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Chapter 4

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34
Heat

Gas Laws (I)


Boyleʼs Law
For a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to the volume
of the gas at constant temperature.
Load
Piston
Gas
molecules
Cylinder

As a fixed volume of gas is As the piston of a bicycle pump


The random collisions compressed, its volume decreases is pushed down, the volume of
of gas molecules with but its pressure increases because gas decreases and the pressure
the wall of a container the rate of collision of gas increases. The increase in gas
exert a pressure on it. molecules with the cylinder wall pressure enables gas to pump
increases. through a nozzle to a bicycle tyre.

Boyleʼs Law Experiment


Atmospheric pressure Atmospheric pressure = 76 cm Hg
Pressure of the trapped air, p = (76 + h) cm Hg
Glass tube Volume of the trapped air, V∝l
Glass
tube Mercury Varying the mercury column h will vary the
Trapped l h air pressure and hence volume or l of the
air trapped air column.
Mercury
The graph shows that
P
p ∝1 (cm Hg)
l
Rubber Hence,
tube p ∝1
V
pV = constant
1
or p1V1 = p2V2 l (cm )
–1

Question The pressure of a bubble under the sea surface is 120 cm Hg. When
the bubble rises to the surface of the sea, its volume becomes 25.0 cm3.
Assuming that the atmospheric pressure is 76 cm Hg and there is no
change in temperature, what is the original volume of the bubble?
Solution p1V1 = p2V2
(120)V1 = (76)(25.0)
∴ original volume of bubble V1 = 15.8 cm3

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