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Analog layout design

Kanazawa University Microelectronics Research Lab. Akio Kitagawa

Well structures
n-well p substrate p-well n substrate n-well p-well

n-well process p-well process Twin-well process


(The impurity concentration is optimized.)

p- or n- substrate n-well p-well n-well p- substrate

Triple-well process
(The wells can be electrically isolated each other.)
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Deep n-well (Triple-well process)


Triple well process active (MOSFET) n-well deep n-well retrograde p-well active
FOX

Twin-well process active (MOSFET) n-well active


FOX FOX

n-well

p n-well deep n-well p-substrate

n-well p-substrate

FOX

Shallow trench isolation (STI)


Field
isolation

Active
MOSFET

Field
isolation

Active
MOSFET

Field
isolation

SiO2

FOX

GOX

FOX Si

GOX

FOX

VDD cannot invert the MOS interface.

FOX: Field Oxide (Thickness = 100nm) GOX: Gate Oxide (Thickness = several nm)

Layout and cross section (Twin well)


poly (G) contact S
B

poly (G) D Contact S D

Wn
B

Wp
p-active

p-active

n-active n-active
B S G D contact D

Ln

Lp
B S G D D

n-well

Field Oxide FOX p+ n+

n+

FOX p-substrate

n+

p+ n-well

p+

FOX

n-ch MOSFET

p-ch MOSFET
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Layout and cross section (Triple well)


contact poly (G) S
B

Contact D

poly (G) S D

Wn
B

Wp
p-active

p-active
B

n-active
S G D contact D

n-active

Ln

Lp
B S G D D

n-well

Field Oxide FOX p+ n+ deep n-well

n+

FOX p-substrate

n+

p+ n-well

p+

FOX

n-ch MOSFET

p-ch MOSFET
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Layers
Layer numbers are assigned to Well, Active, Poly, Contact, Metal, Via, Silicide Protect, and Dummy, respectively. Some layer is automatically generated from the pattern on the drawn layer.
ex. FOX and GOX is generated from the pattern on the active layer.
poly layer

Legend of layers
n-well
n-active (n+)

p-active (p+) poly contact metal-1 via-1 metal-2 metal-2 layer via layer metal-1layer contact layer FOX p-active layer n-well layer
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n+ p-sub

poly p+ p+ n-well

Layout

n-active layer

Cross section

Design Rules
Semiconductor foundry allows the designers to design only the layout pattern on the top view.
The thickness of layers are fixed by the semiconductor foundry.

The designers have to design the layout according to design rules which is fixed for each technology. The purpose of design rule is as follows.
Warranty of dimensional precision in micro fabrication Warranty of precision on electrical characteristics Prevention of latch-up(NOTE) triggered by parasitic bipolar-transistors

Design rule violation is automatically detected and reported in DRC (Design Rule Check). A semiconductor company accepts only the design that is passed the specified design rules.
NOTE: Latch-up The inadvertent creation of a low-impedance path between the power supply rails of a CMOS circuit, triggering a parasitic pnpn or npnp structure.
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Example of design rules (1)


Geometry Rules
n-well p-active poly-1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 Via-1 2 2 2 1 contact Metal-1 2

poly rule
min. width = 2 min. spacing 2

active (p+, n+) rule


min. width = 2 min. spacing to well = 2 (inside) min. spacing to well = 1 (outside) min. spacing to poly = 1

metal-1 rule
min. width = 2 min. spacing = 2 min. extension beyond contact = 1 min. extension beyond via-1 = 1
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Example of design rules (2)


Minimum Density Rules
Fine featured processes utilize CMP (Chemical-Mechanical Polishing) to achieve planarity. Effective CMP requires that the variations in feature density on a layer be restricted. SF(poly) SF(M1)

Antenna Rules (Process-Induced Damage Rules)


The "Antenna Rules" deal with process induced gate oxide damage caused when exposed poly-silicon and metal structures, connected to a thin oxide transistor, collect charge from the processing environment (e.g., reactive ion etch) and develop potentials sufficiently large to cause Fowler Nordheim current to flow through the thin oxide. The rules require that the area of the polysilicon and metal over field oxide divided by the area of the transistor gate (thin oxide area) must be less than Np (where Np is a limit that depends on the process and on design targets).
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SG

Verifications of the layout design


DRC (Design Rule Check)
Detection of the design rule violation

ERC (Electrical Rule Check)


Detection of the open/short error

LVS (Layout VS Schematic)


Equivalence checking between layout and schematic
The layout design checker has a batch processing mode and interactive mode.
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Influence on circuit performance of the layout


Frequency response in high-frequency region
The parasitic resistance and the parasitic capacitance raise an unintended pole and zero. The long interconnect acts as a parasitic inductor or LC resonator.

Precision of the circuit operation


Common centroid layout of MOSFET, C, and R can improve the production tolerance and mismatch. Symmetric layout of interconnect can improves the production tolerance and skew of the digital signal (delay) and analog signal (phase lag).

Noise and jitter characteristics


The parasitic resistance, especially poly-Si, act as a thermal noise source. The parallel placement of interconnect raise a crosstalk of signals. 12

(1) Layout of the MOSFET

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Layout sample of MOSFET


n-ch p-ch
n-well
n-active (n+)

p-active (p+) poly contact

metal-1 via-1 metal-2

B
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Parasitic of MOSFET
Parasitic Long W LD L LS D G S B
G D capacitance

Drain junction

C j W LD
RG R W L CgsWL
B

C j W LS

Gate resistance S (R: sheet Gate-Source capacitance resistance)

Long W: large time constant of gate poly-Si Long W: large thermal noise of gate poly-Si Long LD, LS: large parasitic capacitance and resistance of drain/source area Few number of contact: Shift or fluctuation of substrate potential How can you design the MOSFET with larger W? 15

Fingered MOSFET
MOFET should be sectioned to reduce the gate resistance. W/4

High-performance MOSFET array

W 1 R L gm
gm: trans-conductance

Finger Abutment
G D S

g m y21

dI ds dVgs

This condition is often met in the case of W/L < 20. W/L < 10 is recommended.

B Multiply = 4 (W/4 4)
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Reduction of the drain junction capacitance (single MOSFET)


LD W W/2

D Abutment G S

S
LD

D S
W C j LD 2

C DB C jWLD

>

C DB

Cj = Capacitance of drain bottom pn junction per area (F/m2)


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Reduction of the drain junction capacitance (series MOSFET)


D
LD LD

S D S
W

Abutment
SLGmin

D D/S S
W

C p 2C jWLD

>

C p C jWSLG min
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Cj = Capacitance of drain bottom pn junction per area (F/m2) SLGmin = minimum gate spacing

Dummy gate
The dummy pattern may be formed to reduce the production tolerance.
G D B

Dummy gate

Dummy gate

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Interdigitated body contact


The body/well contact may be added to immobilize the substrate/well potential in the very large MOSFET.
G D B

S
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IN1 IN2 OUT VDD

Layout of logic gate


High area utilization Constant height of all cell Horizontal runs of metal are used to supply power (Rail), and vertical runs of metal (or poly) are used to input and to output the signals.
Outline box of the cell poly-1 n+ p+ Contact n-well Metal-1 Metal-2 Via-1 VSS
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2NAND

Matching layout
Matching layout is used to enhances the relative precision of device pair (e.g. a differential pair, a current mirror). (around 1%)
Use of The repeat of warp of the fundamental unit
The devices of the different shape and direction match very poorly.

Use of the dummy pattern Use of the common centroid pattern

Trimming is necessary if you expect more precise matching.(less than 0.1%)


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Distribution of GOX thickness


Flux of O2
G G

Temperature and flow distribution in the oxidation furnace

GOX n+
S

n+
D

FOX

GOX n+
S

n+
D

FOX

Distribution of GOX thickness


Fluctuation of Vth and Ids several %
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Common centroid layout


The fluctuation of the device characteristics may be canceled using the common centroid.
1. 2. 3. The centroid of the matched devices should coincident. The array should be symmetric around both the x and y-axis. Each matched device should consist of an equal number of segments oriented in either direction.

A B B A 4 segments

A B B A 4 segments

A B B A B A A B 8 segments

A B B A B A A B A B B A B A A B 16 segments24

Segmentation and Placement for common centroid layout


W/2 MOSFET A W

Dummy

Dummy

D Matched devices MOSFET B GA S GB D


Dummy Dummy

D GB S GA D

Distribution of device parameter

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Layout sample of a differential pair


VSS D2 D1 D2 VSS

Dummy G2 poly-1 n+ p+ Contact S12 Metal-1 Metal-2 Via-1 G1 S12 G2

Dummy

D1 G1 VSS

D2 G2 S12
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(2) Layout of the passive devices

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Example of the characteristics of the passive device


Component MOS Cap. Poly2/Poly1 Cap. p+ Resister Poly Resistor N-well Resister Values 2.2 2.7 fF/m2 0.8 1.0 fF/ m2 80 150 / 20 40 / 1 k 2k / Mismatch Temp. Coefficient 0.05% 0.05% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 1% 50 ppm/ 50 ppm/ 1500 ppm/ 1500 ppm/ 1500 ppm/ 8000 ppm/ Volt. Coefficient 50 ppm/V 50 ppm/V 200 ppm/V 200 ppm/V 100 ppm/V 10k ppm/V

p+ diff. Resistor 50 80 /

The mismatch error on a chip is very small.


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Structure of MIM capacitor


Poly Capacitor (Before 0.25m CMOS process) MIM Capacitor (After 0.18m CMOS process)
VDD (Shield)
Poly-2 Poly-1
N+

VDD (Shield)

Metal-x+1 Capacitor Metal Metal-x FOX(SiO2

N-well

FOX(SiO2

N+

N-well

P-substrate

P-substrate

Poly Capacitor

MIM Capacitor
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Layout sample of a MIM capacitor


Metal-5 Metal-4
CMIM Cp

Dummy CM

Device model with parasitic Metal-4

CM

Capacitor Metal (CM) Metal-5 VIA4 Dummy (The dummy metal is automatically inserted, if the dummy is not specify. The dummy metal may work as a parasitic capacitance.) 30 MIM Capacitor with the dummy CM

Structure of spiral inductor


Metal-4 Top metal Metal-1 Slit (prevent the induction current)
Top M4 M1 VSS (Shield) FOX(SiO2) VIA4
CF L RS CF CP

Top Metal

Device model with the parasitic Top metal or dedicated layer for inductor is used. The inductor is dissipative in the chip area.

Substrate

Cross section
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Structure of the resistance


M1

VDD (Shield)
N+

Active Protect
P+ N-well P-substrate

Active M1 FOX Silicide


N+ N-well P-substrate

Active FOX

VDD (Shield)

M1

p+ resistor
Poly
N+ N-well P-substrate

n-well resistor

FOX

poly resistor

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Layout sample of a poly resistor


L (recommended L/W > 5) W RS : SheetResistance R RS

poly

Device model with the parasitic Metal-1

W L
Protect (non-silicide area)

p-select, n-select or high-resistance

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Common centroid layout of a resistor pair


R R R2
Dummy

R2

Metal-1

p+ diffusion

Dummy
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(3) Shielding and guard ring

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Type of noise
Inherent noise
Noise resulting from the discrete and random movement of charge in a device Thermal noise, Flicker noise, shot noise The noise floor depends on the circuit design quality

Quantization noise
Noise resulting from the finite digital word size The SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) depends on the accuracy of ADC and DAC.

Coupled noise (Crosstalk)


Noise resulting from the signals adjacent circuits deeding into each other The noise immunity depends on a layout.
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Type of coupled noise


Electromagnetic model Capacitive coupling Inductive coupling Substrate current Circuit model Parasitic capacitance Parasitic inductance Parasitic resistance

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Capacitive coupling
Analog circuit
Vdig

Digital signal Analog signal


Vsig Rout

Cc Vanalog Cs

Analog circuit

Vsig 1 SNR j Cc Rout Vdig

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Shielding of interconnects
Shielding plate
W Digital line 3W GND p-substrate p-substrate

Shielding line
Signal Analog circuit Digital circuit

Analog line analog VSS

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Shielding of substrate
Analog signal Digital signal FOX Shield Noise (charge and discharge) n+ Shield n-well p-substrate Cross section
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Capacitor VDD FOX n+

VDD

(termination of electric field)

Guard ring

n-guard ring

(absorption of minority carrier)

p-guard ring

Analog circuit

Digital circuit (noise source)

analog VSS

p-substrate digital VDD digital VSS


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Inductive coupling
Analog circuit Magnetic flux S I2(t) I1(t) Digital signal current Current GND I2(t) I1(t) t
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The induction noise is in proportion to the loop area S of the signal and power line.

Translational symmetric layout (In-phase circuit)

magnetic flux Analog circuit Analog circuit magnetic flux

VDD

VSS

VDD

VSS

The translational symmetry reduces induced current.

The mirror symmetry intensifies the induced current.

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Pin assignment
The analog input should be arranged in a perpendicular direction on digital output and the power supply pin.
Vin VDD Adjacent placement VSS Increase the distance Vout Digital Circuit VDD Adjacent placement VSS

Analog Circuit

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Bypass capacitors on VDD, VSS lines


p-substrateVSS VDD

The noise in the VDD, VSS line is bypassed through the bypass capacitors.

Small MOS capacitors under the power line.


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(4) ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) Protection

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Input Pad with ESD protection


The ESD protection is required to prevent the damage of the GOX of a MOSFET from the static charge buildup. VSS
Input Pad VDD CMOS Circuit VSS

Input Pad

VDD
FOX

FOX

p+

n+ p-substrate

n-well

Schematic

Cross section

NOTE: If the inductive load is used the output, the amplitude of the output signal is larger than power supply voltage. In this case, the ESD protection diode must be connected tandemly.

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Layout sample of pad ESD protection


Pad Layer
n-well
n-active (n+)

p-active (p+) poly-1 contact metal-1 via-1 metal-2

VDD VSS Input


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