

6. Educational Qualification : If literate,

(i) Literate

(ii) Illiterate

(I) Up to H.Sc (II). Diploma (III) Degree (IV) P.G (V) Professional Degree (Specify) 7. Technical Qualification : (i) Certificate programs

(ii) Diploma programe (iii) Any other training program

8. Martial status

(i) UnMarried (ii) Married (iii) Widow (iv) Divocee (v)Green Widow

9. No. of dependents :

(i) Below 4 (ii) 5-10 (iii) 10 and above

10. Family back ground

(i) Farmer (ii)Business (iii) Govt. Service (iv) Private Service (v) others

II Inducing factors to become an entrepreneur

11. Personal family background factors

(i) Unemployment

(ii) Husbands death (iii) Financial Support to the family (iv) Improvement in revenue

12. Motivating factors

(i) Training in the field (ii) Technical and professional skills (iii) Self interest (iv) Govt. Schemes (v). Innovative Idea

13. Triggering factors

(i) To earn money (ii) To become economically independent (iii)To get social status (iv) To be economically Sound

III. Type and mode of Establishment

14. Name of the establishment

15. Form of establishment

(i) Sole propertiership

(ii) Partnership (iii) Conventional family business (iv) Co-operative society (v)Private Limited (vi) Public Limited

16. Location

(i) Urban (ii)Semi urban

17. Building

(i) Own (ii) Rental (iii) Lease

18. Investment

(i) Bank loans (ii) Strong financial back ground of family (iii) Private borrowings (iv) Pledge of jewels

(i) Own savings

19. Size of the business

: (i) Tiny (ii) small (iii) Medium (iv) Large

20. Amount invested in the business :

(i) Below 10,000 (ii) Below 50,000 (iii) Below 1,00,000 (iv) Between 1,00,000 to 10,00,000 (v) Above 10,00,000 (vi) Rs. in Crores.

IV Training programe effectiveness

21. Have you attended any EDP training :

Yes/ No

22. Name of the organization that conducted EDP. __________________________________

23. Duration of the training program

___________________________________

24. Is training helpful to you

Yes / No

25. Do you avail any subsidy from the training organization

Yes / No

V. Self interpretation of the entrepreneur

26. What are the problems faced by you in running your a) To get venue to run the enterprise b) To get finance c) To manage the workers d) To market the products

establishment.

27. What factors influence you to get success a) Hard work b) Support form family c) Marketability d) Quality of product service

28. Does the government support to promote you as an entrepreneur No

Yes /

29. Does your family support you to promote you as an entrepreneur i. most satisfied ii. satisfied iii. discouraged 30. Do you face any difficulty in your business as you are a women No Yes/

31. Do you find any difficulty in dealing with your customer because you are a women entrepreneur? No Yes /

32. Are you able to discharge your duties at home No

Yes /

33. What is the opinion of the society, because you are a women entrepreneur?

34. role of your husband for your achievements in Business (i) Most appreciated (ii)Appreciated (iii)Satisfactory (iv) Discouraged