You are on page 1of 6

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)
ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 172-177 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET
IAEME

DESIGN OF VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE FOR HARNESSING OPTIMUM POWER


1. M.Z.I.Sajid 2. Dr. K. Hema Chandra Reddy 3. Dr.E.L. Nagesh Quba College of Engineering & Technology, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh (India) 2 Registrar, JNTUA Anantapur. Andhra Pradesh (India) 3 Principal Netaji Institute of Engg. & Tech. Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India)
1

ABSTRACT Construction of vertical axis wind turbine has been carried out and experiments were conducted on models simulating slope or wind reducer in a slow speed wind tunnel. The wind energy depends on wind velocity. For a 300 slope wind reducer wind velocities were recorded at various heights. Simultaneously, measurements of the velocities were made at equal heights on plain surface. A micro-mini vane anemometer was used for wind power measurements. Details of the experimental results and theoretical explanation are presented. The results show that wind speed increases with reducer starting with 1.35 times at the top of the reducer. The maximum increase is noticeable at about 300 slopes. Therefore a typical wind mill constructed about 10 feet height, 300 slope and 10 feet length since the power is increased by 3.38 times. KEY WORDS: Concave shaped slope wind reducer, Efficiency, Sloping structure, Vertical axis windmill and Wind power. 1. INTRODUCTION The wind energy depends on wind velocity. Wind velocities at different heights were expressed in terms of the corresponding available velocities at equal heights with and without reducer turbines. The results show that wind speed increases with reducer, starting with 1.35 times at the top of the reducer. The maximum increase is noticeable at about 300 slopes. Therefore it is constructed a typical wind mill about 10 feet height, 300 slope and 10 feet length. Wind energy shall serve as foundation stone and a driving force for the immediate
172

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

application of a world energy system driven by renewable energies to supplement fossil and nuclear sources. In the Annual 11th World Wind Energy Conference 2012 "Community Power Citizens Power" held in Bonn, Germany, 2012. The conference covered all aspects of wind utilization, related policies, manufacturing, development, operation as well as economic and social issues, with a special focus on how to involve citizens in renewable energy and mobilize them as active beneficiaries. India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, Indias economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 % per year. There is an extreme dependence on fossil fuels like oil, coal and natural gas with considerable risks and environmental issues. 2. THEORETICAL ANANLYSIS In general, the value of wind speed mentioned in meteorological data is at a height about 12.2 meters and this is taken into consideration while calculating the possible wind power that may be tapped. To know the real gain in field, wind speed has to be found with respect to the above value. The calculated values are plotted along with a wind profile over a plain turbine. From the graph it can be seen that the maximum gain is about 1.5 and hence the power (1.5)3 = 3.38. To find an answer for frequent directional changes in wind, further experiments were carried out a curved (concave shaped) 300 model and symmetrical triangular 300 model. In the curved model wind velocities were measured at the extreme ends and the middle, the increase was found to be almost sane (about 1.5 times) at about half of the height. The triangular model gave an increase in wind speed of about 1.4 times at half of the height. These results show that in coastal areas where wind direction changes in the day and night, symmetrical 300 wind reducer can be utilized. In areas where frequent changes in wind direction occur, curved wind reducer will be useful. In further experiments a 300 slope model with partial slant portion gave an increase in wind speed of about 1.3 times. The latter experimental results may be useful to increase wind speed at the existing windmill sites.

Slope ( ) Vs Wind Velocity (m/s)

8 6 4 2 0
0 10 20 30 40 50

Fig.1 Slope Vs Velocity

173

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME
Velocity (m/s) Vs Wind Power (Watts) 500 400 300 200 100 0 5 5.8 6.1 6.5 7.5 7.3 7.2 7.1 6.8

Fig.2. Velocity Vs Wind power

1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

Wind Speed Vs Height of The Escarpment

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Fig.3. Wind Speed at Different Heights over the Reducer.

In choosing Glass reinforced plastic for the sloping structure the following advantages were taken into consideration. Glass reinforced plastic is abundantly available in any developing countries. In a bid to find a cheap material to make sloping structures Glass reinforced plastics has been chosen. Glass reinforced plastic wind reducer will help to give smoothness prevents it from rain and also corrosion resistance. Some studies by researchers reveal, Glass reinforced plastic have been tested and found to have half of the yield strength of mild steel. It was found that reinforced plastic slab can be designed like steel reinforced concrete taking permissible tensile strength and bond strength as 24,000 KN/m2 and 350 KN/ m2 respectively. Glass reinforced plastics have been used for windmill blades in Thailand.

174

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

3. PRACTICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY To see the effect of 300 slopes on wind speed, experiments were carried out by placing slopes of different roughness before a model windmill and increase in wind speed has been found to be substantial. Though full scale field tests are yet to be conducted, the results of Bowen and Lindley show that there is good agreement between full scale field measurements and wind tunnel. Bowen and Lindley conducted field tests on a 13 m high and 260 sloping escarpment. Hence, it is felt that variation in increase in wind speed as was found on a sloping model in wind tunnel. 4. THEORETICAL EXPLANATION OF FLOW OVER WIND REDUCER To predict the change in wind distribution connected with changes in surface topography, a method has to be evolved which will help in the design of structures. Usually the existing codes of practice suggest rules for modifying the design wind profile above hills, but some measurements have shown such hills, but some measurements have shown such empirical formula are unreliable. Hence, the need for simple theoretical solutions to boundary-layer flows over surface obstacles. A theory which explains the general features of the effect of a two dimensional surface hump on a turbulent boundary by Jackson and Hunt .In further studies Jackson modified the above theories to be applicable to carious escarpment shapes. According to Jackson, as the vorticity in the outer part of the boundary layer is small, one can expect the disturbance to the flow there to be approximately irrational. This implies perturbation caused by a change in surface topography has exactly the same distribution as the perturbation to a uniform, in viscid flow caused by the same surface shape. Then the surface can be found using ordinary irrotational theory. Near the surface, changes in viscous and Reynolds stresses are also to be taken into account. It can be shown that the thickness of the layer in which stress changes are important is much less than that of the boundary layer, so that close to the boundary layer in which stress changes are important is much less than that of the boundary layer, so the problem of an inner boundary layer being driven by an inner boundary layer being driven by an externally generated pressure gradient. Methods to deal with the above problem are available. There is fairly good agreement at height (between 19 and 22m) and at other heights some variation is noticeable. A satisfactory explanation for the variation in theoretical and experimental results is difficult for the simple reason that some factors were left out in the calculations of experimental results for lack of sophisticated instruments. Nevertheless the theory gives a broad picture of the prediction technique of wind over wind reducer. There is still scope prediction

Fig.4. Dimensions of Cone (Reducer)

Fig.5. Cone (Reducer)

175

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Fig.6. Dimensions of Blade

Fig.7. Blade

Fig.8. Wind Mill Shaft

Fig.9. Wind mill assemble

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The existing design of vertical axis wind turbine has low efficiency the modified reducer with aerodynamic profile increased the efficiency to considerably. The calculated values are plotted along with a wind profile over a plain turbine. From the graph it can be seen that the maximum gain is about 1.5 times and hence the power is (1.5)3 = 3.38. 6. CONCLUSION It can be concluded after the completion of this work that these vertical axis wind turbines are more suitable for house hold purposes than the horizontal wind turbines and they can work with a very low wind speed coming from all the directions making them suitable for urban areas. Till now the Savonius turbine is used for low power generation requirements but by putting the reducer in this turbine it could be used for large scale power generations also because of increasing the wind velocity it works more effectively than the classical Savonius wind turbine in large scale power generations.
176

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

REFERENCES [1] Bowen A.J. and D.Lindley, measurements of the mean wind flow over various escarpments. [2] Shapes, Christ church, dec.1974, 211-219. Gupta R, Das R & Sharma K K, Experimental study of savonius Darrieus wind machine, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam, India [3] Hiroshi Imamura, Daisuke Takezaki, Yutaka Hasegawa, Koji Kikuyama and Kouhei Kobayashi, Numerical analysis of a local angle of attack to HAWT rotor blade in unsteady flow conditions , Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa- ku, NAOGYA, 464-8603, Japan [4] Percival M. C, Leung P.S Datta P.K, The development of vertical turbine for domestic electricity generation, University of Northumbria, School of Engineering, UK. [5] Tsutomu Hayashi 1, Yan Li2, Yutaka and Katsuya Suzuki 3, Wind Tunnel test on a three stage out phase savonius rotor, Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Faculty Engineering, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama- cho Minami, Tottori, Japan; 2 Graduate school of Engineering, Tottori University; 3 Department of Applied Mathematics and Physic, Faculty of Engineering ,Tottori University [6] Suresh Babu K, Subba Rju N V, Srinivasa Reddy M, Nageswara Rao D, The material section for typical wind turbine blades using a medium approach and analysis of blades, MCDM2006, chania, Greece, June 19-23, 2006. [7] Seon-Hwan Cheong (1), Seong-Date Choi (1), Alexander Mag-isa (2), Myoung-Su Choi (2), Optimum Design of Helix Angle for Self-starting VAWTs, (1) School of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Kumoh National Institute of Technology. [8] Navin Kumar Kohli, Performance Prediction in HAWT Wind Power Turbine International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 14 - 24, ISSN Print: 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 6359. [9] R.Saravanan and K.K.Padmanabhan, Design and Techno- Economic Evaluation of Small Wind Turbine Usage in Indian Power Systems, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 127 - 141, ISSN Print: 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 6359. [10] T.Vishnuvardhan and Dr.B.Durga Prasad, Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Investigations on Small Size Wind Turbine Blades, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 493 - 503, ISSN Print: 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 6359.

177